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1.  Prevalence of functional dyspepsia and its subgroups in patients with eating disorders 
AIM: To study the prevalence of functional dyspepsia (FD) (Rome III criteria) across eating disorders (ED), obese patients, constitutional thinner and healthy volunteers.
METHODS: Twenty patients affected by anorexia nervosa, 6 affected by bulimia nervosa, 10 affected by ED not otherwise specified according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, nine constitutional thinner subjects and, thirty-two obese patients were recruited from an outpatients clinic devoted to eating behavior disorders. Twenty-two healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were enrolled as healthy controls. All participants underwent a careful clinical examination. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were obtained from a structured questionnaires. The presence of FD and, its subgroups, epigastric pain syndrome and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) were diagnosed according to Rome III criteria. The intensity-frequency score of broader dyspeptic symptoms such as early satiety, epigastric fullness, epigastric pain, epigastric burning, epigastric pressure, belching, nausea and vomiting were studied by a standardized questionnaire (0-6). Analysis of variance and post-hoc Sheffè tests were used for comparisons.
RESULTS: 90% of patients affected by anorexia nervosa, 83.3% of patients affected by bulimia nervosa, 90% of patients affected by ED not otherwise specified, 55.6% of constitutionally thin subjects and 18.2% healthy volunteers met the Postprandial Distress Syndrome Criteria (χ2, P < 0.001). Only one bulimic patient met the epigastric pain syndrome diagnosis. Postprandial fullness intensity-frequency score was significantly higher in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not otherwise specified groups compared to the score calculated in the constitutional thinner group (4.15 ± 2.08 vs 1.44 ± 2.35, P = 0.003; 5.00 ± 2.45 vs 1.44 ± 2.35, P = 0.003; 4.10 ± 2.23 vs 1.44 ± 2.35, P = 0.002, respectively), the obese group (4.15 ± 2.08 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001; 5.00 ± 2.45 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001; 4.10 ± 2.23 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001, respectively) and healthy volunteers (4.15 ± 2.08 vs 0.36 ± 0.79, P < 0.001; 5.00 ± 2.45 vs 0.36 ± 0.79, P < 0.001; 4.10 ± 2.23 vs 0.36 ± 0.79, P < 0.001, respectively). Early satiety intensity-frequency score was prominent in anorectic patients compared to bulimic patients (3.85 ± 2.23 vs 1.17 ± 1.83, P = 0.015), obese patients (3.85 ± 2.23 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001) and healthy volunteers (3.85 ± 2.23 vs 0.05 ± 0.21, P < 0.001). Nausea and epigastric pressure were increased in bulimic and ED not otherwise specified patients. Specifically, nausea intensity-frequency-score was significantly higher in bulimia nervosa and ED not otherwise specified patients compared to anorectic patients (3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.89 ± 1.66, P = 0.04; 2.70 ± 2.91 vs 0.89 ± 1.66, P = 0.05, respectively), constitutional thinner subjects (3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P = 0.004; 2.70 ± 2.91 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P = 0.005, respectively), obese patients (3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001; 3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001 respectively) and, healthy volunteers (3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.17 ± 0.71, P = 0.002; 3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.17 ± 0.71, P = 0.001, respectively). Epigastric pressure intensity-frequency score was significantly higher in bulimic and ED not otherwise specified patients compared to constitutional thin subjects (4.67 ± 2.42 vs 1.22 ± 1.72, P = 0.03; 4.20 ± 2.21 vs 1.22 ± 1.72, P = 0.03, respectively), obese patients (4.67 ± 2.42 vs 0.75 ± 1.32, P = 0.001; 4.20 ± 2.21 vs 0.75 ± 1.32, P < 0.001, respectively) and, healthy volunteers (4.67 ± 2.42 vs 0.67 ± 1.46, P = 0.001; 4.20 ± 2.21 vs 0.67 ± 1.46, P = 0.001, respectively). Vomiting was referred in 100% of bulimia nervosa patients, in 20% of ED not otherwise specified patients, in 15% of anorexia nervosa patients, in 22% of constitutional thinner subjects, and, in 5.6% healthy volunteers (χ2, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: PDS is common in eating disorders. Is it mandatory in outpatient gastroenterological clinics to investigate eating disorders in patients with PDS?
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i32.4379
PMCID: PMC3436054  PMID: 22969202
Eating disorders; Functional dyspepsia; Post prandial distress syndrome; Epigastric pain sindrome; Rome III criteria; Upper abdominal symptoms; Anorexia nervosa; Bulimia nervosa; Eating disorders not otherwise specified; Constitutional thinness
2.  Bulimia nervosa 
Clinical Evidence  2010;2010:1009.
Introduction
Up to 1% of young women may have bulimia nervosa, characterised by an intense preoccupation with body weight, uncontrolled binge-eating episodes, and use of extreme measures to counteract the feared effects of overeating. People with bulimia nervosa may be of normal weight, making it difficult to diagnose. After 10 years, about half of people with bulimia nervosa will have recovered fully, one third will have made a partial recovery, and 10% to 20% will still have symptoms.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for bulimia nervosa in adults? What are the effects of discontinuing treatment in people with bulimia nervosa in remission? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT; alone or plus exposure/response prevention enhancement), cognitive orientation therapy, dialectical behavioural therapy, discontinuing fluoxetine in people with remission, guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy, hypnobehavioural therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, mirtazapine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), motivational enhancement therapy, pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy, pure or unguided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy, reboxetine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topiramate, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and venlafaxine.
Key Points
Up to 1% of young women may have bulimia nervosa, characterised by an intense preoccupation with body weight, uncontrolled binge-eating episodes, and use of extreme measures to counteract the feared effects of overeating. People with bulimia nervosa may be of normal weight, making it difficult to diagnose.Obesity has been associated with both an increased risk of bulimia nervosa and a worse prognosis, as have personality disorders and substance misuse.After 10 years, about half of people with bulimia nervosa will have recovered fully, one third will have made a partial recovery, and 10% to 20% will still have symptoms.
Cognitive behavioural therapy for bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) may improve clinical problems of bulimia nervosa compared with no treatment, and may be as effective in reducing symptoms as interpersonal psychotherapy at 1 year, or as other psychological treatments, or antidepressants. However, we found no RCTs meeting eligibility criteria comparing the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy with waiting list control. We don't know whether other psychological therapies such as cognitive orientation therapy, hypnobehavioural therapy, dialectical behavioural therapy, or motivational enhancement therapy are more effective than a waiting list control at improving symptoms, as we found only a few trials. We found insufficient evidence to support enhancing CBT-BN with exposure and response prevention (ERP). Pure or unguided self-help CBT is likely to be no more effective than waiting list control at reducing binge eating. The evidence we found for guided self-help CBT is insufficient to judge this intervention because of high attrition in trials.
Some antidepressant drugs (fluoxetine, citalopram, desipramine, and imipramine) may improve symptoms in people with bulimia nervosa compared with placebo. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may increase remission rates compared with placebo, but may not reduce bulimic symptoms or depression scores.We don't know whether other antidepressants (topiramate, mirtazapine, reboxetine, or venlafaxine) can improve symptoms or remission in people with bulimia nervosa.
We don't know whether continuation of antidepressant treatment may maintain a reduction in vomiting frequency compared with withdrawing treatment in people in remission.
We don't know if combining pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy enhances outcome. Trials that have suggested combinations may enhance outcomes have been limited in power.
PMCID: PMC3275326  PMID: 21418667
3.  Anorexia nervosa 
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:1011.
Introduction
Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and up to 0.7% of this age group may be affected. While most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, about 5% die of the condition, and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder. Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of bone fractures later in life.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review, and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in anorexia nervosa? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat complications of anorexia nervosa? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: atypical antipsychotic drugs, benzodiazepines, cyproheptadine, inpatient/outpatient treatment setting, oestrogen treatment (HRT or oral contraceptives), older-generation antipsychotic drugs, psychotherapy, refeeding, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants.
Key Points
Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and the condition may affect up to 0.7% of this group.Anorexia nervosa is related to family, sociocultural, genetic, and other biological factors. Psychiatric and personality disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and perfectionism are commonly found in people who have anorexia nervosa.Most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, but about 5% die from the condition and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder.Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of fractures later in life.Population assessment indicates that risks to fertility may be overstated in those who reach a healthy BMI, but children born to mothers who have recovered from anorexia nervosa seem to have lower birth weights.
There is no strong RCT evidence that any treatments work well for anorexia nervosa. However, there is a gradual accumulation of evidence suggesting that early intervention is effective. Increasing evidence suggests that working with the family may also interrupt the development of a persistent form of the illness, when this work begins early in the disease.
Evidence on the benefits of psychotherapy is unclear.
Refeeding is a necessary and effective component of treatment, but is not sufficient alone. Very limited evidence from a quasi-experimental study suggests that a lenient approach to refeeding is as effective and more acceptable compared with a more strict approach.Refeeding may be as effective in an outpatient setting as during hospital admission.Nasogastric refeeding has been used to speed up weight gain in inpatient observational studies, although it is rarely studied in RCTs. Very limited RCT evidence suggests that adding nasogastric feeding to oral nutrition can increase weight gain and reduce relapse in the short term more than oral nutrition alone, but these gains are not maintained at 1 year post-discharge. Given ethical and medical concerns with tube feeding, this approach is encouraged with caution.Nutritional supplements, including zinc, have only limited evidence for their effectiveness, and additional evaluations of these measures are warranted.
We don't know whether inpatient or outpatient treatment is more effective in people with anorexia nervosa.
Limited evidence from small RCTs has not shown significant weight gain from SSRIs or tricyclic antidepressants, some of which may cause serious adverse effects. Tricyclic antidepressants may cause drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and a prolonged QT interval in people who have anorexia nervosa. SSRIs have not been shown to be beneficial, but the evidence remains very limited; in the 4 RCTs we found, conclusions were limited because of small trial size and high rates of withdrawal.
Older-generation antipsychotic drugs may prolong the QT interval, increasing the risk of ventricular tachycardia, torsades de pointes, and sudden death. Atypical antipsychotics have been evaluated for their potential role in reducing agitation and anxiety related to refeeding, as well as for potentially increasing appetite. Increasing observational data (case series) have suggested that they may decrease obsessiveness and agitation. However, further evidence from large, well-conducted RCTs is necessary to draw reliable conclusions. Newer atypical antipsychotics, in particular olanzapine, do not seem to be associated with the same cardiac risks as older-generation antipsychotic drugs, but the known association between olanzapine and weight gain may impact compliance in people with anorexia nervosa. However, further research needs to be done.
We found insufficient RCT evidence assessing benzodiazepines or cyproheptadine for treating anorexia nervosa.
Oestrogen treatment has been hypothesised to reduce the negative effects on bone mineral density associated with anorexia nervosa. However, three small RCTs have failed to demonstrate clinically relevant changes in bone mineral density after treatment with oestrogen either HRT or oral contraceptives), and these results are supported by 2-year longitudinal data, which found similar lack of improvement.
PMCID: PMC3275304  PMID: 21481284
4.  Bulimia nervosa 
BMJ Clinical Evidence  2008;2008:1009.
Introduction
Up to 1% of young women may have bulimia nervosa, characterised by an intense preoccupation with body weight, uncontrolled binge-eating episodes, and use of extreme measures to counteract the feared effects of overeating. People with bulimia nervosa may be of normal weight, making it difficult to diagnose. After ten years, about half of people with bulimia nervosa will have recovered fully, a third will have made a partial recovery, and 10-20% will still have symptoms.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for bulimia nervosa in adults? What are the effects of discontinuing treatment in people with bulimia nervosa in remission? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to June 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cognitive behavioural therapy (alone or plus exposure response prevention enhancement); cognitive orientation therapy; dialectical behavioural therapy; discontinuing fluoxetine in people with remission; guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy; hypnobehavioural therapy; interpersonal psychotherapy; mirtazapine; monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs); motivational enhancement therapy; pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy; pure or unguided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); reboxetine; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); topiramate; tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs); and venlafaxine.
Key Points
Up to 1% of young women may have bulimia nervosa, characterised by an intense preoccupation with body weight, uncontrolled binge-eating episodes, and use of extreme measures to counteract the feared effects of overeating. People with bulimia nervosa may be of normal weight, making it difficult to diagnose.Obesity has been associated with both an increased risk of bulimia nervosa and a worse prognosis, as have personality disorders and substance misuse.After ten years, about half of people with bulimia nervosa will have recovered fully, a third will have made a partial recovery, and 10-20% will still have symptoms.
CBT may improve clinical problems of bulimia nervosa compared with no treatment, and may be as effective in reducing symptoms as interpersonal psychotherapy, other psychological treatments, or antidepressants. We don't know whether other psychological therapies such as cognitive orientation therapy, hypnobehavioural therapy, dialectical behavioural therapy, or motivational enhancement therapy are more effective than a waiting list control in improving symptoms, as only a few studies have been found.
Some antidepressant drugs (fluoxetine, citalopram, desipramine, and imipramine) may improve symptoms in people with bulimia nervosa compared with placebo. MAOIs may increase remission rates compared with placebo, but may not reduce bulimic symptoms or depression scores.We don't know whether other antidepressants can improve symptoms or remission in people with bulimia nervosa.
We do not know whethercontinuation of antidepressant treatment may maintain a reduction in vomiting frequency compared with withdrawing treatment in people in remission.
PMCID: PMC2907970  PMID: 19450294
5.  Anorexia nervosa 
Clinical Evidence  2009;2009:1011.
Introduction
Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and up to 0.7% of this age group may be affected. While most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, about 5% die of the condition, and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder. Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of bone fractures later in life.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review which aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for anorexia nervosa? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat complications of anorexia nervosa? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anxiolytic drugs, cyproheptadine, inpatient/outpatient treatment setting, oestrogen treatment, psychotherapy, refeeding, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants.
Key Points
Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low BMI, fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and may affect up to 0.7% of this group.Anorexia nervosa is related to family, sociocultural, genetic, and other biological factors. Psychiatric and personality disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and perfectionism, are commonly found in people who have anorexia nervosa.Most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, but about 5% die from the condition and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder.Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of fractures later in life.
There is no strong research evidence that any treatments work well for anorexia nervosa. However, there is a gradual accumulation of evidence which suggests that early intervention is effective. Working with the family may also interrupt the development of a persistent form of the illness.
Evidence on the benefits of psychotherapy is unclear.
Refeeding is a necessary and effective component of treatment, but is not sufficient alone. Very limited evidence from a quasi-experimental study suggests that a lenient approach to refeeding is as effective and more acceptable compared with a more strict approach.Refeeding may be as effective in an outpatient setting as during hospital admission.Nasogastric feeding is rarely required and can lead to problems due to hypophosphataemia.Nutritional supplements, including zinc, have only limited evidence for their effectiveness, and additional evaluation of these measures are warranted.
Limited evidence from small RCTs has not shown significant weight gain from SSRIs or tricyclic antidepressants, some of which may cause serious adverse effects. Tricyclic antidepressants may cause drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and a prolonged QT interval in people who have anorexia nervosa. SSRIs have not been shown to be beneficial, but the evidence remains very limited; in the four RCTs we found, conclusions were limited due to small trial size and high withdrawal rates.
Anxiolytic drugs (mainly older generation antipsychotic drugs) may prolong the QT interval, increasing the risk of ventricular tachycardia, torsades de pointes, and sudden death. Atypical antipsychotics have been evaluated for their potential role in reducing agitation and anxiety related to refeeding, as well as for potentially increasing appetite. Weak observational evidence has suggested that they may decrease obsessiveness and agitation. However, we found no RCTs of sufficient quality on the effects of atypical antipsychotics, and further evidence from large, well-conducted RCTs is necessary to draw reliable conclusions. Some atypical antipsychotics do not appear to be associated with the same cardiac risks as older-generation antipsychotic drugs. However, further research needs to be done.
We found insufficient evidence assessing cyproheptadine for treating anorexia nervosa.
Oestrogen treatment has been hypothesized to reduce the negative effects on bone mineral density associated with anorexia nervosa. However, three small RCTs have failed to demonstrate significant changes in bone mineral density after treatment with oestrogen.
PMCID: PMC2907776  PMID: 19445758
6.  Personality Dimensions in Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Obesity 
Comprehensive psychiatry  2009;51(1):31-36.
Objective
The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity and a normal weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms.
Method
Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal weight comparison participants.
Results
Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other three groups, and lower well-being scores compared to the normal weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were re-analyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other three groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal weight comparison group.
Conclusions
The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.
doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.03.003
PMCID: PMC2838502  PMID: 19932823
7.  Perplexities of treatment resistence in eating disorders 
BMC Psychiatry  2013;13:292.
Background
Treatment resistance is an omnipresent frustration in eating disorders. Attempts to identify the features of this resistance and subsequently develop novel treatments have had modest effects. This selective review examines treatment resistant features expressed in core eating disorder psychopathology, comorbidities and biological features. Novel treatments addressing resistance are discussed.
Description
The core eating disorder psychopathology of anorexia nervosa becomes a coping mechanism likely via vulnerable neurobiological features and conditioned learning to deal with life events. Thus it is reinforcing and ego syntonic resulting in resistance to treatment. The severity of core features such as preoccupations with body image, weight, eating and exercising predicts greater resistance to treatment. Bulimia nervosa patients are less resistant to treatment with treatment failure related to greater body image concerns, impulsivity, depression, severe diet restriction and poor social adjustment. For those with binge eating disorder overweight in childhood and high emotional eating predicts treatment resistance. There is suggestive data that a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and severe perfectionism may confer treatment resistance in anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders or personality disorders with impulse control problems may produce resistance to treatment in bulimia nervosa. Traits such as perfectionism, cognitive inflexibility and negative affect with likely genetic influences may also affect treatment resistance. Pharmacotherapy and novel therapies have been developed to address treatment resistance. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown some effect in treatment resistant anorexia nervosa and topiramate and high doses of SSRIs are helpful for treatment of resistant binge eating disorder patients. There are insufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the novel psychotherapies which are primarily based on the core psychopathological features of the eating disorders.
Conclusion
Treatment resistance in eating disorders is usually predicted by the severity of the core eating disorder psychopathology which develops from an interaction between environmental risk factors with genetic traits and a vulnerable neurobiology. Future investigations of the biological features and neurocircuitry of the core eating disorders psychopathology and behaviors may provide information for more successful treatment interventions.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-292
PMCID: PMC3829659  PMID: 24199597
Treatment resistance; Anorexia nervosa; Bulimia nervosa; Binge eating disorder
8.  Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders 
Background
Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment.
Methods
This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify eating disorder subtypes. Because we were interested in both whether the PAI could be used to differentiate eating disorder subtypes from each other, as well as from other disorders, we also included a group of patients with major depression.
Results
The three eating disorder groups did differ significantly from each other, and from the patients with depression, on a number of the PAI scales. Only two PAI scales (Anxiety and Depression), however, exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with anorexia nervosa, no scales exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with bulimia nervosa or EDNOS, and only two exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with depression (Depression and Suicide). A discriminant function analysis revealed an overall correct classification between the groups of 81.6%.
Conclusions
The PAI helps to understand the psychological factors associated with eating disorders and can be used to assist with assessment. Continued investigation using the PAI in an eating disordered population is supported.
doi:10.1186/s40337-014-0020-4
PMCID: PMC4243782  PMID: 25426291
Personality Assessment Inventory; PAI; Eating disorders; Anorexia nervosa; Bulimia nervosa; Assessment
9.  Reduced salience and default mode network activity in women with anorexia nervosa 
Background
The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa is poorly understood. Neuronal networks contributing to action selection, self-regulation and interoception could contribute to pathologic eating and body perception in people with anorexia nervosa. We tested the hypothesis that the salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN) would show decreased intrinsic activity in women with anorexia nervosa and those who had recovered from the disease compared to controls. The basal ganglia (BGN) and sensorimotor networks (SMN) were also investigated.
Methods
Between January 2008 and January 2012, women with restricting-type anorexia nervosa, women who recovered from the disease and healthy control women completed functional magnetic resonance imaging during a conditioned stimulus task. Network activity was studied using independent component analysis.
Results
We studied 20 women with anorexia nervosa, 24 recovered women and 24 controls. Salience network activity in the anterior cingulate cortex was reduced in women with anorexia nervosa (p = 0.030; all results false-discovery rate–corrected) and recovered women (p = 0.039) compared to controls. Default mode network activity in the precuneus was reduced in women with anorexia compared to controls (p = 0.023). Sensorimotor network activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA; p = 0.008), and the left (p = 0.028) and right (p = 0.002) postcentral gyrus was reduced in women with anorexia compared to controls; SMN activity in the SMA (p = 0.019) and the right postcentral gyrus (p = 0.008) was reduced in women with anorexia compared to recovered women. There were no group differences in the BGN.
Limitations
Differences between patient and control populations (e.g., depression, anxiety, medication) are potential confounds, but were included as covariates.
Conclusion
Reduced SN activity in women with anorexia nervosa and recovered women could be a trait-related biomarker or illness remnant, altering the drive to approach food. The alterations in the DMN and SMN observed only in women with anorexia nervosa suggest state-dependent abnormalities that could be related to altered interoception and body image in these women when they are underweight but that remit following recovery.
doi:10.1503/jpn.130046
PMCID: PMC3997603  PMID: 24280181
10.  Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Complicated by Comorbid Eating Disorders 
Cognitive behaviour therapy  2013;42(1):64-76.
Purpose
Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) commonly co-occur, but there is little data for how to treat these complex cases. To address this gap, we examined the naturalistic outcome of 56 patients with both disorders, who received a multimodal treatment program designed to address both problems simultaneously.
Methods
A residential treatment program developed a cognitive-behavioral approach for patients with both OCD and an eating disorder by integrating exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment for OCD with ERP strategies targeting eating pathology. Patients also received a supervised eating plan, medication management, and social support. At admission and discharge, patients completed validated measures of OCD severity (the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale—Self Report [Y-BOCS-SR]), eating disorder severity (the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire), and depressive severity (the Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]). Body mass index (BMI) was also measured. Paired-sample t-tests examined change on these measures.
Main Results
Between 2006 and 2011, 56 individuals completed all study measures at admission and discharge. Mean length of stay was 57 days (SD = 27). Most (89%) were on psychiatric medications. Significant decreases were observed in OCD severity, eating disorder severity, and depression. Those with bulimia nervosa showed more improvement than those with anorexia nervosa. BMI significantly increased, primarily among those underweight at admission.
Conclusion
Simultaneous treatment of OCD and eating disorders using a multimodal approach that emphasizes ERP techniques for both OCD and eating disorders can be an effective treatment strategy for these complex cases.
doi:10.1080/16506073.2012.751124
PMCID: PMC3947513  PMID: 23316878
anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; cognitive-behavioral therapy; exposure therapy; OCD
11.  Parent-focused treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa: a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial 
BMC Psychiatry  2014;14:105.
Background
Family-based treatment is an efficacious outpatient intervention for medically stable adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Previous research suggests family-based treatment may be more effective for some families when parents and adolescents attend separate therapy sessions compared to conjoint sessions. Our service developed a novel separated model of family-based treatment, parent-focused treatment, and is undertaking a randomised controlled trial to compare parent-focused treatment to conjoint family-based treatment.
Methods/Design
This randomised controlled trial will recruit 100 adolescents aged 12–18 years with DSM-IV anorexia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified (anorexia nervosa type). The trial commenced in 2010 and is expected to be completed in 2015. Participants are recruited from the Royal Children’s Hospital Eating Disorders Program, Melbourne, Australia. Following a multidisciplinary intake assessment, eligible families who provide written informed consent are randomly allocated to either parent-focused treatment or conjoint family-based treatment. In parent-focused treatment, the adolescent sees a clinical nurse consultant and the parents see a trained mental health clinician. In conjoint family-based treatment, the whole family attends sessions with the mental health clinician. Both groups receive 18 treatment sessions over 6 months and regular medical monitoring by a paediatrician. The primary outcome is remission at end of treatment and 6 and 12 month follow up, with remission defined as being ≥ 95% expected body weight and having an eating disorder symptom score within one standard deviation of community norms. The secondary outcomes include partial remission and changes in eating pathology, depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Moderating and mediating factors will also be explored.
Discussion
This will be first randomised controlled trial of a parent-focused model of family-based treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa. If found to be efficacious, parent-focused treatment will offer an alternative approach for clinicians who treat adolescents with anorexia nervosa.
Trial registration
Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000216011.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-105
PMCID: PMC3991924  PMID: 24712855
Anorexia nervosa; Eating disorders; Adolescents; Family therapy; Randomised controlled trial
12.  Eating Disorders and Major Depression: Role of Anger and Personality 
This study aimed to evaluate comorbidity for MD in a large ED sample and both personality and anger as clinical characteristics of patients with ED and MD. We assessed 838 ED patients with psychiatric evaluations and psychometric questionnaires: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. 19.5% of ED patients were found to suffer from comorbid MD and 48.7% reported clinically significant depressive symptomatology: patients with Anorexia Binge-Purging and Bulimia Nervosa were more likely to be diagnosed with MD. Irritable mood was found in the 73% of patients with MD. High Harm Avoidance (HA) and low Self-Directedness (SD) predicted MD independently of severity of the ED symptomatology, several clinical variables, and ED diagnosis. Assessing both personality and depressive symptoms could be useful to provide effective treatments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the pathogenetic role of HA and SD for ED and MD.
doi:10.1155/2011/194732
PMCID: PMC3184501  PMID: 21977317
13.  Perception of transgenerational family relationships: Comparison of eating-disordered patients and their parents 
Background
Disturbances in various elements of transgenerational family functioning patterns are not uncommon in studies of eating disorders.
We examined the relationship between patients’ perception of autonomy and intimacy in their families of origin and that of their parents in their own families of origin.
Material/Methods
The sample consisted of 112 girls who had a diagnosis of an eating disoder and their parents; 54 of the girls were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa restrictive subtype, 22 as anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype, and 36 were diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. We had 2 control groups: 1 group consisted of 36 girls diagnosed with a depressive episode, dysthymia, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood and the other group was 85 female students from schools in Cracow, Poland and their parents. We used the the Family of Origin Scale to assess perception of family relationships. Statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0.PL; Chicago, IL, USA).
Results
There was a significant association between daughters’ and fathers’ perceptions of autonomy in their families of origin in all groups. There was no significant association between daughters’ and mothers’ perceptions in all groups. The strongest correlation was between the non-clinical sample of girls and their fathers and for the bulimic group.
Conclusions
We did not detect any link indicating the specificity of transgenerational transmission of autonomy and intimacy in eating disorders. The results point to the importance of the father figure in studies of family systems, including the context of family transmission.
doi:10.12659/MSM.889432
PMCID: PMC3867474  PMID: 24309425
anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; family; autonomy; intimacy
14.  The relationship between drive to thinness, conscientiousness and bulimic traits during adolescence: a comparison between younger and older cases in 608 healthy volunteers 
Background
Adolescence represents one of the critical transitions in the life span and is characterized by a tremendous pace in growth and change that is second only to that of infancy. Both biological and psychological changes occurring during early adolescence may also influence the definition of subsequent late adolescence or early adulthood physiological or (psycho)-pathological features, including bulimia nervosa (BN) whenever occurring. Therefore, a pre-emptive assessment of suggestive psychological traits, including bulimic ones, during early and late years of adolescence, is recommended and represents the goal of the present study.
Methods
Six hundred and eight healthy volunteers attending mid- or high school, aged 14–19 years, were consecutively enrolled at multiple sites in Eastern Sicily, Italy. A systematic psychological assessment was performed, including McCrae and Costa' BigFive, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), Bisantis's Assertivity test and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents. Demographic and general characteristics, including the body mass index, were also recorded. Based on hierarchical considerations, cases were then divided into ‘younger’ (‘early’ years, 14–16) and ‘older’ (‘late’ years, 17–19) adolescents.
Results
Upon descriptive and Pearson's correlation analyses, the following EDI constructs ‘drive to thinness’ and ‘bulimia’ scored significantly higher (both p = <.001) in ‘early’ vs. ‘late’ cases. Conversely, BigFive ‘conscientiousness’ was higher in older subjects vs. early cases (p = <.003). As expected, ‘drive to thinness’ positively correlated with BN both in early (r = .31) and late (r = .50) cases. In the ‘late’ group, age correlated with conscientiousness (r = .206) while BN correlated with drive to thinness (r = .505); finally, a negative correlation was observed with regard to consciousness and BN (r = −.19).
Conclusions
Despite intrinsic methodological limits, our preliminary findings confirm that the transition between early and late years of adolescence is a critical phase of life span, with the consolidation of ‘conscientiousness’ eventually playing a protective role towards the onset of bulimic traits. If confirmed by replication studies, ideally providing long-term follow-ups too, an early acknowledgement of bulimic traits may play a major predictive role for subsequent BN, ultimately contributing to more effective pre-emptive interventions as well.
doi:10.1186/1744-859X-12-34
PMCID: PMC3816099  PMID: 24176173
Adolescence; Personality traits; Bigfive; Conscientiousness; Thinness; Bulimia nervosa
15.  Psychiatrists' attitudes towards autonomy, best interests and compulsory treatment in anorexia nervosa: a questionnaire survey 
Background
The compulsory treatment of anorexia nervosa is a contentious issue. Research suggests that psychiatrists have a range of attitudes towards patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, and towards the use of compulsory treatment for the disorder.
Methods
A postal self-completed attitudinal questionnaire was sent to senior psychiatrists in the United Kingdom who were mostly general adult psychiatrists, child and adolescent psychiatrists, or psychiatrists with an interest in eating disorders.
Results
Respondents generally supported a role for compulsory measures under mental health legislation in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Compared to 'mild' anorexia nervosa, respondents generally were less likely to feel that patients with 'severe' anorexia nervosa were intentionally engaging in weight loss behaviours, were able to control their behaviours, wanted to get better, or were able to reason properly. However, eating disorder specialists were less likely than other psychiatrists to think that patients with 'mild' anorexia nervosa were choosing to engage in their behaviours or able to control their behaviours. Child and adolescent psychiatrists were more likely to have a positive view of the use of parental consent and compulsory treatment for an adolescent with anorexia nervosa. Three factors emerged from factor analysis of the responses named: 'Support for the powers of the Mental Health Act to protect from harm'; 'Primacy of best interests'; and 'Autonomy viewed as being preserved in anorexia nervosa'. Different scores on these factor scales were given in terms of type of specialist and gender.
Conclusion
In general, senior psychiatrists tend to support the use of compulsory treatment to protect the health of patients at risk and also to protect the welfare of patients in their best interests. In particular, eating disorder specialists tend to support the compulsory treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa independently of views about their decision-making capacity, while child and adolescent psychiatrists tend to support the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa in their best interests where decision-making is impaired.
doi:10.1186/1753-2000-2-40
PMCID: PMC2649038  PMID: 19091113
16.  Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study 
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of eating disorders. Twenty-five outpatients with binge eating episodes, diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa/purging type, or bulimia nervosa/non-purging type, were treated with milnacipran and 20 patients completed the 8-week study. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE) self-rating scale before administration of milnacipran and after 1, 4, and 8 weeks treatment. The scores improved after 8 weeks, especially drive to, and regret for, binge eating. Milnacipran was more effective in patients without purging and in younger patients, while there was no difference in the efficacy of milnacipran among subtypes of eating disorders.
PMCID: PMC2515919  PMID: 18728825
milnacipran; specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors; binge eating; vomiting; eating disorder; pharmacotherapy
17.  Effectiveness of a web-based treatment program using intensive therapeutic support for female patients with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Psychiatry  2013;13:310.
Background
Disordered eating behavior and body dissatisfaction affect a large proportion of the Dutch population and account for severe psychological, physical and social morbidity. Yet, the threshold for seeking professional care is still high. In the Netherlands, only 7.5% of patients with bulimia nervosa and 33% of patients with anorexia nervosa are treated within the mental health care system. Easily accessible and low-threshold interventions, therefore, are needed urgently. The internet has great potential to offer such interventions. The aim of this study is to determine whether a web-based treatment program for patients with eating disorders can improve eating disorder psychopathology among female patients with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified.
Methods/design
This randomized controlled trial will compare the outcomes of an experimental treatment group to a waiting list control group. In the web-based treatment program, participants will communicate personally and asynchronously with their therapists exclusively via the internet. The first part of the program will focus on analyzing eating attitudes and behaviors. In the second part of the program participants will learn how to change their attitudes and behaviors. Participants assigned to the waiting list control group will receive no-reply email messages once every two weeks during the waiting period of 15 weeks, after which they can start the program. The primary outcome measure is an improvement in eating disorder psychopathology as determined by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include improvements in body image, physical and mental health, body weight, self-esteem, quality of life, and social contacts. In addition, the participants’ motivation for treatment and their acceptability of the program and the therapeutic alliance will be measured. The study will follow the recommendations in the CONSORT statement relating to designing and reporting on RCTs.
Discussion
This study protocol presents the design of a RCT for evaluating the effectiveness of a web-based treatment program using intensive therapeutic support for female patients with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified.
Trial registration
The protocol for this study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Registry NTR2415.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-310
PMCID: PMC3840645  PMID: 24238630
Eating disorders; Bulimia nervosa; Binge eating disorder; Eating disorders not otherwise specified; Randomized controlled trial; Web-based treatment program; e-health; Intensive therapeutic support; Asynchronous support
18.  Association between resting energy expenditure, psychopathology and HPA-axis in eating disorders 
AIM: To investigate the complex relationships between resting energy expenditure (REE), eating psychopathology, and Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal axis functioning in patients with eating disorders.
METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey, and it was planned by the Clinic for Eating Disorders of the University of Florence (Italy). The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institution. Twenty two anorexia nervosa and twenty one Bulimia Nervosa patients were assessed by means of a clinical interview and the structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Eating attitudes and behaviour were specifically investigated by means of the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q). Patients were also evaluated by means of the symptom checklist (SCL 90-R), REE was measured by means of indirect calorimetry, and blood cortisol morning levels were evaluated.
RESULTS: Both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients showed a reduced REE as compared with predicted REE. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in Bulimics, whereas a strong, negative association between BMI and REE was observed in Anorectics. The pattern of associations between variables supported a mediation model, where shape concern accounted for variations in REE and cortisol levels (mediator), and variations in the mediator significantly accounted for variations in REE. When these associations where taken into account together, the relationship between shape concern and REE was no longer significant, whereas the association between cortisol levels and REE retained its significance, showing strong evidence for a single, dominant mediator. Anorectics and Bulimics showed an opposite pattern of association between BMI and REE. In Anorectics only, a higher REE was associated with a more severe eating disorder specific psychopathology, and cortisol levels represent a possible mediating factor for this relationship.
CONCLUSION: The data supported a mediation model where cortisol levels mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology (concern about body shape) and REE.
doi:10.12998/wjcc.v2.i7.257
PMCID: PMC4097152  PMID: 25032200
Anorexia nervosa; Bulimia nervosa; Cortisol; Psychopathology; Resting energy expenditure
19.  The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index. 
A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes.
PMCID: PMC1690775  PMID: 11075712
20.  Postprandial oxytocin secretion is associated with severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in anorexia nervosa 
The Journal of clinical psychiatry  2013;74(5):e451-e457.
Objective
Anorexia nervosa, a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation, is associated with endocrine dysfunction and comorbid anxiety and depression. Animal data suggest that oxytocin may have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. We have reported increased postprandial oxytocin levels in women with active anorexia nervosa (AN), and decreased levels in weight-recovered women with anorexia nervosa (ANWR) compared to healthy controls (HC). A meal may represent a significant source of stress in patients with disordered eating. We therefore investigated the association between post-prandial oxytocin secretion and symptoms of anxiety and depression in anorexia nervosa.
Method
We performed a cross-sectional study of 35 women (13 AN, 9 ANWR and 13 HC). Serum oxytocin and cortisol and plasma leptin levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120min after a standardized mixed meal. The area under the curve (AUC), and for oxytocin, postprandial nadir and peak levels were determined. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II).
Results
In women with anorexia nervosa, oxytocin AUC and post-prandial nadir and peak levels were positively associated with STAI scores. Oxytocin AUC and nadir levels were positively associated with BDI-II scores. After controlling for cortisol AUC, most relationships remained significant. After controlling for leptin AUC, all of the relationships remained significant. Oxytocin secretion explained up to 51% of the variance in STAI trait and 24% of BDI-II scores.
Conclusions
Abnormal post-prandial oxytocin secretion in women with anorexia nervosa is associated with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. This may represent an adaptive response of oxytocin secretion to food-related symptoms of anxiety and depression.
doi:10.4088/JCP.12m08154
PMCID: PMC3731039  PMID: 23759466
Anorexia nervosa; oxytocin; anxiety; depression; cortisol; leptin
21.  Eating disorders among patients incarcerated only for repeated shoplifting: a retrospective quasi-case-control study in a medical prison in Japan 
BMC Psychiatry  2014;14:169.
Background
Shoplifting is a serious problem among patients with eating disorders. For more than a decade, we have treated many patients with eating disorders incarcerated in Hachioji Medical Prison only for repeated shoplifting.
Methods
We analyzed the prison records and medical records of female psychiatric patients transferred to Hachioji Medical Prison between 2002 and 2011. Based on the offense listed at the time of sentencing, we extracted a shoplifting group and a drug-offense group from among all patients with eating disorders. One patient from the former group who had used substances and two from the latter group who had never shoplifted were excluded from the study. The groups had 41 and 14 patients, respectively. A control group comprised patients with other mental disorders (n = 34). We compared eating disorder histories and subtypes, weight changes, comorbidities, life histories, past behavioral problems, and clinical behavioral problems among the three groups.
Results
The shoplifting group exhibited less impulsive behavior, substance abuse, antisocial features, borderline personality disorder, and past bulimia than did the drug-offense and control groups. The shoplifting group had higher educational achievement and steadier employment; however, their eating disorder histories and interpersonal dysfunction were more severe, and they had a higher psychiatric treatment dropout rate. There were also significant relationships with low body weight, anorexia nervosa-restricting type, obsessive–compulsive behaviors, and obsessive–compulsive personality disorder in the shoplifting group. During the clinical course, food refusal, excessive exercise, food hoarding, and falsification of dietary intake amounts were more frequently observed in the shoplifting group. Conversely, drug requests and occurrences of self-harm were less frequent in the shoplifting group than in the drug-offense group.
Conclusions
Although these results may be associated with specific characteristics of patients with eating disorders in the medical prison setting, we concluded that the repeated shoplifting by these patients is unrelated to antisocial or impulsive characteristics but is deeply rooted in these patients’ severe and undertreated eating disorder psychopathology. Strong supportive treatment should be considered for patients with eating disorders who develop shoplifting behaviors. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the relationship between shoplifting and eating disorders.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-169
PMCID: PMC4062907  PMID: 24907848
Anorexia nervosa; Shoplifting; Multi-impulsive bulimia nervosa; Crime; Addiction
22.  Examining a Psychosocial Interactive Model of Binge Eating and Vomiting in Women with Bulimia Nervosa and Subthreshold Bulimia Nervosa 
Behaviour research and therapy  2008;46(7):887-894.
The current study tested a psychosocial interactive model of perfectionism, self-efficacy, and weight/shape concern within a sample of women with clinically significant bulimic symptoms, examining how different dimensions of perfectionism operated in the model. Individuals with bulimia nervosa (full diagnostic criteria or subthreshold) completed measures of bulimic symptoms, multidimensional perfectionism, self-efficacy, and weight/shape concern. Among those who were actively binge eating (n = 180), weight/shape concern was associated with binge eating frequency in the context of high perfectionism (either maladaptive or adaptive) and low self-efficacy. Among those who were actively vomiting (n = 169), weight/shape concern was associated with vomiting frequency only in the context of high adaptive perfectionism and low self-efficacy. These findings provide support for the value of this psychosocial interactive model among actively binge eating and purging samples and for the importance of considering different dimensions of perfectionism in research and treatment related to bulimia nervosa.
doi:10.1016/j.brat.2008.04.003
PMCID: PMC2515388  PMID: 18501334
Perfectionism; Self-efficacy; Body dissatisfaction; Binge eating; Vomiting
23.  Eating Disorders and Trauma History in Women with Perinatal Depression 
Journal of Women's Health  2011;20(6):863-870.
Abstract
Objective
Although the prevalence of perinatal depression (depression occurring during pregnancy and postpartum) is 10%, little is known about psychiatric comorbidity in these women. We examined the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders (ED) and trauma history in women with perinatal depression.
Methods
A research questionnaire was administered to 158 consecutive patients seen in a perinatal psychiatry clinic during pregnancy (n=99) or postpartum (n=59). Measures included Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) IV-based questions for lifetime eating psychopathology and assessments of comorbid psychiatric illness including the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Trauma Inventory.
Results
In this cohort, 37.1% reported a putative lifetime ED history; 10.1% reported anorexia nervosa (AN), 10.1% reported bulimia nervosa (BN), 10.1% reported ED not otherwise specified-purging subtype (EDNOS-P), and 7.0% reported binge eating disorder (BED). Women with BN reported more severe depression (EPDS score, 19.1, standard deviation [SD 4.3], p=0.02; PHQ-severity 14.5, SD 7.4, p=0.02) than the referent group of women with perinatal depression and no ED history (EPDS 13.3, SD=6.1; PHQ 9.0, SD=6.2). Women with AN were more likely to report sexual trauma history than the referent group (62.5% vs. 29.3%, p<0.05), and those with BN were more likely report physical (50.0%, p<0.05) and sexual (66.7%, p<0.05) trauma histories.
Conclusions
ED histories were present in over one third of admissions to a perinatal psychiatry clinic. Women with BN reported more severe depression and histories of physical and sexual trauma. Screening for histories of eating psychopathology is important in women with perinatal depression.
doi:10.1089/jwh.2010.2360
PMCID: PMC3113417  PMID: 21671774
24.  Fasting Increases Risk for Onset of Binge Eating and Bulimic Pathology: A 5-Year Prospective Study 
Journal of abnormal psychology  2008;117(4):941-946.
Although adolescent girls with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future binge eating and bulimic pathology, they do not eat less than those with lower restraint scores. The fact that only a small proportion of individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores develop bulimic pathology suggests that some extreme but rare form of dietary restriction may increase risk for this disturbance. We tested the hypothesis that fasting (going without eating for 24-hours for weight control) would be a more potent predictor of binge eating and bulimic pathology onset than dietary restraint scores using data from 496 adolescent girls followed over 5-years. Results confirmed that only 23% of participants with elevated dietary restraint scores reporting fasting. Furthermore, fasting generally showed stronger and more consistent predictive relations to future onset of recurrent binge eating and threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa over 1- to 5-year follow-up relative to dietary restraint, though the former effects were only significantly stronger than the latter for some comparisons. Results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that fasting is a stronger risk factor for bulimic pathology than is self-reported dieting.
doi:10.1037/a0013644
PMCID: PMC2850570  PMID: 19025239
dietary restraint; binge eating; bulimia nervosa
25.  Uncontrollable behavior or mental illness? Exploring constructions of bulimia using Q methodology 
Background
In medical and psychological literature bulimia is commonly described as a mental illness. However, from a social constructionist perspective the meaning of bulimia will always be socially and historically situated and multiple. Thus, there is always the possibility for other understandings or constructions of bulimia to circulate in our culture, with each having distinct real-world implications for those engaging in bulimic behaviors; for instance, they might potentially influence likelihood of help-seeking and the success of treatment. This study used Q methodology to explore culturally-available constructions of bulimia nervosa.
Methods
Seventy-seven adults with varying experience of eating disorders took part in this Q methodological study. Online, they were asked to rank-order 42 statements about bulimia, and then answer a series of questions about the task and their knowledge of bulimia. A by-person factor analysis was then conducted, with factors extracted using the centroid technique and a varimax rotation.
Results
Six factors satisfied selection criteria and were subsequently interpreted. Factor A, “bulimia as uncontrolled behavior”, positions bulimia as a behavioral rather than psychological issue. Factor B, entitled “bulimia is a distressing mental illness”, reflects an understanding of bulimic behaviors as a dysfunctional coping mechanism, which is often found in psychological literature. Other perspectives position bulimia as about “self-medicating with food” (Factor C), “the pathological pursuit of thinness” (Factor D), “being the best at being thin” (Factor E), or as “extreme behavior vs. mentally ill” (Factor F). These constructions have distinct implications for the subjective experience and behavior of those engaged in bulimic behaviors, with some constructions possibly being more useful in terms of help-seeking (Factor B), while others position these individuals in ways that may be distressing, for instance as shallow (Factor D) or to blame (Factor E).
Conclusions
This study has identified a range of distinct constructions of bulimia. These constructions are considered to have implications for the behaviors and experiences of those engaging in bulimic behaviors. As such, further research into constructions of bulimia may illuminate factors that influence help-seeking and the self-perceptions of such individuals.
doi:10.1186/s40337-014-0022-2
PMCID: PMC4244064  PMID: 25426292
Bulimia; Social constructionism; Q methodology; Help-seeking

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