We investigated the role of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBCH7 in nuclear receptor transactivation. Using transient transfection assays, we demonstrated that UBCH7 modulates the transcriptional activity of progesterone receptor (PR) and glucocorticoid, androgen, and retinoic acid receptors in a hormone-dependent manner and that the ubiquitin conjugation activity of UBCH7 is required for its ability to potentiate transactivation by steroid hormone receptors (SHR). However, UBCH7 showed no significant effect on the transactivation functions of p53 and VP-16 activation domain. Depletion of endogenous UBCH7 protein by small interfering RNAs suggests that UBCH7 is required for the proper function of SHR. Furthermore, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated the hormone-dependent recruitment of UBCH7 onto estrogen receptor- and PR-responsive promoters. Additionally, we show that UBCH7 and E6-associated protein (E6-AP) synergistically enhance PR transactivation. We also demonstrate that UBCH7 interacts with steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and that UBCH7 coactivation function is dependent on SRC-1. Taken together, our results reveal the possible role of UBCH7 in steroid receptor transactivation and provide insights into the mechanism of action of UBCH7 in receptor function.
Intrinsically disordered (ID) regions of proteins commonly exist within transcription factors, including the N-terminal domain (NTD) of steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) that possesses a powerful activation function, AF1 region. The mechanisms by which SHRs pass signals from a steroid hormone to control gene expression remain a central unresolved problem. The role of N-terminal activation function AF1, which exists in an intrinsically disordered (ID) conformation, in this process is of immense importance. It is hypothesized that under physiological conditions, ID AF1 undergoes disorder/order transition via inter- and intra-molecular communications, which allows AF1 surfaces to interact with specific co-regulatory proteins, critical for the final outcome of target gene expression regulated by SHRs. However, the means by which AF1 acquires functionally folded conformations is not well understood. In this study, we tested whether binding of jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) within the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) leads to acquisition of functionally active structure in its AF1/NTD. Our results show that signals mediated from GR DBD:JDP2 interactions in a two domain GR fragment, consisting of the entire NTD and little beyond DBD, significantly increased secondary/tertiary structure formation in the NTD/AF1. This increased structure formation facilitated AF1’s interaction with specific co-regulatory proteins and subsequent glucocorticoid response element-mediated AF1 promoter:reporter activity. These results support the hypothesis that inter- and intra-molecular signals give a functionally active structure(s) to the GR AF1, which is important for its transcriptional activity.
The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand activated transcription factor and member of the steroid hormone receptor (SHR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. In the early stages of prostate carcinogenesis, tumour growth is dependent on androgens, and AR directly mediates these effects by modulating gene expression. During transcriptional regulation, the AR recruits numerous cofactors with acetylation-modifying enzymatic activity, the best studied include p300/CBP and the p160/SRC family of coactivators. It is known that recruitment of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) is key in fine-tuning responses to androgens and is thus likely to play a role in prostate cancer progression. Further, these proteins can also modify the AR itself. The functional consequences of AR acetylation, the role of modifying enzymes in relation to AR transcriptional response, and prostate cancer will be discussed.
The precise mechanism by which glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates the transcription of its target genes is largely unknown. This is, in part, due to the lack of structural and functional information about GR's N-terminal activation function domain, AF1. Like many steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), the GR AF1 exists in an intrinsically disordered (ID) conformation or an ensemble of conformers that collectively appears to be unstructured. The GR AF1 is known to recruit several coregulatory proteins, including those from the basal transcriptional machinery, e.g., TATA box binding protein (TBP) that forms the basis for the multiprotein transcription initiation complex. However, the precise mechanism of this process is unknown. We have earlier shown that conditional folding of the GR AF1 is the key for its interactions with critical coactivator proteins. We hypothesize that binding of TBP to AF1 results in the structural rearrangement of the ID AF1 domain such that its surfaces become easily accessible for interaction with other coactivators. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether TBP binding-induced structure formation in the GR AF1 facilitates its interaction with steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), a critical coactivator that is important for GR-mediated transcriptional activity. Our data show that stoichiometric binding of TBP induces significantly higher helical content at the expense of random coil configuration in the GR AF1. Further, we found that this induced AF1 conformation facilitates its interaction with SRC-1, and subsequent AF1-mediated transcriptional activity. Our results may provide a potential mechanism through which GR and by large other SHRs may regulate the expression of the GR-target genes.
Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) are members of the superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate many biological processes. Co-regulators act as bridging molecules between the SHR and general transcription factors to enhance transactivation of target genes. Previous studies demonstrated that Stat3 is constitutively activated in prostate cancer and can enhance prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression and promote androgen independent growth. In this study, we investigate whether Stat3 can enhance steroid hormone receptors activation.
CV-1 cells in which plasmids expressing androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor (PR) or estrogen receptor (ER) were cotransfected with a constitutively active STAT3 mutant.
Stat3 stimulates the transcriptional activity of all four SHR tested, AR, GR, PR and ER, in a hormone-dependent manner. Stat3 acts in a synergistic fashion with other coactivators such as SRC-1, pCAF, CBP, and TIF-2 on the transcriptional activity of these SHR. In addition, Stat3 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of androgen receptor in response to androgen. STAT3 did not affect the specificity of AR for other steroid hormones other than androgen or binding of AR to other hormone responsive elements.
These findings suggest that Stat3 can enhance the transactivation of AR, GR, PR and ER, and activated Stat3 could have a role in the development or progression of a hypersensitive AR.
Smads are signal mediators for the members of the transforming
growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Upon phosphorylation by the
TGF-β receptors, Smad3 translocates into the nucleus, recruits
transcriptional coactivators and corepressors, and regulates
transcription of target genes. Here, we show that Smad3 activated by
TGF-β is degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Smad3
interacts with a RING finger protein, ROC1, through its
C-terminal MH2 domain in a ligand-dependent manner. An E3 ubiquitin
ligase complex ROC1-SCFFbw1a consisting of ROC1, Skp1,
Cullin1, and Fbw1a (also termed βTrCP1) induces ubiquitination of
Smad3. Recruitment of a transcriptional coactivator, p300, to nuclear
Smad3 facilitates the interaction with the E3 ligase complex and
triggers the degradation process of Smad3. Smad3 bound to
ROC1-SCFFbw1a is then exported from the nucleus to the
cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. TGF-β/Smad3 signaling is thus
irreversibly terminated by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway.
Stem cell function during organogenesis is a key issue in developmental biology. The transcription factor SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a critical component in a developmental pathway regulating both the specification of the root stem cell niche and the differentiation potential of a subset of stem cells in the
Arabidopsis root. To obtain a comprehensive view of the SHR pathway, we used a statistical method called meta-analysis to combine the results of several microarray experiments measuring the changes in global expression profiles after modulating SHR activity. Meta-analysis was first used to identify the direct targets of SHR by combining results from an inducible form of SHR driven by its endogenous promoter, ectopic expression, followed by cell sorting and comparisons of mutant to wild-type roots. Eight putative direct targets of SHR were identified, all with expression patterns encompassing subsets of the native SHR expression domain. Further evidence for direct regulation by SHR came from binding of SHR in vivo to the promoter regions of four of the eight putative targets. A new role for SHR in the vascular cylinder was predicted from the expression pattern of several direct targets and confirmed with independent markers. The meta-analysis approach was then used to perform a global survey of the SHR indirect targets. Our analysis suggests that the SHR pathway regulates root development not only through a large transcription regulatory network but also through hormonal pathways and signaling pathways using receptor-like kinases. Taken together, our results not only identify the first nodes in the SHR pathway and a new function for SHR in the development of the vascular tissue but also reveal the global architecture of this developmental pathway.
Meta-analysis to combine the results of several microarray experiments reveals a new function for the transcription factor SHORT-ROOT in the development of vascular tissue.
In this study, we found that the E6-associated protein (E6-AP/UBE3A) directly interacts with and coactivates the transcriptional activity of the human progesterone receptor (PR) in a hormone-dependent manner. E6-AP also coactivates the hormone-dependent transcriptional activities of the other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Previously, it was shown that E6-AP serves the role of a ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) in the presence of the E6 protein from human papillomavirus types 16 and 18. Our data show that the ubiquitin-protein ligase function of E6-AP is dispensable for its ability to coactivate nuclear hormone receptors, showing that E6-AP possesses two separable independent functions, as both a coactivator and a ubiquitin-protein ligase. Disruption of the maternal copy of E6-AP is correlated with Angelman syndrome (AS), a genetic neurological disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, seizures, speech impairment, and other symptoms. However, the exact mechanism by which the defective E6-AP gene causes AS remains unknown. To correlate the E6-AP coactivator function and ubiquitin-protein ligase functions with the AS phenotype, we expressed mutant forms of E6-AP isolated from AS patients and assessed the ability of each of these mutant proteins to coactivate PR or provide ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. This analysis revealed that in the majority of the AS patients examined, the ubiquitin-protein ligase function of E6-AP was defective whereas the coactivator function was intact. This finding suggests that the AS phenotype results from a defect in the ubiquitin-proteosome protein degradation pathway.
The steroid hormone progesterone acts via high-affinity nuclear receptors that interact with specific DNA sequences located near the promoter of the hormone-responsive gene. Recent studies suggested that the hormone-occupied progesterone receptor (PR) mediates gene activation by recruiting a cellular coregulatory factor, termed coactivator, to the target promoter. The identity and mechanism of action of the coactivator(s) that regulates transcriptional activity of PR are currently under investigation. Here we provide evidence that the hormone-occupied PR forms a multisubunit receptor-coactivator complex containing two previously described coactivators, CREB-binding protein (CBP) and steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1, a member of the p160 family of coactivators), in nuclear extracts of human breast tumor T47D cells. The association of CBP and SRC-1/p160 with the receptor complex is entirely hormone dependent. Both CBP and SRC-1/p160 possess intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, and it has been recently proposed that these coactivators function by modulating chromatin structure at the promoter of the target gene. Interestingly, addition of purified CBP to the nuclear extracts of T47D cells markedly stimulated progesterone- and PR-dependent transcription from a nucleosome-free, progesterone response element (PRE)-linked reporter DNA template. Furthermore, depletion of SRC-1/p160 by immunoprecipitation from these transcriptional extracts also significantly impaired PR-mediated RNA synthesis from a naked PRE-linked DNA template. These results strongly implied that CBP and SRC-1/p160 facilitate receptor-mediated transcription in these cell extracts through mechanisms other than chromatin remodeling. We also observed that the adenoviral oncoprotein E1A, which interacts directly with CBP, repressed PR-mediated transactivation when added to the nuclear extracts of T47D cells. Supplementation with purified CBP overcame this inhibition, indicating that the inhibitory effect of E1A is indeed due to a blockade of CBP function. Most importantly, we noted that binding of E1A to CBP prevented the assembly of a coactivation complex containing PR, CBP, and SRC-1/p160, presumably by disrupting the interaction between CBP and SRC-1/p160. These results strongly suggested that E1A repressed receptor-mediated transcription by blocking the formation or recruitment of coactivation complexes. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that the assembly of a multisubunit coactivation complex containing PR, CBP, and SRC-1/p160 is a critical regulatory step during hormone-dependent gene activation by PR and that the fully assembled complex has the ability to control transcription through mechanisms that are independent of the histone-modifying activities of its component coactivators.
PDGF has been shown to contribute to hypertrophy in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). PDGF-AA differentially promotes protein synthesis in VSMC from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) but not in those from Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). This observation has led us to postulate a role for PDGF alpha receptor (PDGFR-alpha) in the hypertensive hypertrophy of blood vessels. Western and Northern blot analyses demonstrated a high and specific expression of the PDGFR-alpha protein and mRNA in SHR cells but not in WKY cells. To clarify the mechanism of the differential expression of the PDGFR-alpha gene, we isolated the promoter region of the gene. Studies on the promoter functions indicated that this promoter is active in SHR cells but not in WKY cells. The regulatory domain responsible for this difference was narrowed to the sequence between -246 and -139, which enhanced the promoter activity of SHR fivefold over the basal activity. DNase I footprinting and gel-shift assay indicated that this sequence specifically interact with nuclear proteins from VSMC through the binding site for CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins, and members of the C/enhancer-binding protein family play a significant role in the strain-specific transcription of the PDGFR-alpha gene.
Steroid receptors are conditional transcription factors that, upon binding to their response elements, regulate the expression of target genes via direct protein interactions with transcriptional coactivators. We have analyzed the functional interactions between the androgen receptor (AR) and 160-kDa nuclear receptor coactivators. Upon overexpression in mammalian cells, these coactivators enhance the transcriptional activity of both the amino-terminal domain (NTD) and the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the AR. The coactivator activity for the LBD is strictly ligand-controlled and depends on the nature of the DNA-binding domain to which it is fused. We demonstrate that the NTD physically interacts with coactivators and with the LBD and that this interaction, like the functional interaction between the LBD and p160 coactivators, relies on the activation function 2 (AF2) core domain. The mutation of a highly conserved lysine residue in the predicted helix 3 of the LBD (K720A), however, blunts the functional interaction with coactivators but not with the NTD. Moreover, this mutation does not affect the transcriptional activity of the full-size AR. A mutation in the NTD of activation function AF1a (I182A/L183A), which dramatically impairs the activity of the AR, has no effect on the intrinsic transcriptional activity of the NTD but interferes with the cooperation between the NTD and the LBD. Finally, p160 proteins in which the three LXXLL motifs are mutated retain most of their coactivator activity for the full-size AR, although they are no longer functional for the isolated LBD. Together, these data suggest that in the native AR the efficient recruitment of coactivators requires a functional association of the NTD with the LBD and that the binding of coactivators occurs primarily through the NTD.
Members of the 160-kDa nuclear receptor coactivator family (p160 coactivators) bind to the conserved AF-2 activation function found in the hormone binding domains of nuclear receptors (NR) and are potent transcriptional coactivators for NRs. Here we report that the C-terminal region of p160 coactivators glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1), steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1a), and SRC-1e binds the N-terminal AF-1 activation function of the androgen receptor (AR), and p160 coactivators can thereby enhance transcriptional activation by AR. While they all interact efficiently with AR AF-1, these same coactivators have vastly different binding strengths with and coactivator effects on AR AF-2. p160 activation domain AD1, which binds secondary coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300, was previously implicated as the principal domain for transmitting the activating signal to the transcription machinery. We identified a new highly conserved motif in the AD1 region which is important for CBP/p300 binding. Deletion of AD1 only partially reduced p160 coactivator function, due to signaling through AD2, another activation domain located at the C-terminal end of p160 coactivators. C-terminal coactivator fragments lacking AD1 but containing AD2 and the AR AF-1 binding site served as efficient coactivators for full-length AR and AR AF-1. The two signal input domains (one that binds NR AF-2 domains and one that binds AF-1 domains of some but not all NRs) and the two signal output domains (AD1 and AD2) of p160 coactivators played different relative roles for two different NRs: AR and thyroid hormone receptor.
Arterial hypertension is associated with organ dysfunctions, but the mechanisms are uncertain. We hypothesize that enhanced proteolytic activity in the microcirculation of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) may be a pathophysiological mechanism causing cell membrane receptors cleavage and examine this for two different receptors. Immunohistochemistry of matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMP-9) protein shows enhanced levels in SHR microvessels, mast cells, and leukocytes compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. In-vivo micro-zymography shows cleavage by MMP-1,9 in SHRs that co-localizes with MMP-9 and is blocked by metal chelation. SHR plasma also has enhanced protease activity. We demonstrate with an antibody against the extracellular domain that the insulin receptor-α density is reduced in SHR, in line with elevated blood glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin. There is also cleavage of the binding domain of the leukocyte integrin receptor CD18 in line with previously reported reduced leukocyte adhesion. Blockade of MMPs with broad acting inhibitor (doxycycline, 5.4mg/kg/day) reduces protease activity in plasma and microvessels, blocks the proteolytic cleavage of the insulin receptor, the reduced glucose transport, normalizes blood glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin levels, as well as reduces blood pressure and enhanced microvascular oxidative stress of SHRs. The results suggest that elevated MMP activity leads to proteolytic cleavage of membrane receptors in the SHR, e.g. cleavage of the insulin receptor-binding domain associated with insulin resistance.
Microcirculation; matrix metalloproteinases; insulin receptor; integrin; receptor cleavage; oxygen free radical
The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is essential for adrenal development and steroidogenesis. The atypical orphan nuclear receptor Dax-1 binds to SF-1 and represses SF-1 target genes. Paradoxically, however, loss-of-function mutations of Dax-1 also cause adrenal hypoplasia, suggesting that Dax-1 may function as an SF-1 coactivator under some circumstances. Indeed, we found that Dax-1 can function as a dosage-dependent SF-1 coactivator. Both SF-1 and Dax-1 bind to steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), a coactivator that functions as an RNA. The coactivator TIF2 also associates with Dax-1 and synergistically coactivates SF-1 target gene transcription. A naturally occurring Dax-1 mutation inhibits this transactivation, and the mutant Dax-1-TIF2 complex mislocalizes in living cells. Coactivation by Dax-1 is abolished by SRA knockdown. The expression of the steroidogenic gene products steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and melanocortin 2 receptor is reduced in adrenal Y1 cells following the knockdown of endogenous SRA. Similarly, the knockdown of endogenous Dax-1 downregulates the expression of the steroidogenic gene products CYP11A1 and StAR in both H295R adrenal and MA-10 Leydig cells. These findings reveal novel functions of SRA and Dax-1 in steroidogenesis and adrenal biology.
The p160/Steroid Receptor Coactivators SRC-1, SRC-2/GRIP1, and SRC-3/AIB1 are important regulators of Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) activity. However, whereas the functions of SRC-1 and SRC-3 in breast tumourigenesis have been extensively studied, little is known about the role of SRC-2. Previously, we reported that activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, facilitates ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of SRC-2 which in turn leads to inhibition of SRC-2-coactivation of ERα and changed expression of the ERα target gene, pS2. Here we have characterized the global program of transcription in SRC-2-depleted MCF-7 breast cancer cells using short-hairpin RNA technology, and in MCF-7 cells exposed to PKA activating agents. In order to identify genes that may be regulated through PKA-induced downregulation of SRC-2, overlapping transcriptional targets in response to the respective treatments were characterized. Interestingly, we observed decreased expression of several breast cancer tumour suppressor genes (e.g., TAGLN, EGR1, BCL11b, CAV1) in response to both SRC-2 knockdown and PKA activation, whereas the expression of a number of other genes implicated in cancer progression (e.g., RET, BCAS1, TFF3, CXCR4, ADM) was increased. In line with this, knockdown of SRC-2 also stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Together, these results suggest that SRC-2 may have an antiproliferative function in breast cancer cells.
In 1995, the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) was identified as the first authentic steroid receptor coactivator. Since then, the SRC proteins have remained at the epicenter of coregulator biology, molecular endocrinology and endocrine-related cancer. Cumulative works on SRC-1 have shown that it is primarily a nuclear receptor coregulator and functions to construct highly specific enzymatic protein complexes which can execute efficient and successful transcriptional activation of designated target genes. The versatile nature of SRC-1 enables it to respond to steroid dependent and steroid independent stimulation, allowing it to bind across many families of transcription factors to orchestrate and regulate complex physiological reactions. This review highlights the multiple functions of SRC-1 in the development and maintenance of normal tissue functions as well as its major role in mediating hormone receptor responsiveness. Insights from genetically manipulated mouse models and clinical data suggest SRC-1 is significantly overexpressed in many cancers, in particular, cancers of the reproductive tissues. SRC-1 has been associated with cellular proliferation and tumor growth but its major tumorigenic contributions are promotion and execution of breast cancer metastasis and mediation of resistance to endocrine therapies. The ability of SRC-1 to coordinate multiple signaling pathways makes it an important player in tumor cells' escape of targeted therapy.
nuclear receptor; coactivator; SRC-1; transcription; development; cancer.
Hormone-activated nuclear receptors (NR) bind to specific regulatory DNA elements associated with their target genes and recruit coactivator proteins to remodel chromatin structure, recruit RNA polymerase, and activate transcription. The p160 coactivators (e.g., SRC-1, GRIP1, and ACTR) bind directly to activated NR and can recruit a variety of secondary coactivators. We have established a transient-transfection assay system under which the activity of various NR is highly or completely dependent on synergistic cooperation among three classes of coactivators: a p160 coactivator, the protein methyltransferase CARM1, and any of the three protein acetyltransferases, p300, CBP, or p/CAF. The three-coactivator functional synergy was only observed when low levels of NR were expressed and was highly or completely dependent on the methyltransferase activity of CARM1 and the acetyltransferase activity of p/CAF, but not the acetyltransferase activity of p300. Other members of the protein arginine methyltransferase family, which methylate different protein substrates than CARM1, could not substitute for CARM1 to act synergistically with p300 or p/CAF. A ternary complex of GRIP1, CARM1, and p300 or CBP was demonstrated in cultured mammalian cells, supporting a physiological role for the observed synergy. The transfection assay described here is a valuable new tool for investigating the mechanism of coactivator function and demonstrates the importance of multiple coactivators, including CARM1 and its specific protein methyltransferase activity, in transcriptional activation.
Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate target gene transcription through the recruitment of multiple coactivator complexes to the promoter regions of target genes. One important coactivator complex includes a p160 coactivator (GRIP1, SRC-1, or ACTR) and its downstream coactivators (e.g., p300, CARM1, CoCoA, and Fli-I), which contribute to transcriptional activation by protein acetylation, protein methylation, and protein-protein interactions. In this study, we identified a novel NR coactivator, GAC63, which binds to the N-terminal region of p160 coactivators as well as the ligand binding domains of some NRs. GAC63 enhanced transcriptional activation by NRs in a hormone-dependent and GRIP1-dependent manner in transient transfection assays and cooperated synergistically and selectively with other NR coactivators, including GRIP1 and CARM1, to enhance estrogen receptor function. Endogenous GAC63 was recruited to the estrogen-responsive pS2 gene promoter of MCF-7 cells in response to the hormone. Reduction of the endogenous GAC63 level by small interfering RNA inhibited transcriptional activation by the hormone-activated estrogen receptor. Thus, GAC63 is a physiologically relevant part of the p160 coactivator signaling pathway that mediates transcriptional activation by NRs.
Sex steroid hormone receptor (SHR) dynamics are well-documented in human endometrium but have not been comprehensively studied in Fallopian tube (FT).
To compare expression patterns and hormonal regulation of SHR in FT with that described in endometrium, and determine whether SHR expression is altered in FT of women with ectopic pregnancy (EP).
Tissue analysis and culture.
Patients or Other Participants
Women undergoing surgery for benign gynaecological conditions (n=14) and EP (n=6).
Q-RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine SHR mRNA expression and protein localization, respectively. SHR levels were measured in tubal explant cultures stimulated with estrogen and progestogen.
ERα and ERβ mRNAs were constitutively expressed in FT during the menstrual cycle. PR-AB and PR-B mRNAs were decreased in mid-luteal compared to follicular phase. ERα, PR-AB and PR-B mRNAs were downregulated in human FT in vitro by treatment with progestogen. ERα, ERβ1, ERβ2, PR and AR proteins localised to cell nuclei of epithelium, stroma and smooth muscle of non-pregnant FT. In FT from women with EP, PR-B mRNA was decreased when compared to mid-luteal FT, and ERα protein was not detected.
SHR expression in FT is different from that observed in endometrium recovered at similar stages of the menstrual cycle and expression in FT from women with EP is also altered compared with normal FT. These data are an important benchmark for furthering understanding of normal human FT physiology, transcriptional changes in FT in response to progesterone, and disorders of FT function, such as EP.
Estrogen receptor; progesterone receptor; androgen receptor; allopian tube; ectopic pregnancy
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are required for normal postnatal bone formation and osteoblast differentiation. There is evidence from recent studies that BMP signaling in osteoblasts is controlled by an ubiquitin-proteasome regulatory mechanism involving a cascade of enzymatic reactions. The specificity of protein ubiquitination is determined by E3 ubiquitin ligases, which play a crucial role in defining substrate specificity and subsequent protein degradation by 26S proteasomes. We have examined the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1), a member of the Hect domain family of E3 ubiquitin ligases in osteoblast function. Smurf1 has been found to interact with BMP-activated Smad1 and -5 and to mediate degradation of these Smad proteins. Recently we have found that Smurf1 mediates the protein degradation of the osteoblast-specific transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. To determine the role of Smurf1 in osteoblast differentiation, in the present studies we transfected a Smurf1 expression plasmid into 2T3 osteoblast precursor cells and found that Smurf1 overexpression inhibits BMP signaling and osteoblast differentiation. To further investigate the role of Smurf1 in bone formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice in which expression of the epitope-tagged Smurf1 transgene was targeted to osteoblasts using the murine 2.3-kb osteoblast-specific type I collagen promoter. In these transgenic mice, bone formation was significantly reduced during postnatal life. Our results demonstrate for the first time that Smurf1 plays a specific role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vivo.
Recent evidence suggests that inflammation in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is associated with an uncontrolled matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. We hypothesize that the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF–κB) is overexpressed in the SHR, enhancing its MMP activity and enzymatic cleavage of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), thereby diminishing catecholamine-mediated arteriolar vasodilation. NF-κB expression level and translocation were compared between Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY) and SHR kidney, heart and brain. The animals were treated with a NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), for ten weeks and correlations between NF-κB and MMP activity were determined. Immunohistochemistry showed that NF-κB expression is increased in untreated SHR kidney (~ 14%) and brain hypothalamus (~ 22%) compared to that in WKY (p <0.05), but not in myocardium and cerebral cortex. After PDTC treatment, the SHR systolic blood pressure was reduced close to WKY levels. NF-κB expression level in treated-SHR was also decreased in kidney and hypothalamus compared to non-treated animals (p <0.05). Furthermore, MMP-2 and -9 activities in SHR plasma were significantly reduced (~41%) by PDTC treatment. Additionally, zymographic analyses and in situ zymography showed decreased MMP-2 activity in kidney homogenates and decreased MMP-1,-9 activities in brain. The level of the β2AR extracellular, but not intracellular, domain density was found reduced in kidney showing a receptor cleavage process that can be blocked by PDTC treatment. These results suggest NF-κB is an important transcription factor in the SHR and may be involved in the enhanced MMP activity and consequently receptor cleavage.
Microcirculation; matrix metalloproteinases; beta-2 adrenergic receptor; receptor cleavage; NF-κB inhibitor; pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate
This study elucidates the role of E6-associated protein, E6-AP (a dual function steroid hormone receptor coactivator and ubiquitin-protein ligase) in the regulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, prostate gland growth and proliferation. Here, we report the generation of transgenic mice and prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP cells that overexpress E6-AP protein. Using these models we show that the levels of total Akt and phosphorylated Akt (active Akt) are increased in E6-AP overexpressing prostate gland and LNCaP cells suggesting that E6-AP regulates the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. The prostate glands in our transgenic mice are ~20% larger and produce preneoplastic lesions at the age of 18 months. Our data also suggest that E6-AP modulates PI3K-Akt signaling pathway by both androgen-independent and -dependent mechanisms. In the androgen-independent mechanism, E6-AP modulates PI3K-Akt signaling by regulating the protein levels of RhoA, a small GTPase, which is a negative regulator of the Akt signaling pathway. Further, we show that E6-AP, a known coactivator of AR, amplifies the androgen-dependent activation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. In addition, we show that stable overexpression of E6-AP in prostate cancer cells results in increased cell size and proliferation. Overall our data suggests that E6-AP regulates both the positive and negative modulators of the PI3K-Akt pathway in prostate cells which results in increased prostate cell growth, proliferation and decreased apoptosis.
The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer. We have identified an ubiquitin E3 ligase RNF6 as one of AR-associated proteins in a proteomic screen. RNF6 induces AR ubiquitination and promotes AR transcriptional activity. Specific knockdown of RNF6 or mutation of RNF6-induced ubiquitination acceptor sites on AR selectively alters expression of a subset of AR target genes and diminishes recruitment of AR and its coactivators to androgen-responsive elements present in the regulatory region of these genes. Furthermore, RNF6 is overexpressed in human hormone-refractory prostate cancer tissues and required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-depleted conditions. Our data suggest that RNF6-induced ubiquitination may regulate AR transcriptional activity and specificity through modulating co-factor recruitment.
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear hormone receptor that controls transcription of target genes. It exerts its biological effects through transcriptional coactivators. Previously, we identified two distinct classes of VDR coactivators, VDR-interacting protein (DRIP) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) at different stages of keratinocyte differentiation. Here, we determined the functions of VDR and coactivators in lipid production and permeability barrier formation. Silencing of either VDR, SRC2, or SRC3 resulted in decreases in specific glucosylceramide (GlcCer) species but not other lipids such as cholesterol and free fatty acids. Their silencing also caused decreased transcription of fatty acid elongase and ceramide glucosyltransferase, which are critical for the synthesis of epidermis-unique GlcCer species, and defects in lamellar body formation associated with decreased expression of the lipid transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter protein 12. VDR null mice exhibit abnormal barrier function with altered lipid composition in vivo. These results demonstrate that VDR and coactivators SRC2 and SRC3, which are also involved in other nuclear receptors as well, are critical for epidermis-specific sphingolipid production and barrier formation. In contrast, DRIP silencing had no apparent effect on these processes indicating that the two classes of coactivators are differentially utilized.
The repression mechanisms by the nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) of steroid hormone receptor (SHR)-mediated transactivation were examined. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-N-CoR was distributed as intranuclear discrete dots, while coexpression of androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor α, and estrogen receptor α ligand-dependently triggered redistribution of YFP-N-CoR. In fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis, mobility of the N-CoR was reduced by 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-bound AR. The middle region of N-CoR mostly contributed to the interaction with agonist-bound SHRs and the suppression of their transactivation function. N-CoR impaired the DHT-induced N-C interaction of AR, and the impaired interaction was dose-dependently recovered by coexpression of SRC-1 and CBP. N-CoR also impaired the intranuclear complete (distinct) focus formation of SHRs. Coexpression of SRC-1 or CBP released YFP-N-CoR or endogenous N-CoR from incomplete foci and simultaneously recovered complete foci of AR-green fluorescent protein. These results indicate that the relative ratio of coactivators and corepressors determines the conformational equilibrium between transcriptionally active and inactive SHRs in the presence of agonists. The intranuclear foci formed by agonist-bound SHRs were completely destroyed by actinomycin D and α-amanitin, indicating that the focus formation does not precede the transcriptional activation. The focus formation may reflect the accumulation of SHR/coactivator complexes released from the transcriptionally active sites and thus be a mirror of transcriptionally active complex formation.