We have developed magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) and applied them to local hyperthermia as a mediator. MCLs have a positive charge and generate heat under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) by hysteresis loss. In this study, the effect of hyperthermia using MCLs was examined in an in vivo study of hamster osteosarcoma.
MCLs were injected into the osteosarcoma and then subjected to an AMF.
The tumor was heated at over 42°C, but other normal tissues were not heated as much. Complete regression was observed in 100% of the treated group hamsters, whereas no regression was observed in the control group hamsters. At day 12, the average tumor volume of the treated hamsters was about 1/1000 of that of the control hamsters. In the treated hamsters, no regrowth of osteosarcomas was observed over a period of 3 months after the complete regression.
These results suggest that this treatment is effective for osteosarcoma.
We have developed magnetic cationic liposomes (MCLs) that contained magnetic nanoparticles as heating mediator for applying them to local hyperthermia. The heating performance of the MCLs is significantly affected by the property of the incorporated magnetite nanoparticles. We estimated heating capacity of magnetite nanoparticles by measuring its specific absorption rate (SAR) against irradiation of the alternating magnetic field (AMF).
Magnetite nanoparticles which have various specific-surface-area (SSA) are dispersed in the sample tubes, subjected to various AMF and studied SAR.
Heat generation of magnetite particles under variable AMF conditions was summarized by the SSA. There were two maximum SAR values locally between 12 m2/g to 190 m2/g of the SSA in all ranges of applied AMF frequency and those values increased followed by the intensity of AMF power. One of the maximum values was observed at approximately 90 m2/g of the SSA particles and the other was observed at approximately 120 m2/g of the SSA particles. A boundary value of the SAR for heat generation was observed around 110 m2/g of SSA particles and the effects of the AMF power were different on both hand. Smaller SSA particles showed strong correlation of the SAR value to the intensity of the AMF power though larger SSA particles showed weaker correlation.
Those results suggest that two maximum SAR value stand for the heating mechanism of magnetite nanoparticles represented by hysteresis loss and relaxation loss.
High body mass index has been associated with increased risk for various cancers, including breast cancer. Here we describe studies using 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to investigate the role of obesity in DMBA-induced mammary tumor susceptibility in the female Zucker rat (fa/fa), which is the most widely used rat model of genetic obesity.
Fifty-day-old female obese (n = 25) and lean (n = 28) Zucker rats were orally gavaged with 65 mg/kg DMBA. Rats were weighed and palpated twice weekly for detection of mammary tumors. Rats were killed 139 days after DMBA treatment.
The first mammary tumor was detected in the obese group at 49 days after DMBA treatment, as compared with 86 days in the lean group (P < 0.001). The median tumor-free time was significantly lower in the obese group (P < 0.001). Using the days after DMBA treatment at which 25% of the rats had developed mammary tumors as the marker of tumor latency, the obese group had a significantly shorter latency period (66 days) than did the lean group (118 days). At the end of the study, obese rats had developed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater mammary tumor incidence (68% versus 32%) compared with the lean group. The tumor histology of the mammary tumors revealed that obesity was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the number of rats with at least one invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma compared with lean rats.
Our results indicate that obesity increases the susceptibility of female Zucker rats to DMBA-induced mammary tumors, further supporting the hypothesis that obesity and some of its mediators play a significant role in carcinogenesis.
Obesity and elevated serum insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level are major risk factors in the development of breast cancer. We investigated the long-term effects of high-isoflavone soy intake and obesity on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor development and on serum IGF-1 and binding protein (IGFBP-3) levels. Lean and obese female Zucker rats fed casein or high-isoflavone soy protein were orally gavaged at age 50 days with DMBA and sacrificed after 147 days. The majority of lean casein-fed rats (69%) developed mammary tumors compared to 50% in lean soy-fed rats (P=0.176). In the obese groups, 76% of soy-fed rats developed mammary tumors compared to 15% of obese casein-fed rats (P<0.001). At age 43 days, IGFBP-3 was increased in the lean soy-fed rats compared to the lean casein-fed rats (P<0.05). At age 99 days, soy- and obese casein-fed rats exhibited increased serum IGF-1 compared to the lean rats and this increase was maintained for the rest of the experiment (P<0.05). Obese rats fed casein exhibited increased IGFBP-3 levels (P<0.001). However, obese rats fed soy exhibited a significant decrease in IGFBP-3 levels compared to the lean soy-fed rats (P<0.001) and a significant decrease in IGFBP-3 levels compared to the obese casein-fed rats (P<0.001). At age 197 days, IGFBP-3 levels were increased in obese casein-and soy-fed rats (P<0.001). The results suggest that female Zucker rats fed casein diets are protected against DMBA-induced mammary tumors, which is not the case for those on high-isoflavone soy diet, and changes in the concentration of serum IGFBP-3 may contribute to the incidence of DMBA-induced mammary tumors.
obesity; soy diet; breast cancer; insulin growth factor-1
The status of glycoconjugates (protein bound hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid and fucose) in plasma or serum serve as potential biomarkers for assessing tumor progression and therapeutic interventions. Aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of two major soy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, in combination on the status of glycoconjugates in plasma, erythrocyte membrane and mammary tissues during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. A single subcutaneous injection of DMBA (25 mg rat−1) in the mammary gland developed mammary carcinoma in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Elevated levels of plasma and mammary tissue glycoconjugates accompanied by reduction in erythrocyte membrane glycoconjugates were observed in rats bearing mammary tumors. Oral administration of genistein + daidzein (20 mg + 20 mg kg−1 bw/day) to DMBA treated rats significantly (p< 0.05) brought back the status of glycoconjugates to near normal range. The present study thus demonstrated that genistein and daidzein in combination protected the structural integrity of the cell surface and membranes during DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.
Mammary carcinoma; Glycoconjugates; Membrane integrity; Genistein; Daidzein; DMBA
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation (copper or copper and resveratrol) on the intensity of carcinogenesis and the frequency of microsatellite instability in a widely used model of mammary carcinogenesis induced in the rat by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA).
DNA was extracted from rat mammary cancers and normal tisues, amplified by PCR, using different polymorphic DNA markers and the reaction products were analyzed for microsatellite instability.
It was found that irrespectively of the applied diet there was no inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis in the rats due to DMBA. Besides, in the groups supplemented with Cu (II) or Cu (II) and resveratrol the tumor formation was clearly accelerated. Unlike the animals that were fed with standard diet, the supplemented rats were characterized by the loss of heterozygosity of microsatellite D3Mgh9 in cancer tumors (by respectively 50 and 40%). When the animals received Cu (II) and resveratrol supplemented diet the occurrence of genomic instability was additionally found in their livers in the case of microsatellite D1Mgh6 (which was stable in the animals without dietary supplementation).
Identification of the underlying mechanisms by which dietary factors affect genomic stability might prove useful in the treatment of mammary cancer as well as in the incorporation of dietary factors into mammary cancer prevention strategies.
Magnetic-mediated hyperthermia (MMH) is a promising local thermotherapy approach for cancer treatment. The present study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of MMH in esophageal cancer using a rabbit tumor model. The therapeutic effect of two hyperthermia approaches, magnetic stent hyperthermia (MSH), in which heat is induced by the clinical stent that is placed inside the esophagus, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), where magnetic nanoparticles are applied as the agent, was systematically evaluated. A rabbit esophageal tumor model was established by injecting VX2 carcinoma cells into the esophageal submucosa. The esophageal stent was deployed perorally into the tumor segment of the esophagus. For the MFH, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were administered to the rabbits by intratumoral injection. The rabbits were exposed under a benchtop applicator using an alternative magnetic field (AMF) with 300 kHz frequency for the hyperthermia treatment. The results demonstrated that esophageal stents and MNPs had ideal inductive heating properties upon exposure under an AMF of 300 kHz. MSH, using a thermal dose of 46°C with a 10-min treatment time, demonstrated antitumor effects on the rabbit esophageal cancer. However, the rabbit esophageal wall is not heat-resistant. Therefore, a higher temperature or longer treatment time may lead to necrosis of the rabbit esophagus. MFH has a significant antitumor effect by confining the heat within the tumor site without damaging the adjacent normal tissues. The present study indicates that the two hyperthermia procedures have therapeutic effects on esophageal cancer, and that MFH may be more specific than MSH in terms of temperature control during the treatment.
magnetic mediated hyperthermia; esophageal cancer; magnetic nanoparticles; esophageal stent; alternative magnetic field
In line with the possible relationship between electric power and breast cancer risk and the underlying melatonin hypothesis, 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) exposure at microtesla flux densities for either 13 or 27 weeks significantly increased the development and growth of mammary tumors in a series of experiments from Löscher's group in Germany. Löscher's group used the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) model of breast cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats. The finding could not be replicated when a similar experimental protocol was used in a study conducted by Battelle in the United States. In the present paper, investigators from the two groups discuss differences between their studies that might explain the apparent discrepancies between the results. These differences include the use of different substrains of Sprague-Dawley rats (the U.S. rats were more susceptible to DMBA than the European rats), different sources for diet and DMBA, differences in environmental conditions, and differences in MF exposure metrics. Furthermore, the effects of MF exposure reported by Löscher's group, albeit significant, were weak. We also discuss the general problem of replicating such weak effects.
Hormonal regulation of plasminogen activator expression in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)--induced rat mammary carcinomas was studied both in vivo and in vitro and was compared to that in DMBA-mammary dysplasia induced in neonatally androgenised rats. The plasminogen activator activity in DMBA-mammary carcinomas, but not in DMBA-mammary dysplasia, was regulated by oestrogen. This suggests that expression of this enzyme is hormonally regulated in carcinoma cells. Furthermore, in two of six DMBA-mammary carcinoma groups classified in terms of hormonal treatment, plasminogen activator activity was not under the control of oestrogen. Thus, the present results suggest that at the time of carcinogenesis, the hormonal milieu determines the hormone sensitivities of the malignant cells.
The use of progestins as a component of hormone replacement therapy has been linked to an increase in breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We have previously shown that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a commonly administered synthetic progestin, increases production of the potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by tumor cells, leading to the development of new blood vessels and tumor growth. We sought to identify nontoxic chemicals that would inhibit progestin-induced tumorigenesis. We used a recently developed progestin-dependent mammary cancer model in which tumors are induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) treatment. The flavonoid apigenin, which we previously found to inhibit progestin-dependent VEGF synthesis in human breast cancer cells in vitro, significantly delayed the development of, and decreased the incidence and multiplicity of, MPA-accelerated DMBA-induced mammary tumors in this animal model. Whereas apigenin decreased the occurrence of such tumors, it did not block MPA-induced intraductal and lobular epithelial cell hyperplasia in the mammary tissue. Apigenin blocked MPA-dependent increases in VEGF, and suppressed VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) but not VEGFR-1 in regions of hyperplasia. No differences were observed in estrogen or progesterone receptor levels, or the number of estrogen receptor-positive cells, within the mammary gland of MPA-treated animals administered apigenin, MPA-treated animals, and placebo treated animals. However, the number of progesterone receptor-positive cells was reduced in animals treated with MPA or MPA and apigenin compared with those treated with placebo. These findings suggest that apigenin has important chemopreventive properties for those breast cancers that develop in response to progestins.
Apigenin; breast cancer; medroxyprogesterone acetate; chemoprevention
Developmental stages of mammary glands influence their susceptibility to initiating events related to carcinogenesis. The “window of susceptibility” to mammary carcinogenesis is classically defined as the time in early puberty when the mammary gland morphology is most sensitive to initiation events. Administration of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), in a single oral dose yields maximal mammary tumor formation when administered in this “window”. We examined the DMBA treated mammary glands, precursor lesions, and morphology of the uninvolved mammary epithelium for the first 100 days of life for Charles River Sprague Dawley CDR IGS. Our goal was to determine the DMBA dose at which 50% of the rats (IC50) developed carcinoma in situ (CIS) within three months of dosing. Here we demonstrate, rather than the classical U-shaped dose curve in which there is maximum sensitivity for DMBA at 50 days, there is an increasing degree of sensitivity with age in the CDR IGS rat. Additionally, we report that vehicle-treated animals developed mammary CIS without any known initiator, and 100 day virgin animals demonstrated lactational changes, independent of DMBA exposure or dose. Lastly, we demonstrate this strain of virgin female rats has elevated pituitary prolactin immunoreactivity independent of the level of mammary differentiation. We conclude this strain of Charles River Sprague Dawley rats has prolactin-induced pituitary stimulation, and therefore, the window of susceptibility for mammary tumorigenesis is absent.
DMBA; mammary carcinogenesis; Charles River Sprague Dawley rats
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetically made chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Recent studies have shown over ninety percent of humans investigated have detectable BPA concentrations. Yet, the biggest concern for BPA is exposure during early development because BPA has been shown to bind to the estrogen receptors (ER) and cause developmental and reproductive toxicity. We have investigated the potential of perinatal BPA to alter susceptibility for chemically-induced mammary cancer in rats. We demonstrate that prepubertal exposure to low concentrations of orally administered BPA given to lactating dams resulted in a significantly decreased tumor latency and increased tumor multiplicity in the dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) model of rodent mammary carcinogenesis. Our data suggested that the mechanism of action behind this carcinogenic response was mediated through increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and centered on an up-regulation of steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) 1–3, erbB3, and increased Akt signaling in the mammary gland.
Also, we demonstrate that prenatal exposure to BPA shifts the time of susceptibility from 50 days to 100 days for chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Proteomic data suggest that prenatal BPA exposure alters the expression of several proteins involved in regulating protein metabolism, signal transduction, developmental processes, and cell cycle and proliferation. Increases in ER-alpha, SRCs 1–3, Bcl-2, epidermal growth factor–receptor (EGFR), phospho-IGF-1R, phospho-c-Raf, phospho-ERKs 1/2, phospho-ErbB2 and phospho-Akt are accompanied by increase in cell proliferation. We conclude that exposure to low concentrations of BPA during the prenatal and early postnatal periods of life can predispose for chemically-induced mammary cancer.
bisphenol A; mammary cancer; proteomics; cell proliferation; apoptosis
In the current study, novel paclitaxel-loaded cross-linked hyaluronan nanoparticles were engineered for the local delivery of paclitaxel as a prototype drug for cancer therapy. The nanoparticles were prepared using a desolvation method with polymer cross-linking. In vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that less than 75% of the MDA-MB-231 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells were viable after 2-day exposure to paclitaxel-loaded hyaluronan nanoparticles or free paclitaxel, regardless of the dose. These results suggest that hyaluronan nanoparticles maintain the pharmacological activity of paclitaxel and efficiently deliver it to the cells. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the drug-loaded nanoparticles via direct intratumoral injection to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor in female rats was studied. The paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles treated group showed effective inhibition of tumor growth in all treated rats. Interestingly, there was one case of complete remission of tumor nodule and two cases of persistent reduction of tumor size that was observed on subsequent days. In the case of free paclitaxel-treated group, the mean tumor volume increased almost linearly (R2 = 0.93) with time to a size that was 4.9-fold larger than the baseline volume at 57 days post-drug administration. Intratumoral administration of paclitaxel-loaded hyaluronan nanoparticles could be a promising treatment modality for solid mammary tumors.
hyaluronic acid; intratumor; mammary tumor; nanoparticles; paclitaxel
To assess the effect of milk on the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors, 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with DMBA were divided into 3 groups and given 1 of 3 test solutions for 20 weeks as their drinking liquid: milk, estrone sulfate solution or tap water. The milk group showed a significantly great incidence (75%) in tumor development compared with the water group (38%) and was comparable to the estrone sulfate group (69%). Mean tumor number per rat in the milk group was significantly higher than that in the water group (p=0.009). We classified the mammary tumors into three histological types: intraductal papilloma, fibroadenoma, and adenocarcinoma. Although the percent of intraductal papilloma and fibroadenoma was almost same among the three groups, malignant tumor was found only in the milk and estrone sulfate groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that milk as well as estrone sulfate promotes the development of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rat and could be associated with the occurrence of adenocarcinoma.
mammary tumor; milk; smooth muscle actin; proliferating cell nuclear antigen; estrogen receptor
The effect of the placental hormone chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumours was studied in young virgin Sprague-Dawley rats. This hormone when administered at a dose of 100 IU day-1 does not induce toxic effects, measured as alterations in body weight or weight of endocrine organs, and has a reversible effect on oestrous cycle. The lack of toxicity and the fact that hCG treatment terminated prior to administration of the chemical carcinogen DMBA protects the mammary gland from malignant transformation, led us to test the effect of hCG treatment on DMBA-initiated mammary tumours. Fifty day-old virgin Sprague-Dawley rats received intragastrically 8 mg DMBA per 100 g body weight and were divided into two groups: group I animals were treated with DMBA only and group II received DMBA at age 50 and in addition, a daily intraperitoneal injection of 100 IU hCG for days 21-81 post carcinogen administration. Tumorigenic response was evaluated by biweekly palpation of all animals and by complete autopsy 24 weeks after DMBA treatment. Group I animals developed an incidence of 100% of both tumours and adenocarcinomas. Group II animals developed a significantly lower incidence of tumours and adenocarcinomas, 51.5% and 45.5% respectively. In both groups lesions developed more frequently in thoracic than in abdominal mammary glands. It is postulated that hCG treatment, probably through stimulation of ovarian oestrogen and progesterone synthesis, induces differentiation of mammary epithelium that although affected by the carcinogen can still be rescued from malignant transformation.
Flaxseed contains several dietary components that have been linked to low breast cancer risk; i.e., n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), lignans and fiber, but it also contains detectable levels of cadmium, a heavy metal that activates the estrogen receptor (ER). Since estrogenic exposures early in life modify susceptibility to develop breast cancer, we wondered whether maternal dietary intake of 5% or 10% flaxseed during pregnancy or lactation (between postpartum days 5 and 21) might affect 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) -induced mammary tumorigenesis in the rat offspring. Our data indicated that both in utero and postnatal 5% and 10% flaxseed exposures shortened mammary tumor latency, and 10% flaxseed exposure increased tumor multiplicity, compared to the controls. Further, when assessed in 8-week-old rats, in utero 10% flaxseed exposure increased lobular ER-α protein levels, and both in utero and postnatal flaxseed exposures dose-dependently reduced ER-β protein levels in the lobules and terminal end buds (TEBs). Exposures to flaxseed did not alter the number of TEBs or affect cell proliferation within the TEBs, lobules or ducts. In a separate group of immature rats that were fed 5% defatted flaxseed diet (flaxseed source different than in the diets fed to pregnant or lactating rats) for 7 days, cadmium exposure through the diet was 7-fold higher than allowed for humans by World Health Organization, and cadmium significantly accumulated in the liver and kidneys of the rats. It remains to be determined whether the increased mammary cancer in rats exposed to flaxseed through a maternal diet in utero or lactation was caused by cadmium present in flaxseed, and whether the reduced mammary ER-β content was causally linked to increased mammary cancer risk among the offspring.
Flaxseed; breast cancer; estrogen receptor
Background & objectives
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women; dietary fat is the one of the factors that influences its incidence. In the present study we investigated the effect of feeding cow ghee versus soybean oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary cancer in rat and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor- γ (PPAR-γ) in mammary gland.
Two groups of 21 day old female rats (30 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). The animals were given DMBA (30mg/kg body weight) through oral intubation after 5 wk feeding. Another two groups (8 each) fed similarly but not given DMBA served as control for the gene expression study.
In DMBA treated groups, the animal fed soybean oil had higher tumour incidence (65.4%), tumour weight (6.18 g) and tumour volume (6285 mm3) compared to those fed cow ghee (26.6%, 1.67 g, 1925 mm3, respectively). Tumour latency period was 23 wk on soybean oil compared to 27 wk on cow ghee. Histological analysis of tumours showed that the progression of carcinogenesis was more rapid on soybean oil than on cow ghee. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was observed only in DMBA treated rats and it was significantly less on cow ghee than on soybean oil. The expression of PPAR-γ was significantly more on cow ghee than on soybean oil.
Interpretation & conclusions
Our results show that dietary cow ghee opposed to soybean oil attenuates mammary carcinogenesis induced by DMBA; and the effect is mediated by decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and increased expression of PPAR-γ in the former group.
Cow ghee; cyclooxygenase 2; DMBA; mammary carcinogenesis; PPAR-γ; soybean oil
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial plasticizer that leaches from food containers during normal usage, leading to human exposure. Early and chronic exposure to endocrine-disrupting environmental contaminants such as BPA elevates the potential for long-term health consequences. We examined the impact of BPA exposure on fetal programming of mammary tumor susceptibility as well as its growth promoting effects on transformed breast cancer cells in vivo. Fetal mice were exposed to 0, 25, or 250 μg/kg BPA by oral gavage of pregnant dams. Offspring were subsequently treated with the known mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). While no significant differences in postnatal mammary development were observed, both low- and high-dose BPA cohorts had a statistically significant increase in susceptibility to DMBA-induced tumors compared to vehicle-treated controls. To determine if BPA also promotes established tumor growth, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into flanks of ovariectomized NCR nu/nu female mice treated with BPA, 17beta-estradiol, or placebo alone or combined with tamoxifen. Both estradiol- and BPA-treated cohorts formed tumors by 7 wk post-transplantation, while no tumors were detected in the placebo cohort. Tamoxifen reversed the effects of estradiol and BPA. We conclude that BPA may increase mammary tumorigenesis through at least two mechanisms: molecular alteration of fetal glands without associated morphological changes and direct promotion of estrogen-dependent tumor cell growth. Both results indicate that exposure to BPA during various biological states increases the risk of developing mammary cancer in mice.
Exposure to bisphenol A during fetal life increases mammary tumor susceptibility and during adult life promotes growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancers.
bisphenol A; BPA; breast cancer; development; DMBA; endocrine disruptors; estrogen; mammary cancer; mammary glands; mouse; puberty; rodents (rats; mice; guinea pigs; voles); tamoxifen
During carcinogenesis, NF-κB mediates processes associated with deregulation of the normal control of proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, suppression of NF-κB has been linked with chemoprevention of cancer. Accumulating findings reveal that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone and a component of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex that plays a central role in NF-κB activation. HSP90 also stabilizes key proteins involved in cell cycle control and apoptosis signaling. We have determined whether the exogenous administration of isoflavone-deprived soy peptide prevents 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and investigated the mechanism of action. Dietary administration of soy peptide (3.3 g/rat/day) significantly reduced the incidence of ductal carcinomas (50%), the number of tumors per multiple tumor-bearing rats (49%; P < 0.05), and extended the latency period of tumor development (8.07 ± 0.92 weeks) compared to control diet animals (10.80 ± 1.30; P < 0.05). Our results have further demonstrated that soy peptide (1) dramatically inhibits the expression of HSP90, thereby suppressing signaling pathway leading to NF-κB activation; (2) induces expression of p21, p53, and caspase-3 proteins; and (3) inhibits expression of VEGF. In agreement with our in vivo data, soy peptide treatment inhibited the growth of human breast MCF-7 tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our in vivo and in vitro results suggest chemopreventive and tumor suppressive functions of isoflavone-deprived soy peptide by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis.
apoptosis; breast neoplasms; chemoprevention; HSP90 heat-shock proteins; isoflavones; NF-κB; soybean proteins
It has been well documented that the pineal hormone, melatonin, which plays a major role in the control of reproduction in mammals, also plays a role in the incidence and growth of breast and mammary cancer. The curative effect of melatonin on the growth of dimethylbenz [a]anthracene-induced (DMBA-induced) mammary adenocarcinoma (ADK) has been previously well documented in the female Sprague–Dawley rat. However, the preventive effect of melatonin in limiting the frequency of cancer initiation has not been well documented.
The aim of this study was to compare the potency of melatonin to limit the frequency of mammary cancer initiation with its potency to inhibit tumor progression once initiation, at 55 days of age, was achieved. The present study compared the effect of preventive treatment with melatonin (10 mg/kg daily) administered for only 15 days before the administration of DMBA with the effect of long-term (6-month) curative treatment with the same dose of melatonin starting the day after DMBA administration. The rats were followed up for a year after the administration of the DMBA.
The results clearly showed almost identical preventive and curative effects of melatonin on the growth of DMBA-induced mammary ADK. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the inhibitory effects of melatonin. However, the mechanisms responsible for its strong preventive effect are still a matter of debate. At least, it can be envisaged that the artificial amplification of the intensity of the circadian rhythm of melatonin could markedly reduce the DNA damage provoked by DMBA and therefore the frequency of cancer initiation.
In view of the present results, obtained in the female Sprague–Dawley rat, it can be envisaged that the long-term inhibition of mammary ADK promotion by a brief, preventive treatment with melatonin could also reduce the risk of breast cancer induced in women by unidentified environmental factors.
Cow’s milk contains high levels of estrogens, progesterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), all of which are associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether prepubertal milk exposure affects mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were given either whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) on PND 50. Milk exposure increased circulating E2 levels on PND 25 by 10-fold (p<0.001) and accelerated vaginal opening, which marks puberty onset, by 2.5 days (p<0.001). However, rats exposed to milk before puberty exhibited reduced carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis; i.e., their tumor latency was longer (p<0.03) and incidence was lower (p<0.05) than in the controls. On PND 25 and 50, mammary glands of the milk exposed rats had significantly less terminal end buds (TEBs) than the tap water exposed controls (p<0.019). ER-α protein levels were elevated in the TEBs and lobules of milk rats, compared to rats given tap water (p<0.019), but no changes in cyclin D1 expression, cell proliferation or apoptosis were seen. IGF-1 mRNA levels were reduced on PND 50 in the mammary glands of rats exposed to milk at puberty. Our results suggest that drinking milk before puberty reduces later risk of developing mammary cancer in rats. This might be mediated by a reduction in the number of TEBs and lower expression of IGF-1 mRNA in the mammary glands of milk-exposed animals.
Cow’s milk; breast cancer; prepubertal exposure; animal model
In this study, the role of parity in conferring protection of the mammary gland against chemical carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) was investigated. Experiments were also carried out to determine if an 'interrupted' pregnancy was capable of reducing the incidence of mammary tumour induction. Since it has been suggested that morphological development or the proliferative pattern of the mammary gland at the time of carcinogen administration may be involved in reducing the susceptibility of the mammary gland to chemical carcinogenesis, experiments were designed to elucidate the possible influence of these two factors. Sprague-Dawley female rats were mated and were either allowed to complete pregnancy and parturition or were subjected to Caesarian section on day 5, 10 or 15 of the pregnancy. When DMBA was administered i.v. to animals which had been allowed to complete a full-term pregnancy, only 14% developed tumours, compared to 70% in age-matched nulliparous controls. Termination of the pregnancy on days 5, 10 or 15 was as effective in reducing tumour incidence as full-term gestation and parturition, but still resulted in partial and statistically significant inhibition, compared to age-matched nulliparous controls. There was no significant difference in 3H-thymidine labelling index (LI) at the time of DMBA treatment in the parous rats compared to age-matched nulliparous controls. We also observed no significant differences in the morphological development of the mammary gland in parous and nulliparous rats of the same age. These results indicate that the protective mechanism may not lie in the mammary gland per se, but may indeed be a host factor, such as hormonal or immunological changes occurring in the host as a result of the pregnancy.
Development of breast cancer is a multistage process influenced by hormonal and environmental factors as well as by genetic background. The search for genes underlying this malignancy has recently been highly productive, but the etiology behind this complex disease is still not understood. In studies using animal cancer models, heterogeneity of the genetic background and environmental factors is reduced and thus analysis and identification of genetic aberrations in tumors may become easier. To identify chromosomal regions potentially involved in the initiation and progression of mammary cancer, in the present work we subjected a subset of experimental mammary tumors to cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis.
Mammary tumors were induced with DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthrazene) in female rats from the susceptible SPRD-Cu3 strain and from crosses and backcrosses between this strain and the resistant WKY strain. We first produced a general overview of chromosomal aberrations in the tumors using conventional kartyotyping (G-banding) and Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH) analyses. Particular chromosomal changes were then analyzed in more details using an in-house developed BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) CGH-array platform.
Tumors appeared to be diploid by conventional karyotyping, however several sub-microscopic chromosome gains or losses in the tumor material were identified by BAC CGH-array analysis. An oncogenetic tree analysis based on the BAC CGH-array data suggested gain of rat chromosome (RNO) band 12q11, loss of RNO5q32 or RNO6q21 as the earliest events in the development of these mammary tumors.
Some of the identified changes appear to be more specific for DMBA-induced mammary tumors and some are similar to those previously reported in ACI rat model for estradiol-induced mammary tumors. The later group of changes is more interesting, since they may represent anomalies that involve genes with a critical role in mammary tumor development. Genetic changes identified in this work are at very small scales and thus may provide a more feasible basis for the identification of the target gene(s). Identification of the genes underlying these chromosome changes can provide new insights to the mechanisms of mammary carcinogenesis.
BAC CGH-array; SPRD-Cu3; DMBA; Mammary tumor; Oncotree model
We here report the genetic basis for susceptibility and resistance to carcinogen-mediated (7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)) mammary tumorigenesis using the full panel of SS/BN consomic rat strains, in which substitutions of individual chromosomes from the resistant BN strain onto the genomic background of the susceptible SS strain were made. Analysis of 252 consomic females identified rat mammary Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) affecting tumor incidence on chromosomes 3 and 5, latency on chromosomes 3, 9, 14 and 19, and multiplicity on chromosomes 13, 16 and 19. In addition, we unexpectedly identified a novel QTL on chromosome 6 controlling a lethal toxic phenotype in response to DMBA. Upon further investigation with chromosomes 6 and 13 congenic lines, in which an additional 114 rats were investigated, we mapped 1) a novel mammary tumor QTL to a region of 27.1 Mbp in the distal part of RNO6, a region that is entirely separated from the toxicity phenotype, and 2) a novel and powerful mammary tumor susceptibility locus of 4.5 Mbp that mapped to the proximal q-arm of RNO13. Comparison of genetic strain differences using existing rat genome databases enabled us to further construct priority lists containing single breast cancer candidate genes within the defined QTLs, serving as potential functional variants for future testing.
mammary cancer; consomic strains; DMBA; SS and BN rat
Fish oil is known to protect from many types of cancers of the colon, liver, breast, prostate and lung [1-3]. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of fish oil [Maxepa, supplemented at a dose of 0.5 ml is equivalent to 90 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 60 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] on cell proliferation, expression of p53 tumor suppressor protein and DNA protein crosslinks (DPCs) in a defined model of chemical rat mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary carcinogenesis was initiated by a single, intravenous (i.v.) tail vein injection of 7,12 dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) at a dose of 5 mg DMBA/2 ml corn oil/kg body weight in female Sprague-Dawley rats at 7 weeks of age. Fish oil supplementation was started daily, 2 weeks prior to DMBA injection and continued for 24 (31 weeks of animal age) weeks and 35 (42 weeks of animal age) weeks of post DMBA injection, for histopathological and immunohistochemical and for morphological studies, respectively.
Our results indicate the chemopreventive effect of fish oil (Maxepa) on DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Administration of fish oil further showed a prominent reduction of cell proliferation (24.34%, P = 0.001); DPCs (25%, P < 0.001) and an increased expression of p53 protein (4.636 ± 0.19, P < 0.001) in preneoplastic mammary tissue when compared to carcinogen control counterpart. Histopathological and morphological analyses were carried out as end-point biomarkers.
Our study thus provides evidence for the anticarcinogenic effect of fish oil (Maxepa) in limiting mammary preneoplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats.