CBDP (2-(2-cresyl)-4H-1-3-2-benzodioxaphosphorin-2-oxide) is a toxic organophosphorus compound. It is generated in vivo from tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), a component of jet engine oil and hydraulic fluids. Exposure to TOCP was proven to occur on board aircraft by finding CBDP-derived phospho-butyrylcholinesterase in the blood of passengers. Adducts on BChE however do not explain the toxicity of CBDP. Critical target proteins of CBDP are yet to be identified. Our goal was to facilitate the search for the critical targets of CBDP by determining the range of amino acid residues capable of reacting with CBDP and characterizing the types of adducts formed. We used human albumin as a model protein. Mass spectral analysis of the tryptic digest of CBDP-treated human albumin revealed adducts on His-67, His-146, His-242, His-247, His-338, Tyr-138, Tyr-140, Lys-199, Lys-351, Lys-414, Lys-432, Lys-525. Adducts formed on tyrosine residues were different from those formed on histidines and lysines. Tyrosines were organophosphorylated by CBDP, while histidine and lysine residues were alkylated. This is the first report of an organophosphorus compound with both phosphorylating and alkylating properties. The hydroxybenzyl adduct on histidine is novel. The ability of CBDP to form stable adducts on histidine, tyrosine and lysine allows one to consider new mechanisms of toxicity from TOCP exposure.
Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is a Wallerian-type axonopathy that occurs weeks after exposure to certain organophosphates (OPs). OPs have been shown to bind to Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE), thereby inhibiting its enzymatic activity. However, only OPs that also induce the so-called aging reaction cause OPIDN. This reaction results in the release and possible transfer of a side group from the bound OP to NTE and it has been suggested that this induces an unknown toxic function of NTE. To further investigate the mechanisms of aging OPs, we used Drosophila, which expresses a functionally conserved orthologue of NTE named Swiss Cheese (SWS). Treating flies with the organophosporous compound tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) resulted in behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration two weeks after exposure, symptoms similar to the delayed effects observed in other models. In addition, we found that primary neurons showed signs of axonal degeneration within an hour after treatment. Surprisingly, increasing the levels of SWS, and thereby its enzymatic activity after exposure, did not ameliorate these phenotypes. In contrast, reducing SWS levels protected from TOCP-induced degeneration and behavioral deficits but did not affect the axonopathy observed in cell culture. Besides its enzymatic activity as a phospholipase, SWS also acts as regulatory PKA subunit, binding and inhibiting the C3 catalytic subunit. Measuring PKA activity in TOCP treated flies revealed a significant decrease that was also confirmed in treated rat hippocampal neurons. Flies expressing additional PKA-C3 were protected from the behavioral and degenerative phenotypes caused by TOCP exposure whereas primary neurons were not. In addition, knocking-down PKA-C3 caused similar behavioral and degenerative phenotypes as TOCP treatment. We therefore propose a model in which OP-modified SWS cannot release PKA-C3 and that the resulting loss of PKA-C3 activity plays a crucial role in developing the delayed symptoms of OPIDN but not in the acute toxicity.
Methyl formate (MF) is a volatile solvent with several industrial applications. The acute airway effects of MF were evaluated in a mouse bioassay, allowing the assessment of sensory irritation of the upper airways, airflow limitation of the conducting airways and deep lung (pulmonary) irritation. MF was studied at vapour concentrations of 202–1,168 ppm. Sensory irritation was the only effect observed, which developed slowly over the 30-min exposure period. The potency at steady state was at least 10-fold higher than expected from a hypothetically similar, but non-reactive compound. Methyl formate may be hydrolysed in vivo to formic acid, a potent sensory irritant, and methanol, a low-potent sensory irritant. Hydrolysis may be catalysed by carboxyesterases, and therefore, the role of the esterases was studied using the esterase inhibitor tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP). TOCP pre-treatment reduced the irritation response of MF, suggesting that carboxyesterase-mediated hydrolysis plays a role in the irritative effect. However, even after administration of TOCP, MF was considerably more irritating than expected from a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model. The slope of the concentration–effect relationship for formic acid was lower than that for the MF in the low-dose range, suggesting that different receptor activation mechanisms may occur, which may include an effect of MF itself, in addition to an effect of formic acid and potentially an effect from formaldehyde.
Methyl formate; Airway irritation; BALB/c mice; Mechanisms of action
Toxic airline syndrome is assumed to be caused by exposure to tri-cresyl phosphate, an additive in engine lubricants and hydraulic fluids, which is activated to the toxic 2-(o-cresyl)-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one (CBDP). At present there is no laboratory evidence to support intoxication of airline crew by CBDP. Our goal was to develop methods for testing in vivo exposure by identifying and characterizing biomarkers. Mass spectrometry was used to study the reaction of CBDP with human albumin, free tyrosine, and human butyrylcholinesterase. Human albumin made a covalent bond with CBDP, adding a mass of 170 to tyrosine 411 to yield the ortho-cresyl phosphotyrosine derivative. Human butyrylcholinesterase made a covalent bond with CBDP on serine 198 to yield 5 adducts with added masses of 80, 108, 156, 170, and 186. The most abundant adduct had an added mass of 80 from phosphate (HPO3), a surprising result since no pesticide or nerve agent is known to yield phosphorylated serine with an added mass of 80. The next most abundant adduct had an added mass of 170 to form ortho-cresyl phosphoserine. It is concluded that toxic gases or oil mists in cabin air may form adducts on plasma butyrylcholinesterase and albumin, detectable by mass spectrometry.
CBDP; butyrylcholinesterase; serum albumin; tyrosine; organophosphorus agent; mass spectrometry; toxic airline syndrome
The aerotoxic syndrome is assumed to be caused by exposure to tricresyl phosphate (TCP), an anti-wear additive in jet engine lubricants and hydraulic fluids. CBDP (2-(ortho-cresyl)-4H-1,2,3-benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one) is the toxic metabolite of tri-ortho-cresylphosphate, a component of TCP. Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 22.214.171.124) and human acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 126.96.36.199) are irreversibly inhibited by CBDP. The bimolecular rate constants of inhibition (ki), determined under pseudo first-order conditions, displayed a biphasic time course of inhibition with ki 1.6×108 M−1min−1 and 2.7×107 M−1min−1 for E and E′ forms of BChE. The inhibition constants for AChE were one to two orders of magnitude slower than for BChE. CBDP-phosphorylated cholinesterases are non-reactivatable due to ultra fast “aging”. Mass spectrometry analysis showed an initial BChE adduct with an added mass of 170 Da from cresylphosphate, followed by dealkylation to a structure with an added mass of 80 Da. Mass spectrometry in 18O–water showed that 18O was incorporated only during the final aging step to form phospho-serine as the final “aged” BChE adduct. The crystal structure of CBDP-inhibited BChE confirmed that the phosphate adduct is the ultimate aging product. CBDP is the first organophosphorus agent that leads to a fully dealkylated phospho-serine BChE adduct.
Acetylcholinesterase; butyrylcholinesterase; aerotoxic syndrome; organophosphate; CBDP; inhibition kinetics; aging; MALDI-TOF; X-ray crystallography; OPIDN; saligenin
In the title molecule, C15H14N4O4, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 2.21 (7)°. An intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. The mean planes of the ortho- and para-nitro groups make dihedral angles of 2.17 (17) and 2.05 (16)°, respectively, with the benzene ring to which they are attached. In the crystal structure, weak intermolecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R
2(13) and R
1(10) ring motifs, linking symmetry-related molecules into extended chains along the b axis. In addition, there are intermolecular C⋯C [3.332 (2)–3.343 (2) Å] contacts which are shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii. The crystal structure is further stabilized by intermolecular C—H⋯π and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8090 (9) Å].
The first structure report of trichlorido[4′-(p-tolyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine]iridium(III) dimethyl sulfoxide solvate, [IrCl3(C22H17N3)]·C2H6OS, (I), is presented, along with a higher-symmetry setting of previously reported bis[4′-(p-tolyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine]iridium(III) tris(hexafluoridophosphate) acetonitrile disolvate, [Ir(C22H17N3)2](PF6)3·2C2H3N, (II) [Yoshikawa, Yamabe, Kanehisa, Kai, Takashima & Tsukahara (2007 ▶). Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. pp. 1911–1919]. For (I), the data were collected with synchrotron radiation and the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecule is disordered over three positions, one of which is an inversion center. The previously reported structure of (II) is presented in the more appropriate C2/c space group. The iridium complex and one PF6
− anion lie on twofold axes in this structure, making half of the molecule unique.
Mutant strains of Pseudomonas putida strain U have been obtained which are deficient in enzymes of the degradative pathways of phenol and cresols. Mutant strains deficient in catechol 2, 3-oxygenase accumulated the appropriate catechol derivative from cresols. A mutant strain which would not grow on either phenol or a cresol was shown to be deficient in both 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde hydrolase and a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form, (NAD+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase. When this strain was grown in the presence of phenol or a cresol, the appropriate product of meta fission of these compounds accumulated in the growth medium. A partial revertant of this mutant strain, which was able to grow on ortho- and meta-cresol but not para-cresol, was shown to have regained only the hydrolase activity. This strain was used to show that the products of meta ring fission of the cresols and phenol are metabolized as follows: (i) ortho- and meta-cresol exclusively by a hydrolase; (ii) para-cresol exclusively by a NAD+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase; (iii) phenol by both a NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase and a hydrolase in the approximate ratio of 5 to 1. This conclusion is supported by the substrate specificity and enzymatic activity of the hydrolase and NAD+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes of the wild-type strain. The results are discussed in terms of the physiological significance of the pathway. Properties of some of the mutant strains isolated are discussed.
Tri alkyl phosphate esters are a class of anthropogenic organics commonly found in surface waters of Europe and North America, due to their frequent application as flame retardants, plasticizers, and solvents. Four tri alkyl phosphate esters were evaluated to determine second-order rates of reaction with ultraviolet- and ozone-generated •OH in water. In competition with nitrobenzene in UV irradiated hydrogen peroxide solutions tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) was fastest to react with •OH (kOH,TBEP=1.03×1010 M-1s-1), followed sequentially by tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) (kOH,TBEP=6.40×109, kOH,TBEP=5.60×108, & kOH,TBEP=1.98×10 M-1s-1). A two-stage process was used to test the validity of the determined kOH for TBEP and the fastest reacting halogenated alkyl phosphate, TCEP. First, •OH oxidation of TCEP and TBEP, in competition with nitrobenzene, was measured in ozonated hydrogen peroxide solutions. Applying multiple regression analysis, it was determined that the UV-H2O2 and O3-H2O2 data sets were statistically identical for each compound. The subsequent validated kOH were used to predict TCEP and TBEP photodegradation in neutral pH, model surface water after chemical oxidant addition and UV irradiation (up to 1000 mJ/cm2). The insignificant difference, between the predicted TBEP and TCEP photodegradation and a best-fit of the first-order exponential decay function to the observed TBEP and TCEP concentrations with increasing UV fluence, was further evidence of the validity of the determined kOH. TBEP oxidation rates were similar in the surface waters tested. Substantial TCEP oxidation in the model surface water required a significant increase in H2O2.
organophosphate esters; ultraviolet; ozone; hydroxyl radical; hydrogen peroxide; free chlorine
Background: Chlorinated phosphate esters (CPEs) are widely used as additive flame retardants for low-density polyurethane foams and have frequently been detected at elevated concentrations within indoor environmental media.
Objectives: To begin characterizing the potential toxicity of CPEs on early vertebrate development, we examined the developmental toxicity of four CPEs used in polyurethane foam: tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)propane-1,3-diyl tetrakis(2-chlorethyl) bis(phosphate) (V6).
Methods: Using zebrafish as a model for vertebrate embryogenesis, we first screened the potential teratogenic effects of TDCPP, TCEP, TCPP, and V6 using a developmental toxicity assay. Based on these results, we focused on identification of susceptible windows of developmental TDCPP exposure as well as evaluation of uptake and elimination of TDCPP and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (BDCPP, the primary metabolite) within whole embryos. Finally, because TDCPP-specific genotoxicity assays have, for the most part, been negative in vivo and because zygotic genome remethylation is a key biological event during cleavage, we investigated whether TDCPP altered the status of zygotic genome methylation during early zebrafish embryogenesis.
Results: Overall, our findings suggest that the cleavage period during zebrafish embryogenesis is susceptible to TDCPP-induced delays in remethylation of the zygotic genome, a mechanism that may be associated with enhanced developmental toxicity following initiation of TDCPP exposure at the start of cleavage.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that further research is needed to better understand the effects of a widely used and detected CPE within susceptible windows of early vertebrate development.
cleavage; DNA methylation; embryogenesis; flame retardant; TDCPP; zebrafish
The title compound, C14H13NO, is non-planar with a dihedral angle of 47.00 (6)° between the planes of the two aromatic rings. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed between the O—H group and the N atom, resulting in a phenol–imine tautomeric form.
The title compound, C30H42N4, is an arylated tris(aminoethyl)amine derivative which was obtained by reducing the corresponding tris-amide with AlH3. The asymmetric unit consists of one third of a C
3v-symmetric molecule with the tertiary N atom lying on a crystallographic threefold axis.
When di-, tri-, and tetrachloroaniline were incubated in methanogenic groundwater slurries, they were reductively dehalogenated by the aquifer microbiota. 2,3,4-Trichloroaniline was metabolized by two pathways. Primary dehalogenation occurred at either the meta or ortho position of this substrate to form 2,4- and 3,4-dichloroaniline, respectively. The latter chemical could be stoichiometrically converted to 3-chloroaniline. 2,3,4,5-Tetrachloroaniline was degraded by the sequential removal of halogens from the para and then the ortho position to form 3,5-dichloroaniline. An additional pathway was observed with this substrate when the aquifer slurries were amended with butyrate. That is, halogens could be removed from both the meta and ortho positions of tetrachloroaniline. The amendment of sulfate to methanogenic aquifer slurries slowed the rate of 2,3,4,5-tetrachloroaniline degradation and increased the amount of substrate channeled through the additional pathway. The reported intermediates or end products are identified by their chromatographic mobility and mass-spectral profiles.
The non-H atoms in the title compound, C14H19NO3, lie on a mirror plane. The amide O and ester carbonyl O atoms are trans to each other. Furthermore, the C=O and O—CH2 bonds of the ester group are syn with respect to each other. In the crystal, molecules are packed into centrosymmetric dimers through intermolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
A new type of pH-labile cationic polymers, poly(ortho ester amidine) (POEAmd) copolymers, has been synthesized and characterized with potential future application as gene delivery carriers. The acid-labile POEAmd copolymer was synthesized by polycondensation of a new ortho ester diamine monomer with dimethylaliphatimidates, and a non-acid-labile polyamidine (PAmd) copolymer was also synthesized for comparison using a triethylene glycol diamine monomer. Both copolymers were easily dissolved in water, and can efficiently bind and condense plasmid DNA at neutral pH, forming nano-scale polyplexes. The physico-chemical properties of the polyplexes have been studied using dynamic light scattering, gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide exclusion, and heparin competition. The average size of the polyplexes was dependent on the amidine: phosphate (N:P) ratio of the polymers to DNA. Polyplexes containing the acid-labile POEAmd or the non-acid-labile PAmd showed similar average particle size, comparable strength of condensing DNA, and resistance to electrostatic destabilization. They also share similar metabolic toxicity to cells as measured by MTT assay. Importantly, the acid-labile polyplexes undergo accelerated polymer degradation at mildly-acid-pHs, resulting in increasing particle size and the release of intact DNA plasmid. Polyplexes from both types of polyamidines caused distinct changes in the scattering properties of Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK-21) cells, showing swelling and increasing intracellular granularity. These cellular responses are uniquely different from other cationic polymers such as polyethylenimine and point to stress-related mechanisms specific to the polyamidines. Gene transfection of BHK-21 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. The positive yet modest transfection efficiency by the polyamidines (acid-labile and non-acid-labile alike) underscores the importance of balancing polymer degradation and DNA release with endosomal escape. Insights gained from studying such acid-labile polyamidine-based DNA carriers and their interaction with cells may contribute to improved design of practically useful gene delivery systems.
Copolymer; Ortho ester; Gene delivery
The title compound, C17H19NO3, adopts the phenol–imine tautomeric form, with a resonance-assisted O—H⋯N intramolecular hydrogen bond [O⋯N = 2.551 (3) Å]. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 45.42 (7)°. The two methoxy groups are coplanar with the attached benzene ring [C—O—C—C torsion angles = −1.1 (5) and 3.2 (4)°].
The molecule of the title compound, C16H17NO2, adopts the phenol–imine tautomeric form with a strong intramolecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond and an E conformation with respect to the azomethine C=N bond. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 21.23 (9)°. The ethyl group is disordered over two orientations with occupancies of 0.598 (6) and 0.402 (6). In the crystal, the molecules are linked into chains along the b axis by C—H⋯π interactions.
The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such “fume events”. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24–48 hours after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers.
aerotoxic syndrome; butyrylcholinesterase; mass spectrometry; tricresyl phosphate; CBDP; titanium oxide
A tantalum-catalyzed addition of N-alkylarylamine α-C–H bonds across olefins is reported. These reactions occur with mono- and 2,2-disubstituted olefins to form the branched insertion products in high yield and regioselectivity. The reactions encompass additions of the α-C–H bonds of cyclic and acyclic amines, as well as intramolecular additions. NMR studies indicate that the starting homoleptic, Ta(NMe2)5precatalyst converts to bis- and tris(N-methylanilide) complexes (amongst others) in solution. Deuterium-labeling studies suggest that reversible ortho-metalation of the arene substituent occurs under the reaction conditions. However, several experiments imply that this ortho-metalation does not lie on the reaction pathway. Instead, these complexes are proposed to eliminate amine to form N-aryl imine complexes, which insert olefins into the Ta–C bond and undergo protonolysis to regenerate the active catalyst and eliminate the addition product.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their pharmacological activities by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. Previous studies have shown that esters and amides of non-selective inhibitors such as indomethacin are selective against COX-2, which is the therapeutically relevant isoform. Structure-activity analysis indicates that substituted phenyl rings are tolerated as ester components. In the present study, the introduction of inorganic ortho- and meta-carbaborane moieties was explored with the aim to create COX-2 inhibitors and more importantly to investigate the validity of using these boron clusters as drug entities. Interestingly, only the ortho-carbaborane ester was active whereas the meta isomer was not. A similar lack of inhibitory potency was observed when an adamantyl substituent or alkylene spacers at the carbaborane were introduced in the ester functionality.
Carborane; Carbaborane; Cyclooxygenase; Indomethacin; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
In the title compound, C14H12FNO, the ortho-F atom and corresponding H atom on the fluorobenzene ring are disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.856 (4) and 0.144 (4). The amide unit is planar with a maximum deviation of 0.0057 (16) Å and the amide plane makes dihedral angles of 38.27 (11)° with the fluorobenzene ring plane and 37.53 (10)° with the tolyl ring. The two benzene rings are inclined at an angle of 4.17 (15)°. In the crystal structure, chains form along b through N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds augmented by C—H⋯π interactions. Additional intermolecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds further stabilize the structure, forming layers in the ac plane.
In the title compound, C15H15NO, the C—N—C(O)—C amide unit is planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å) and subtends dihedral angles of 44.71 (5) and 43.33 (5)° with the two o-tolyl rings. These aromatic rings are inclined at 4.94 (7)° to one another. The ortho-methyl groups of the two tolyl rings are anti to one another. In the crystal structure, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds augmented by C—H⋯π interactions link the molecules in a head-to-head fashion into chains along a. Independent chains pack in a herringbone pattern along c.
Ten day old chick sympathetic ganglia cultured in a microslide assembly were treated with a selected group of organophosphate pesticides to evaluate their cytotoxicity ranges, and the usefulness of such a model for screening pesticides. Examination by phase contrast and light microscopy for chemically-induced morphological alteration of nerve fibers, glial cells and neurons provided the criteria for quantitation and assessment of the toxic effects. Concentrations that produced half-maximal effects ranged from 1 × 10-6M (severely toxic) for methylparathian, diazinon, paraoxon, mevinphos, diisopropylfluorophosphate, tri-o-tolyl phosphate and its mixed isomers to a 1 × 10-3M (intermediate) for malathion, leptophos, coumaphos, mono- and dicrotophos. Some or no effects were evident at 1 × 102-M for O'ethyl-O-p-nitrophenyl phenyl phosphonothioate, tri-m-tolylphosphate, chlorpyriphos and triphenyl phosphate. In all instances, nerve fibers were more sensitive than neurons or glial cells to insecticides. All cellular growth was inhibited at 1 × 10-2M (except triphenyl phosphate). Below 1 x 10-7M, no inhibitory effects were evident. The secondary abnormalities included decreased cellular migration, diffuse cellular growth pattern, increased vacuolization, nerve fiber swelling and cellular degeneration. The cytotoxic effects of these chemicals do not appear to be related to in vivo toxicity or cholinesterase inhibition potential.
We examined the anaerobic degradation of phenol and the ortho, meta, and para isomers of chlorophenol, methoxyphenol, methylphenol (cresol), and nitrophenol in anaerobic sewage sludge diluted to 10% in a mineral salts medium. Of the 12 monosubstituted phenols studied, only p-chlorophenol and o-cresol were not significantly degraded during an 8-week incubation period. The phenol compounds degraded and the time required for complete substrate disappearance (in weeks) were: phenol (2), o-chlorophenol (3), m-chlorophenol (7), o-methoxyphenol (2), m- and p-methoxyphenol (1), m-cresol (7), p-cresol (3), and o-, m-, and p-nitrophenol (1). Complete mineralization of phenol, o-chlorophenol, m-cresol, p-cresol, o-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, and o-, m-, and p-methoxyphenol was observed. In general, the presence of Cl and NO2 groups on phenols inhibited methane production. Elimination or transformation of these substituents was accompanied by increased methane production, o-Chlorophenol was metabolized to phenol, which indicated that dechlorination was the initial degradation step. The methoxyphenols were transformed to the corresponding dihydroxybenzene compounds, which were subsequently mineralized.
Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of several phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and compounds containing a 2-ethylhexyl moiety were conducted in Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 (hybrid) mice. The compounds studied were phthalic anhydride, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, and 2-ethylhexyl sulfate (sodium salt). Estimated maximum tolerable doses and fractionally lower doses of each compound were administered to groups of 50 male and 50 female rats and mice for 2 years, followed by sacrifice, necropsy, and histopathological examination of major organs and tissues. The low toxic potencies of most of the compounds allowed for relatively high doses to be given during the chronic studies. In general, the toxic manifestations of the PAEs were closely correlated with their ester substituents. Although many of the PAEs possessed some carcinogenic activity, target sites for such effects were dissimilar, suggesting the absence of a common mode of action. In contrast, all of the 2-ethylhexyl-containing compounds studied possessed some hepatocarcinogenic activity, indicating that this moiety may have a propensity for causing hepatocarcinogenesis in mice, particularly those of the female sex. The 2-ethylhexyl compound that caused the greatest hepatocarcinogenic response in mice, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, was also hepatocarcinogenic in rats. Similarly, those with a relatively greater effect in female mice were also active in male mice. Thus, sex and species differences in 2-ethylhexyl-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents are probably quantitative rather than qualitative in nature.