To evaluate the feasibility of the ICF for initial comprehensive evaluation of early post-acute spinal cord injury.
A comprehensive evaluation of 62 early post-acute spinal cord injury (SCI) patients was conducted by rehabilitation team members, such as physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, nutritionists, medical social-workers, and nurses. They recorded each of their evaluation according to the ICF first level classification. The contents of the comprehensive evaluation were linked to the ICF second level categories, retrospectively. The linked codes were analyzed descriptively and were also compared with the brief ICF core set for early post-acute SCI.
In the evaluation of early post-acute SCI patients based on the ICF first level categories, 19 items from the body functions domain, such as muscle power functions (b730) and urination functions (b620), 15 items from the body structures domain, including spinal cord and related structures (s120), 11 items from the activities and participation domain, such as transferring oneself (d420) and walking (d450), and 9 items from the environmental factors domain, e.g., health professionals (e355), were linked to the ICF second level categories. In total, 82.4% of all contents were linked to the brief ICF core set. Prognosis insight, a personal factor not linkable to an ICF code, was mentioned in 29.0% of all patients.
First level ICF categories can provide a structural base for a comprehensive evaluation in early post-acute spinal cord injury. However, frequently linked items, including the brief core set, as well as personal factors should be considered via a checklist in order to prevent the omission of significant contents.
Spinal cord injury; ICF; Post-acute rehabilitation; Comprehensive evaluation; Framework
Management decisions regarding quality and quantity of nurse staffing have important consequences for hospital budgets. Furthermore, these management decisions must address the nursing care requirements of the particular patients within an organizational unit. In order to determine optimal nurse staffing needs, the extent of nursing workload must first be known. Nursing workload is largely a function of the composite of the patients' individual health status, particularly with respect to functioning status, individual need for nursing care, and severity of symptoms. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the derived subsets, the so-called ICF Core Sets, are a standardized approach to describe patients' functioning status. The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the association between patients' functioning, as encoded by categories of the Acute ICF Core Sets, and nursing workload in patients in the acute care situation, (2) compare the variance in nursing workload explained by the ICF Core Set categories and with the Barthel Index, and (3) validate the Acute ICF Core Sets by their ability to predict nursing workload.
Patients' functioning at admission was assessed using the respective Acute ICF Core Set and the Barthel Index, whereas nursing workload data was collected using an established instrument. Associations between dependent and independent variables were modelled using linear regression. Variable selection was carried out using penalized regression.
In patients with neurological and cardiopulmonary conditions, selected ICF categories and the Barthel Index Score explained the same variance in nursing workload (44% in neurological conditions, 35% in cardiopulmonary conditions), whereas ICF was slightly superior to Barthel Index Score for musculoskeletal conditions (20% versus 16%).
A substantial fraction of the variance in nursing workload in patients with rehabilitation needs in the acute hospital could be predicted by selected categories of the Acute ICF Core Sets, or by the Barthel Index score. Incorporating ICF Core Set-based data in nursing management decisions, particularly staffing decisions, may be beneficial.
To describe the use of a “workable” visual profile of function and disability, based on a modified Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for chronic widespread pain, for initial assessments in a clinical setting of interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation teams.
The Brief ICF Core Set was slightly adapted to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation medicine team working in a university outpatient clinic and admitting patients referred from primary care. The Core Set categories were made measurable by means of eg, assessment instruments and clinical investigations. The resulting profile was given a workable shape to facilitate rapid understanding of the initial assessment outcome.
Individual patients showed different profiles of problems and resources, which facilitated individual rehabilitation planning. At the level of the study group, the profiles for the Core Set component Body Functions showed that most patients had severe impairment in the sensation of pain and exercise tolerance categories of function, but most had resources in the motivation and memory categories of function. Likewise, for the component Activities, most patients had limitations in lifting and carrying objects and remunerative employment, but most had resources in intimate relationships and family relationships. At first, the use of the modified Brief ICF Core Set in the team conference was rather time consuming, but after a couple of months of experience, the team assessment took approximately 30 minutes to complete per patient.
The profile of the modified Brief ICF Core Set for chronic widespread pain served as a common platform, facilitating cooperation between the rehabilitation team members and providing a uniform language, which helped in structuring the clinical work. The profile also provided an easily accessible, overall view of the patient’s problems and resources, which helped in understanding the functioning situation of the patient.
ICF; interdisciplinary teamwork; chronic widespread pain; assessment
Joint rehabilitation goals are an important component for effective teamwork in the rehabilitation field. The activities and participation domain of the ICF provides a common language for professionals when setting these goals. Involving clients in the formulation of rehabilitation goals is gaining momentum as part of a person-centred approach to rehabilitation. However, this is particularly difficult when clients have an acquired communication disability. The expressive communication difficulties negatively affect the consensus building process. As a result, obtaining information regarding rehabilitation goals from professionals and their clients warrants further investigation for this particular population.
This comparative study investigated clients and their assigned rehabilitation professionals' perception of the importance of ICF activities and participation domains for inclusion in their rehabilitation program. Twelve clients in an acute rehabilitation centre and twenty of their corresponding rehabilitation professionals participated in an activity using the Talking Mats™ visual framework for goal setting. Each participant rated the importance of the nine activities and participation domains of the ICF for inclusion in their current rehabilitation program.
The ICF domains which consistently appear as very important across these groups are mobility, self-care and communication. Domains which consistently appear in the lower third of the rankings include spare time, learning and thinking and domestic life. Results indicate however that no statistical significant differences exist in terms of the individual domains across each of the participant groups. Within group differences however indicated that amongst the speech-language therapists and physiotherapists there was a statistical significant difference between spare time activities and communication and mobility.
Findings indicate that consensus is possible amongst professionals and clients even within an acute-rehabilitation setting. In addition, the Talking Mats™ visual framework appears to be a valid protocol for including clients with acquired communication disabilities in the process of obtaining consensus during goal-setting.
Without an increase in clearly defined and clinically significant outcomes research in massage therapy (MT), the practice is in jeopardy of remaining on the fringes of accepted and utilized therapeutic care. This reality will slow the integration of MT into routine preventive, rehabilitative, curative, and supportive care. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) developed by the World Health Organization is a comprehensive model of functioning and disability that provides a universal taxonomy of human functioning that is recognized globally. Integration of the ICF model into MT research, education, and practice would provide a foundation for a common language, particularly in regard to examining outcomes of MT.
Here, we review the dynamic and respected ICF model as it applies to massage research, outcomes dissemination, education, and practice, with these specific objectives:
To describe the specific domains of the ICF modelTo apply the described ICF domains to current massage practice and researchTo discuss how integration of the ICF model enhances communication and translation among those within and to those outside the MT field
The ICF model is ideal for application to MT interests because it works outside the typical focus on pathology or a specific organ system. Instead, the ICF focuses on impairment or limitations in functioning associated with health conditions. The ICF also highlights and incorporates the complex interactions of environment and personal factors and the impact that those factors exert on the domains of body structure, activity, and participation. This interaction has unique implications for MT practitioners, researchers, and clients/patients. Furthermore, the ICF model provides a framework for classifying outcomes, which is a critical aspect of clinical research.
Translational research; methodology; clinical research
The concept of participation is recognized as an important rehabilitation outcome and instruments have been developed to measure participation using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). To date, few studies have examined the content of these instruments to determine how participation has been operationalized. The purpose of this study was to compare the content of participation instruments using the ICF classification.
A systematic literature search was conducted to identify instruments that assess participation according to the ICF. Instruments were considered to assess participation and were included if the domains contain content from a minimum of three ICF chapters ranging from Chapter 3 Communication to Chapter 9 Community, social and civic life in the activities and participation component. The instrument content was examined by first identifying the meaningful concepts in each question and then linking these concepts to ICF categories. The content analysis included reporting the 1) ICF chapters (domains) covered in the activities and participation component, 2) relevance of the meaningful concepts to the activities and participation component and 3) context in which the activities and participation component categories are evaluated.
Eight instruments were included: Impact on Participation and Autonomy, Keele Assessment of Participation, Participation Survey/Mobility, Participation Measure-Post Acute Care, Participation Objective Participation Subjective, Participation Scale (P-Scale), Rating of Perceived Participation and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II). 1351 meaningful concepts were identified in the eight instruments. There are differences among the instruments regarding how participation is operationalized. All the instruments cover six to eight of the nine chapters in the activities and participation component. The P-Scale and WHODAS II have questions which do not contain any meaningful concepts related to the activities and participation component. Differences were also observed in how other ICF components (body functions, environmental factors) and health are operationalized in the instruments.
Linking the meaningful concepts in the participation instruments to the ICF classification provided an objective and comprehensive method for analyzing the content. The content analysis revealed differences in how the concept of participation is operationalized and these differences should be considered when selecting an instrument.
In 2001, the World Health Organization developed the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework in an effort to attend to the multidimensional health-related concerns of individuals. Historically, although the ICF has frequently been used in a rehabilitation-based context, the World Health Organization has positioned it as a universal framework of health and its related states. Consequently, the ICF has been utilized for a diverse array of purposes in the field of oncology, including: evaluating functioning in individuals with cancer, guiding assessment in oncology rehabilitation, assessing the comprehensiveness of outcome measures utilized in oncology research, assisting in health-related quality of life instrument selection, and comparing the primary concerns of health professionals with those of their patients.
Examination of the ICF through the lens of cancer care highlights the fact that this framework can be a valuable tool to facilitate comprehensive care in oncology, but it currently possesses some areas of limitation that require conceptual revision; to this end, several recommendations have been proposed. Specifically, these proposed recommendations center on the following three areas of the ICF framework: (1) the replacement of the term “health condition” with the more inclusive and dynamic term “health state;” (2) the continuing development and refinement of the personal factors component to ensure issues such as comorbidities can be accounted for appropriately; and (3) the inclusion of a mechanism to account for the subjective dimension of health and functioning (eg, quality of life).
It is through the expansion of these conceptual parameters that the ICF may become more relevant and applicable to the field of oncology. With these important revisions, the ICF has the potential to provide a broader biopsychosocial perspective of care that captures the diverse range of concerns that arise throughout the continuum of care in oncology.
ICF; International Classification of Functioning; Disability, and Health; cancer; quality of life; personal factors; health condition
To date, no researchers have investigated patient concerns in the first six weeks following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An understanding of patient concerns at a time when physical therapists are involved in the treatment of these patients will aid clinicians in providing patient-centered care. Linking of items to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) allows for comparison and sharing of data amongst researchers, as the ICF is the accepted framework for evaluating disability in rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to identify patient concerns in the first six weeks following primary TKA and link these concerns to components of the ICF and map them to commonly used outcome measures.
Individual interviews were conducted to identify patient concerns during their recovery following primary TKA. Concerns identified by patients were analysed for content and linked to the components of the ICF using the operational definitions of the ICF components. These concerns were mapped to the WOMAC, KOOS and Oxford Knee Scale.
Thirty patients (18 female) with an average age (SD) of 68.4 (11.1) years completed the study. Patients identified 32 concerns. Twenty-two percent (n = 7) of the concerns linked to Body Function and Structure, 47% (n = 15) to Activity, 13% (n = 4) to Participation, and 13% (n = 4) to the Environmental Factors component of the ICF. Six percent (n = 2) of the concerns did not link to the ICF. Of the 32 concerns identified by patients 14 mapped to the KOOS, 11 to the WOMAC and 4 to the Oxford Knee Scale.
Patient concerns linked to four different components of the ICF indicating that patients are involved in or are thinking of multiple aspects of life even in this early phase of recovery. The KOOS was found to be the most appropriate for use based on the patients' perspective. However, less than half of the concerns identified by patients were covered by the KOOS, WOMAC or Oxford Knee Scale indicating that other existing measures that evaluate the concepts identified as important to patients should be considered when evaluating outcomes during this acute phase of recovery following primary TKA.
Purpose: The success of the International Classifcation of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) depends on its uptake in clinical practice. This project aimed to explore ways the ICF could be used with an acute stroke multidisciplinary team and identify key learning from the implementation process. Method: Using an action research approach, iterative cycles of observe, plan, act and evaluate were used within three phases: exploratory; innovatory and refective. Thematic analysis was undertaken, using a model of immersion and crystallisation, on data collected via interview and focus groups, e-mail communications, minutes from relevant meetings, feld notes and a refective diary. Results: Two overall themes were determined from the data analysis which enabled implementation. There is a need to: (1) adopt the ICF in ways that meet local service needs; and (2) adapt the ICF language and format. Conclusions: The empirical fndings demonstrate how to make the ICF classifcation a clinical reality. First, we need to adopt the ICF as a vehicle to implement local service priorities e.g. to structure a multidisciplinary team report, thus enabling ownership of the implementation process. Second, we need to adapt the ICF terminology and format to make it acceptable for use by clinicians.
ICF; health; implementation; stroke
Spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation nurses document the occurrence of educational and care management efforts in traditional nursing documentation methods but not the intensity (or dose) of such interactions. This article describes a process to capture these nursing interventions.
Nurses at 6 US inpatient SCI centers used 2 in-person meetings and weekly telephone calls over 9 months to develop a taxonomy of nursing patient education efforts and care management.
This was subsequently incorporated into a point-of-care documentation system and used to capture details of nursing care for 1,500 SCI rehabilitation patients enrolled in the SCIRehab study. The taxonomy consists of 10 education and 3 care management categories. The point-of-care system includes time spent on each category along with an indication of whether the patient and/or family received the education/care management. In addition, a subjective measure of patient participation in nursing activities is included.
Creation of a SCI rehabilitation nursing taxonomy is feasible, and its use has had an impact on nursing practice. It also has implications for future clinical documentation, because greater accuracy and details of patient education and care management will be a permanent practice in the participating systems at the conclusion of the study.
Spinal cord injuries; Rehabilitation, physical; Nursing; Patient education; Taxonomy; Practice-based evidence
For millions of disabled older adults each year, post-acute care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) is a brief window of opportunity to regain enough function to return home and live independently. Too often this goal is not achieved, possibly due to therapy that is inadequately intense or engaging. This study tested Enhanced Medical Rehabilitation, an intervention designed to increase patient engagement in, and intensity of, daily physical and occupational therapy sessions in post-acute care rehabilitation.
Randomized controlled trial of Enhanced Medical Rehabilitation versus standard-of-care rehabilitation.
Post-acute care unit of a skilled nursing facility in St Louis, MO.
26 older adults admitted from a hospital for post-acute rehabilitation.
Based on models of motivation and behavior change, Enhanced Medical Rehabilitation is a set of behavioral skills for physical and occupational therapists (PT/OT) that increase patient engagement and intensity, with the goal of improving functional outcome, through: (1) a patient-directed, interactive approach, (2) increased rehabilitation intensity, and (3) frequent feedback to patients on their effort and progress.
Therapy intensity: assessment of patient active time in therapy sessions. Therapy engagement: Rehabilitation Participation Scale. Functional and performance outcomes: Barthel Index, gait speed, and six-minute walk.
Participants randomized to Enhanced Medical Rehabilitation had higher intensity therapy and were more engaged in their rehabilitation sessions; they had more improvement in gait speed (improving from 0.08 to 0.38 meter/sec vs. 0.08 to 0.22 in standard of care,p=0.003) and six-minute walk (from 73 to 266 feet vs. 40 to 94 feet in standard of care, p=0.026), with a trend for better improvement of Barthel Index (+43 points vs. 26 points in standard of care, p=0.087), compared to participants randomized to standard-of-care rehabilitation.
Higher intensity and patient engagement in the post-acute rehabilitation setting is achievable, with resultant better functional outcomes for older adults. Findings should be confirmed in a larger randomized controlled trial.
Elderly patients who leave an acute care hospital after a stroke or a hip fracture may be discharged home or undergo post-acute rehabilitative care in an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) or skilled nursing facility (SNF). Since 15% of Medicare expenditures are for these types of post-acute care, it is important to understand their relative costs and the health outcomes they produce.
To assess Medicare payments for and outcomes of patients discharged from acute care to an IRF, a SNF, or home after an inpatient diagnosis of stroke or hip fracture between January 2002 and June 2003.
This is an observational study based on Medicare administrative data. We adjust for observable differences in patient severity across post-acute care sites and we use instrumental variables estimation to account for unobserved patient selection.
Mortality, return to community residence, and total Medicare post-acute payments by 120 days after acute care discharge.
Relative to discharge home, IRFs improve health outcomes for hip fracture patients. SNFs reduce mortality for hip fracture patients, but increase rates of institutionalization for stroke patients. Both sites of care are far more expensive than discharge to home.
When there is a choice between IRF and SNF care for stroke and hip fracture patients, the marginal patient is better off going to an IRF for post-acute care. However, given the marginal cost of an IRF stay compared to returning home, the gains to these patients should be considered in light of the additional costs.
health care financing; post-acute care; Medicare; selection models
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is the framework developed by WHO to describe functioning and disability at both the individual and population levels.
While condition-specific ICF Core Sets are useful, a Generic ICF Core Set is needed to describe and compare problems in functioning across health conditions.
The aims of the multi-centre, cross-sectional study presented here were: a) to propose a method to select ICF categories when a large amount of ICF-based data have to be handled, and b) to identify candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set by examining their explanatory power in relation to item one of the SF-36.
The data were collected from 1039 patients using the ICF checklist, the SF-36 and a Comorbidity Questionnaire.
ICF categories to be entered in an initial regression model were selected following systematic steps in accordance with the ICF structure. Based on an initial regression model, additional models were designed by systematically substituting the ICF categories included in it with ICF categories with which they were highly correlated.
Fourteen different regression models were performed. The variance the performed models account for ranged from 22.27% to 24.0%. The ICF category that explained the highest amount of variance in all the models was sensation of pain. In total, thirteen candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set were proposed.
The selection strategy based on the ICF structure and the examination of the best possible alternative models does not provide a final answer about which ICF categories must be considered, but leads to a selection of suitable candidates which needs further consideration and comparison with the results of other selection strategies in developing a Generic ICF Core Set.
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is designed to provide a common language and framework for describing health and health-related states. The goal of this research was to investigate human and automated coding of functional status information using the ICF framework.
The authors extended an existing natural language processing (NLP) system to encode rehabilitation discharge summaries according to the ICF.
The authors conducted a formal evaluation, comparing the coding performed by expert coders, non-expert coders, and the NLP system.
Automated coding can be used to assign codes using the ICF, with results similar to those obtained by human coders, at least for the selection of ICF code and assignment of the performance qualifier. Coders achieved high agreement on ICF code assignment.
This research is a key next step in the development of the ICF as a sensitive and universal classification of functional status information. It is worthwhile to continue to investigate automated ICF coding.
The integration of psychologists as members of the rehabilitation team has occurred in conjunction with the evolution and adoption of interdisciplinary teams as the standard of care in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Although the value of psychological services during rehabilitation is endorsed widely, specific interventions and their association with patient outcomes have not been examined adequately.
To address this shortcoming, psychologists from 6 SCI centers collaborated to develop a psychology intervention taxonomy and documentation framework.
Utilizing an interactive process, the lead psychologists from 6 centers compiled an inclusive list of patient characteristics assessed and interventions delivered in routine psychological practice at the participating rehabilitation facilities. These were systematically grouped, defined, and compared.
The resulting taxonomy became the basis of a documentation framework utilized by psychologists for the study. The psychology taxonomy includes 4 major clinical categories (assessment, psychotherapeutic interventions, psychoeducational interventions, and consultation) with 5 to 10 specific activities in each category.
Examination of psychological interventions and their potential association with positive outcomes for persons who sustain SCI requires the development of a taxonomy. Results of these efforts illustrate similarities and differences in psychological practice among SCI centers and offer the opportunity to blend research and clinical practice in an innovative approach to evidence-based practice improvement. The established taxonomy provides a basic framework for future studies on the effect of psychological interventions.
Spinal cord injuries; Rehabilitation, physical; Psychology; Classification; Taxonomy; Practice-based evidence; Health services research
The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities of early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland.
Growing costs of health care enforced managers to be looking for new organizational solutions of services which could enable as early as possible rehabilitation after disease onset. Early post-stroke rehabilitation consists of many elements of modern strategy of rehabilitation. It realizes the idea of early rehabilitation and its continuation after discharge from stroke unit.
A questionnaire evaluating neuro-rehabilitation of persons who undergo stroke has been designed and distributed to 221 neurological wards and to 154 rehabilitation departments in Poland.
We were asking about time needed to wait for admission from neurological wards to rehabilitation departments, about the number of sessions per day, time duration of one session, number of sessions per week, average time of stay in department, methods of outcome measures etc.
Until the end of 2010 we received 129 fulfilled questionnaires of 375, i.e. 35%. We received 78 fulfilled questionnaires from neurological wards and 51 from rehabilitation departments.
Twenty-five percent of all patients after stroke were moved from neurological wards to rehabilitation department (15% directly). Fifty-four percent of all patients after stroke in rehabilitation departments were treated early post-stroke, i.e. up to three months after stroke.
Taking into account that about 60% of stroke survivals (30 days after onset), the contemporary facilities of early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland in the year 2010 are not satisfied.
The delivery of post-stroke services should be improved. The Information on benefits of EHSD and implementation of Early Home Rehabilitation post stroke in Poland might help to solve this problem.
rehabilitation; stroke; service delivery
In 2001, the World Health Organization published the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The ICF is just beginning to be used in a variety of clinical and research settings in Canada and worldwide. The purpose of the present article is to describe the initial use of the ICF at an Ontario children’s rehabilitation centre, and to consider further uses both within and outside the centre for enhancing services for children and youth with chronic physical health conditions and disabilities, as well as for their families.
A description is provided on how the ICF has been used at the centre to guide clinical thinking and practice, and to justify and steer research directions. Plans underway to use the ICF to collect and record functional data at the centre are also described. Finally, recommendations for the use of the ICF to enhance communication among child health professionals across service settings are provided.
Used in conjunction with the International Classification of Diseases – Tenth Revision, the ICF’s conceptual framework and classification system shows great promise for enhancing the quality of services for children with chronic conditions and their families. This information may assist paediatric specialists, other child health professionals, researchers and administrators to use the ICF in similar settings. It may also stimulate exploration of the use of the ICF for general paediatricians and other service providers in the larger community.
Canada; Children; Chronic illness; Disability; ICF; Paediatrics; Rehabilitation; Youth
Aims of this study were to identify aspects of functioning and health relevant to patients with vertigo expressed by ICF categories and to explore the potential of the ICF to describe the patient perspective in vertigo.
We conducted a series of qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews using a descriptive approach. Data was analyzed using the meaning condensation procedure and then linked to categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).
From May to July 2010 12 interviews were carried out until saturation was reached. Four hundred and seventy-one single concepts were extracted which were linked to 142 different ICF categories. 40 of those belonged to the component body functions, 62 to the component activity and participation, and 40 to the component environmental factors. Besides the most prominent aspect “dizziness” most participants reported problems within “Emotional functions (b152), problems related to mobility and carrying out the daily routine. Almost all participants reported “Immediate family (e310)” as a relevant modifying environmental factor.
From the patients’ perspective, vertigo has impact on multifaceted aspects of functioning and disability, mainly body functions and activities and participation. Modifying contextual factors have to be taken into account to cover the complex interaction between the health condition of vertigo on the individuals’ daily life. The results of this study will contribute to developing standards for the measurement of functioning, disability and health relevant for patients suffering from vertigo.
Vertigo (MeSH); Outcome assessment (Health Care) (MeSH); Qualitative research (MeSH); Classification (MeSH)
The results of a study of the use of intermediate care beds in the intermediate care facility (ICF) of the Yale Health Plan, a prepaid group practice plan for students and an enrolled non-student population, indicate that the ICF may be a possible model for other health maintenance organizations. The ICF, with 30 beds in active use, is located in the Yale health center. Approximately one-third of the ICF patients would have been admitted to the affiliated short-term general hospital if the ICF did not exist. The plan's medical staff also has the option of transferring patients between the affiliated hospital and the ICF, depending on which institution is most appropriate for the patient's needs. A comparison of the levels of care provided in the ICF with those presented in selected articles from the progressive patient care literature revealed that the ICF is not only providing intermediate care but several other classic elements of progressive patient care -self care, continuing care, minimal care, and partial care.
Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world and the highest estimated tuberculosis incidence rate in the world. An estimated 80% of TB patients are also infected with HIV. TB detection through intensified case finding (ICF) has yet to become a routine aspect of integrated tuberculosis and HIV care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate implementation of ICF for TB into routine integrated tuberculosis and HIV care at 16 community clinics and one district hospital in Swaziland.
Nurses and lay counsellors conducted ICF using a TB screening tool and patient pathway at all HIV service entry points in clinics and the hospital. The patient pathway had three-stages; screening, sputum smear diagnosis and TB treatment initiation. Outcomes and losses to follow up were monitored at each stage. Patient demographics, access, and service feasibility and effectiveness were compared at hospital and clinic sites.
1467 HIV patients at clinics and the hospital were screened over a 3 month period. Large losses to follow up occurred prior to the sputum diagnosis stage; only 47% (n = 172) of TB suspects provided a specimen. 28 cases of smear positive TB were diagnosed and 24 commenced treatment. People screened at clinics were significantly more likely to be female, older, and from rural or geographically remote areas (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the hospital and clinics sites in the proportion of all participants screened who were smear positive (x2 = 1.909; p = 0.16). The number needed to screen to detect one sputum positive TB case was 34 at clinics and 63 at the district hospital.
ICF was operationally feasible and became established as a routine aspect of tuberculosis and HIV integrated care. ICF in community clinics was potentially more accessible to an underserved, rural population and was as effective as the hospital service in detecting smear positive TB.
Geriatric patients are typically underrepresented in studies on the functional outcome of rehabilitation after stroke. Moreover, most geriatric stroke patients do probably not participate in intensive rehabilitation programs as offered by rehabilitation centers. As a result, very few studies have described the successfulness of geriatric stroke rehabilitation in nursing home patients, although it appears that the majority of these patients are being discharged back to the community, rather than being transferred to residential care. Nevertheless, factors associated with the successfulness of stroke rehabilitation in nursing homes or skilled nursing facilities are largely unknown. The primary goal of this study is, therefore, to assess the factors that uniquely contribute to the successfulness of rehabilitation in geriatric stroke patients that undergo rehabilitation in nursing homes. A secondary goal is to investigate whether these factors are similar to those associated with the outcome of stroke rehabilitation in the literature.
This study is part of the Geriatric Rehabilitation in AMPutation and Stroke (GRAMPS) study in the Netherlands. It is a longitudinal, observational, multicenter study in 15 nursing homes in the Southern part of the Netherlands that aims to include at least 200 patients. All participating nursing homes are selected based on the existence of a specialized rehabilitation unit and the provision of dedicated multidisciplinary care. Patient characteristics, disease characteristics, functional status, cognition, behavior, and caregiver information, are collected within two weeks after admission to the nursing home. The first follow-up is at discharge from the nursing home or one year after inclusion, and focuses on functional status and behavior. Successful rehabilitation is defined as discharge from the nursing home to an independent living situation within one year after admission. The second follow-up is three months after discharge in patients who rehabilitated successfully, and assesses functional status, behavior, and quality of life. All instruments used in this study have shown to be valid and reliable in rehabilitation research or are recommended by the Netherlands Heart Foundation guidelines for stroke rehabilitation.
Data will be analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Besides descriptive analyses, both univariate and multivariate analyses will be performed with the purpose of identifying associated factors as well as their unique contribution to determining successful rehabilitation.
This study will provide more information about geriatric stroke rehabilitation in Dutch nursing homes. To our knowledge, this is the first large study that focuses on the determinants of success of geriatric stroke rehabilitation in nursing home patients.
The “Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)“ is an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and represents the typical spectrum of problems in functioning of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to validate this ICF Core Set from the perspective of physicians.
Materials and Methodology:
Physicians experienced in COPD treatment were asked about the patients’ problems treated by physicians in patients with COPD in a three-round electronic mail survey using the Delphi technique. Responses were linked to the ICF.
Seventy-six physicians in 44 countries gave a total of 1330 responses that were linked to 148 different ICF categories. Nine ICF categories were not represented in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for COPD although at least 75% of the participants have rated them as important. Nineteen concepts were linked to the not yet developed ICF component personal factors and seventeen concepts were not covered by the ICF.
The high percentage of ICF categories represented in the ICF Core Set for COPD indicates satisfactory content validity from the perspective of the physicians. However, some issues were raised that were not covered and need to be investigated further.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; asthma; rehabilitation; international classification of functioning; disability and health; ICF core set.
The purpose of this article is first to describe the development and content of a transmural care model in the rehabilitation sector, which aims to reduce the number and severity of health problems of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and improve the continuity of care. Second, the purpose is to describe the applicability and implementation experiences of a transmural care model in the rehabilitation sector.
The transmural care model was developed in cooperation with the Dutch Association of Spinal Cord Injured Patients, community nurses, general practitioners, rehabilitation nurses, rehabilitation managers, physiatrists and researchers. The core component of the care model consists of a transmural nurse, who ‘liaises’ between people with SCI living in the community, professional primary care professionals and the rehabilitation centre. The transmural care model provides a job description containing activities to support people with SCI and their family/partners and activities to promote continuity of care.
The transmural care model was implemented in two Dutch rehabilitation centres. The following three aspects, as experienced by the transmural nurses, were evaluated: the extent to which the care model was implemented; enabling factors and barriers for implementation; strength and weakness of the care model.
The transmural care model was not implemented in all its details, with a clear difference between the two rehabilitation centres. Enabling factors and barriers for implementation were found at three levels: 1. the level of the individual professional (e.g. competencies, attitude and motivation), 2. the organisational and financing level (e.g. availability of facilities and finances), and 3. the social context (the opinion of colleagues, managers and other professionals involved with the care). The most important weakness experienced was that there was not enough time to put all the activities into practice. The strength of the care model lies in the combination of support of patients after discharge, support of and cooperation with primary care professionals, and feedback of experiences to the clinical rehabilitation teams.
We recommend further improving and implementing the care model and encourage other care professionals and researchers to share their implementation experiences of follow-up care innovations for people with SCI.
transmural care; follow-up care; process evaluation; spinal cord injury
Diabetes as one of Non-communicable diseases has allocated a large proportion of cost, time and human resources of health systems. Now, due to changes in lifestyle and industrial process, incidence of diabetes and its complications have been increased. Accordingly diabetic foot considered as a common complication of diabetes.
Nurses are health care providers who actively involved in prevention and early detection of diabetes and its complications. The nurses’ role could be in health care, health, community education, health systems management, patient care and improving the quality of life.
Diabetes Nurses play their educating role in the field of prevention of diabetic foot, foot care and preventing from foot injury. In care dimension, nurses responsible for early detection of any changes in skin and foot sensation, foot care, dressing and apply novel technology.
In the area of rehabilitation, help patient sufferings from diabetic foot ulcer or amputation, to have movement are diabetes nurse’s duties.
Consequently, nurses need to attend in special training to use the latest instructions of diabetic foot care in order that provides the effective services to facilitate promote diabetic patients health.
Diabetes; Diabetic foot; Nurse
Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) participation is the standard of care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who remain symptomatic despite bronchodilator therapies. However, there are questions about specific aspects of PR programming including optimal site of rehabilitation delivery, components of rehabilitation programming, duration of rehabilitation, target populations and timing of rehabilitation. The present document was compiled to specifically address these important clinical issues, using an evidence-based, systematic review process led by a representative interprofessional panel of experts.
The evidence reveals there are no differences in major patient-related outcomes of PR between nonhospital- (community or home sites) or hospital-based sites. There is strong support to recommend that COPD patients initiate PR within one month following an acute exacerbation due to benefits of improved dyspnea, exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life relative to usual care. Moreover, the benefits of PR are evident in both men and women, and in patients with moderate, severe and very severe COPD. The current review also suggests that longer PR programs, beyond six to eight weeks duration, be provided for COPD patients, and that while aerobic training is the foundation of PR, endurance and functional ability may be further improved with both aerobic and resistance training.
COPD; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Management; Pulmonary rehabilitation