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1.  Mortality from congenital malformations in England and Wales: variations by mother's country of birth. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1989;64(10):1457-1462.
Stillbirth and infant mortality from congenital malformations in England and Wales during 1981-5 was investigated according to the mother's country of birth. Significant differences remained after standardising for maternal age and social class. The highest overall mortality was in infants of mothers born in Pakistan (standardised mortality ratio 237), followed by infants of mothers born in India (standardised mortality ratio 134), East Africa (standardised mortality ratio 126), and Bangladesh (standardised mortality ratio 118). Caribbean and West African mothers showed an overall deficit. Mortality was inversely related to social class in all groups except the Afro-Caribbean. Infants of mothers born in Pakistan had the highest mortality in every social class except I, and for most anomalies investigated. Their ratios were particularly high for limb and musculoskeletal anomalies (standardised mortality ratio 362), genitourinary anomalies (standardised mortality ratio 268), and central nervous system anomalies (standardised mortality ratio 239). Our findings highlight the need for further research to identify the causes underlying these differences.
PMCID: PMC1792797  PMID: 2817931
2.  Obstetric Anaesthesia Services in the United Kingdom 
British Medical Journal  1971;1(5740):101-103.
In a survey of obstetric anaesthetic services in the United Kingdom questionnaires were sent to 398 hospital maternity units and 347 general-practitioner maternity units, of which 344 and 272 respectively were returned. Many hospitals were unable to provide an anaesthetist for obstetric surgery only, and few consultant anaesthetist sessions were allocated to obstetric surgery, particularly in regional hospitals in England and Wales. Constant supervision of junior anaesthetic staff with under 12 months' experience was lacking in several hospitals. Endotracheal intubation is widely used throughout the United Kingdom. Though regional analgesic techniques are used by most anaesthetists it is impossible to provide a 24-hour regional analgesic service in all but a few hospitals.
PMCID: PMC1795676  PMID: 5539159
3.  Mortality among male anaesthetists in the United Kingdom, 1957-83. 
A cohort of 3769 male anaesthetists resident in the United Kingdom between 1957 and 1983 was followed up for a total of 51,431 person years of observation. All subjects were fellows of the Faculty of Anaesthetists and held full registration with the General Medical Council. With all men in social class I being taken as the standard, the standardised mortality ratio among anaesthetists for all causes of death was 68 (95% confidence interval 59 to 77) and the standardised mortality ratio for all cancers was 50 (95% confidence interval 36 to 67). There was no significant excess mortality from lymphomas or leukaemias, but 16 of the 221 deaths in anaesthetists were due to suicide, giving a standardised mortality ratio of 202 (95% confidence interval 115 to 328). When anaesthetists were compared with all doctors the standardised mortality ratio for suicide was only 114, a nonsignificant excess. These findings confirm that the risk of suicide among anaesthetists is twice as high as among other men in social class I but suggest that the risk does not differ significantly from that among doctors as a whole. There was no evidence of a significant excess risk of cancer, and, in particular, the small excess of cancer of the pancreas reported previously could not be confirmed.
PMCID: PMC1247213  PMID: 3115448
4.  Regional variations in the sexually transmitted disease clinic service in England and Wales. 
The provision of the sexually transmitted disease clinic service in the regional health authorities of England and Wales has been compared by relating the opening hours of clinics to the size of the population served. Relatively low levels of service were provided in the West Midlands and South-west Thames regions and high levels in the North-east and North-west Thames regions. When the service in the Greater London area health authorities was examined in relation to both resident and day-time populations, provision was relatively high in both instances, particularly in certain central London areas. Valid conclusions, however, about the equality of the service in different areas can only be drawn if the needs of the population for that service are known.
PMCID: PMC1045873  PMID: 6894101
5.  Children's surgery: a national survey of consultant clinical practice 
BMJ Open  2012;2(5):e001639.
To survey clinical practice and opinions of consultant surgeons and anaesthetists caring for children to inform the needs for training, commissioning and management of children's surgery in the UK.
The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) hosted an online survey to gather data on current clinical practice of UK consultant surgeons and anaesthetists caring for children.
The questionnaire was circulated to all hospitals and to Anaesthetic and Surgical Royal Colleges, and relevant specialist societies covering the UK and the Channel Islands and was mainly completed by consultants in District General Hospitals.
555 surgeons and 1561 anaesthetists completed the questionnaire.
32.6% of surgeons and 43.5% of anaesthetists considered that there were deficiencies in their hospital's facilities that potentially compromised delivery of a safe children's surgical service. Almost 10% of all consultants considered that their postgraduate training was insufficient for current paediatric practice and 20% felt that recent Continued Professional Development failed to maintain paediatric expertise. 45.4% of surgeons and 39.2% of anaesthetists considered that the current specialty curriculum should have a larger paediatric component. Consultants in non-specialist paediatric centres were prepared to care for younger children admitted for surgery as emergencies than those admitted electively. Many of the surgeons and anaesthetists had <4 h/week in paediatric practice. Only 55.3% of surgeons and 42.8% of anaesthetists participated in any form of regular multidisciplinary review of children undergoing surgery.
There are significant obstacles to consultant surgeons and anaesthetists providing a competent surgical service for children. Postgraduate curricula must meet the needs of trainees who will be expected to include children in their caseload as consultants. Trusts must ensure appropriate support for consultants to maintain paediatric skills and provide the necessary facilities for a high-quality local surgical service.
PMCID: PMC3488724  PMID: 23075572
Paediatric Surgery
6.  Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy in Children with Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders: Consensus Statement of a UK Multidisciplinary Working Party 
During 2008, ENT-UK received a number of professional enquiries from colleagues about the management of children with upper airway obstruction and uncomplicated obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). These children with sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) are usually referred to paediatricians and ENT surgeons.
In some district general hospitals, (DGHs) where paediatric intensive care (PICU) facilities to ventilate children were not available, paediatrician and anaesthetist colleagues were expressing concern about children with a clinical diagnosis of OSA having routine tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy.
As BAPO President, I was asked by the ENT-UK President, Professor Richard Ramsden, to investigate the issues and rapidly develop a working consensus statement to support safe but local treatment of these children.
The Royal Colleges of Anaesthetists and Paediatrics and Child Health and the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists nominated expert members from both secondary and tertiary care to contribute and develop a consensus statement based on the limited evidence base available.
Our terms of reference were to produce a statement that was brief, with a limited number of references, to inform decision-making at the present time.
With patient safety as the first priority, the working party wished to support practice that facilitated referral to a tertiary centre of those children who could be expected, on clinical assessment alone, potentially to require PICU facilities. In contrast, the majority of children who could be safely managed in a secondary care setting should be managed closer to home in a DGH.
BAPO, ENT-UK, APA, RCS-CSF and RCoA have endorsed the consensus statement; the RCPCH has no mechanism for endorsing consensus statements, but the RCPCH Clinical Effectiveness Committee reviewed the statement, concluding it was a ‘concise, accurate and helpful document’.
The consensus statement is an interim working tool, based on level-five evidence. It is intended as the starting point to catalyze further development towards a fully structured, evidence-based guideline; to this end, feedback and comment are welcomed. This and the constructive feedback from APA and RCPCH will be incorporated into a future guideline proposal.
PMCID: PMC2758429  PMID: 19622257
Consensus statement; Children; Sleep-related breathing disorders; Tonsillectomy; Adenoidectomy
7.  Crisis management during anaesthesia: difficult intubation 
Background: Anaesthetists may experience difficulty with intubation unexpectedly which may be associated with difficulty in ventilating the patient. If not well managed, there may be serious consequences for the patient. A simple structured approach to this problem was developed to assist the anaesthetist in this difficult situation.
Objectives: To examine the role of a specific sub-algorithm for the management of difficult intubation.
Methods: The potential performance of a structured approach developed by review of the literature and analysis of each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved.
Results: There were 147 reports of difficult intubation capable of analysis among the first 4000 incidents reported to AIMS. The difficulty was unexpected in 52% of cases; major physiological changes occurred in 37% of these cases. Saturation fell below 90% in 22% of cases, oesophageal intubation was reported in 19%, and an emergency transtracheal airway was required in 4% of cases. Obesity and limited neck mobility and mouth opening were the most common anatomical contributing factors.
Conclusion: The data confirm previously reported failures to predict difficult intubation with existing preoperative clinical tests and suggest an ongoing need to teach a pre-learned strategy to deal with difficult intubation and any associated problem with ventilation. An easy-to-follow structured approach to these problems is outlined. It is recommended that skilled assistance be obtained (preferably another anaesthetist) when difficulty is expected or the patient's cardiorespiratory reserve is low. Patients should be assessed postoperatively to exclude any sequelae and to inform them of the difficulties encountered. These should be clearly documented and appropriate steps taken to warn future anaesthetists.
PMCID: PMC1744036  PMID: 15933302
8.  Comparison of Subjective Estimates by Surgeons and Anaesthetists of Operative Blood Loss 
British Medical Journal  1972;2(5814):619-621.
Altogether 100 cases were studied to compare the subjective estimates of operative blood loss by anaesthetists (six in number) and by surgeons (22 in number). Their estimates were compared with the blood loss measured by a colorimetric method, which was assumed to be the operative blood loss. The results showed that surgeons are less reliable judges of operative blood loss then anaesthetists. When objective measurement of operative blood loss is impracticable the anaesthetist and the surgeon should jointly make a subjective estimation.
PMCID: PMC1788365  PMID: 5031685
9.  Obstetric anaesthetic and analgesic services in Wales. 
British Medical Journal  1979;2(6192):698-700.
A survey of obstetric anaesthetic services in Wales covering 21 major units in which over 31 000 deliveries take place annually showed inadequacies in staffing at consultant and resident anaesthetist level. At least 20 additional consultant sessions were required to meet the recommendations of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. If patients' requests for epidural analgesia are to be met some reorganisation and centralisation of facilities is needed.
PMCID: PMC1596240  PMID: 509070
10.  Maternal obesity is the new challenge; a qualitative study of health professionals’ views towards suitable care for pregnant women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 
An increase in the number of women with maternal obesity (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) has had a huge impact on the delivery of maternity services. As part of a programme of feasibility work to design an antenatal lifestyle programme for women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2, the current study explored health professionals’ experiences of caring for women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and their views of the proposed lifestyle programme.
Semi-structured interviews with 30 health professionals (including midwives, sonographers, anaesthetists and obstetricians) were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Recruitment occurred in two areas in the North West of England in early 2011.
Three themes were evident. Firstly, obesity was seen as a conversation stopper; obesity can be a challenge to discuss. Secondly, obesity was seen as a maternity issue; obesity has a direct impact on maternity care and therefore intervention is needed. Finally, the long-term impact of maternal obesity intervention; lifestyle advice in pregnancy has the potential to break the cyclic obesity relationship. The health professionals believed that antenatal lifestyle advice can play a key role in addressing the public health issue of obesity as pregnancy is a time of increased motivation for women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2.
Maternal obesity is a challenge and details of the training content required for health professionals to feel confident to approach the issue of maternal obesity with women are presented. Support for the antenatal lifestyle programme for women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 highlights the need for further exploration of the impact of interventions on health promotion.
PMCID: PMC3538514  PMID: 23253137
Maternal obesity; Health professionals; Qualitative research; Communication; Training needs
11.  Measurement and reduction of occupational exposure to inhaled anaesthetics. 
British Medical Journal  1976;2(6046):1219-1221.
The occupational exposure of hospital staff to inhaled anaesthetics was investigated using a personal sampling device that provides a measure of the average concentrations breathed by a person over a period of time, as distinct from the spot sampling in the general environment. The anaesthetist's average exposure to nitrous oxide and halothane during complete operating sessions was twice that expected from simple dilution of the escaping gases by the operating room ventilation. The sampling technique was also used to evaluate the effect of (1) redirection of the waste gas outflow; (2) active scavenging connected to the piped vacuum system. Short-period studies under controlled conditions in the operating theatres and anaesthesia induction rooms showed that the anaesthetist's exposure could be reduced two- or fourfold by redirecting the outflow and another four- to sixfold by active scavenging. Exposures during complete operating sessions were reduced two- to seven-fold by scavenging.
PMCID: PMC1689779  PMID: 1068737
12.  Application of airline pilots' hours to junior doctors. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1989;299(6702):779-781.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the staff required if the rules for airline pilots' hours of work are applied to junior doctors. DESIGN--Junior anaesthetists recorded their workload from 1 March 1988 to May 31 1988. SETTING--District general hospital. SUBJECTS--Two groups of three junior anaesthetists sharing a one in three rota to provide continuous emergency cover. INTERVENTIONS--By using the guidelines published by the Civil Aviation Authority in The Avoidance of Excessive Fatigue in Aircrews schedules were drawn up to cover the hours that junior doctors had been on duty. RESULTS--Each anaesthetist provided emergency and routine cover for 48-112 (mean 75) hours each week. To cover the work of six junior anaesthetists on an annual basis would require 26 doctors if they were working within the Civil Aviation Authority's guidelines. CONCLUSIONS--Junior anaesthetists' hours are much longer than those of airline pilots. Both professions entail considerable periods of monitoring interspersed with episodes of high demands on physical and cognitive skills. Errors induced by fatigue made by anaesthetists and pilots could result in death. The medical profession should define rules similar to those of the aviation authority to prevent junior doctors having to work unsafe numbers of hours.
PMCID: PMC1837606  PMID: 2508922
13.  Attitudes to blood transfusion post arthroplasty surgery in the United Kingdom: A national survey 
International Orthopaedics  2007;32(3):325-329.
Five hundred orthopaedic surgeons and 336 anaesthetists were surveyed to assess current UK attitudes towards transfusion practice following arthroplasty surgery. Seventy-two percent of surgeons and 73% of anaesthetists responded to the survey. In an uncomplicated patient following total hip arthroplasty, 53.2% of surgeons and 63.1% of anaesthetists would transfuse at or below a haemoglobin (Hb) level of 8 g/dL. Surgeons tended to be more aggressive in their attitudes, with a mean transfusion threshold of 8.3 g/dL compared to 7.9 g/dL for anaesthetists (p < 0.01), and with 97% of surgeons transfusing two or more units compared to 78% of anaesthetists (p < 0.01). This threshold Hb increased if the patient was symptomatic (surgeons 9.3 g/dL, anaesthetists 8.8 g/dL, p < 0.05) or was known to have pre-existing ischaemic heart disease (surgeons 9.0 g/dL, anaesthetists 9.2 g/dL, p <  0.05). A wide variability in attitudes and practices is demonstrated, and the development and adoption of consensus guidelines needs to be encouraged if efforts to reduce the use of blood products are to succeed.
PMCID: PMC2323427  PMID: 17396259
14.  Intravenous postoperative fluid prescriptions for children: A survey of practice 
BMC Surgery  2008;8:10.
Postoperative deaths and neurological injury have resulted from hyponatraemia associated with the use of hypotonic saline solutions following surgery. We aimed to determine the rates and types of intravenous fluids being prescribed postoperatively for children in the UK.
A questionnaire was sent to members of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons (BAPS) and Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (APAGBI) based at UK paediatric centres. Respondents were asked to prescribe postoperative fluids for scenarios involving children of different ages. The study period was between May 2006 and November 2006.
The most frequently used solution was sodium chloride 0.45% with glucose 5% although one quarter of respondents still used sodium chloride 0.18% with glucose 4%. Isotonic fluids were used by 41% of anaesthetists and 9.8% of surgeons for the older child, but fewer for infants. Standard maintenance rates or greater were prescribed by over 80% of respondents.
Most doctors said they would prescribe hypotonic fluids at volumes equal to or greater than traditional maintenance rates at the time of the survey. A survey to describe practice since publication of National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) recommendations is required.
PMCID: PMC2435100  PMID: 18541019
15.  Rapid sequence intubations by emergency doctors: we can but are we? 
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ  2007;24(7):480-481.
Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is used by emergency doctors routinely in many parts of the world, but it is unclear how many are using this technique in England and Wales.
To determine, through a telephonic survey, which specialty was performing RSIs.
All emergency departments were telephoned, and senior emergency doctors were asked which specialty provided this service, and whether this was done routinely, often, or could be either specialty.
All 207 departments responded. 3 (1%) departments routinely had emergency doctors perform RSIs, and a further 3 (1%) had anaesthetists performing these routinely. In 33 (15.9%) departments, there were equal chances that it could either specialty. Anaesthetists provided the service routinely in 130 (62.8%) and often in 38 (18.4%) departments.
Although there are emergency doctors performing RSIs, the majority of RSIs are still being performed by anaesthetists. When this is added to the curriculum for the Fellowship of the College of Emergency Medicine from 2008, many departments, seemingly, will not be in a position to provide experience in this area.
PMCID: PMC2658394  PMID: 17582038
16.  Methoxyflurane and Nitrous Oxide as Obstetric Analgesics. I.—A Comparison by Continuous Administration 
British Medical Journal  1969;3(5665):255-259.
Methoxyflurane and nitrous oxide have been compared as obstetric analgesics. The inhaled concentrations of these agents, given continuously, were adjusted by an anaesthetist to maintain each patient at the optimum state between reaction to pain and consciousness. Assessments were made continuously.
Though the anaesthetist's assessment showed no difference between the mean results, a greater proportion of the methoxyflurane patients were “satisfactory” for 90–100% of the time than of the nitrous oxide patients, particularly in regard to objective pain relief. The midwives' opinion of those who had “complete” pain relief supported this. Nausea was significantly less among methoxyflurane patients, and vomiting during labour occurred only in patients who had nitrous oxide. It is concluded that nitrous oxide and methoxyflurane given in a continuously adjusted concentration are almost equally effective as obstetric analgesics, though there are certain features which favour methoxyflurane.
PMCID: PMC1984038  PMID: 4895338
17.  Discrepant perceptions of communication, teamwork and situation awareness among surgical team members 
To assess surgical team members’ differences in perception of non-technical skills.
Questionnaire design.
Operating theatres (OTs) at one university hospital, three teaching hospitals and one general hospital in the Netherlands.
Sixty-six surgeons, 97 OT nurses, 18 anaesthetists and 40 nurse anaesthetists.
All surgical team members, of five hospitals, were asked to complete a questionnaire and state their opinion on the current state of communication, teamwork and situation awareness at the OT.
Ratings for ‘communication’ were significantly different, particularly between surgeons and all other team members (P ≤ 0.001). The ratings for ‘teamwork’ differed significantly between all team members (P ≤ 0.005). Within ‘situation awareness’ significant differences were mainly observed for ‘gathering information’ between surgeons and other team members (P < 0.001). Finally, 72–90% of anaesthetists, OT nurses and nurse anaesthetists rated routine team briefings and debriefings as inadequate.
This study shows discrepancies on many aspects in perception between surgeons and other surgical team members concerning communication, teamwork and situation awareness. Future research needs to ascertain whether these discrepancies are linked to greater risk of adverse events or to process as well as systems failures. Establishing this link would support implementation and use of complex team interventions that intervene at multiple levels of the healthcare system.
PMCID: PMC3055275  PMID: 21242160
patient safety; quality of care; teamwork; communication; surgery
18.  Anaesthesia for minor procedures in children with malignant disease. 
Minor invasive procedures in children with leukaemia can be very distressing for patients, parents and staff. In Nottingham a combined clinic has been established with an anaesthetist as an integral member of the team. General anaesthesia, usually by inhalation, is frequently employed. From May 1980 to September 1984, 515 anaesthetics were given to 97 patients. Records are kept to allow analysis of the clinic's function. With close personal contact, induction of anaesthesia becomes increasingly a matter of cooperation between patient and anaesthetist, removing much of the fear of these procedures. The development of this service is described and the reasons for its success are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1289890  PMID: 4045901
19.  Survey of neonatal screening for primary hypothyroidism in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland 1982-4 
National screening for congenital hypothyroidism was established in the United Kingdom in 1982. During 1982-4, 488 infants with primary congenital hypothyroidism were detected by the 25 regional screening laboratories in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. In addition, one infant had signs of cretinism at birth and was investigated before the screening test was done and four infants were known to have been missed by the screening programme; among these four infants the initial thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were normal in two with inherited defects of synthesis of thyroxine, not measured in one, and false negative in one. The overall incidence of primary hypothyroidism was 1:3937 births (boys 1:6640, girls 1:2756). The incidence seemed to be reduced in infants born to black mothers (two cases only) and increased in those born to Asian mothers (61 cases). Congenital anomalies other than those of the thyroid gland were reported in 36 children (7%), and 15 (3%) died from various causes before the age of 4. Infants who were considered to show unequivocal evidence of hypothyroidism started treatment at a median age of 17 days (5th and 95th centiles 10 and 42 days) compared with a median age of 14 days (5th and 95th centiles 9 and 21 days) for infants with classic phenylketonuria also detected by national screening.
PMCID: PMC2545827  PMID: 3134984
20.  The nurse's role in immediate postoperative care. 
British Medical Journal  1977;1(6070):1119-1202.
From the time that a patient leaves the care of the anaesthetist after an operation until he wakes in the ward his physiological state should be continuously and expertly supervised. Postoperative nurses are provided only when the operating theatre has a recovery room. A survey among consultants and nurses in one region showed that many surgical units did not have recovery rooms and that inexperienced ward nurses were often sent to collect patients. The survey showed that most nurses were competent to care for unconscious patients so long as an emergency did not arise. In many hospitals the facilities for the safe nursing of postoperative patients were totally inadequate. The very least that is needed is good communications with the anaesthetist, adequate lighting, and a source of oxygen and suction. Because of the shortage of nurses likely to have to care for postanaesthetic patients early on and to train them accordingly. Nevertheless, recovery nurses, whose sole responsibility is to care for a patient until be has recovered from anaesthesia, should be appointed for all busy surgical units.
PMCID: PMC1606846  PMID: 67869
21.  American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status classification 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2011;55(2):111-115.
Although the American Society of Anaesthesiologists’ (ASA) classification of Physical Health is a widely used grading system for preoperative health of the surgical patients, multiple variations were observed between individual anaesthetist’s assessments when describing common clinical problems. This article reviews the current knowledge and evaluation regarding ASA Classification of Physical Health as well as trials for possible modification.
PMCID: PMC3106380  PMID: 21712864
Anaesthesia; ASA; physical status classification; preoperative assessment
22.  Problems encountered when administering general anaesthetics in accident and emergency departments. 
Archives of Emergency Medicine  1988;5(3):151-155.
Junior anaesthetists in 75 English hospitals were surveyed for their views on whether administering general anaesthetics in A&E departments provoked more anxiety than in the main theatre, and if so what factors contributed to this. Of these anaesthetists, 71% were more apprehensive working in A&E departments than in main theatre; 91% felt that they were adequately experienced but despite this there was a marked decline in apprehension with increasing experience. Sixty eight per cent of the anaesthetists thought that their assistance was inadequate and only 28% had an Operating Department Assistant (ODA). Forty eight per cent said that the equipment was inadequate in either standard or maintenance and 40% said that some of the patients were unsuitable for day case anaesthesia. The authors recommend that anaesthetists performing general anaesthetics in A&E departments should be adequately experienced using equipment provided and maintained by the anaesthetic department and assisted by adequately trained nurses or ODAs.
PMCID: PMC1285518  PMID: 3178973
23.  Use of intravenous cannulae by junior hospital doctors. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1993;69(811):389-391.
One hundred junior hospital doctors were surveyed to investigate their use of intravenous cannulae. Anaesthetists inserted more cannulae per day than non-anaesthetists and were more likely to use local anaesthetic and wear gloves, although most doctors never or rarely did so. Anaesthetists were also more knowledgeable than non-anaesthetists about the sizes of cannulae they used and the sizes available, although there was considerable ignorance overall in this regard. Many doctors regularly place themselves at risk and expose their patients to unnecessary pain during intravenous cannula insertion, and have little knowledge about the cannulae they use.
PMCID: PMC2399826  PMID: 8346136
24.  Survey of the use of rapid sequence induction in the accident and emergency department 
Objectives—To determine the current position regarding the use of rapid sequence induction (RSI) by accident and emergency (A&E) medical staff and the attitudes of consultants in A&E and anaesthetics towards this.
Methods—A questionnaire was designed that was distributed to consultant anaesthetists and A&E physicians in hospitals receiving over 50 000 new A&E patients per year.
Results—A total of 140 replies were received (a response rate of 72%). The breakdown of results is shown. There was wide difference of opinion between anaesthetists and A&E consultants as to who performs RSI at present in their A&E departments, however two thirds of anaesthetists thought A&E staff with appropriate training and support should attempt RSI either routinely or in certain circumstances.
Conclusions—A&E staff in several hospitals routinely undertake RSI and the majority of A&E consultants thought that RSI would be undertaken by A&E staff if an anaesthetist were unavailable. There is disagreement regarding the length of anaesthetic training required before A&E medical staff should undertake RSI.
PMCID: PMC1725352  PMID: 10718228
25.  Assessment of fitness for surgical procedures and the variability of anaesthetists' judgments. 
British Medical Journal  1980;280(6213):509-512.
Ten anaesthetists were asked to make judgments on fitness for elective operation on data derived from 200 patients. The extent of their agreement was measured using a kappa statistic, and clusters of anaesthetists who agreed well with each other were identified. Using an alternative technique, the "true" fitness category of each patient was estimated using a maximum likelihood method which estimated the error involved in making judgments on limited amounts of information. It was possible to compare the performance of each anaesthetist against the consensus and to measure deviation on an "optimism--pessimism" continuum. A simple questionnaire predicted fitness for operation by all 10 anaesthetists in 96% of cases.
PMCID: PMC1601404  PMID: 7370563

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