The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically. A direct comparison in the predisposition to obesity between males, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females with various caloric intakes has not been made. To determine the effects of sex and ovarian hormones on the susceptibility to obesity, we conducted laboratory studies with mice. To eliminate confounders that can alter body weight gain, such as age and food consumption; we used mice with the same age and controlled the amount of calories they consumed.
We determined sex-specific susceptibility to obesity between male, non-ovariectomized female, and ovariectomized female mice. To compare susceptibility to gaining body weight between males and females, animals from each sex were exposed to either a 30% calorie-restricted, low-fat (5% fat), or high-fat (35% fat) diet regimen. To establish the role of ovarian hormones in weight gain, the ovaries were surgically removed from additional female mice, and then were exposed to the diets described above. Percent body fat and percent lean mass in the mice were determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).
In all three diet categories, male mice had a greater propensity of gaining body weight than female mice. However, ovariectomy eliminated the protection of female mice to gaining weight; in fact, ovariectomized female mice mimicked male mice in their susceptibility to weight gain. In summary, results show that male mice are more likely to become obese than female mice and that the protection against obesity in female mice is eliminated by ovariectomy.
Understanding metabolic differences between males and females may allow the discovery of better preventive and treatment strategies for diseases associated with body weight such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Intrauterine growth retardation due to maternal under-nutrition increases susceptibility to obesity and insulin resistance. We reported earlier in the offspring of mineral or vitamin restricted rat dams, a high body fat percentage and decreased insulin secretion to glucose challenge. This study determined whether or not central adiposity and altered adipocytokine profile were associated with high body fat content.
Body fat percentage; glucose, insulin and adipocytokine levels in fasting plasma and fresh weights of epididymal fat pads were determined in the six months old male offspring of Wistar NIN rat dams on chronic 50 percent restriction of vitamins or minerals throughout their growth, gestation, lactation and weaned on to restricted diets or restricted mothers/offspring rehabilitated from different time points.
In line with high body fat percent, chronic restriction of vitamins and minerals increased the epididymal fat pad weight. Maternal vitamin restriction decreased plasma adiponectin and increased leptin levels whereas mineral restriction decreased both. Both the treatments did not affect plasma TNF-α levels or insulin resistance status (HOMA-IR). Rehabilitation from parturition but not weaning, rescued the changes in the offspring.
High body fat percentage in the offspring of vitamin restricted or mineral restricted rat dams was associated with increased abdominal adiposity (epididymal fat pad weight) and differential expression of adipocytokines but not insulin resistance. The changes could be mitigated by rehabilitation from birth but not weaning.
Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat.
Research methods and procedures
The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age.
Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males’ body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat.
Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.
obesity; functional form; prediction; gender; race
Guberan, E. and Fernandez, J. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 159-167. Control of industrial exposure to tetrachloroethylene by measuring alveolar concentrations: theoretical approach using a mathematical model. The uptake, distribution, and elimination of tetrachloroethylene were studied using a mathematical model, and predicted alveolar concentrations were compared with experimental data. Because of its high fat solubility the solvent accumulated in adipose tissue with a predicted biological half-life of 71·5 hours. The relation between the alveolar concentrations and the level or duration of exposure was discussed. The alveolar concentrations of tetrachloroethylene during and after similar exposure were predicted in subjects who differed in age, body weight, height, and body fat content, both at rest and during physical effort. Predictions were made of the alveolar concentrations following exposures to steady and variable concentrations in ambient air, and following exposures of several weeks of the type occuring in industry. It was concluded that measurement of the postexposure alveolar concentrations could be used to estimate the mean exposure to tetrachloroethylene in most industrial situations.
A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulation of adipose tissue and gene expression, comparing differentially expressed genes in diet-induced obese mice with mice maintained on a chow diet.
Research Design and Methods
We used a microarray approach to determine whether there are sexual dimorphisms in gene expression in age-matched male, female or ovariectomized female (OVX) C57/BL6 mice maintained on a high-fat (HF) diet. We then compared expression of validated genes between the sexes on a chow diet.
After exposure to a high fat diet for 12 weeks, females gained less weight than males. The microarray analyses indicate in intra-abdominal/gonadal adipose tissue in females 1642 genes differ by at least twofold between the depots, whereas 706 genes differ in subcutaneous/inguinal adipose tissue when compared with males. Only 138 genes are commonly regulated in both sexes and adipose tissue depots. Inflammatory genes (cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions and acute-phase protein synthesis) are upregulated in males when compared with females, and there is a partial reversal after OVX, where OVX adipose tissue gene expression is more ′male-like′. This pattern is not observed in mice maintained on chow. Histology of male gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) shows more crown-like structures than females, indicative of inflammation and adipose tissue remodeling. In addition, genes related to insulin signaling and lipid synthesis are higher in females than males, regardless of dietary exposure.
These data suggest that male and female adipose tissue differ between the sexes regardless of diet. Moreover, HF diet exposure elicits a much greater inflammatory response in males when compared with females. This data set underscores the importance of analyzing depot-, sex- and steroid-dependent regulation of adipose tissue distribution and function.
high-fat diet; inflammation; fat partitioning; gender dimorphism; mouse; microarray
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants whose exposure levels are associated with various health hazards. We hypothesized that in utero and lactational exposure to PCBs can cause changes in body composition and obesity in a mouse model. Pregnant mice were exposed biweekly to two concentrations of PCB 126 via oral gavage. Maternal PCB exposure did not result in heavier offspring, however, dose-dependent and sex specific changes in body composition were observed. Female offspring displayed the most susceptibility to PCB-induced alterations in body composition, having less percent lean body mass and increased adiposity compared to females born to control dams, and these effects were largely dose-dependent. In contrast to females, and independent of the exposure level of PCB 126, male offspring had reduced lean body mass but no change in fat mass compared to males born to control dams. In conclusion, perinatal PCB 126 exposure did not affect body weight, but rather modulated body composition in a dose-dependent and gender-specific manner.
Programming; obesity; persistent organic pollutants; mice; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; coplanar
Studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program on the chronic toxicity of benzene indicated that B6C3F1 mice were more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of benzene than were F344 rats. A physiological model was developed to describe the uptake and metabolism of benzene in rats and mice. Our objective was to determine if differences in toxic effects could be explained by differences in pathways for benzene metabolism or by differences in total uptake of benzene. Compartments incorporated into the model included liver, fat, a poorly perfused tissue group, a richly perfused tissue group, an alveolar or lung compartment and blood. Metabolism of benzene was assumed to take place only in the liver and to proceed by four major competing pathways. These included formation of hydroquinone conjugates (HQC), formation of phenyl conjugates (PHC), ring-breakage and formation of muconic acid (MUC), and conjugation with glutathione with subsequent mercapturic acid (PMA) formation. Values for parameters such as alveolar ventilation, cardiac output, organ volumes, blood flow, partition coefficients, and metabolic rate constants were taken from the literature. Model simulations confirmed that during and after 6-hr inhalation exposures mice metabolized more benzene on a mumole per kilogram body weight basis than did rats. After oral exposure, rats metabolized more benzene than mice at doses above 50 mg/kg because of the more rapid absorption and exhalation of benzene by mice. Model simulations for PHC and PMA, generally considered to be detoxification metabolites, were similar in shape and dose-response to those for total metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic oral administration of benzene. The cause for the specificity of such lesions remains unclear, but it is possible that tissue-specific metabolism or pharmacokinetics of benzene is responsible. Metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in our laboratory with 14C-benzene at oral doses of 0.15 to 500 mg/kg to ascertain tissue retention, metabolite profile, and elimination kinetics in target and nontarget organs and in blood. Findings from those studies indicate the following: a) the Zymbal gland is not a sink or a site of accumulation for benzene or its metabolites even after a single high dose (500 mg/kg) or after repeated oral administration; b) the metabolite profile is quantitatively different in target tissues (e.g., Zymbal gland, nasal cavity), nontarget tissues and blood; and (c) pharmacokinetic studies show that the elimination of radioactivity from the Zymbal gland is biphasic.
An early-life adverse environment has been implicated in the susceptibility to different diseases in adulthood, such as mental disorders, diabetes and obesity. We analyzed the effects of a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet for 35 days in adult female rats that had experienced 180 minutes daily of maternal separation (MS) during lactancy. Changes in the obesity phenotype, biochemical profile, levels of glucocorticoid metabolism biomarkers, and the expression of different obesity- and glucocorticoid-metabolism-related genes were analyzed in periovaric adipose tissue. HFS intake increased body weight, adiposity and serum leptin levels, whereas MS decreased fat pad masses but only in rats fed an HFS diet. MS reduced insulin resistance markers but only in chow-fed rats. Corticosterone and estradiol serum levels did not change in this experimental model. A multiple gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of adiponutrin (Adpn) was increased owing to MS, and an interaction between HFS diet intake and MS was observed in the mRNA levels of leptin (Lep) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a). These results revealed that early-life stress affects the response to an HFS diet later in life, and that this response can lead to phenotype and transcriptomic changes.
The Zymbal gland, a sebaceous tissue associated with the ear duct of certain rodent species, is a principal target for carcinogenesis by benzene. To investigate the mechanism of induction of tumors in the rat Zymbal gland, we have developed a procedure for primary culture of epithelial cells from Zymbal gland explants so that cytogenetic analysis can be performed on this target tissue following an in vivo exposure to benzene. Cytogenetic analysis performed 45 hr after in vivo oral dosing with benzene revealed chromosome damage that occurred as a result of acute, subchronic, and chronic dosing. This damage, expressed as a dose-related increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells, was observed in Sprague-Dawley female rats over a range of benzene doses from 12.5 to 250 mg/kg/day, and in male Fischer 344 rats at doses ranging from 1 to 200 mg/kg/day. These results are consistent with the known clastogenicity of benzene in mouse bone marrow, which is also a target tissue. This study is the first report of a genotoxic effect of benzene in the rat Zymbal gland and shows that micronucleus formation may be used as a correlate for carcinogenesis induced by benzene in this target tissue.
The production of an experimental uremia in the albino rat by removal of both kidneys is followed by hypertrophy of the adrenal glands. In the case of male rats 90 days of age this adrenal enlargement amounted to 65 per cent and in the case of female rats 180 days of age 47 per cent. The increase in the size of the whole gland is due entirely to hypertrophy of the cortex. This increase in the volume of cortical tissue amounted to approximately 40 per cent for males and 61 per cent for females and was due in large part to an increase in the size of the cells. The content of water and material soluble in fat solvents was higher in the uremic than the control glands. However after subtraction of such storage materials a true hypertrophy of the cortex still remained. It amounted to 21 per cent. Histologically the stainable fat had a more irregular distribution and was present in lesser amount in the adrenals from the uremic animals. The capillaries of the medulla and reticular cortex were distended. The nuclei of both the cortical and medullary cells were swollen and stained faintly.
High-fat (HF) diet feeding usually leads to hyperphagia and body weight gain, but macronutrient proportions in the diet can modulate energy intake and fat deposition. The mechanisms of fat accumulation and mobilization may differ significantly between depots, and gender can also influence these differences.
To investigate, in rats of both sexes, the effect of an isocaloric intake of a diet with an unbalanced proportion of macronutrients on fatty acid composition of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and how this is influenced by both dietary fatty acids and levels of proteins involved in tissue lipid handling.
Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (3% w/w fat) or high-fat diet (30% w/w fat) for 14 weeks. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography and levels of LPL, HSL, α2-AR, β3-AR, PKA and CPT1 were determined by Western blot.
The HF diet did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain, but promoted an increase of adiposity index only in male rats. HF diet produced an increase of the proportion of MUFA and a decrease in that of PUFA in both adipose depots and in both sexes. The levels of proteins involved in the adrenergic control of the lipolytic pathway increased in the gonadal fat of HF females, whereas LPL levels increased in the inguinal fat of HF males and decreased in that of females.
Sexual dimorphism in adiposity index reflects a differential sex response to dietary fatty acid content and could be related to the levels of the proteins involved in tissue lipid management.
Apart from the well known inhibitory effects of estradiol on food intake, meal size, and body weight in female rats that have been documented over the past thirty years, a more recent report presents the opposite finding; that a large dose of estradiol can increase food intake and weight gain in gonadally intact female rats presented with a palatable diet. The purpose of the present experiment was to further examine this hypothesis by evaluating the ability of estradiol to influence feeding behavior in ovariectomized rats presented with diets that differ in flavor and fat content. Female rats were given a cyclic regimen of estradiol benzoate treatment (5.0 or 20.0 µg) or the oil vehicle and were presented with the standard chow diet or a diet with a higher fat content and chocolate flavor. Food intake, meal size, and meal number were monitored three days after the first injection of estradiol or oil. Compared to the chow diet, food intake increased when animals had access to the chocolate/fat diet during the vehicle treatment condition. Both doses of estradiol significantly decreased food intake, meal size, and body weight gain when animals were presented with either the standard chow diet or the chocolate/fat diet. These findings indicate that estradiol does not stimulate the intake of a palatable diet in ovariectomized rats, and suggest that previous results showing that estradiol enhanced eating and weight gain stemmed from a disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis when intact females received a large dose of exogenous estradiol.
estradiol; palatable food; meal size; body weight
Expansion of intra-abdominal adipose tissue and the accompanying inflammatory response has been put forward as a unifying link between obesity and the development of chronic diseases. However, an apparent sexual dimorphism exists between obesity and chronic disease risk due to differences in the distribution and abundance of adipose tissue. A range of experimental protocols have been employed to demonstrate the role of estrogen in regulating health benefits; however, most studies are confounded by significant differences in body weight and adiposity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare weight-matched obese male and female mice to determine if the sex-dependent health benefits remain when body weight is similar. The development of obesity in female mice receiving a high-fat diet was delayed; however, subsequent comparisons of weight-matched obese mice revealed greater adiposity in obese female mice. Despite excess adiposity and enlarged adipocyte size, obese females remained more glucose tolerant than weight-matched male mice, and this benefit was associated with increased expression of adiponectin and reductions in immune cell infiltration and oxidative stress in adipose tissue. Therefore, the protective benefits of estrogen persist in the obese state and appear to improve the metabolic phenotype of adipose tissue and the individual.
specific cross sectional reference values for lung function indices
usually employ a linear model with terms for age and stature. The
effects of also matching for body mass index (BMI= mass/stature2) or its components, fat percentage of body
mass (fat%) and fat free mass index (FFMI = fat free
mass/stature2) were studied.
were 458 asymptomatic male and female non-smokers (383 men) and 22 female ex-smokers. Measurements were made of ventilatory capacity, lung
volumes, transfer factor (diffusing capacity, single breath CO method),
and body composition (skinfold method). Linear and proportional
regression models were used.
fat% and FFMI significantly improved the accuracy of reference values
for all the primary lung function indices. The improvements in subjects
with atypical physiques (fat% and FFMI at the ends of the
distributions for the subjects) were in the range 0.3-2.3 SD compared
with conventional regression equations. The new partial regression
coefficients on age were independent of age related changes in body
fat. The coefficient for total lung capacity (TLC) on age in men was
now positive. Most differences between the sexes were eliminated. A
term for BMI improved the descriptions of subdivisions of TLC but
lacked the other advantages.
for fat% and FFMI increases the accuracy of reference equations for
lung function, particularly for subjects with a lot of fat and little
muscle or vice versa. Allowance for BMI is less informative.
A description has been given of the pathologic changes produced experimentally in animals by the inoculation of a virus material obtained from a mouse with spontaneous encephalomyelitis. The most distinctive feature of the lesions in the central nervous system is the widespread destruction of myelin. Giant cells derived from a variety of tissue elements characterize the early lesions. The liver in the majority of cases is the seat of focal necrosis. In some mice, infected with large doses by the intravenous route, there is produced massive necrosis of the liver, with fat infiltration and calcification. Giant cells are occasionally found in lymphatic tissue, but no significant changes were noted in other organs. Inclusions or elementary bodies were not demonstrated in the lesions. Similar lesions were produced by the inoculation of mouse virus into hamsters. In rats, the lesions were of a more chronic character. The relation of this disease to other demyelinating diseases of man and animals is discussed.
AIM: To assess a relationship between longitudinal changes in liver fat content and biochemical parameters in obese children after 1-year nutritional intervention.
METHODS: Forty-six obese children, 21 males and 25 females, aged 6-14 years, underwent metabolic measurements, liver ultrasonography (US) and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at baseline and after 1-year nutritional intervention. A child was defined obese if her/his body mass index (BMI) was above the age- and sex-adjusted BMI Cole’s curve passing through the cut-off of 30 kg/m2 at 18 years. BMI Z scores were calculated and adjusted for age and gender by using the Cole’s LMS-method and Italian reference data. Biochemistry included serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Abdominal US and chemical-shift MRI were performed according to a randomized sequence. The same radiologist performed US by a GE Logiq 9 (General Electric Healthcare Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, United States) using a 3.5-MHz convex array transducer. Liver echogenicity was evaluated independently on videotape by 3 radiologists unaware of the child and MRI outcomes, and a consensus was established. Another experienced radiologist, unaware of the child and US data, performed the abdominal chemical-shift MRI with a 1-t system NT-Intera (Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) and a phased-array coil. Liver fat fraction (FF) on MRI was judged elevated when greater than 9%. A FF > 18% was considered expressing more severe cases of fatty liver according to Fishbein. A nutritional-behavioral intervention was recommended to promote a normocaloric balanced diet and active lifestyle based on the Italian guidelines for treatment of childhood obesity.
RESULTS: Compared to baseline, at the end of intervention children showed lower intakes of energy (mean ± SD: 2549 ± 1238 Kcal vs 1770 ± 622 Kcal, P < 0.0001), total fat (90 ± 47 g vs 52 ± 23 g, P < 0.0001), carbohydrates (356 ± 174 g vs 241 ± 111 g, P = 0.001), and protein (99 ± 48 g vs 75 ± 23 g, P = 0.006) intakes. Prevalence of FF ≥ 9% declined from 34.8% to 8.7% (P < 0.01), with a mean reduction of 7.8% (95%CI: 5.0-10.6). At baseline, FF was associated with liver biochemical parameters (maximum P < 0.001). At the end of the intervention association was found with AST (P = 0.017). Change of FF was associated with change in AST (P = 0.027) and ALT (P = 0.024). Rate of increased liver echogenicity declined from 45.6% to 21.7% (P < 0.0001). Liver echogenicity was associated with ALT at baseline only (P < 0.001). An age- and sex- adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that FF change was independently associated with change in serum AST (adjusted regression coefficient 0.348, P = 0.048).
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that in obese children longitudinal changes in liver fat content based on MRI may be associated with change in serum transaminases suggesting novelty in monitoring nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Childhood obesity; Serum transaminases; Magnetic resonance imaging; Nutritional intervention
Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of benzene (CAS No. 71-43-2; greater than 99.7% pure) were conducted in groups of 60 F344/N rats and 60 B6C3F1 mice of each sex for each of three exposure doses and vehicle controls. These composite studies on benzene were designed and conducted because of large production volume and widespread human exposure, because of the epidemiologic association with leukemia, and because previous experiments were considered inadequate or inconclusive for determining carcinogenicity in laboratory animals. Using the results from 17-week studies, doses for the 2-year studies were selected based on clinical observations (tremors in higher dosed mice), on clinical pathologic findings (lymphoid depletion in rats and leukopenia in mice), and on body weight effects. Doses of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight benzene in corn oil were administered by gavage to male rats, 5 days per week, for 103 weeks. Doses of 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg benzene in corn oil were administered by gavage to female rats and to male and female mice for 103 weeks. Ten animals in each of the 16 groups were killed at 12 months, and necropsies were performed. Hematologic profiles were performed at 3-month intervals. For the 2-year studies, mean body weights of the top dose groups of male rats and of both sexes of mice were lower than those of the controls. Survivals of the top dose group of rats and mice of each sex were reduced; however, at week 92 for rats and week 91 for mice, survival was greater than 60% in all groups; most of the dosed animals that died before week 103 had neoplasia. Compound-related nonneoplastic or neoplastic effects on the hematopoietic system, Zymbal gland, forestomach, and adrenal gland were found both for rats and mice. Further, the oral cavity was affected in rats, and the lung, liver, Harderian gland, preputial gland, ovary, and mammary gland were affected in mice. Under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenicity of benzene in male F344/N rats, female F344/N rats, male B6C3F1 mice, and female B6C3F1 mice. In male rats, benzene caused increased incidences of Zymbal gland carcinomas, squamous cell papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, and squamous cell papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. In female rats, benzene caused increased incidences of Zymbal gland carcinomas and squamous cell papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Ten male volunteers were exposed to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEE-Ac) under various conditions of exposure and physical workload. As exposure proceeded, retention, atmospheric clearance, and uptake rate declined slowly to reach steady state levels after three to four hours. Retention increased as a consequence of higher exposure concentrations and of physical workload performed during exposure. Uptake rate was higher as exposure concentration or pulmonary ventilation rate, or both, increased. Subject related factors such as pulmonary ventilation, cardiac output, height, and body fat content also determined individual uptake. During exposure, partial respiratory elimination of EGEE was observed. This finding confirms the hypothesis that EGEE-Ac is first converted to EGEE by (plasma) esterases. The amount of EGEE eliminated at steady state levels correlated more with uptake rate of EGEE-Ac than with exposure concentration. Respiratory elimination of unmetabolised EGEE-Ac accounted for less than or equal to 0.5% of total body uptake. The elimination curves were biexponential indicating that at least two pharmacological compartments are involved. Postexposure breath concentrations were higher as total body uptake increased. Several observations may indicate that the hydrolysis of the ester moiety of EGEE-Ac is hindered by the presence of the natural esterase substrates. With increasing plasma concentrations, however, EGEE-Ac competed more favourably for the available esterase.
At a given external dose of an inhaled chemical the internal dose or the amount absorbed into the body varies depending on pulmonary ventilation and other physiological factors. Such variability is of concern in the development of biological indices of occupational exposure to organic solvent vapours. This paper discusses how physiological factors may influence the pharmacokinetic behaviour of inhaled organic solvent vapours, especially in relation to monitoring of biological exposure. To illustrate the discussion a computer based physiological pharmacokinetic model was used describing quantitatively the influence of body size, body fat content, and sex on the pharmacokinetic behaviour of trichloroethylene. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of trichloroethylene were found to vary according to the different anatomical features of men and women. Body build (body weight and body fat content) also affected the pharmacokinetic behaviour of this solvent.
Leptin regulates appetite and body weight via hypothalamic targets, but it can act directly on cultured pancreatic islets to regulate their fat metabolism. To obtain in vivo evidence that leptin may act peripherally as well as centrally, we compared the effect of adenovirally induced hyperleptinemia on food intake, body weight, and islet fat content in ventromedial hypothalamic-lesioned (VMHL) rats, sham-lesioned (SL) controls, and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats in which the leptin receptor is mutated. Infusion with recombinant adenovirus containing the rat leptin cDNA increased plasma leptin by approximately 20 ng/ml in VMHL and ZDF rats but had no effect on their food intake, body weight, or fat tissue weight. Caloric matching of hyperphagic VMHL rats to SL controls did not reduce their resistance to hyperleptinemia. Whereas prediabetic ZDF rats had a fourfold elevation in islet fat, in VMHL rats islet fat was normal and none of them became diabetic. Isolated islets from ZDF rats were completely resistant to the lipopenic action of leptin, while VMHL islets exhibited 50% of the normal response; caloric matching of VMHL rats to SL controls increased leptin responsiveness of their islets to 92% of controls. We conclude that leptin regulation of adipocyte fat requires an intact VMH but that islet fat content is regulated independently of the VMH.
Variations in the fatty acid composition of lipids in the heart alter its function and susceptibility to ischaemic injury. We investigated the effect of sex and dietary fat intake on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids and triacylglycerol in rat heart. Rats were fed either 40 or 100 g/kg fat (9:1 lard:soybean oil) from weaning until day 105. There were significant interactive effects of sex and fat intake on the proportions of fatty acids in heart phospholipids, dependent on phospholipid classes. 20:4n-6, but not 22:6n-3, was higher in phospholipids in females than males fed a low, but not a high, fat diet. There was no effect of sex on the composition of triacylglycerol. These findings suggest that sex is an important factor in determining the incorporation of dietary fatty acids into cardiac lipids. This may have implications for sex differences in susceptibility to heart disease.
Heart; Fatty acids; Phophospholipids; Triacylglycerol; Sex; Rat
Background & Aims
Steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is due to an imbalance between intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) production and export. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TG metabolism in adipose tissue and liver in NAFLD.
Fatty acid, VLDL-TG, and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB100) kinetics were assessed by using stable isotope tracers in 14 nondiabetic obese subjects with NAFLD (IHTG, 22.7% ± 2.0%) and 14 nondiabetic obese subjects with normal IHTG content (IHTG, 3.4% ± 0.4%), matched on age, sex, body mass index, and percent body fat.
Compared with the normal IHTG group, the NAFLD group had greater rates of palmitate release from adipose tissue into plasma (85.4 ± 6.6 and 114.1 ± 8.1 µmol/min, respectively; P = .01) and VLDL-TG secretion (11.4 ± 1.1 and 24.3 ± 3.1 µmol/min, respectively; P = .001); VLDL-apoB100 secretion rates were not different between groups. The increase in VLDL-TG secretion was primarily due to an increased contribution from “nonsystemic” fatty acids, presumably derived from lipolysis of intrahepatic and intra-abdominal fat and de novo lipogenesis. VLDL-TG secretion rate increased linearly with increasing IHTG content in subjects with normal IHTG but reached a plateau when IHTG content was ≥10% (r = 0.618, P < .001).
Obese persons with NAFLD have marked alterations in both adipose tissue (increased lipolytic rates) and hepatic (increased VLDL-TG secretion) TG metabolism. Fatty acids derived from nonsystemic sources are responsible for the increase in VLDL-TG secretion. However, the increase in hepatic TG export is not adequate to normalize IHTG content.
Excess accumulation of visceral fat is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity. While computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard to measure visceral adiposity, this is often not possible for large studies - thus valid, but less expensive and intrusive proxy measures of visceral fat are required such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Study aims were to a) identify a valid DXA-based measure of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), b) estimate VAT heritability and c) assess visceral fat association with morbidity in relation to body fat distribution.
A validation sample of 54 females measured for detailed body fat composition - assessed using CT, DXA and anthropometry – was used to evaluate previously published predictive models of CT-measured visceral fat. Based upon a validated model, we realised an out-of-sample estimate of abdominal VAT area for a study sample of 3457 female volunteer twins and estimated VAT area heritability using a classical twin study design. Regression and residuals analyses were used to assess the relationship between adiposity and morbidity.
Published models applied to the validation sample explained >80% of the variance in CT-measured visceral fat. While CT visceral fat was best estimated using a linear regression for waist circumference, CT body cavity area and total abdominal fat (R2 = 0.91), anthropometric measures alone predicted VAT almost equally well (CT body cavity area and waist circumference, R2 = 0.86). Narrow sense VAT area heritability for the study sample was estimated to be 58% (95% CI: 51-66%) with a shared familial component of 24% (17-30%). VAT area is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension (HT), subclinical atherosclerosis and liver function tests. In particular, VAT area is associated with T2D, HT and liver function (alanine transaminase) independent of DXA total abdominal fat and body mass index (BMI).
DXA and anthropometric measures can be utilised to derive estimates of visceral fat as a reliable alternative to CT. Visceral fat is heritable and appears to mediate the association between body adiposity and morbidity. This observation is consistent with hypotheses that suggest excess visceral adiposity is causally related to cardiovascular and metabolic disease.
Visceral fat; Adiposity; DXA; Type 2 diabetes; Hypertension; Subclinical atherosclerosis; Liver function
Insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet has been associated with alterations in lipid content and composition in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Administration of β3-adrenoceptor (β3-AR) agonists was recently reported to prevent insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet, such as the cafeteria diet. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a selective β3-AR agonist (ZD7114) could prevent alterations of the lipid profile of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipids induced by a cafeteria diet.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a cafeteria diet were treated orally with either the β3-AR agonist ZD7114 (1 mg/kg per day) or the vehicle for 60 days. Rats fed a chow diet were used as a reference group. In addition to the determination of body weight and insulin plasma level, lipid content and fatty acid composition in gastronemius and in epididymal adipose tissue were measured by gas-liquid chromatography, at the end of the study.
In addition to higher body weights and plasma insulin concentrations, rats fed a cafeteria diet had greater triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation in skeletal muscle, contrary to animals fed a chow diet. As expected, ZD7114 treatment prevented the excessive weight gain and hyperinsulinemia induced by the cafeteria diet. Furthermore, in ZD7114 treated rats, intramyocellular DAG levels were lower and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid, in adipose tissue phospholipids was higher than in animals fed a cafeteria diet.
These results show that activation of the β3-AR was able to prevent lipid alterations in muscle and adipose tissue associated with insulin resistance induced by the cafeteria diet. These changes in intramyocellular DAG levels and adipose tissue PL composition may contribute to the improved insulin sensitivity associated with β3-AR activation.