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1.  Characterisation of weak magnetic field effects in an aqueous glutamic acid solution by nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy and voltammetry 
Previous reports indicate altered metabolism and enzyme kinetics for various organisms, as well as changes of neuronal functions and behaviour of higher animals, when they were exposed to specific combinations of weak static and alternating low frequency electromagnetic fields. Field strengths and frequencies, as well as properties of involved ions were related by a linear equation, known as the formula of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, abbreviation mentioned first by Liboff). Under certain conditions already a aqueous solution of the amino acid and neurotransmitter glutamate shows this effect.
An aqueous solution of glutamate was exposed to a combination of a static magnetic field of 40 μT and a sinusoidal electromagnetic magnetic field (EMF) with variable frequency (2–7 Hz) and an amplitude of 50 nT. The electric conductivity and dielectric properties of the solution were investigated by voltammetric techniques in combination with non linear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS), which allow the examination of the dielectric properties of macromolecules and molecular aggregates in water. The experiments target to elucidate the biological relevance of the observed EMF effect on molecular level.
An ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) effect of glutamate previously reported by the Fesenko laboratory 1998 could be confirmed. Frequency resolution of the sample currents was possible by NLDS techniques. The spectrum peaks when the conditions for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) of glutamate are matched. Furthermore, the NLDS spectra are different under ICR- and non-ICR conditions: NLDS measurements with rising control voltages from 100–1100 mV show different courses of the intensities of the low order harmonics, which could possibly indicate "intensity windows". Furthermore, the observed magnetic field effects are pH dependent with a narrow optimum around pH 2.85.
Data will be discussed in the context with recent published models for the interaction of weak EMF with biological matter including ICR. A medical and health relevant aspect of such sensitive effects might be given insofar, because electromagnetic conditions for it occur at many occasions in our electromagnetic all day environment, concerning ion involvement of different biochemical pathways.
PMCID: PMC538269  PMID: 15571630
2.  The Complex Behaviour of High-Frequency Currents in Simple Circuits 
The fact that standing wave phenomena exist along transmission lines and loops conducting high-frequency electrical energy is responsible for effects of which therapeutic use can be made.
A. Power measurements are made possible because parallel transmission lines behave as power transformers of which the ratio varies with the length of these lines. In a generator designed by the G.E.C. the dimensions of the lines are such that after a preliminary estimation of the impedance of the load in the treatment field, the sensitivity of the meter can be adjusted so that the meter subsequently registers in watts the power absorbed in this load.
B. When using cable electrodes, in practice, the presence of strong electric fields between the antinodal portions of the loop as well as strong oscillating magnetic fields around the nodal portion gives rise to two distinct phenomena (fig. 6).
Search for currents resulting from the electric field on the one hand, and for eddy currents due to the magnetic field on the other, was carried out at St. Thomas's Hospital, in liquid phantoms by means of a probe (fig. 5a) incorporating a small lamp capable of being rotated in every direction. Voltage measurements were recorded by matching its light intensity with that of a similar lamp in circuit with a variable resistance and a voltmeter (fig. 5b).
When a portion of a cable electrode was coiled around a cylindrical vessel containing an electrolyte, the effects due to the two conditions could be dissociated. The following observations were made (fig. 7):
(a) By using the nodal portions of the loop only, it was shown that only eddy currents are produced and that the lower the resistance of the electrolyte the more easily they are produced. They are strongest at the periphery and rapidly fall off away from it, as shown by the curves of the graph in fig. 8.
(b) By using only the antinodal portions of the loop, coiled around the same vessel, coaxial or longitudinal currents can be demonstrated. It is interesting to note that these exist both at the periphery and at the centre.
(c) When the whole cable is wound around the vessel, the concentration of the electrolyte becomes the factor determining the way in which the energy will be dissipated: (1) with tap-water, it is found that no eddy currents can be demonstrated whereas coaxial currents exist; (2) with strong saline solutions the converse holds good; (3) with electrolytes of intermediate concentration both types of currents can be shown to coexist at the periphery while at the centre only coaxial currents can be demonstrated.
The fact that eddy currents and coaxial currents could be detected simultaneously and did not, as might be expected, give rise to a resultant, could only be explained by assuming that although eddy currents and coaxial currents coexisted as far as their effects on the pilot lamp were concerned, these two phenomena were not coincident as regards their phase relations. On examining the system more closely it became clear that the coaxial currents must be approximately 90 degrees out of phase with the eddy currents.
By means of another type of probe (fig. 5c) for surface work, consisting of two metallic buttons mounted on an insulating strip and bridged by a small lamp, P3, similar to the one used throughout the investigations, it was possible to show that the same conditions existed in the body. It could be demonstrated that both coaxial and eddy currents occurred and that the predominance of one or the other type was dictated by conditions related to impedance. In the thigh just above the knee-joint, in most cases both currents could be demonstrated. It could also be shown that when half the cable was wound clockwise and the other half anticlockwise, so as to cancel the magnetic field between the two halves, no eddy currents existed.
C. Present therapeutic applications of high-frequency currents involve the continuous dissipation of electrical energy in the load under treatment. Under these conditions the only detectable effect to which therapeutic value may be ascribed is the rise in temperature which results from heat production. This rise in temperature sets a limit to the power which can be used without risk of burns. Consequently effects other than thermal ones which might manifest themselves under higher intensities remain undetected.
It is not possible to predict what would happen if, instead of treating tissues by means of sustained high-frequency electrical energy, tissues were subjected to intermittent radio-frequency pulses of very high intensity separated by silent periods of sufficient length to allow for the dissipation of heat. Those who have some technical knowledge of such matters will readily recognize an application of “Radar” technique in this.
PMCID: PMC2184441  PMID: 19993665
3.  Cyclotron production of 68Ga via the 68Zn(p,n)68Ga reaction in aqueous solution 
The objective of the present work is to extend the applicability of the solution target approach to the production of 68Ga using a low energy cyclotron. Since the developed method does not require solid target infrastructure, it offers a convenient alternative to 68Ge/68Ga generators for the routine production of 68Ga. A new solution target with enhanced heat exchange capacity was designed and utilized with dual foils of Al (0.20 mm) and Havar (0.038 mm) separated by helium cooling to degrade the proton energy to ~14 MeV. The water-cooled solution target insert was made of Ta and its solution holding capacity (1.6 mL) was reduced to enhance heat transfer. An isotopically enriched (99.23%) 1.7 M solution of 68Zn nitrate in 0.2 N nitric acid was utilized in a closed target system. After a 30 min irradiation at 20 μA, the target solution was unloaded to a receiving vessel and the target was rinsed with 1.6 mL water, which was combined with the target solution. An automated module was used to pass the solution through a cation-exchange column (AG-50W-X8, 200-400 mesh, hydrogen form) which efficiently trapped zinc and gallium isotopes. 68Zn was subsequently eluted with 30 mL of 0.5 N HBr formulated in 80% acetone without any measurable loss of 68Ga. 68Ga was eluted with 7 mL of 3 N HCl solution with 92-96% elution efficiency. The radionuclidic purity was determined using an HPGe detector. Additionally, ICP-MS was employed to analyze for non-radioactive metal contaminants. The product yield was 192.5 ± 11.0 MBq/μ·h decay-corrected to EOB with a total processing time of 60-80 min. The radionuclidic purity of 68Ga was found to be >99.9%, with the predominant contaminant being 67Ga. The ICP-MS analysis showed small quantities of Ga, Fe, Cu, Ni and Zn in the final product, with 68Ga specific activity of 5.20-6.27 GBq/μg. Depending upon the user requirements, 68Ga production yield can be further enhanced by increasing the 68Zn concentration in the target solution and extending the irradiation time. In summary, a simple and efficient method of 68Ga production was developed using low energy cyclotron and a solution target. The developed methodology offers a cost-effective alternative to the 68Ge/68Ga generators for the production of 68Ga.
PMCID: PMC4074496  PMID: 24982816
68Ga; cyclotron targetry; solution target
4.  Investigating the Icr Effect in a Zhadin’s Cell 
Investigations into the ion cyclotronic resonance (ICR) in living matter confront the so called Zhadin effect (12), whose explanation is not fully achieved. Several attempts have been done to explain this phenomenon, the most interesting of which is based on Quantum Electrodynamics (18): the molecules of water, the ions and the biomolecules form extended mesoscopic regions, called Coherence Domains (CD), where they oscillate in unison between two selected levels of their spectra in tune with a self-produced coherent E.M. field having a well defined frequency, dynamically trapped within the CD. Moreover, it is possible, to induce, by an external applied field (either hydrodynamical or EM) or also by a chemical stimulation, coherent excitations of CD’s that give rise to electric currents circulating without friction within the CD’s: as a consequence magnetic fields are produced. A resonating magnetic field thus is able to extract the ions from the orbit and push them in the flowing current. Electrochemical investigation of the system suggested that the observed phenomenon involves the transitory activation of the anode due to ICR, followed by anode passivation due to the adsorption of amino acid and its oxidation products (18). This hypothesis induced us to investigate an alternate configuration of the experiment, removing the electrolytic cell and submitting a flask containing the solution into a condenser to be exposed to the proper ICR. Temperature and variable parameters involved in the effect have been investigated in order to overcome the randomness of the effect.
PMCID: PMC3614765  PMID: 23675133
iono-cyclotronic resonance (ICR); BLZ; Zhadin’s cell
5.  Simulating Magnetic Nanoparticle Behavior in Low-field MRI under Transverse Rotating Fields and Imposed Fluid Flow 
In the presence of alternating-sinusoidal or rotating magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles will act to realign their magnetic moment with the applied magnetic field. The realignment is characterized by the nanoparticle’s time constant, τ. As the magnetic field frequency is increased, the nanoparticle’s magnetic moment lags the applied magnetic field at a constant angle for a given frequency, Ω, in rad/s. Associated with this misalignment is a power dissipation that increases the bulk magnetic fluid’s temperature which has been utilized as a method of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, particularly suited for cancer in low-perfusion tissue (e.g., breast) where temperature increases of between 4°C and 7°C above the ambient in vivo temperature cause tumor hyperthermia. This work examines the rise in the magnetic fluid’s temperature in the MRI environment which is characterized by a large DC field, B0. Theoretical analysis and simulation is used to predict the effect of both alternating-sinusoidal and rotating magnetic fields transverse to B0. Results are presented for the expected temperature increase in small tumors (~1 cm radius) over an appropriate range of magnetic fluid concentrations (0.002 to 0.01 solid volume fraction) and nanoparticle radii (1 to 10 nm). The results indicate that significant heating can take place, even in low-field MRI systems where magnetic fluid saturation is not significant, with careful The goal of this work is to examine, by means of analysis and simulation, the concept of interactive fluid magnetization using the dynamic behavior of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle suspensions in the MRI environment. In addition to the usual magnetic fields associated with MRI, a rotating magnetic field is applied transverse to the main B0 field of the MRI. Additional or modified magnetic fields have been previously proposed for hyperthermia and targeted drug delivery within MRI. Analytical predictions and numerical simulations of the transverse rotating magnetic field in the presence of B0 are investigated to demonstrate the effect of Ω, the rotating field frequency, and the magnetic field amplitude on the fluid suspension magnetization. The transverse magnetization due to the rotating transverse field shows strong dependence on the characteristic time constant of the fluid suspension, τ. The analysis shows that as the rotating field frequency increases so that Ωτ approaches unity, the transverse fluid magnetization vector is significantly non-aligned with the applied rotating field and the magnetization’s magnitude is a strong function of the field frequency. In this frequency range, the fluid’s transverse magnetization is controlled by the applied field which is determined by the operator. The phenomenon, which is due to the physical rotation of the magnetic nanoparticles in the suspension, is demonstrated analytically when the nanoparticles are present in high concentrations (1 to 3% solid volume fractions) more typical of hyperthermia rather than in clinical imaging applications, and in low MRI field strengths (such as open MRI systems), where the magnetic nanoparticles are not magnetically saturated. The effect of imposed Poiseuille flow in a planar channel geometry and changing nanoparticle concentration is examined. The work represents the first known attempt to analyze the dynamic behavior of magnetic nanoparticles in the MRI environment including the effects of the magnetic nanoparticle spin-velocity. It is shown that the magnitude of the transverse magnetization is a strong function of the rotating transverse field frequency. Interactive fluid magnetization effects are predicted due to non-uniform fluid magnetization in planar Poiseuille flow with high nanoparticle concentrations.
PMCID: PMC2901184  PMID: 20625540
Magnetic nanoparticles; MRI; rotating magnetic field; interactive magnetization; magnetic particle imaging
6.  Transient effect of weak electromagnetic fields on calcium ion concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana 
BMC Plant Biology  2009;9:47.
Weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields can influence physiological processes in animals, plants and microorganisms, but the underlying way of perception is poorly understood. The ion cyclotron resonance is one of the discussed mechanisms, predicting biological effects for definite frequencies and intensities of electromagnetic fields possibly by affecting the physiological availability of small ions. Above all an influence on Calcium, which is crucial for many life processes, is in the focus of interest. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, changes in Ca2+-concentrations can be induced by combinations of magnetic and electromagnetic fields that match Ca2+-ion cyclotron resonance conditions.
An aequorin expressing Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (Col0-1 Aeq Cy+) was subjected to a magnetic field around 65 microtesla (0.65 Gauss) and an electromagnetic field with the corresponding Ca2+ cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz. The resulting changes in free Ca2+ were monitored by aequorin bioluminescence, using a high sensitive photomultiplier unit. The experiments were referenced by the additional use of wild type plants. Transient increases of cytosolic Ca2+ were observed both after switching the electromagnetic field on and off, with the latter effect decreasing with increasing duration of the electromagnetic impact. Compared with this the uninfluenced long-term loss of bioluminescence activity without any exogenic impact was negligible. The magnetic field effect rapidly decreased if ion cyclotron resonance conditions were mismatched by varying the magnetic fieldstrength, also a dependence on the amplitude of the electromagnetic component was seen.
Considering the various functions of Ca2+ as a second messenger in plants, this mechanism may be relevant for perception of these combined fields. The applicability of recently hypothesized mechanisms for the ion cyclotron resonance effect in biological systems is discussed considering it's operating at magnetic field strengths weak enough, to occur occasionally in our all day environment.
PMCID: PMC2681476  PMID: 19405943
7.  Dynamic and Inherent B0 Correction for DTI Using Stimulated Echo Spiral Imaging 
To present a novel technique for high-resolution stimulated echo (STE) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with self-navigated interleaved spirals (SNAILS) readout trajectories that can inherently and dynamically correct for image artifacts due to spatial and temporal variations in the static magnetic field (B0) resulting from eddy currents, tissue susceptibilities, subject/physiological motion, and hardware instabilities.
The Hahn spin echo formed by the first two 90° radio-frequency pulses is balanced to consecutively acquire two additional images with different echo times (TE) and generate an inherent field map, while the diffusion-prepared STE signal remains unaffected. For every diffusion-encoding direction, an intrinsically registered field map is estimated dynamically and used to effectively and inherently correct for off-resonance artifacts in the reconstruction of the corresponding diffusion-weighted image (DWI).
After correction with the dynamically acquired field maps, local blurring artifacts are specifically removed from individual STE DWIs and the estimated diffusion tensors have significantly improved spatial accuracy and larger fractional anisotropy.
Combined with the SNAILS acquisition scheme, our new method provides an integrated high-resolution short-TE DTI solution with inherent and dynamic correction for both motion-induced phase errors and off-resonance effects.
PMCID: PMC3760972  PMID: 23630029
DTI - diffusion tensor imaging; STE - stimulated echo; off-resonance correction; eddy current correction; magnetic field inhomogeneities
8.  Influence of constant, alternating and cyclotron low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in vitro 
Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.
The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields – 80 mcTl – on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth’s magnetic field intensity.
The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206±22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31±6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.
In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning.
PMCID: PMC2831248  PMID: 20204088
electromagnetic field; human lung fibroblasts; cell culture; stimulation of growth; decrease of number of dead cells
9.  25th Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS-2016 
Sharpee, Tatyana O. | Destexhe, Alain | Kawato, Mitsuo | Sekulić, Vladislav | Skinner, Frances K. | Wójcik, Daniel K. | Chintaluri, Chaitanya | Cserpán, Dorottya | Somogyvári, Zoltán | Kim, Jae Kyoung | Kilpatrick, Zachary P. | Bennett, Matthew R. | Josić, Kresimir | Elices, Irene | Arroyo, David | Levi, Rafael | Rodriguez, Francisco B. | Varona, Pablo | Hwang, Eunjin | Kim, Bowon | Han, Hio-Been | Kim, Tae | McKenna, James T. | Brown, Ritchie E. | McCarley, Robert W. | Choi, Jee Hyun | Rankin, James | Popp, Pamela Osborn | Rinzel, John | Tabas, Alejandro | Rupp, André | Balaguer-Ballester, Emili | Maturana, Matias I. | Grayden, David B. | Cloherty, Shaun L. | Kameneva, Tatiana | Ibbotson, Michael R. | Meffin, Hamish | Koren, Veronika | Lochmann, Timm | Dragoi, Valentin | Obermayer, Klaus | Psarrou, Maria | Schilstra, Maria | Davey, Neil | Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin | Steuber, Volker | Ju, Huiwen | Yu, Jiao | Hines, Michael L. | Chen, Liang | Yu, Yuguo | Kim, Jimin | Leahy, Will | Shlizerman, Eli | Birgiolas, Justas | Gerkin, Richard C. | Crook, Sharon M. | Viriyopase, Atthaphon | Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin | Gielen, Stan | Dabaghian, Yuri | DeVito, Justin | Perotti, Luca | Kim, Anmo J. | Fenk, Lisa M. | Cheng, Cheng | Maimon, Gaby | Zhao, Chang | Widmer, Yves | Sprecher, Simon | Senn, Walter | Halnes, Geir | Mäki-Marttunen, Tuomo | Keller, Daniel | Pettersen, Klas H. | Andreassen, Ole A. | Einevoll, Gaute T. | Yamada, Yasunori | Steyn-Ross, Moira L. | Alistair Steyn-Ross, D. | Mejias, Jorge F. | Murray, John D. | Kennedy, Henry | Wang, Xiao-Jing | Kruscha, Alexandra | Grewe, Jan | Benda, Jan | Lindner, Benjamin | Badel, Laurent | Ohta, Kazumi | Tsuchimoto, Yoshiko | Kazama, Hokto | Kahng, B. | Tam, Nicoladie D. | Pollonini, Luca | Zouridakis, George | Soh, Jaehyun | Kim, DaeEun | Yoo, Minsu | Palmer, S. E. | Culmone, Viviana | Bojak, Ingo | Ferrario, Andrea | Merrison-Hort, Robert | Borisyuk, Roman | Kim, Chang Sub | Tezuka, Taro | Joo, Pangyu | Rho, Young-Ah | Burton, Shawn D. | Bard Ermentrout, G. | Jeong, Jaeseung | Urban, Nathaniel N. | Marsalek, Petr | Kim, Hoon-Hee | Moon, Seok-hyun | Lee, Do-won | Lee, Sung-beom | Lee, Ji-yong | Molkov, Yaroslav I. | Hamade, Khaldoun | Teka, Wondimu | Barnett, William H. | Kim, Taegyo | Markin, Sergey | Rybak, Ilya A. | Forro, Csaba | Dermutz, Harald | Demkó, László | Vörös, János | Babichev, Andrey | Huang, Haiping | Verduzco-Flores, Sergio | Dos Santos, Filipa | Andras, Peter | Metzner, Christoph | Schweikard, Achim | Zurowski, Bartosz | Roach, James P. | Sander, Leonard M. | Zochowski, Michal R. | Skilling, Quinton M. | Ognjanovski, Nicolette | Aton, Sara J. | Zochowski, Michal | Wang, Sheng-Jun | Ouyang, Guang | Guang, Jing | Zhang, Mingsha | Michael Wong, K. Y. | Zhou, Changsong | Robinson, Peter A. | Sanz-Leon, Paula | Drysdale, Peter M. | Fung, Felix | Abeysuriya, Romesh G. | Rennie, Chris J. | Zhao, Xuelong | Choe, Yoonsuck | Yang, Huei-Fang | Mi, Yuanyuan | Lin, Xiaohan | Wu, Si | Liedtke, Joscha | Schottdorf, Manuel | Wolf, Fred | Yamamura, Yoriko | Wickens, Jeffery R. | Rumbell, Timothy | Ramsey, Julia | Reyes, Amy | Draguljić, Danel | Hof, Patrick R. | Luebke, Jennifer | Weaver, Christina M. | He, Hu | Yang, Xu | Ma, Hailin | Xu, Zhiheng | Wang, Yuzhe | Baek, Kwangyeol | Morris, Laurel S. | Kundu, Prantik | Voon, Valerie | Agnes, Everton J. | Vogels, Tim P. | Podlaski, William F. | Giese, Martin | Kuravi, Pradeep | Vogels, Rufin | Seeholzer, Alexander | Podlaski, William | Ranjan, Rajnish | Vogels, Tim | Torres, Joaquin J. | Baroni, Fabiano | Latorre, Roberto | Gips, Bart | Lowet, Eric | Roberts, Mark J. | de Weerd, Peter | Jensen, Ole | van der Eerden, Jan | Goodarzinick, Abdorreza | Niry, Mohammad D. | Valizadeh, Alireza | Pariz, Aref | Parsi, Shervin S. | Warburton, Julia M. | Marucci, Lucia | Tamagnini, Francesco | Brown, Jon | Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira | Kleberg, Florence I. | Triesch, Jochen | Moezzi, Bahar | Iannella, Nicolangelo | Schaworonkow, Natalie | Plogmacher, Lukas | Goldsworthy, Mitchell R. | Hordacre, Brenton | McDonnell, Mark D. | Ridding, Michael C. | Zapotocky, Martin | Smit, Daniel | Fouquet, Coralie | Trembleau, Alain | Dasgupta, Sakyasingha | Nishikawa, Isao | Aihara, Kazuyuki | Toyoizumi, Taro | Robb, Daniel T. | Mellen, Nick | Toporikova, Natalia | Tang, Rongxiang | Tang, Yi-Yuan | Liang, Guangsheng | Kiser, Seth A. | Howard, James H. | Goncharenko, Julia | Voronenko, Sergej O. | Ahamed, Tosif | Stephens, Greg | Yger, Pierre | Lefebvre, Baptiste | Spampinato, Giulia Lia Beatrice | Esposito, Elric | et Olivier Marre, Marcel Stimberg | Choi, Hansol | Song, Min-Ho | Chung, SueYeon | Lee, Dan D. | Sompolinsky, Haim | Phillips, Ryan S. | Smith, Jeffrey | Chatzikalymniou, Alexandra Pierri | Ferguson, Katie | Alex Cayco Gajic, N. | Clopath, Claudia | Angus Silver, R. | Gleeson, Padraig | Marin, Boris | Sadeh, Sadra | Quintana, Adrian | Cantarelli, Matteo | Dura-Bernal, Salvador | Lytton, William W. | Davison, Andrew | Li, Luozheng | Zhang, Wenhao | Wang, Dahui | Song, Youngjo | Park, Sol | Choi, Ilhwan | Shin, Hee-sup | Choi, Hannah | Pasupathy, Anitha | Shea-Brown, Eric | Huh, Dongsung | Sejnowski, Terrence J. | Vogt, Simon M. | Kumar, Arvind | Schmidt, Robert | Van Wert, Stephen | Schiff, Steven J. | Veale, Richard | Scheutz, Matthias | Lee, Sang Wan | Gallinaro, Júlia | Rotter, Stefan | Rubchinsky, Leonid L. | Cheung, Chung Ching | Ratnadurai-Giridharan, Shivakeshavan | Shomali, Safura Rashid | Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili | Shimazaki, Hideaki | Nader Rasuli, S. | Zhao, Xiaochen | Rasch, Malte J. | Wilting, Jens | Priesemann, Viola | Levina, Anna | Rudelt, Lucas | Lizier, Joseph T. | Spinney, Richard E. | Rubinov, Mikail | Wibral, Michael | Bak, Ji Hyun | Pillow, Jonathan | Zaho, Yuan | Park, Il Memming | Kang, Jiyoung | Park, Hae-Jeong | Jang, Jaeson | Paik, Se-Bum | Choi, Woochul | Lee, Changju | Song, Min | Lee, Hyeonsu | Park, Youngjin | Yilmaz, Ergin | Baysal, Veli | Ozer, Mahmut | Saska, Daniel | Nowotny, Thomas | Chan, Ho Ka | Diamond, Alan | Herrmann, Christoph S. | Murray, Micah M. | Ionta, Silvio | Hutt, Axel | Lefebvre, Jérémie | Weidel, Philipp | Duarte, Renato | Morrison, Abigail | Lee, Jung H. | Iyer, Ramakrishnan | Mihalas, Stefan | Koch, Christof | Petrovici, Mihai A. | Leng, Luziwei | Breitwieser, Oliver | Stöckel, David | Bytschok, Ilja | Martel, Roman | Bill, Johannes | Schemmel, Johannes | Meier, Karlheinz | Esler, Timothy B. | Burkitt, Anthony N. | Kerr, Robert R. | Tahayori, Bahman | Nolte, Max | Reimann, Michael W. | Muller, Eilif | Markram, Henry | Parziale, Antonio | Senatore, Rosa | Marcelli, Angelo | Skiker, K. | Maouene, M. | Neymotin, Samuel A. | Seidenstein, Alexandra | Lakatos, Peter | Sanger, Terence D. | Menzies, Rosemary J. | McLauchlan, Campbell | van Albada, Sacha J. | Kedziora, David J. | Neymotin, Samuel | Kerr, Cliff C. | Suter, Benjamin A. | Shepherd, Gordon M. G. | Ryu, Juhyoung | Lee, Sang-Hun | Lee, Joonwon | Lee, Hyang Jung | Lim, Daeseob | Wang, Jisung | Lee, Heonsoo | Jung, Nam | Anh Quang, Le | Maeng, Seung Eun | Lee, Tae Ho | Lee, Jae Woo | Park, Chang-hyun | Ahn, Sora | Moon, Jangsup | Choi, Yun Seo | Kim, Juhee | Jun, Sang Beom | Lee, Seungjun | Lee, Hyang Woon | Jo, Sumin | Jun, Eunji | Yu, Suin | Goetze, Felix | Lai, Pik-Yin | Kim, Seonghyun | Kwag, Jeehyun | Jang, Hyun Jae | Filipović, Marko | Reig, Ramon | Aertsen, Ad | Silberberg, Gilad | Bachmann, Claudia | Buttler, Simone | Jacobs, Heidi | Dillen, Kim | Fink, Gereon R. | Kukolja, Juraj | Kepple, Daniel | Giaffar, Hamza | Rinberg, Dima | Shea, Steven | Koulakov, Alex | Bahuguna, Jyotika | Tetzlaff, Tom | Kotaleski, Jeanette Hellgren | Kunze, Tim | Peterson, Andre | Knösche, Thomas | Kim, Minjung | Kim, Hojeong | Park, Ji Sung | Yeon, Ji Won | Kim, Sung-Phil | Kang, Jae-Hwan | Lee, Chungho | Spiegler, Andreas | Petkoski, Spase | Palva, Matias J. | Jirsa, Viktor K. | Saggio, Maria L. | Siep, Silvan F. | Stacey, William C. | Bernar, Christophe | Choung, Oh-hyeon | Jeong, Yong | Lee, Yong-il | Kim, Su Hyun | Jeong, Mir | Lee, Jeungmin | Kwon, Jaehyung | Kralik, Jerald D. | Jahng, Jaehwan | Hwang, Dong-Uk | Kwon, Jae-Hyung | Park, Sang-Min | Kim, Seongkyun | Kim, Hyoungkyu | Kim, Pyeong Soo | Yoon, Sangsup | Lim, Sewoong | Park, Choongseok | Miller, Thomas | Clements, Katie | Ahn, Sungwoo | Ji, Eoon Hye | Issa, Fadi A. | Baek, JeongHun | Oba, Shigeyuki | Yoshimoto, Junichiro | Doya, Kenji | Ishii, Shin | Mosqueiro, Thiago S. | Strube-Bloss, Martin F. | Smith, Brian | Huerta, Ramon | Hadrava, Michal | Hlinka, Jaroslav | Bos, Hannah | Helias, Moritz | Welzig, Charles M. | Harper, Zachary J. | Kim, Won Sup | Shin, In-Seob | Baek, Hyeon-Man | Han, Seung Kee | Richter, René | Vitay, Julien | Beuth, Frederick | Hamker, Fred H. | Toppin, Kelly | Guo, Yixin | Graham, Bruce P. | Kale, Penelope J. | Gollo, Leonardo L. | Stern, Merav | Abbott, L. F. | Fedorov, Leonid A. | Giese, Martin A. | Ardestani, Mohammad Hovaidi | Faraji, Mohammad Javad | Preuschoff, Kerstin | Gerstner, Wulfram | van Gendt, Margriet J. | Briaire, Jeroen J. | Kalkman, Randy K. | Frijns, Johan H. M. | Lee, Won Hee | Frangou, Sophia | Fulcher, Ben D. | Tran, Patricia H. P. | Fornito, Alex | Gliske, Stephen V. | Lim, Eugene | Holman, Katherine A. | Fink, Christian G. | Kim, Jinseop S. | Mu, Shang | Briggman, Kevin L. | Sebastian Seung, H. | Wegener, Detlef | Bohnenkamp, Lisa | Ernst, Udo A. | Devor, Anna | Dale, Anders M. | Lines, Glenn T. | Edwards, Andy | Tveito, Aslak | Hagen, Espen | Senk, Johanna | Diesmann, Markus | Schmidt, Maximilian | Bakker, Rembrandt | Shen, Kelly | Bezgin, Gleb | Hilgetag, Claus-Christian | van Albada, Sacha Jennifer | Sun, Haoqi | Sourina, Olga | Huang, Guang-Bin | Klanner, Felix | Denk, Cornelia | Glomb, Katharina | Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián | Gilson, Matthieu | Ritter, Petra | Deco, Gustavo | Witek, Maria A. G. | Clarke, Eric F. | Hansen, Mads | Wallentin, Mikkel | Kringelbach, Morten L. | Vuust, Peter | Klingbeil, Guido | De Schutter, Erik | Chen, Weiliang | Zang, Yunliang | Hong, Sungho | Takashima, Akira | Zamora, Criseida | Gallimore, Andrew R. | Goldschmidt, Dennis | Manoonpong, Poramate | Karoly, Philippa J. | Freestone, Dean R. | Soundry, Daniel | Kuhlmann, Levin | Paninski, Liam | Cook, Mark | Lee, Jaejin | Fishman, Yonatan I. | Cohen, Yale E. | Roberts, James A. | Cocchi, Luca | Sweeney, Yann | Lee, Soohyun | Jung, Woo-Sung | Kim, Youngsoo | Jung, Younginha | Song, Yoon-Kyu | Chavane, Frédéric | Soman, Karthik | Muralidharan, Vignesh | Srinivasa Chakravarthy, V. | Shivkumar, Sabyasachi | Mandali, Alekhya | Pragathi Priyadharsini, B. | Mehta, Hima | Davey, Catherine E. | Brinkman, Braden A. W. | Kekona, Tyler | Rieke, Fred | Buice, Michael | De Pittà, Maurizio | Berry, Hugues | Brunel, Nicolas | Breakspear, Michael | Marsat, Gary | Drew, Jordan | Chapman, Phillip D. | Daly, Kevin C. | Bradle, Samual P. | Seo, Sat Byul | Su, Jianzhong | Kavalali, Ege T. | Blackwell, Justin | Shiau, LieJune | Buhry, Laure | Basnayake, Kanishka | Lee, Sue-Hyun | Levy, Brandon A. | Baker, Chris I. | Leleu, Timothée | Philips, Ryan T. | Chhabria, Karishma
BMC Neuroscience  2016;17(Suppl 1):54.
Table of contents
A1 Functional advantages of cell-type heterogeneity in neural circuits
Tatyana O. Sharpee
A2 Mesoscopic modeling of propagating waves in visual cortex
Alain Destexhe
A3 Dynamics and biomarkers of mental disorders
Mitsuo Kawato
F1 Precise recruitment of spiking output at theta frequencies requires dendritic h-channels in multi-compartment models of oriens-lacunosum/moleculare hippocampal interneurons
Vladislav Sekulić, Frances K. Skinner
F2 Kernel methods in reconstruction of current sources from extracellular potentials for single cells and the whole brains
Daniel K. Wójcik, Chaitanya Chintaluri, Dorottya Cserpán, Zoltán Somogyvári
F3 The synchronized periods depend on intracellular transcriptional repression mechanisms in circadian clocks.
Jae Kyoung Kim, Zachary P. Kilpatrick, Matthew R. Bennett, Kresimir Josić
O1 Assessing irregularity and coordination of spiking-bursting rhythms in central pattern generators
Irene Elices, David Arroyo, Rafael Levi, Francisco B. Rodriguez, Pablo Varona
O2 Regulation of top-down processing by cortically-projecting parvalbumin positive neurons in basal forebrain
Eunjin Hwang, Bowon Kim, Hio-Been Han, Tae Kim, James T. McKenna, Ritchie E. Brown, Robert W. McCarley, Jee Hyun Choi
O3 Modeling auditory stream segregation, build-up and bistability
James Rankin, Pamela Osborn Popp, John Rinzel
O4 Strong competition between tonotopic neural ensembles explains pitch-related dynamics of auditory cortex evoked fields
Alejandro Tabas, André Rupp, Emili Balaguer-Ballester
O5 A simple model of retinal response to multi-electrode stimulation
Matias I. Maturana, David B. Grayden, Shaun L. Cloherty, Tatiana Kameneva, Michael R. Ibbotson, Hamish Meffin
O6 Noise correlations in V4 area correlate with behavioral performance in visual discrimination task
Veronika Koren, Timm Lochmann, Valentin Dragoi, Klaus Obermayer
O7 Input-location dependent gain modulation in cerebellar nucleus neurons
Maria Psarrou, Maria Schilstra, Neil Davey, Benjamin Torben-Nielsen, Volker Steuber
O8 Analytic solution of cable energy function for cortical axons and dendrites
Huiwen Ju, Jiao Yu, Michael L. Hines, Liang Chen, Yuguo Yu
O9 C. elegans interactome: interactive visualization of Caenorhabditis elegans worm neuronal network
Jimin Kim, Will Leahy, Eli Shlizerman
O10 Is the model any good? Objective criteria for computational neuroscience model selection
Justas Birgiolas, Richard C. Gerkin, Sharon M. Crook
O11 Cooperation and competition of gamma oscillation mechanisms
Atthaphon Viriyopase, Raoul-Martin Memmesheimer, Stan Gielen
O12 A discrete structure of the brain waves
Yuri Dabaghian, Justin DeVito, Luca Perotti
O13 Direction-specific silencing of the Drosophila gaze stabilization system
Anmo J. Kim, Lisa M. Fenk, Cheng Lyu, Gaby Maimon
O14 What does the fruit fly think about values? A model of olfactory associative learning
Chang Zhao, Yves Widmer, Simon Sprecher,Walter Senn
O15 Effects of ionic diffusion on power spectra of local field potentials (LFP)
Geir Halnes, Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Daniel Keller, Klas H. Pettersen,Ole A. Andreassen, Gaute T. Einevoll
O16 Large-scale cortical models towards understanding relationship between brain structure abnormalities and cognitive deficits
Yasunori Yamada
O17 Spatial coarse-graining the brain: origin of minicolumns
Moira L. Steyn-Ross, D. Alistair Steyn-Ross
O18 Modeling large-scale cortical networks with laminar structure
Jorge F. Mejias, John D. Murray, Henry Kennedy, Xiao-Jing Wang
O19 Information filtering by partial synchronous spikes in a neural population
Alexandra Kruscha, Jan Grewe, Jan Benda, Benjamin Lindner
O20 Decoding context-dependent olfactory valence in Drosophila
Laurent Badel, Kazumi Ohta, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Hokto Kazama
P1 Neural network as a scale-free network: the role of a hub
B. Kahng
P2 Hemodynamic responses to emotions and decisions using near-infrared spectroscopy optical imaging
Nicoladie D. Tam
P3 Phase space analysis of hemodynamic responses to intentional movement directions using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) optical imaging technique
Nicoladie D.Tam, Luca Pollonini, George Zouridakis
P4 Modeling jamming avoidance of weakly electric fish
Jaehyun Soh, DaeEun Kim
P5 Synergy and redundancy of retinal ganglion cells in prediction
Minsu Yoo, S. E. Palmer
P6 A neural field model with a third dimension representing cortical depth
Viviana Culmone, Ingo Bojak
P7 Network analysis of a probabilistic connectivity model of the Xenopus tadpole spinal cord
Andrea Ferrario, Robert Merrison-Hort, Roman Borisyuk
P8 The recognition dynamics in the brain
Chang Sub Kim
P9 Multivariate spike train analysis using a positive definite kernel
Taro Tezuka
P10 Synchronization of burst periods may govern slow brain dynamics during general anesthesia
Pangyu Joo
P11 The ionic basis of heterogeneity affects stochastic synchrony
Young-Ah Rho, Shawn D. Burton, G. Bard Ermentrout, Jaeseung Jeong, Nathaniel N. Urban
P12 Circular statistics of noise in spike trains with a periodic component
Petr Marsalek
P14 Representations of directions in EEG-BCI using Gaussian readouts
Hoon-Hee Kim, Seok-hyun Moon, Do-won Lee, Sung-beom Lee, Ji-yong Lee, Jaeseung Jeong
P15 Action selection and reinforcement learning in basal ganglia during reaching movements
Yaroslav I. Molkov, Khaldoun Hamade, Wondimu Teka, William H. Barnett, Taegyo Kim, Sergey Markin, Ilya A. Rybak
P17 Axon guidance: modeling axonal growth in T-Junction assay
Csaba Forro, Harald Dermutz, László Demkó, János Vörös
P19 Transient cell assembly networks encode persistent spatial memories
Yuri Dabaghian, Andrey Babichev
P20 Theory of population coupling and applications to describe high order correlations in large populations of interacting neurons
Haiping Huang
P21 Design of biologically-realistic simulations for motor control
Sergio Verduzco-Flores
P22 Towards understanding the functional impact of the behavioural variability of neurons
Filipa Dos Santos, Peter Andras
P23 Different oscillatory dynamics underlying gamma entrainment deficits in schizophrenia
Christoph Metzner, Achim Schweikard, Bartosz Zurowski
P24 Memory recall and spike frequency adaptation
James P. Roach, Leonard M. Sander, Michal R. Zochowski
P25 Stability of neural networks and memory consolidation preferentially occur near criticality
Quinton M. Skilling, Nicolette Ognjanovski, Sara J. Aton, Michal Zochowski
P26 Stochastic Oscillation in Self-Organized Critical States of Small Systems: Sensitive Resting State in Neural Systems
Sheng-Jun Wang, Guang Ouyang, Jing Guang, Mingsha Zhang, K. Y. Michael Wong, Changsong Zhou
P27 Neurofield: a C++ library for fast simulation of 2D neural field models
Peter A. Robinson, Paula Sanz-Leon, Peter M. Drysdale, Felix Fung, Romesh G. Abeysuriya, Chris J. Rennie, Xuelong Zhao
P28 Action-based grounding: Beyond encoding/decoding in neural code
Yoonsuck Choe, Huei-Fang Yang
P29 Neural computation in a dynamical system with multiple time scales
Yuanyuan Mi, Xiaohan Lin, Si Wu
P30 Maximum entropy models for 3D layouts of orientation selectivity
Joscha Liedtke, Manuel Schottdorf, Fred Wolf
P31 A behavioral assay for probing computations underlying curiosity in rodents
Yoriko Yamamura, Jeffery R. Wickens
P32 Using statistical sampling to balance error function contributions to optimization of conductance-based models
Timothy Rumbell, Julia Ramsey, Amy Reyes, Danel Draguljić, Patrick R. Hof, Jennifer Luebke, Christina M. Weaver
P33 Exploration and implementation of a self-growing and self-organizing neuron network building algorithm
Hu He, Xu Yang, Hailin Ma, Zhiheng Xu, Yuzhe Wang
P34 Disrupted resting state brain network in obese subjects: a data-driven graph theory analysis
Kwangyeol Baek, Laurel S. Morris, Prantik Kundu, Valerie Voon
P35 Dynamics of cooperative excitatory and inhibitory plasticity
Everton J. Agnes, Tim P. Vogels
P36 Frequency-dependent oscillatory signal gating in feed-forward networks of integrate-and-fire neurons
William F. Podlaski, Tim P. Vogels
P37 Phenomenological neural model for adaptation of neurons in area IT
Martin Giese, Pradeep Kuravi, Rufin Vogels
P38 ICGenealogy: towards a common topology of neuronal ion channel function and genealogy in model and experiment
Alexander Seeholzer, William Podlaski, Rajnish Ranjan, Tim Vogels
P39 Temporal input discrimination from the interaction between dynamic synapses and neural subthreshold oscillations
Joaquin J. Torres, Fabiano Baroni, Roberto Latorre, Pablo Varona
P40 Different roles for transient and sustained activity during active visual processing
Bart Gips, Eric Lowet, Mark J. Roberts, Peter de Weerd, Ole Jensen, Jan van der Eerden
P41 Scale-free functional networks of 2D Ising model are highly robust against structural defects: neuroscience implications
Abdorreza Goodarzinick, Mohammad D. Niry, Alireza Valizadeh
P42 High frequency neuron can facilitate propagation of signal in neural networks
Aref Pariz, Shervin S. Parsi, Alireza Valizadeh
P43 Investigating the effect of Alzheimer’s disease related amyloidopathy on gamma oscillations in the CA1 region of the hippocampus
Julia M. Warburton, Lucia Marucci, Francesco Tamagnini, Jon Brown, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova
P44 Long-tailed distributions of inhibitory and excitatory weights in a balanced network with eSTDP and iSTDP
Florence I. Kleberg, Jochen Triesch
P45 Simulation of EMG recording from hand muscle due to TMS of motor cortex
Bahar Moezzi, Nicolangelo Iannella, Natalie Schaworonkow, Lukas Plogmacher, Mitchell R. Goldsworthy, Brenton Hordacre, Mark D. McDonnell, Michael C. Ridding, Jochen Triesch
P46 Structure and dynamics of axon network formed in primary cell culture
Martin Zapotocky, Daniel Smit, Coralie Fouquet, Alain Trembleau
P47 Efficient signal processing and sampling in random networks that generate variability
Sakyasingha Dasgupta, Isao Nishikawa, Kazuyuki Aihara, Taro Toyoizumi
P48 Modeling the effect of riluzole on bursting in respiratory neural networks
Daniel T. Robb, Nick Mellen, Natalia Toporikova
P49 Mapping relaxation training using effective connectivity analysis
Rongxiang Tang, Yi-Yuan Tang
P50 Modeling neuron oscillation of implicit sequence learning
Guangsheng Liang, Seth A. Kiser, James H. Howard, Jr., Yi-Yuan Tang
P51 The role of cerebellar short-term synaptic plasticity in the pathology and medication of downbeat nystagmus
Julia Goncharenko, Neil Davey, Maria Schilstra, Volker Steuber
P52 Nonlinear response of noisy neurons
Sergej O. Voronenko, Benjamin Lindner
P53 Behavioral embedding suggests multiple chaotic dimensions underlie C. elegans locomotion
Tosif Ahamed, Greg Stephens
P54 Fast and scalable spike sorting for large and dense multi-electrodes recordings
Pierre Yger, Baptiste Lefebvre, Giulia Lia Beatrice Spampinato, Elric Esposito, Marcel Stimberg et Olivier Marre
P55 Sufficient sampling rates for fast hand motion tracking
Hansol Choi, Min-Ho Song
P56 Linear readout of object manifolds
SueYeon Chung, Dan D. Lee, Haim Sompolinsky
P57 Differentiating models of intrinsic bursting and rhythm generation of the respiratory pre-Bötzinger complex using phase response curves
Ryan S. Phillips, Jeffrey Smith
P58 The effect of inhibitory cell network interactions during theta rhythms on extracellular field potentials in CA1 hippocampus
Alexandra Pierri Chatzikalymniou, Katie Ferguson, Frances K. Skinner
P59 Expansion recoding through sparse sampling in the cerebellar input layer speeds learning
N. Alex Cayco Gajic, Claudia Clopath, R. Angus Silver
P60 A set of curated cortical models at multiple scales on Open Source Brain
Padraig Gleeson, Boris Marin, Sadra Sadeh, Adrian Quintana, Matteo Cantarelli, Salvador Dura-Bernal, William W. Lytton, Andrew Davison, R. Angus Silver
P61 A synaptic story of dynamical information encoding in neural adaptation
Luozheng Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yuanyuan Mi, Dahui Wang, Si Wu
P62 Physical modeling of rule-observant rodent behavior
Youngjo Song, Sol Park, Ilhwan Choi, Jaeseung Jeong, Hee-sup Shin
P64 Predictive coding in area V4 and prefrontal cortex explains dynamic discrimination of partially occluded shapes
Hannah Choi, Anitha Pasupathy, Eric Shea-Brown
P65 Stability of FORCE learning on spiking and rate-based networks
Dongsung Huh, Terrence J. Sejnowski
P66 Stabilising STDP in striatal neurons for reliable fast state recognition in noisy environments
Simon M. Vogt, Arvind Kumar, Robert Schmidt
P67 Electrodiffusion in one- and two-compartment neuron models for characterizing cellular effects of electrical stimulation
Stephen Van Wert, Steven J. Schiff
P68 STDP improves speech recognition capabilities in spiking recurrent circuits parameterized via differential evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo
Richard Veale, Matthias Scheutz
P69 Bidirectional transformation between dominant cortical neural activities and phase difference distributions
Sang Wan Lee
P70 Maturation of sensory networks through homeostatic structural plasticity
Júlia Gallinaro, Stefan Rotter
P71 Corticothalamic dynamics: structure, number of solutions and stability of steady-state solutions in the space of synaptic couplings
Paula Sanz-Leon, Peter A. Robinson
P72 Optogenetic versus electrical stimulation of the parkinsonian basal ganglia. Computational study
Leonid L. Rubchinsky, Chung Ching Cheung, Shivakeshavan Ratnadurai-Giridharan
P73 Exact spike-timing distribution reveals higher-order interactions of neurons
Safura Rashid Shomali, Majid Nili Ahmadabadi, Hideaki Shimazaki, S. Nader Rasuli
P74 Neural mechanism of visual perceptual learning using a multi-layered neural network
Xiaochen Zhao, Malte J. Rasch
P75 Inferring collective spiking dynamics from mostly unobserved systems
Jens Wilting, Viola Priesemann
P76 How to infer distributions in the brain from subsampled observations
Anna Levina, Viola Priesemann
P77 Influences of embedding and estimation strategies on the inferred memory of single spiking neurons
Lucas Rudelt, Joseph T. Lizier, Viola Priesemann
P78 A nearest-neighbours based estimator for transfer entropy between spike trains
Joseph T. Lizier, Richard E. Spinney, Mikail Rubinov, Michael Wibral, Viola Priesemann
P79 Active learning of psychometric functions with multinomial logistic models
Ji Hyun Bak, Jonathan Pillow
P81 Inferring low-dimensional network dynamics with variational latent Gaussian process
Yuan Zaho, Il Memming Park
P82 Computational investigation of energy landscapes in the resting state subcortical brain network
Jiyoung Kang, Hae-Jeong Park
P83 Local repulsive interaction between retinal ganglion cells can generate a consistent spatial periodicity of orientation map
Jaeson Jang, Se-Bum Paik
P84 Phase duration of bistable perception reveals intrinsic time scale of perceptual decision under noisy condition
Woochul Choi, Se-Bum Paik
P85 Feedforward convergence between retina and primary visual cortex can determine the structure of orientation map
Changju Lee, Jaeson Jang, Se-Bum Paik
P86 Computational method classifying neural network activity patterns for imaging data
Min Song, Hyeonsu Lee, Se-Bum Paik
P87 Symmetry of spike-timing-dependent-plasticity kernels regulates volatility of memory
Youngjin Park, Woochul Choi, Se-Bum Paik
P88 Effects of time-periodic coupling strength on the first-spike latency dynamics of a scale-free network of stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons
Ergin Yilmaz, Veli Baysal, Mahmut Ozer
P89 Spectral properties of spiking responses in V1 and V4 change within the trial and are highly relevant for behavioral performance
Veronika Koren, Klaus Obermayer
P90 Methods for building accurate models of individual neurons
Daniel Saska, Thomas Nowotny
P91 A full size mathematical model of the early olfactory system of honeybees
Ho Ka Chan, Alan Diamond, Thomas Nowotny
P92 Stimulation-induced tuning of ongoing oscillations in spiking neural networks
Christoph S. Herrmann, Micah M. Murray, Silvio Ionta, Axel Hutt, Jérémie Lefebvre
P93 Decision-specific sequences of neural activity in balanced random networks driven by structured sensory input
Philipp Weidel, Renato Duarte, Abigail Morrison
P94 Modulation of tuning induced by abrupt reduction of SST cell activity
Jung H. Lee, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Stefan Mihalas
P95 The functional role of VIP cell activation during locomotion
Jung H. Lee, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Christof Koch, Stefan Mihalas
P96 Stochastic inference with spiking neural networks
Mihai A. Petrovici, Luziwei Leng, Oliver Breitwieser, David Stöckel, Ilja Bytschok, Roman Martel, Johannes Bill, Johannes Schemmel, Karlheinz Meier
P97 Modeling orientation-selective electrical stimulation with retinal prostheses
Timothy B. Esler, Anthony N. Burkitt, David B. Grayden, Robert R. Kerr, Bahman Tahayori, Hamish Meffin
P98 Ion channel noise can explain firing correlation in auditory nerves
Bahar Moezzi, Nicolangelo Iannella, Mark D. McDonnell
P99 Limits of temporal encoding of thalamocortical inputs in a neocortical microcircuit
Max Nolte, Michael W. Reimann, Eilif Muller, Henry Markram
P100 On the representation of arm reaching movements: a computational model
Antonio Parziale, Rosa Senatore, Angelo Marcelli
P101 A computational model for investigating the role of cerebellum in acquisition and retention of motor behavior
Rosa Senatore, Antonio Parziale, Angelo Marcelli
P102 The emergence of semantic categories from a large-scale brain network of semantic knowledge
K. Skiker, M. Maouene
P103 Multiscale modeling of M1 multitarget pharmacotherapy for dystonia
Samuel A. Neymotin, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Alexandra Seidenstein, Peter Lakatos, Terence D. Sanger, William W. Lytton
P104 Effect of network size on computational capacity
Salvador Dura-Bernal, Rosemary J. Menzies, Campbell McLauchlan, Sacha J. van Albada, David J. Kedziora, Samuel Neymotin, William W. Lytton, Cliff C. Kerr
P105 NetPyNE: a Python package for NEURON to facilitate development and parallel simulation of biological neuronal networks
Salvador Dura-Bernal, Benjamin A. Suter, Samuel A. Neymotin, Cliff C. Kerr, Adrian Quintana, Padraig Gleeson, Gordon M. G. Shepherd, William W. Lytton
P107 Inter-areal and inter-regional inhomogeneity in co-axial anisotropy of Cortical Point Spread in human visual areas
Juhyoung Ryu, Sang-Hun Lee
P108 Two bayesian quanta of uncertainty explain the temporal dynamics of cortical activity in the non-sensory areas during bistable perception
Joonwon Lee, Sang-Hun Lee
P109 Optimal and suboptimal integration of sensory and value information in perceptual decision making
Hyang Jung Lee, Sang-Hun Lee
P110 A Bayesian algorithm for phoneme Perception and its neural implementation
Daeseob Lim, Sang-Hun Lee
P111 Complexity of EEG signals is reduced during unconsciousness induced by ketamine and propofol
Jisung Wang, Heonsoo Lee
P112 Self-organized criticality of neural avalanche in a neural model on complex networks
Nam Jung, Le Anh Quang, Seung Eun Maeng, Tae Ho Lee, Jae Woo Lee
P113 Dynamic alterations in connection topology of the hippocampal network during ictal-like epileptiform activity in an in vitro rat model
Chang-hyun Park, Sora Ahn, Jangsup Moon, Yun Seo Choi, Juhee Kim, Sang Beom Jun, Seungjun Lee, Hyang Woon Lee
P114 Computational model to replicate seizure suppression effect by electrical stimulation
Sora Ahn, Sumin Jo, Eunji Jun, Suin Yu, Hyang Woon Lee, Sang Beom Jun, Seungjun Lee
P115 Identifying excitatory and inhibitory synapses in neuronal networks from spike trains using sorted local transfer entropy
Felix Goetze, Pik-Yin Lai
P116 Neural network model for obstacle avoidance based on neuromorphic computational model of boundary vector cell and head direction cell
Seonghyun Kim, Jeehyun Kwag
P117 Dynamic gating of spike pattern propagation by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian spike timing-dependent plasticity in excitatory feedforward network model
Hyun Jae Jang, Jeehyun Kwag
P118 Inferring characteristics of input correlations of cells exhibiting up-down state transitions in the rat striatum
Marko Filipović, Ramon Reig, Ad Aertsen, Gilad Silberberg, Arvind Kumar
P119 Graph properties of the functional connected brain under the influence of Alzheimer’s disease
Claudia Bachmann, Simone Buttler, Heidi Jacobs, Kim Dillen, Gereon R. Fink, Juraj Kukolja, Abigail Morrison
P120 Learning sparse representations in the olfactory bulb
Daniel Kepple, Hamza Giaffar, Dima Rinberg, Steven Shea, Alex Koulakov
P121 Functional classification of homologous basal-ganglia networks
Jyotika Bahuguna,Tom Tetzlaff, Abigail Morrison, Arvind Kumar, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
P122 Short term memory based on multistability
Tim Kunze, Andre Peterson, Thomas Knösche
P123 A physiologically plausible, computationally efficient model and simulation software for mammalian motor units
Minjung Kim, Hojeong Kim
P125 Decoding laser-induced somatosensory information from EEG
Ji Sung Park, Ji Won Yeon, Sung-Phil Kim
P126 Phase synchronization of alpha activity for EEG-based personal authentication
Jae-Hwan Kang, Chungho Lee, Sung-Phil Kim
P129 Investigating phase-lags in sEEG data using spatially distributed time delays in a large-scale brain network model
Andreas Spiegler, Spase Petkoski, Matias J. Palva, Viktor K. Jirsa
P130 Epileptic seizures in the unfolding of a codimension-3 singularity
Maria L. Saggio, Silvan F. Siep, Andreas Spiegler, William C. Stacey, Christophe Bernard, Viktor K. Jirsa
P131 Incremental dimensional exploratory reasoning under multi-dimensional environment
Oh-hyeon Choung, Yong Jeong
P132 A low-cost model of eye movements and memory in personal visual cognition
Yong-il Lee, Jaeseung Jeong
P133 Complex network analysis of structural connectome of autism spectrum disorder patients
Su Hyun Kim, Mir Jeong, Jaeseung Jeong
P134 Cognitive motives and the neural correlates underlying human social information transmission, gossip
Jeungmin Lee, Jaehyung Kwon, Jerald D. Kralik, Jaeseung Jeong
P135 EEG hyperscanning detects neural oscillation for the social interaction during the economic decision-making
Jaehwan Jahng, Dong-Uk Hwang, Jaeseung Jeong
P136 Detecting purchase decision based on hyperfrontality of the EEG
Jae-Hyung Kwon, Sang-Min Park, Jaeseung Jeong
P137 Vulnerability-based critical neurons, synapses, and pathways in the Caenorhabditis elegans connectome
Seongkyun Kim, Hyoungkyu Kim, Jerald D. Kralik, Jaeseung Jeong
P138 Motif analysis reveals functionally asymmetrical neurons in C. elegans
Pyeong Soo Kim, Seongkyun Kim, Hyoungkyu Kim, Jaeseung Jeong
P139 Computational approach to preference-based serial decision dynamics: do temporal discounting and working memory affect it?
Sangsup Yoon, Jaehyung Kwon, Sewoong Lim, Jaeseung Jeong
P141 Social stress induced neural network reconfiguration affects decision making and learning in zebrafish
Choongseok Park, Thomas Miller, Katie Clements, Sungwoo Ahn, Eoon Hye Ji, Fadi A. Issa
P142 Descriptive, generative, and hybrid approaches for neural connectivity inference from neural activity data
JeongHun Baek, Shigeyuki Oba, Junichiro Yoshimoto, Kenji Doya, Shin Ishii
P145 Divergent-convergent synaptic connectivities accelerate coding in multilayered sensory systems
Thiago S. Mosqueiro, Martin F. Strube-Bloss, Brian Smith, Ramon Huerta
P146 Swinging networks
Michal Hadrava, Jaroslav Hlinka
P147 Inferring dynamically relevant motifs from oscillatory stimuli: challenges, pitfalls, and solutions
Hannah Bos, Moritz Helias
P148 Spatiotemporal mapping of brain network dynamics during cognitive tasks using magnetoencephalography and deep learning
Charles M. Welzig, Zachary J. Harper
P149 Multiscale complexity analysis for the segmentation of MRI images
Won Sup Kim, In-Seob Shin, Hyeon-Man Baek, Seung Kee Han
P150 A neuro-computational model of emotional attention
René Richter, Julien Vitay, Frederick Beuth, Fred H. Hamker
P151 Multi-site delayed feedback stimulation in parkinsonian networks
Kelly Toppin, Yixin Guo
P152 Bistability in Hodgkin–Huxley-type equations
Tatiana Kameneva, Hamish Meffin, Anthony N. Burkitt, David B. Grayden
P153 Phase changes in postsynaptic spiking due to synaptic connectivity and short term plasticity: mathematical analysis of frequency dependency
Mark D. McDonnell, Bruce P. Graham
P154 Quantifying resilience patterns in brain networks: the importance of directionality
Penelope J. Kale, Leonardo L. Gollo
P155 Dynamics of rate-model networks with separate excitatory and inhibitory populations
Merav Stern, L. F. Abbott
P156 A model for multi-stable dynamics in action recognition modulated by integration of silhouette and shading cues
Leonid A. Fedorov, Martin A. Giese
P157 Spiking model for the interaction between action recognition and action execution
Mohammad Hovaidi Ardestani, Martin Giese
P158 Surprise-modulated belief update: how to learn within changing environments?
Mohammad Javad Faraji, Kerstin Preuschoff, Wulfram Gerstner
P159 A fast, stochastic and adaptive model of auditory nerve responses to cochlear implant stimulation
Margriet J. van Gendt, Jeroen J. Briaire, Randy K. Kalkman, Johan H. M. Frijns
P160 Quantitative comparison of graph theoretical measures of simulated and empirical functional brain networks
Won Hee Lee, Sophia Frangou
P161 Determining discriminative properties of fMRI signals in schizophrenia using highly comparative time-series analysis
Ben D. Fulcher, Patricia H. P. Tran, Alex Fornito
P162 Emergence of narrowband LFP oscillations from completely asynchronous activity during seizures and high-frequency oscillations
Stephen V. Gliske, William C. Stacey, Eugene Lim, Katherine A. Holman, Christian G. Fink
P163 Neuronal diversity in structure and function: cross-validation of anatomical and physiological classification of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse
Jinseop S. Kim, Shang Mu, Kevin L. Briggman, H. Sebastian Seung, the EyeWirers
P164 Analysis and modelling of transient firing rate changes in area MT in response to rapid stimulus feature changes
Detlef Wegener, Lisa Bohnenkamp, Udo A. Ernst
P165 Step-wise model fitting accounting for high-resolution spatial measurements: construction of a layer V pyramidal cell model with reduced morphology
Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Geir Halnes, Anna Devor, Christoph Metzner, Anders M. Dale, Ole A. Andreassen, Gaute T. Einevoll
P166 Contributions of schizophrenia-associated genes to neuron firing and cardiac pacemaking: a polygenic modeling approach
Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Glenn T. Lines, Andy Edwards, Aslak Tveito, Anders M. Dale, Gaute T. Einevoll, Ole A. Andreassen
P167 Local field potentials in a 4 × 4 mm2 multi-layered network model
Espen Hagen, Johanna Senk, Sacha J. van Albada, Markus Diesmann
P168 A spiking network model explains multi-scale properties of cortical dynamics
Maximilian Schmidt, Rembrandt Bakker, Kelly Shen, Gleb Bezgin, Claus-Christian Hilgetag, Markus Diesmann, Sacha Jennifer van Albada
P169 Using joint weight-delay spike-timing dependent plasticity to find polychronous neuronal groups
Haoqi Sun, Olga Sourina, Guang-Bin Huang, Felix Klanner, Cornelia Denk
P170 Tensor decomposition reveals RSNs in simulated resting state fMRI
Katharina Glomb, Adrián Ponce-Alvarez, Matthieu Gilson, Petra Ritter, Gustavo Deco
P171 Getting in the groove: testing a new model-based method for comparing task-evoked vs resting-state activity in fMRI data on music listening
Matthieu Gilson, Maria AG Witek, Eric F. Clarke, Mads Hansen, Mikkel Wallentin, Gustavo Deco, Morten L. Kringelbach, Peter Vuust
P172 STochastic engine for pathway simulation (STEPS) on massively parallel processors
Guido Klingbeil, Erik De Schutter
P173 Toolkit support for complex parallel spatial stochastic reaction–diffusion simulation in STEPS
Weiliang Chen, Erik De Schutter
P174 Modeling the generation and propagation of Purkinje cell dendritic spikes caused by parallel fiber synaptic input
Yunliang Zang, Erik De Schutter
P175 Dendritic morphology determines how dendrites are organized into functional subunits
Sungho Hong, Akira Takashima, Erik De Schutter
P176 A model of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity in long term depression at Purkinje cells
Criseida Zamora, Andrew R. Gallimore, Erik De Schutter
P177 Reward-modulated learning of population-encoded vectors for insect-like navigation in embodied agents
Dennis Goldschmidt, Poramate Manoonpong, Sakyasingha Dasgupta
P178 Data-driven neural models part II: connectivity patterns of human seizures
Philippa J. Karoly, Dean R. Freestone, Daniel Soundry, Levin Kuhlmann, Liam Paninski, Mark Cook
P179 Data-driven neural models part I: state and parameter estimation
Dean R. Freestone, Philippa J. Karoly, Daniel Soundry, Levin Kuhlmann, Mark Cook
P180 Spectral and spatial information processing in human auditory streaming
Jaejin Lee, Yonatan I. Fishman, Yale E. Cohen
P181 A tuning curve for the global effects of local perturbations in neural activity: Mapping the systems-level susceptibility of the brain
Leonardo L. Gollo, James A. Roberts, Luca Cocchi
P182 Diverse homeostatic responses to visual deprivation mediated by neural ensembles
Yann Sweeney, Claudia Clopath
P183 Opto-EEG: a novel method for investigating functional connectome in mouse brain based on optogenetics and high density electroencephalography
Soohyun Lee, Woo-Sung Jung, Jee Hyun Choi
P184 Biphasic responses of frontal gamma network to repetitive sleep deprivation during REM sleep
Bowon Kim, Youngsoo Kim, Eunjin Hwang, Jee Hyun Choi
P185 Brain-state correlate and cortical connectivity for frontal gamma oscillations in top-down fashion assessed by auditory steady-state response
Younginha Jung, Eunjin Hwang, Yoon-Kyu Song, Jee Hyun Choi
P186 Neural field model of localized orientation selective activation in V1
James Rankin, Frédéric Chavane
P187 An oscillatory network model of Head direction and Grid cells using locomotor inputs
Karthik Soman, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy
P188 A computational model of hippocampus inspired by the functional architecture of basal ganglia
Karthik Soman, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy
P189 A computational architecture to model the microanatomy of the striatum and its functional properties
Sabyasachi Shivkumar, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy
P190 A scalable cortico-basal ganglia model to understand the neural dynamics of targeted reaching
Vignesh Muralidharan, Alekhya Mandali, B. Pragathi Priyadharsini, Hima Mehta, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy
P191 Emergence of radial orientation selectivity from synaptic plasticity
Catherine E. Davey, David B. Grayden, Anthony N. Burkitt
P192 How do hidden units shape effective connections between neurons?
Braden A. W. Brinkman, Tyler Kekona, Fred Rieke, Eric Shea-Brown, Michael Buice
P193 Characterization of neural firing in the presence of astrocyte-synapse signaling
Maurizio De Pittà, Hugues Berry, Nicolas Brunel
P194 Metastability of spatiotemporal patterns in a large-scale network model of brain dynamics
James A. Roberts, Leonardo L. Gollo, Michael Breakspear
P195 Comparison of three methods to quantify detection and discrimination capacity estimated from neural population recordings
Gary Marsat, Jordan Drew, Phillip D. Chapman, Kevin C. Daly, Samual P. Bradley
P196 Quantifying the constraints for independent evoked and spontaneous NMDA receptor mediated synaptic transmission at individual synapses
Sat Byul Seo, Jianzhong Su, Ege T. Kavalali, Justin Blackwell
P199 Gamma oscillation via adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neurons
LieJune Shiau, Laure Buhry, Kanishka Basnayake
P200 Visual face representations during memory retrieval compared to perception
Sue-Hyun Lee, Brandon A. Levy, Chris I. Baker
P201 Top-down modulation of sequential activity within packets modeled using avalanche dynamics
Timothée Leleu, Kazuyuki Aihara
Q28 An auto-encoder network realizes sparse features under the influence of desynchronized vascular dynamics
Ryan T. Philips, Karishma Chhabria, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy
PMCID: PMC5001212  PMID: 27534393
10.  Body MR Imaging: Artifacts, k-Space, and Solutions 
Radiographics  2015;35(5):1439-1460.
Common artifacts in body MR imaging are presented by using basic MR physics principles, and solutions are proposed when possible, with recognition of the trade-offs and limitations inherent in each potential solution.
Body magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is challenging because of the complex interaction of multiple factors, including motion arising from respiration and bowel peristalsis, susceptibility effects secondary to bowel gas, and the need to cover a large field of view. The combination of these factors makes body MR imaging more prone to artifacts, compared with imaging of other anatomic regions. Understanding the basic MR physics underlying artifacts is crucial to recognizing the trade-offs involved in mitigating artifacts and improving image quality. Artifacts can be classified into three main groups: (a) artifacts related to magnetic field imperfections, including the static magnetic field, the radiofrequency (RF) field, and gradient fields; (b) artifacts related to motion; and (c) artifacts arising from methods used to sample the MR signal. Static magnetic field homogeneity is essential for many MR techniques, such as fat saturation and balanced steady-state free precession. Susceptibility effects become more pronounced at higher field strengths and can be ameliorated by using spin-echo sequences when possible, increasing the receiver bandwidth, and aligning the phase-encoding gradient with the strongest susceptibility gradients, among other strategies. Nonuniformities in the RF transmit field, including dielectric effects, can be minimized by applying dielectric pads or imaging at lower field strength. Motion artifacts can be overcome through respiratory synchronization, alternative k-space sampling schemes, and parallel imaging. Aliasing and truncation artifacts derive from limitations in digital sampling of the MR signal and can be rectified by adjusting the sampling parameters. Understanding the causes of artifacts and their possible solutions will enable practitioners of body MR imaging to meet the challenges of novel pulse sequence design, parallel imaging, and increasing field strength.
©RSNA, 2015
PMCID: PMC4613875  PMID: 26207581
11.  Functional investigations on human mesenchymal stem cells exposed to magnetic fields and labeled with clinically approved iron nanoparticles 
BMC Cell Biology  2010;11:22.
For clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), labeling and tracking is crucial to evaluate cell distribution and homing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been successfully established detecting MSCs labeled with superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO). Despite initial reports that labeling of MSCs with SPIO is safe without affecting the MSC's biology, recent studies report on influences of SPIO-labeling on metabolism and function of MSCs. Exposition of cells and tissues to high magnetic fields is the functional principle of MRI. In this study we established innovative labeling protocols for human MSCs using clinically established SPIO in combination with magnetic fields and investigated on functional effects (migration assays, quantification of colony forming units, analyses of gene and protein expression and analyses on the proliferation capacity, the viability and the differentiation potential) of magnetic fields on unlabeled and labeled human MSCs. To evaluate the imaging properties, quantification of the total iron load per cell (TIL), electron microscopy, and MRI at 3.0 T were performed.
Human MSCs labeled with SPIO permanently exposed to magnetic fields arranged and grew according to the magnetic flux lines. Exposure of MSCs to magnetic fields after labeling with SPIO significantly enhanced the TIL compared to SPIO labeled MSCs without exposure to magnetic fields resulting in optimized imaging properties (detection limit: 1,000 MSCs). Concerning the TIL and the imaging properties, immediate exposition to magnetic fields after labeling was superior to exposition after 24 h. On functional level, exposition to magnetic fields inhibited the ability of colony formation of labeled MSCs and led to an enhanced expression of lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in labeled MSCs under adipogenic differentiation, and to a reduced expression of alkaline phosphatase in unlabeled MSCs under osteogenic differentiation as detected by qRT-PCR. Moreover, microarray analyses revealed that exposition of labeled MSCs to magnetic fields led to an up regulation of CD93 mRNA and cadherin 7 mRNA and to a down regulation of Zinc finger FYVE domain mRNA. Exposition of unlabeled MSCs to magnetic fields led to an up regulation of CD93 mRNA, lipocalin 6 mRNA, sialic acid acetylesterase mRNA, and olfactory receptor mRNA and to a down regulation of ubiquilin 1 mRNA. No influence of the exposition to magnetic fields could be observed on the migration capacity, the viability, the proliferation rate and the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of labeled or unlabeled MSCs.
In our study an innovative labeling protocol for tracking MSCs by MRI using SPIO in combination with magnetic fields was established. Both, SPIO and the static magnetic field were identified as independent factors which affect the functional biology of human MSCs. Further in vivo investigations are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of magnetic fields with stem cell biology.
PMCID: PMC2871263  PMID: 20370915
12.  Growth of etiolated barley plants in weak static and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields tuned to calcium ion cyclotron resonance 
The effects of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields in biology have been intensively studied on animals, microorganisms and humans, but comparably less on plants. Perception mechanisms were attributed originally to ferrimagnetism, but later discoveries required additional explanations like the "radical pair mechanism" and the "Ion cyclotron resonance" (ICR), primarily considered by Liboff. The latter predicts effects by small ions involved in biological processes, that occur in definite frequency- and intensity ranges ("windows") of simultaneously impacting magnetic and electromagnetic fields related by a linear equation, which meanwhile is proven by a number of in vivo and in vitro experiments.
Barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare, L. var. Steffi) were grown in the dark for 5 and 6 days under static magnetic and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields matching the ICR conditions of Ca2+. Control cultures were grown under normal geomagnetic conditions, not matching this ICR. Morphology, pigmentation and long-term development of the adult plants were subsequently investigated.
The shoots of plants exposed to Ca2+-ICR exposed grew 15–20% shorter compared to the controls, the plant weight was 10–12% lower, and they had longer coleoptiles that were adhering stronger to the primary leaf tissue. The total pigment contents of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) and carotenoids were significantly decreased. The rate of PChlide regeneration after light irradiation was reduced for the Ca2+-ICR exposed plants, also the Shibata shift was slightly delayed. Even a longer subsequent natural growing phase without any additional fields could only partially eliminate these effects: the plants initially exposed to Ca2+-ICR were still significantly shorter and had a lower chlorophyll (a+b) content compared to the controls. A continued cultivation and observation of the adult plants under natural conditions without any artificial electromagnetic fields showed a retardation of the originally Ca2+-ICR exposed plants compared to control cultures lasting several weeks, with an increased tendency for dehydration.
A direct influence of the applied MF and EMF is discussed affecting Ca2+ levels via the ICR mechanism. It influences the available Ca2+ and thereby regulatory processes. Theoretical considerations on molecular level focus on ionic interactions with water related to models using quantum electrodynamics.
PMCID: PMC1403775  PMID: 16457719
13.  Lifetime of Ionic Vacancy Created in Redox Electrode Reaction Measured by Cyclotron MHD Electrode 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:19795.
The lifetimes of ionic vacancies created in ferricyanide-ferrocyanide redox reaction have been first measured by means of cyclotron magnetohydrodynamic electrode, which is composed of coaxial cylinders partly exposed as electrodes and placed vertically in an electrolytic solution under a vertical magnetic field, so that induced Lorentz force makes ionic vacancies circulate together with the solution along the circumferences. At low magnetic fields, due to low velocities, ionic vacancies once created become extinct on the way of returning, whereas at high magnetic fields, in enhanced velocities, they can come back to their initial birthplaces. Detecting the difference between these two states, we can measure the lifetime of ionic vacancy. As a result, the lifetimes of ionic vacancies created in the oxidation and reduction are the same, and the intrinsic lifetime is 1.25 s, and the formation time of nanobubble from the collision of ionic vacancies is 6.5 ms.
PMCID: PMC4726188  PMID: 26791269
14.  Superparamagnetic Nanoparticle Clusters for Cancer Theranostics Combining Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Hyperthermia Treatment 
Theranostics  2013;3(6):366-376.
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs) could enable cancer theranostics if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic hyperthermia treatment (MHT) were combined. However, the particle size of SPIONs is smaller than the pores of fenestrated capillaries in normal tissues because superparamagnetism is expressed only at a particle size <10 nm. Therefore, SPIONs leak from the capillaries of normal tissues, resulting in low accumulation in tumors. Furthermore, MHT studies have been conducted in an impractical way: direct injection of magnetic materials into tumor and application of hazardous alternating current (AC) magnetic fields. To accomplish effective enhancement of MRI contrast agents in tumors and inhibition of tumor growth by MHT with intravenous injection and a safe AC magnetic field, we clustered SPIONs not only to prevent their leakage from fenestrated capillaries in normal tissues, but also for increasing their relaxivity and the specific absorption rate. We modified the clusters with folic acid (FA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to promote their accumulation in tumors. SPION clustering and cluster modification with FA and PEG were achieved simultaneously via the thiol-ene click reaction. Twenty-four hours after intravenous injection of FA- and PEG-modified SPION nanoclusters (FA-PEG-SPION NCs), they accumulated locally in cancer (not necrotic) tissues within the tumor and enhanced the MRI contrast. Furthermore, 24 h after intravenous injection of the NCs, the mice were placed in an AC magnetic field with H = 8 kA/m and f = 230 kHz (Hf = 1.8×109 A/m∙s) for 20 min. The tumors of the mice underwent local heating by application of an AC magnetic field. The temperature of the tumor was higher than the surrounding tissues by ≈6°C at 20 min after treatment. Thirty-five days after treatment, the tumor volume of treated mice was one-tenth that of the control mice. Furthermore, the treated mice were alive after 12 weeks; control mice died up to 8 weeks after treatment.
PMCID: PMC3677408  PMID: 23781284
theranostics; nanomedicine; iron oxide; MRI; hyperthermia; tumor.
15.  Spin-Dependent Transport through Chiral Molecules Studied by Spin-Dependent Electrochemistry 
Accounts of Chemical Research  2016;49(11):2560-2568.
Molecular spintronics (spin + electronics), which aims to exploit both the spin degree of freedom and the electron charge in molecular devices, has recently received massive attention. Our recent experiments on molecular spintronics employ chiral molecules which have the unexpected property of acting as spin filters, by way of an effect we call “chiral-induced spin selectivity” (CISS). In this Account, we discuss new types of spin-dependent electrochemistry measurements and their use to probe the spin-dependent charge transport properties of nonmagnetic chiral conductive polymers and biomolecules, such as oligopeptides, L/D cysteine, cytochrome c, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and oligopeptide-CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid structures. Spin-dependent electrochemical measurements were carried out by employing ferromagnetic electrodes modified with chiral molecules used as the working electrode. Redox probes were used either in solution or when directly attached to the ferromagnetic electrodes. During the electrochemical measurements, the ferromagnetic electrode was magnetized either with its magnetic moment pointing “UP” or “DOWN” using a permanent magnet (H = 0.5 T), placed underneath the chemically modified ferromagnetic electrodes. The spin polarization of the current was found to be in the range of 5–30%, even in the case of small chiral molecules. Chiral films of the l- and d-cysteine tethered with a redox-active dye, toludin blue O, show spin polarizarion that depends on the chirality. Because the nickel electrodes are susceptible to corrosion, we explored the effect of coating them with a thin gold overlayer. The effect of the gold layer on the spin polarization of the electrons ejected from the electrode was investigated. In addition, the role of the structure of the protein on the spin selective transport was also studied as a function of bias voltage and the effect of protein denaturation was revealed. In addition to “dark” measurements, we also describe photoelectrochemical measurements in which light is used to affect the spin selective electron transport through the chiral molecules. We describe how the excitation of a chromophore (such as CdSe nanoparticles), which is attached to a chiral working electrode, can flip the preferred spin orientation of the photocurrent, when measured under the identical conditions. Thus, chirality-induced spin polarization, when combined with light and magnetic field effects, opens new avenues for the study of the spin transport properties of chiral molecules and biomolecules and for creating new types of spintronic devices in which light and molecular chirality provide new functions and properties.
PMCID: PMC5112609  PMID: 27797176
16.  Static field influences on transcranial magnetic stimulation: Considerations for TMS in the scanner environment 
Brain stimulation  2014;7(3):388-393.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to simultaneously manipulate and monitor human cortical responses. Although tremendous efforts have been directed at characterizing the impact of TMS on image acquisition, the influence of the scanner’s static field on the TMS coil has received limited attention.
The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of the scanner’s static field on TMS. We hypothesized that spatial variations in the static field could account for TMS field variations in the scanner environment.
Using a MRI-compatible TMS coil, we estimated TMS field strengths based on TMS-induced voltage changes measured in a search coil. We compared peak field strengths obtained with the TMS coil positioned at different locations (B0 field vs fringe field) and orientations in the static field. We also measured the scanner’s static field to derive a field map to account for TMS field variations.
TMS field strength scaled depending on coil location and orientation with respect to the static field. Larger TMS field variations were observed in fringe field regions near the gantry as compared to regions inside the bore or further removed from the bore. The scanner’s static field also exhibited the greatest spatial variations in fringe field regions near the gantry.
The scanner’s static field influences TMS fields and spatial variations in the static field correlate with TMS field variations. TMS field variations can be minimized by delivering TMS in the bore or outside of the 0 - 70 cm region from the bore entrance.
PMCID: PMC4011976  PMID: 24656916
17.  Heating in the MRI environment due to superparamagnetic fluid suspensions in a rotating magnetic field 
In the presence of alternating-sinusoidal or rotating magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles will act to realign their magnetic moment with the applied magnetic field. The realignment is characterized by the nanoparticle’s time constant, τ. As the magnetic field frequency is increased, the nanoparticle’s magnetic moment lags the applied magnetic field at a constant angle for a given frequency, Ω, in rad/s. Associated with this misalignment is a power dissipation that increases the bulk magnetic fluid’s temperature which has been utilized as a method of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, particularly suited for cancer in low-perfusion tissue (e.g., breast) where temperature increases of between 4°C and 7°C above the ambient in vivo temperature cause tumor hyperthermia. This work examines the rise in the magnetic fluid’s temperature in the MRI environment which is characterized by a large DC field, B0. Theoretical analysis and simulation is used to predict the effect of both alternating-sinusoidal and rotating magnetic fields transverse to B0. Results are presented for the expected temperature increase in small tumors (~1 cm radius) over an appropriate range of magnetic fluid concentrations (0.002 to 0.01 solid volume fraction) and nanoparticle radii (1 to 10 nm). The results indicate that significant heating can take place, even in low-field MRI systems where magnetic fluid saturation is not significant, with careful selection of the rotating or sinusoidal field parameters (field frequency and amplitude). The work indicates that it may be feasible to combine low-field MRI with a magnetic hyperthermia system using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.
PMCID: PMC2811342  PMID: 20161608
Hyperthermia; magnetic nanoparticles; MRI; heating; superparamagnetic fluids
18.  A novel Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer with improved ion trapping and detection capabilities 
A novel Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer has been developed for improved biomolecule analysis. A flared metal capillary and an electrodynamic ion funnel were installed in the source region of the instrument for improved ion transmission. The transfer quadrupole is divided into 19 segments, with the capacity for independent control of DC voltage biases for each segment. Restrained Ion Population Transfer, or RIPT, is used to transfer ions from the ion accumulation region to the ICR cell. The RIPT ion guide reduces mass discrimination that occurs due to time-of-flight effects associated with gated trapping. Increasing the number of applied DC bias voltages from 8 to 18 increases the number of ions that are effectively trapped in the ICR cell. The RIPT ion guide with a novel voltage profile applied during ion transfer provides a 3-4-fold increase in the number of ions that are trapped in the ICR cell compared to gated trapping for the same ion accumulation time period. A novel ICR cell was incorporated in the instrument to reduce radial electric field variation for ions with different z-axis oscillation amplitudes. With the ICR cell, called Trapping Ring Electrode Cell or TREC, we can tailor the shape of the trapping electric fields to reduce de-phasing of coherent cyclotron motion of an excited ion packet. With TREC, nearly an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity is observed. The performance of the instrument with the combination of RIPT, TREC, flared inlet and ion funnel is presented.
PMCID: PMC2763776  PMID: 19200753
19.  Simulation-Based Validation for Four-Dimensional Multi-Channel Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging 
Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), which has application to the heart and brain, exploits the acoustoelectric (AE) effect and Ohm's law to detect and map an electrical current distribution. In this study, we describe 4-D UCSDI simulations of a dipole field for comparison and validation with bench-top experiments. The simulations consider the properties of the ultrasound pulse as it passes through a conductive medium, the electric field of the injected dipole, and the lead field of the detectors. In the simulation, the lead fields of detectors and electric field of the dipole were calculated by the finite element (FE) method, and the convolution and correlation in the computation of the detected AE voltage signal were accelerated using 3-D fast Fourier transforms. In the bench-top experiment, an electric dipole was produced in a bath of 0.9% NaCl solution containing two electrodes, which injected an ac pulse (200 Hz, 3 cycles) ranging from 0 to 140 mA. Stimulating and recording electrodes were placed in a custom electrode chamber made on a rapid prototype printer. Each electrode could be positioned anywhere on an x-y grid (5 mm spacing) and individually adjusted in the depth direction for precise control of the geometry of the current sources and detecting electrodes. A 1-MHz ultrasound beam was pulsed and focused through a plastic film to modulate the current distribution inside the saline-filled tank. AE signals were simultaneously detected at a sampling frequency of 15 MHz on multiple recording electrodes. A single recording electrode is sufficient to form volume images of the current flow and electric potentials. The AE potential is sensitive to the distance from the dipole, but is less sensitive to the angle between the detector and the dipole. Multi-channel UCSDI potentially improves 4-D mapping of bioelectric sources in the body at high spatial resolution, which is especially important for diagnosing and guiding treatment of cardiac and neurologic disorders, including arrhythmia and epilepsy.
PMCID: PMC4406770  PMID: 24569247
20.  Quasi-Static Magnetic Field Shielding Using Longitudinal Mu-Near-Zero Metamaterials 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:12764.
The control of quasi-static magnetic fields is of considerable interest in applications including the reduction of electromagnetic interference (EMI), wireless power transfer (WPT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The shielding of static or quasi-static magnetic fields is typically accomplished through the use of inherently magnetic materials with large magnetic permeability, such as ferrites, used sometimes in combination with metallic sheets and/or active field cancellation. Ferrite materials, however, can be expensive, heavy and brittle. Inspired by recent demonstrations of epsilon-, mu- and index-near-zero metamaterials, here we show how a longitudinal mu-near-zero (LMNZ) layer can serve as a strong frequency-selective reflector of magnetic fields when operating in the near-field region of dipole-like sources. Experimental measurements with a fabricated LMNZ sheet constructed from an artificial magnetic conductor – formed from non-magnetic, conducting, metamaterial elements – confirm that the artificial structure provides significantly improved shielding as compared with a commercially available ferrite of the same size. Furthermore, we design a structure to shield simultaneously at the fundamental and first harmonic frequencies. Such frequency-selective behavior can be potentially useful for shielding electromagnetic sources that may also generate higher order harmonics, while leaving the transmission of other frequencies unaffected.
PMCID: PMC4522651  PMID: 26234929
21.  Ion‐driven instabilities in the solar wind: Wind observations of 19 March 2005 
Intervals of enhanced magnetic fluctuations have been frequently observed in the solar wind. But it remains an open question as to whether these waves are generated at the Sun and then transported outward by the solar wind or generated locally in the interplanetary medium. Magnetic field and plasma measurements from the Wind spacecraft under slow solar wind conditions on 19 March 2005 demonstrate seven events of enhanced magnetic fluctuations at spacecraft‐frame frequencies somewhat above the proton cyclotron frequency and propagation approximately parallel or antiparallel to the background magnetic field B o. The proton velocity distributions during these events are characterized by two components: a more dense, slower core and a less dense, faster beam. Observed plasma parameters are used in a kinetic linear dispersion equation analysis for electromagnetic fluctuations at k x B o = 0; for two events the most unstable mode is the Alfvén‐cyclotron instability driven by a proton component temperature anisotropy T⊥/T|| > 1 (where the subscripts denote directions relative to B o), and for three events the most unstable mode is the right‐hand polarized magnetosonic instability driven primarily by ion component relative flows. Thus, both types of ion anisotropies and both types of instabilities are likely to be local sources of these enhanced fluctuation events in the solar wind.
Key Points
Ion temperature anisotropies and proton beam/core flows are sources of enhanced field observationsFor two events Alfven‐cyclotron modes are most unstableFor three events magnetosonic modes are most unstable
PMCID: PMC5070513  PMID: 27818854
solar wind; instabilities
22.  Spatially inhomogeneous electron state deep in the extreme quantum limit of strontium titanate 
Nature Communications  2016;7:12974.
When an electronic system is subjected to a sufficiently strong magnetic field that the cyclotron energy is much larger than the Fermi energy, the system enters the extreme quantum limit (EQL) and becomes susceptible to a number of instabilities. Bringing a three-dimensional electronic system deeply into the EQL can be difficult however, since it requires a small Fermi energy, large magnetic field, and low disorder. Here we present an experimental study of the EQL in lightly-doped single crystals of strontium titanate. Our experiments probe deeply into the regime where theory has long predicted an interaction-driven charge density wave or Wigner crystal state. A number of interesting features arise in the transport in this regime, including a striking re-entrant nonlinearity in the current–voltage characteristics. We discuss these features in the context of possible correlated electron states, and present an alternative picture based on magnetic-field induced puddling of electrons.
At sufficiently strong magnetic fields and low temperatures, electrons assume a quasi-one-dimensional quantum state that is challenging to observe. Here, Bhattacharya et al. report on electron transport in lightly-doped single crystals of SrTiO3 deep in this extreme quantum limit.
PMCID: PMC5056415  PMID: 27680386
23.  Crowding and Anomalous Capacitance at an Electrode–Ionic Liquid Interface Observed Using Operando X-ray Scattering 
ACS Central Science  2016;2(3):175-180.
Room temperature ionic liquids are widely recognized as novel electrolytes with properties very different from those of aqueous solutions, and thus with many potential applications, but observing how they actually behave at electrolytic interfaces has proved to be challenging. We have studied the voltage-dependent structure of [TDTHP]+[NTF2]− near its interface with an electrode, using in situ synchrotron X-ray reflectivity. An anion-rich layer develops at the interface above a threshold voltage of +1.75 V, and the layer thickness increases rapidly with voltage, reaching ∼6 nm (much larger that the anion dimensions) at +2.64 V. These results provide direct confirmation of the theoretical prediction of “crowding” of ions near the interface. The interfacial layer is not purely anionic but a mixture of up to ∼80% anions and the rest cations. The static differential capacitance calculated from X-ray measurements shows an increase at higher voltages, consistent with a recent zero-frequency capacitance measurement but inconsistent with ac capacitance measurements.
Using X-rays, we observe “crowding” of ions at the interface between an electrode and an ionic liquid. This effect, not seen in aqueous solutions, may help explain the novel properties of these liquids.
PMCID: PMC4827468  PMID: 27163044
24.  Comparison of a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and Toftness sensometer for body surface EMF measurement 
The use of magnetic fields to treat disease has intrigued mankind since the time of the ancient Greeks. More recently it has been shown that electromagnetic field (EMF) treatment aids bone healing, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be beneficial in treating schizophrenia and depression. Since external EMFs influence internal body processes, we hypothesized that measurement of body surface EMFs might be used to detect disease states and direct the course of subsequent therapy. However, measurement of minute body surface EMFs requires use of a sensitive and well documented magnetometer. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity and frequency response of a fluxgate magnetometer with a triaxial probe for use in detecting body surface EMF and we compared the magnetometer readings with a signal from a Toftness Sensometer, operated by an experienced clinician, in the laboratory and in a clinical setting.
A Peavy Audio Amplifier and variable power output Telulex signal generator were used to develop 50 μT EMFs in a three coil Merritt coil system. A calibrated magnetometer was used to set a 60 Hz 50 μT field in the coil and an ammeter was used to measure the current required to develop the 50 μT field. At frequencies other than 60 Hz, the field strength was maintained at 50 μT by adjusting the Telulex signal output to keep the current constant. The field generated was monitored using a 10 turn coil connected to an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope reading indicated that the field strength was the same at all frequencies tested. To determine if there was a correspondence between the signals detected by a fluxgate magnetometer (FGM1) and the Toftness Sensometer both devices were placed in the Merritt coil and readings were recorded from the FGM1 and compared with the ability of a highly experienced Toftness operator to detect the 50 μT field. Subsequently, in a clinical setting, FGM1 readings made by an FGM1 technician and Sensometer readings were made by 4 Toftness Sensometer operators, having various degrees of experience with this device. Each examiner obtained instrument readings from 5 different volunteers in separate chiropractic adjusting rooms. Additionally, one of the Toftness Sensometers was equipped with an integrated fluxgate magnetometer (FGM2) and this magnetometer was used to obtain a second set of EMF readings in the clinical setting.
The triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was determined to be moderately responsive to changes in magnetic field frequency below 10 Hz. At frequencies above 10 Hz the readings corresponded to that of the ambient static geofield. The practitioner operating the Toftness Sensometer was unable to detect magnetic fields at high frequencies (above 10 Hz) even at very high EMFs. The fluxgate magnetometer was shown to be essentially a DC/static magnetic field detector and like all such devices it has a limited frequency range with some low level of sensitivity at very low field frequencies. The interexaminer reliability of four Toftness practitioners using the Sensometer on 5 patients showed low to moderate correlation.
The fluxgate magnetometer although highly sensitive to static (DC) EMFs has only limited sensitivity to EMFs in the range of 1 to 10 Hz and is very insensitive to frequencies above 10 Hz. In laboratory comparisons of the Sensometer and the fluxgate magnetometer there was an occasional correspondence between the two instruments in detecting magnetic fields within the Merritt coil but these occasions were not reproducible. In the clinical studies there was low to moderate agreement between the clinicians using the Sensometer to diagnosing spinal conditions and there was little if any agreement between the Sensometer and the fluxgate magnetometer in detecting EMFs emanating from the volunteers body surface.
PMCID: PMC1769295  PMID: 17549105
Toftness; Magnetometer; EMF; Chiropractic
25.  New insights into bioprotective effectiveness of disaccharides: an FTIR study of human haemoglobin aqueous solutions exposed to static magnetic fields 
Journal of Biological Physics  2011;38(1):61-74.
The aim of this study was the investigation of static magnetic field effects on haemoglobin secondary structure and the bioprotective effectiveness of two disaccharides, sucrose and trehalose. Samples of haemoglobin aqueous solutions, in the absence and in the presence of sucrose and trehalose, were exposed to a uniform magnetic field at 200 mT, which is the exposure limit established by the ICNIRP recommendation for occupational exposure. Spectral analysis by FTIR spectroscopy after 3 and 7 h of exposure revealed a decrease in the amide A vibration band for haemoglobin in bi-distilled water solution. Analogue exposures did not produce any appreciable change of amide A for haemoglobin in sucrose and trehalose solutions. Otherwise, no relative increase of \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\upbeta $\end{document}-sheet contents in amide I and II regions was detected for haemoglobin aqueous solutions, leading us to exclude the hypothesis that static magnetic fields can induce the formation of aggregates in the protein. In addition, a decrease in CH3 stretching linkages occurred for haemoglobin in bi-distilled water solution after exposure, which was not observed for haemoglobin in sucrose and trehalose aqueous solutions, providing further evidence of a bioprotective compensatory mechanism of such disaccharides.
PMCID: PMC3285734  PMID: 23277670
Haemoglobin; Static magnetic field; Electromagnetic field; Infrared spectroscopy; Disaccharides; Trehalose

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