Removal of genital warts by thermocautery was performed in 108 patients (57 men and 51 women) under topical anaesthesia with a local anaesthetic cream, lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA). Most men had warts in the preputial cavity, most women had warts situated on the mucous membranes of the vulva, and warts at multiple sites were common. About 1 ml of cream per lesion was applied to the warts for 20 to 105 minutes before the operation. Plastic film (Glad, Union Carbide) was applied over the cream when natural occlusion, such as under the prepuce or on the introitus, was not present. Local pallor was seen in 30% of the patients, redness in 53%, and oedema in 15%, but did not cause any discomfort and were clinically insignificant. Analgesia was sufficient in 96% of the men and in 40% of the women. Additional local infiltration was given to 60% of the women, but was not as painful as injections generally are in the genital area. The analgesic efficacy on women may be further improved by optimising the application time on the genital mucosa.
Carpal tunnel release was performed under local anaesthesia in 108 wrists of 98 patients. The local anaesthetic (bupivacaine 0.5% and adrenaline) was injected into the subcutaneous tissue down to the flexor retinaculum in the line of the incision. The median nerve was not anaesthetised. No tourniquet was required and analgesia was complete in all but four patients, who complained of some minor discomfort on cutting the flexor retinaculum. Protracted postoperative analgesia was obtained.
The risk of complications of auricular correction is underestimated. There is around a 5% risk of early complications (haematoma, infection, fistulae caused by stitches and granulomae, allergic reactions, pressure ulcers, feelings of pain and asymmetry in side comparison) and a 20% risk of late complications (recurrences, telehone ear, excessive edge formation, auricle fitting too closely, narrowing of the auditory canal, keloids and complete collapse of the ear). Deformities are evaluated less critically by patients than by the surgeons, providing they do not concern how the ear is positioned. The causes of complications and deformities are, in the vast majority of cases, incorrect diagnosis and wrong choice of operating procedure. The choice of operating procedure must be adapted to suit the individual ear morphology. Bandaging technique and inspections and, if necessary, early revision are of great importance for the occurence and progress of early complications, in addition to operation techniques. In cases of late complications such as keloids and auricles that are too closely fitting, unfixed full-thickness skin flaps have proved to be the most successful. Large deformities can often only be corrected to a limited degree of satisfaction.
auricular correction; complications; corrective operations
The Auricular deformity of congenital microtia (Grade-llll can cause devastating physical and psychological trauma in children. liven crude duplications of the normal ear are of great emotional value to the child or adult who is horn with only a nubbin. Diverse materials ranging from altografts (polyethylene, nylon mesh. Teflon. Silicone,etc), cartilage homo and hcterografts haw been tried for framework construction of the ear. Converge (1985) and Tanzer (1959) popularized the use of autogenous rib cartilage, carved in a solid block. We describe our experience with autogenous costal cartilage graft as framework for total auricular reconstruction in 13 patients (15 ears) with congenital microlia(grade-lll). Atresia repair was performed in two patients. with bilateral grade-Ill deformity.
Auricular Reconstruction; Autogenous Costal Cartilage; Microtia
A patient posted for vaginal hysterectomy was administered subarachnoid block, which failed, so was repeated in one space above. The block failed again, after waiting for 30 min. Patient gave a history of scorpion bite twice, once at the age of 17 years on her right foot and again about 8 months back. Thereafter, balanced general anaesthesia was given. On eighth post-operative day, after explaining about her possible special condition (?Resistance to local anaesthetic agents), the patient was given left median, ulnar and radial nerve blocks at the wrist and local infiltration near the anatomical snuff box. There was neither sensory nor motor block. The scorpion venom is known to affect the pumping mechanism of sodium channels in the nerve fibres, which are involved in the mechanism of action of local anaesthetic drugs, it may be responsible for the development of ‘resistance’ to the action of local anaesthetic agents.
Resistance to local anaesthetics; scorpion bite; various routes
Two unusual cases of congenital bilateral ear deformity have been presented. The deformity is characterized by upper auricular detachment on the right side with anotia on the left side in the first case and upper auricular detachment on the left side with normal ear on the right side in the second case. An attempt has been made to correlate the presented deformity with the embryological – foetal development of the auricle. Satisfactory correction can be obtained by repositioning the auricle back in to its normal position.
Congenital ear anomaly; partial auricular; detachment; upper auricular; anomalier
Alstrom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that was first described in 1959, by Carl Henry Alstrom, characterised by multiorgan system involvement ranging from ocular, aural, endocrinal, hepatorenal, gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiac to the musculoskeletal system, among many others. It exposes the patient to various risks ranging from pulmonary aspiration and increased cardiac morbidity to separational anxiety, and may necessitate postoperative elective ventilation. We hereby present the successful management of one such diagnosed case in a 12-year-old boy, who presented to us for incision and drainage of an abscess present over the nape of his neck, along with foreign body removal from his right ear.
Genetic syndrome; multiorgan dysfunction; anaesthetic implications
Previous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) studies have demonstrated anti-nociceptive effects, and recent non-invasive approaches; termed transcutaneous-VNS, or t-VNS, have utilized stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve in the ear. The dorsal medullary vagal system operates in tune with respiration, and we propose that supplying vagal afferent stimulation gated to the exhalation phase of respiration can optimize t-VNS.
counterbalanced, crossover study.
patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) due to endometriosis in a specialty pain clinic.
We evaluated evoked pain analgesia for Respiratory-gated Auricular Vagal Afferent Nerve Stimulation (RAVANS) compared with Non-Vagal Auricular Stimulation (NVAS). RAVANS and NVAS were evaluated in separate sessions spaced at least one week apart. Outcome measures included deep tissue pain intensity, temporal summation of pain, and anxiety ratings, which were assessed at baseline, during active stimulation, immediately following stimulation, and 15 minutes after stimulus cessation.
RAVANS demonstrated a trend for reduced evoked pain intensity and temporal summation of mechanical pain, and significantly reduced anxiety in N=15 CPP patients, compared to NVAS, with moderate to large effect sizes (eta2>0.2).
Chronic pain disorders such as CPP are in great need of effective, non-pharmacological options for treatment. RAVANS produced promising anti-nociceptive effects for QST outcomes reflective of the noted hyperalgesia and central sensitization in this patient population. Future studies should evaluate longer-term application of RAVANS to examine its effects on both QST outcomes and clinical pain.
The aim of the paper is to report our experience of 60 ear reconstructions to correct the microtia with surgical technique. Autogenous rib cartilage was used to reconstruct the affected ear. Cartilage resorption was found in 10% of the cases, distortion and fusion of pinna in 20% of the cases and infection was found around 8% of the cases. Most of the patients were satisfied with the final result.
Ear reconstruction; Ear malformation; Microtia; Autogenous rib cartilage
Extraoral implant retained prosthesis have been proven to be a predictable treatment option for maxillofacial rehabilitation. This case report describes the clinical and laboratory procedures for fabricating an auricular prosthesis.
In this case report, an auricular prosthesis was fabricated for a patient who lost the left and right external ear in an electrical burn. Extraoral implants and bar-and-clip retention for the proper connection of the auricular prosthesis to implant were used. This prosthesis was acceptable to the patient because of excellent support, retentive abilities and the patient’s appearance.
Auricular prosthesis; Implant retained prosthesis
A young male patient was undergoing myringoplasty for right ear chronic suppurative otitis media. While drilling in the middle ear cavity, duramater was breached accidentally. Surgeons were, however, allowed to complete the procedure. Keeping the seriousness of such a complication in mind, an urgent neurosurgical intervention was sought and noncontrast computed tomography head scan was done to analyse the extent of the injury. Osteoplastic craniotomy had to be performed subsequently to evacuate the contusional haematoma over the right temporoparietal region. Throughout the procedure, patient's vitals were monitored vigilantly to prevent any further deterioration of his condition. All the available resources were tapped judiciously to maintain intracranial pressure within normal limits. With a quick responsiveness on the part of the anaesthesia team, an active decision making, appropriate and remarkable anaesthetic management both intra and postoperatively, and good ICU care, a young patient could be salvaged and discharged successfully within a week with no immediate or residual complications related to myringoplasty or any neurological deficit.
Craniotomy; intraparenchymal haematoma; myringoplasty; neuroanaesthesia
Tracheostomy still remains a life-saving procedure to secure a patent airway in emergency situations. Anaesthetic management of tracheostomy in paediatric patients with bilateral vocal cord immobility and acute respiratory distress in emergency has always been a great challenge to the anaesthesiologists. Administering general anaesthesia in a child for recannulation of tracheostomy in emergency is far more challenging. We report a case of a 4-year-old male child in whom tracheostomy tube was accidentally removed 2 months back and the wound got stenosed gradually leading to acute respiratory distress. Emergency dilatation and recannulation of tracheostomy wound was planned under general anaesthesia and the case was managed successfully.
Recannulation; tracheostomy; vocal cord pal
Bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss is a standard criterion for cochlear implantation. Increasingly, patients are implanted in one ear and continue to use a hearing aid in the non-implanted ear to improve abilities such as sound localization and speech understanding in noise. Patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss in one ear and a more moderate hearing loss in the other ear (i.e., asymmetric hearing) are not typically considered candidates for cochlear implantation. Amplification in the poorer ear is often unsuccessful due to limited benefit, restricting the patient to unilateral listening from the better ear alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with asymmetric hearing loss could benefit from cochlear implantation in the poorer ear with continued use of a hearing aid in the better ear.
Ten adults with asymmetric hearing between ears participated. In the poorer ear, all participants met cochlear implant candidacy guidelines; seven had postlingual onset and three had pre/perilingual onset of severe-to-profound hearing loss. All had open-set speech recognition in the better hearing ear. Assessment measures included word and sentence recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in fixed noise (four-talker babble) and in diffuse restaurant noise using an adaptive procedure, localization of word stimuli and a hearing handicap scale. Participants were evaluated pre-implant with hearing aids and post-implant with the implant alone, the hearing aid alone in the better ear and bimodally (the implant and hearing aid in combination). Postlingual participants were evaluated at six months post-implant and pre/perilingual participants were evaluated at six and 12 months post-implant. Data analysis compared results 1) of the poorer hearing ear pre-implant (with hearing aid) and post-implant (with cochlear implant), 2) with the device(s) used for everyday listening pre- and post-implant and, 3) between the hearing aid-alone and bimodal listening conditions post-implant.
The postlingual participants showed significant improvements in speech recognition after six months cochlear implant use in the poorer ear. Five postlingual participants had a bimodal advantage over the hearing aid-alone condition on at least one test measure. On average, the postlingual participants had significantly improved localization with bimodal input compared to the hearing aid-alone. Only one pre/perilingual participant had open-set speech recognition with the cochlear implant. This participant had better hearing than the other two pre/perilingual participants in both the poorer and better ear. Localization abilities were not significantly different between the bimodal and hearing aid-alone conditions for the pre/perilingual participants. Mean hearing handicap ratings improved post-implant for all participants indicating perceived benefit in everyday life with the addition of the cochlear implant.
Patients with asymmetric hearing loss who are not typical cochlear implant candidates can benefit from using a cochlear implant in the poorer ear with continued use of a hearing aid in the better ear. For this group of ten, the seven postlingually deafened participants showed greater benefits with the cochlear implant than the pre/perilingual participants; however, further study is needed to determine maximum benefit for those with early onset of hearing loss.
Asymmetric hearing loss; Bilateral; Bimodal; Cochlear implant; Speech recognition
Keloids extend beyond the borders of the original wound invading normal skin. Usually appear as firm nodules, often pruritic and painful, and generally do not regress spontaneously. Most often occur on the chest, shoulders, upper back, back of the neck, and earlobes. The aim of the paper is to discuss a case of keloid, review the pathophysiology and also to highlight the differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars. A 26-year-old female complains of swelling on ear lobe since 3 years. Swelling was firm, non-tender, dumbell-shaped with central wooden stick still present, measuring 3 cm in diameter medial to the inferior part of the helix. A clinical diagnosis of keloid was given. Histopathological sections showed hyperorthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium with deep dermal sclerosis showing large dense bundle of glassy collagen diagnostic of Keloid. Special stain like Van Gieson's was used to identify collagen bundles. The sections were also subjected to immunohistochemical markers such as α-SMA (alpha Smooth muscle actin), Desmin, and S-100. Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of keloids remains incompletely understood. Recent studies indicate that TGF-β (Transforming growth factor beta) and PDGF (Platelet-derived growth factor) play an integral role in the formation of keloids. In future, development of selective inhibitors of TGF-β might produce new therapeutic tools with enhanced efficacy and specificity for the treatment of keloids. Patients with a previous history of keloid or other risk-factors should avoid body piercing and elective cosmetic procedures. Keloid scars should be sent for histopathology in order to avoid missing potentially malignant conditions particularly those showing unusual features.
Ear lobe; fibrogenic response; glassy collagen; hypertrophic scars; keloid
Lupus vulgaris is the most common morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. Classical lupus lesions are often seen in the head and neck region. Turkey ear is a clinically descriptive term, previously being used for the earlobe with reddish indurated plaque lesions, which recently can be a sign for lupus vulgaris. A 65-year-old man presented with lupus vulgaris of the earlobe. The diagnosis was confirmed by conventional laboratory investigations and the patient showed well response to antituberculous therapy. This is the second reported case of “turkey ear” as a manifestation of cutaneous tuberculosis.
Earlobe dermatitis; lupus pernio; lupus vulgaris; turkey ear
Maxillofacial prosthodontics is an art and science which provides life like appearance to the person with facial deformity. Maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation for acquired defects has become more complex and sophisticated with advancement in techniques and materials. This case report describes the clinical and laboratory procedure for fabricating an auricular prosthesis for a patient with trauma related bilateral auricular deformity. Ear prosthesis was fabricated in two parts taking retention from external auditory canal.
Maxillofacial prosthodontics; Ear prosthesis; Auricular deformity; External auditory canal
Squamous cell carcinoma is a common cancer to the head and neck region that is typically diagnosed when it is 2 cm in size. This case report illustrates a patient who had neglected an auricular carcinoma for over a year. At the time of presentation the entire ear was infected with pseudomonas and yeast and chronic friability and bleeding caused an anemia which required blood transfusion.
In patients undergoing bilateral Keller's arthroplasty the effect of injecting a long acting local anaesthetic into the pseudoarthrosis immediately after skin closure was compared to placebo into the other side in twenty patients. In a controlled double blind prospective trial, local anaesthetic proved to provide significantly better analgesia than the placebo and gave a lasting pain free interval. This procedure was simple, safe, inexpensive and free from complications.
The use of extended local anaesthesia for postoperative pain has previously been reported, and has several advantages over other methods, including ease of placement, safety, reliability, lower cost and effective analgesia. We present our experience with a portable elastomeric infusion device in patients undergoing arthroscopic subacromial decompression, and make a case for its potential to allow same-day discharge.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Forty patients undergoing arthroscopic subacromial decompression were followed-up. At the end of the procedure, an epidural catheter connected to a portable elastomeric local anaesthetic infusion system was inserted into the subacromial space. All patients were electively admitted for overnight stay postoperatively and assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) to evaluate their level of pain.
No patient reported severe pain at any stage. None of the patients required any parenteral opiate analgesia with the pump in situ.
These findings suggest that the use of this elastomeric infusion device following shoulder surgery allows safe and early discharge of patients with decreased need for parenteral opiate analgesia.
Day-case surgery; Local anaesthesia; Infusion
Sternal fractures cause considerable pain, and a proportion of patients require admission for analgesia. Local anaesthetic techniques have been used to reduce the pain from chest wall injuries and may reduce complications from these injuries. The use of a local anaesthetic delivered via a sternal catheter over a fractured sternum has been described in a patient whose pain was inadequately controlled with opiates. This technique was recently offered to patients in the emergency department at the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK, and the experiences of patients and doctors are reported. Findings from this first case series suggest that the technique seems to be effective, well tolerated and acceptable to patients.
A simple technique of wound perfusion with bupivacaine (Marcain) which provides sustained postoperative analgesia is described. No complications nor side effects related to toxicity, hypersensitivity, infection, or impaired wound healing were encountered. Postoperative pain was reduced and analgesic requirements were significantly lower in patients undergoing both intermittent (P less than 0.01) and continuous (P = 0.1) wound perfusion (Student t test). Perfusion with isotonic saline was also found to be effective. This may represent a true therapeutic effect attributable to the removal or dilution of pain mediating substances in the wound.
The composite graft from the conchal cartilage is a graft that is often used, especially in surgery on the nose, due to its capacity to resolve problems of cover and tissue deficit, arising from the removal of neoplasms or as the result of trauma, burns or following over-aggressive rhinoplasty. We have started to use skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the ear to cover large areas of the nose with very satisfying results as well as we describe in the reported clinical case.
The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum, which had previously been removed, using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. After this, the skin edges of the fistula were turned to recreate the inner lining of the nose and form a vascular base of wide area to accept the composite graft. The case concerns a female 74-year old patient who had undergone several oncological surgery for a relapsing basal cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the nose. The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum.
The perichondrial cutaneous graft has shown in this surgical case very favorable peculiarities that make it usable even in facial plastic surgery.
We believe that the positive experience that we achieved in the use of composite grafts for the reconstruction of large areas of the nose could be interesting for others surgeons.
A trial comparing the use of Bier's block and the direct infiltration of the fracture site with local anaesthetic was carried out to assess their effectiveness in the reduction of Colles' fracture. This showed Bier's block to be superior in terms of patient acceptability and in ease of reduction. The results of the reduction were also significantly better using the Bier's block, as judged by the measurement of the residual displacement on the X-ray.
Wrong-site surgery could occur in cases of bilateral pathology or in patients with normal tympanic membranes such as those undergoing stapedectomy. This report highlights the pitfalls in current surgical checklists despite best efforts being put into their design. The practice of marking the earlobe in ear surgery may be less safe than using larger arrows on the neck to indicate the side of surgery.
Wrong-site surgery; Tattooing; Ear surgery
A blinded randomized study was conducted on 24 cats to confirm the presence of bacterial and/or fungal secondary infections associated with otoacariasis and to verify the efficacy of Oridermyl, an acaricidal/antibiotic/antifungal/anti-inflammatory ointment, for treatment of the primary infestation and secondary infections. Sixteen cats were treated once daily for 10 d; 4 cats were not treated and 4 were treated with a placebo ointment. On Days 0 and 10, ears were swabbed for counts of bacteria and yeasts, for bacterial culture and sensitivity, and examined for determination of the degree of clinical otitis. Auricular secretions were removed for mite counts on Day 10, except for 8 treated cats that were done on Day 30. There was a high number of bacteria and yeasts in most cats and Oridermyl treatment significantly decreased those numbers. Staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria. No live ear mites were found in cats treated with Oridermyl or the placebo ointment.