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2.  Essays in memory of Arthur J. Viseltear. 
Images
PMCID: PMC2589488  PMID: 1814056
3.  History of the Department of Cell Biology at Yale School of Medicine, 1813-2010 
The Department of Cell Biology at the Yale University School of Medicine was established in 1983. It was preceded by the Section of Cell Biology, which was formed in 1973 when George E. Palade and collaborators came to Yale from the Rockefeller University. Cell Biology at Yale had its origins in the Department of Anatomy that existed from the beginning of classes at the Medical Institution of Yale College in 1813. This article reviews the history of the Department of Anatomy at Yale and its evolution into Cell Biology that began with the introduction of histology into the curriculum in the 1860s. The formation and development of the Section and Department of Cell Biology in the second half of the 20th century to the present time are described. Biographies and research activities of the chairs and key faculty in anatomy and cell biology are provided.
PMCID: PMC3117420  PMID: 21698037
4.  In Memoriam Mila Rainof, MD 
Since 1839, Yale medical students have been writing theses as part of their professional training. It is an introduction to the practice of original research, a demanding and sometimes exhausting pursuit. The thesis project promotes a tenacity well suited for the practice of medicine. The thesis advisor has a challenging role as well — one that can only be filled by an individual whose dedication to research is matched with a patience for mentoring students.
In a dedicated commentary included in this issue of the journal, Margaret Drickamer, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine at Yale University, shares her account of one advisor’s relationship to a maturing clinician-scholar. Mila Rainof, MD, was a member of the Yale School of Medicine 2008 graduating class. She died tragically in April 2008, just months prior to beginning an emergency medicine residency in Oakland, California.
By including Drickamer’s commentary with Rainof’s thesis abstract, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine honors Rainof’s memory and also celebrates the professional work and scholarly life that took form during her relationship with her thesis advisor.
The Yale School of Medicine has established the Mila Rainof, MD, Memorial Fund in her honor.
PMCID: PMC2496696
5.  Arthur Williams 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2005;331(7524):1085.
Physician who played a major part in the development of medicine and medical training in east Africa
PMCID: PMC1283205
6.  The 2008 Anatomy Ceremony: Essays 
When asked to relate my experience of anatomy to the first-year medical and physician associate students at Yale before the start of their own first dissection, I found no better words to share than those of my classmates. Why speak with only one tongue, I said, when you can draw on 99 others? Anatomical dissection elicits what our course director, Lawrence Rizzolo, has called a “diversity of experience,” which, in turn, engenders a diversity of expressions. For Yale medical and physician associate students, this diversity is captured each year in a ceremony dedicated to those who donated their bodies for dissection. The service is an opportunity to offer thanks, but because only students and faculty are in attendance, it is also a place to share and address the complicated tensions that arise while examining, invading, and ultimately disassembling another’s body. It is our pleasure to present selected pieces from the ceremony to the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine readership.
— Peter Gayed, Co-editor-in-chief, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine and Chair of the 2008 Anatomy Ceremony Planning Committee
PMCID: PMC2660589  PMID: 19325944
7.  Systemic lupus erythematosus with nephropathy. 
This paper is the first in a new Clinical Feature Series that will be a regular feature in future issues of The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. Papers in the series will focus on cases and disease processes of general interest to the practicing clinician, with the goal being to present the perspectives of expert clinicians regarding the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of the diseases being discussed. The following case was presented at Medical Grand Rounds at the Yale-New Haven Hospital and the Yale School of Medicine by John P. Hayslett, Professor of Medicine (Nephrology) with accompanying analysis of pathological specimens by Dr. Hugh Carey, a Postdoctoral Fellow of the Pathology staff. The patient whose case is presented was also present to describe her experience with the illness and the course of treatment.
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PMCID: PMC2588957  PMID: 8792600
8.  Temporal Trends in the Impact Factor of European versus USA Biomedical Journals 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e16300.
Background
The impact factors of biomedical journals tend to rise over time. We sought to assess the trend in the impact factor, during the past decade, of journals published on behalf of United States (US) and European scientific societies, in four select biomedical subject categories (Biology, Cell Biology, Critical Care Medicine, and Infectious Diseases).
Methods
We identified all journals included in the above-mentioned subject categories of Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports® for the years 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008. We selected those that were published on behalf of US or European scientific societies, as documented in journal websites.
Results
We included 167 journals (35 in the subject category of Biology, 79 in Cell Biology, 27 in Critical Care Medicine, and 26 in Infectious Diseases). Between 1999 and 2008, the percentage increase in the impact factor of the European journals was higher than for the US journals (73.7±110.0% compared with 39.7±70.0%, p = 0.049). Regarding specific subject categories, the percentage change in the factor of the European journals tended to be higher than the respective US journals for Cell Biology (61.7% versus 16.3%), Critical Care Medicine (212.4% versus 65.4%), Infectious Diseases (88.3% versus 48.7%), whereas the opposite was observed for journals in Biology (41.0% versus 62.5%).
Conclusion
Journals published on behalf of European scientific societies, in select biomedical fields, may tend to close the “gap” in impact factor compared with those of US societies.
What's Already Known About This Topic?
The impact factors of biomedical journals tend to rise through years. The leading positions in productivity in biomedical research are held by developed countries, including those from North America and Western Europe.
What Does This Article Add?
The journals from European biomedical scientific societies tended, over the past decade, to increase their impact factor more than the respective US journals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016300
PMCID: PMC3036587  PMID: 21347409
9.  Moderately and Heavily Used Biomedical Journals * 
The purpose of this investigation was to produce a title list of current journals supplying upwards of 75 percent of demand at the Columbia and Yale Medical Libraries. Columbia received nearly 2,000 journals and Yale over 1,500; findings are based upon an analysis of canceled charge slips for issues published from 1959 through June 1962. This combined study of recorded usage for six months in the Columbia Medical Library (12.9 percent of circulation during January through June 1962) and for one year in the Yale Medical Library (12.5 percent of 1961/62 circulation) revealed that a core of 262 journals supplied 80 percent of use of titles published in the 1959 to mid-1962 period. However, it is probable that current issues of all titles received were used at least once within the libraries. Titles of sixty-seven journals which supplied slightly more than 50 percent of use are listed.
PMCID: PMC198101  PMID: 14119296
10.  The early years of coeducation at the Yale University School of Medicine. 
The Yale School of Medicine began accepting women as candidates for the degree of medicine in the fall of 1916. This decision was consistent with the trend in medical education at the time. While Yale was not the first prestigious Eastern medical school to admit women, joining Johns Hopkins (1893) and the University of Pennsylvania (1914), it was not one of the last. Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons admitted women a year later, but Harvard Medical School held out until 1945. The years 1916--1920 saw the number of women enrolled in medical school almost double. Yale's decision to admit women seems to have been made with little resistance from the faculty. The final decision was made through the encouragement and financial help of Henry Farnam, a professor of economics at Yale, who agreed to pay for the women's bathrooms. His daughter, Louise, was in the first class of women. At graduation she was awarded the highest scholastic honors, the Campbell Gold Prize. From Yale she travelled to the Yale-sponsored medical school in Changsha, China, where she became the first female faculty member, a position she held for twelve years. The impressions of Ella Clay Wakeman Calhoun, the only woman to graduate in the second class of women, are presented here. Since 1916 the Yale School of Medicine has undergone extensive physical and philosophical changes, developments in which women have participated.
PMCID: PMC2595889  PMID: 6996342
11.  The 2007 Anatomy Ceremony: A Service of Gratitude 
Yale University medical and PA students, classes of 2010 and 2008 respectively, express their gratitude in a compilation of reflections on learning human anatomy. In coordination with the Section of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery at the School of Medicine, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine encourages you to hear the stories of the body as narrated by the student.
PMCID: PMC2140188  PMID: 18160994
12.  The 2007 Anatomy Ceremony: A Service of Gratitude 
Yale University medical and PA students, classes of 2010 and 2008 respectively, express their gratitude in a compilation of reflections on learning human anatomy. In coordination with the Section of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery at the School of Medicine, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine encourages you to hear the stories of the body as narrated by the student.
PMCID: PMC2248289
13.  Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals 
Objectives: Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals.
Methods: Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication.
Results: Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5–3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature.
Conclusions: The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.
PMCID: PMC209509  PMID: 14566374
17.  Current Status of Biomedical Book Reviewing: Part I. Key Biomedical Reviewing Journals with Quantitative Significance 
This is the first part of a comprehensive, quantitative study of biomedical book reviewing. The data base of the total project was built from statistics taken from all 1970 issues of biomedical journals held in the Science Library of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Of 285 so-called “life sciences” journals held by that library, fifty-four English journals (excluding Science and Nature) were found to contain bona fide book reviews (as contrasted with mere author-title lists) and were therefore selected for close study. The statistical results reveal that there were 3,347 reviews of 2,067 biomedical books in these fifty-four selected journals in 1970. Part I of the study identifies key biomedical reviewing journals of quantitative significance. The top ten journals, British Medical Journal, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Archives of Internal Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine, Quarterly Review of Biology, Bioscience, Canadian Medical Association Journal,* and American Journal of the Medical Sciences, accounted for 63.03% of the total number of reviews in 1970.
PMCID: PMC198770  PMID: 4826479
18.  On the future contents of a small journal of histochemistry 
In the last three years, more than 70,000 scientific articles have been published in peer reviewed journals on the application of histochemistry in the biomedical field: most of them did not appear in strictly histochemical journals, but in others dealing with cell and molecular biology, medicine or biotechnology. This proves that histochemistry is still an active and innovative discipline with relevance in basic and applied biological research, but also demonstrates that especially the small histochemical journals should likely reconsider their scopes and strategies to preserve their authorship. A review of the last three years volumes of the European Journal of Histochemistry, taken as an example of a long-time established small journal, confirmed that the published articles were widely heterogeneous in their topics and experimental models, as in this journal's tradition. This strongly suggests that a journal of histochemistry should keep its role as a forum open to an audience as broad as possible, publishing papers on cell and tissue biology in a wide variety of models. This will improve knowledge of the basic mechanisms of development and differentiation, while helping to increase the number of potential authors since scientists who generally do not use histochemistry in their research will find hints for the applications of histochemical techniques to novel still unexplored subjects.
doi:10.4081/ejh.2012.e51
PMCID: PMC3567770  PMID: 23361247
Basic and applied histochemistry
19.  A new journal – "Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling" 
Biology has a conceptual basis that allows one to build models and theorize across many life sciences, including medicine and medically-related disciplines. A dearth of good venues for publication has been perceived during a period when bioinformatics, systems analysis and biomathematics are burgeoning.
Steps have been taken to provide the sort of journal with a quick turnaround time for manuscripts which is online and freely accessible to all readers, whatever their persuasion or discipline. We have now been running for some time a journal which has had many good papers presented pre-launch, and a steady stream of papers thereafter. The value of this journal as a new venue has already been vindicated.
Within a short space of time, we have founded a state-of-the-art electronic journal freely accessible to all in a much sort-after interdisciplinary field that will be of benefit to the thinking life scientist, which must include medically qualified doctors as well as scientists who prefer to build their new hypotheses on basic principles and sound concepts underpinning biology. At the same time, these principles are not sacrosanct and require critical analysis. The journal promises to deliver many exciting ideas in the future.
doi:10.1186/1742-4682-2-21
PMCID: PMC1156957  PMID: 15949046
20.  Ferruccio Ritossa’s scientific legacy 50 years after his discovery of the heat shock response: a new view of biology, a new society, and a new journal 
Cell Stress & Chaperones  2012;17(2):139-143.
The pioneering discovery of the heat shock response by the Italian scientist Ferruccio Ritossa reached maturity this year, 2012. It was 50 years ago that Professor Ritossa, through an extraordinary combination of serendipity, curiosity, knowledge and inspiration, published the first observation that cells could mount very strong transcriptional activity when exposed to elevated temperatures, which was coined the heat shock response. This discovery led to the identification of heat shock proteins, which impact many areas of current biology and medicine, and has created a new avenue for more exciting discoveries. In recognition of the discovery of the heat shock response, Cell Stress Society International (CSSI) awarded Professor Ritossa with the CSSI medallion in October 2010 in Dozza, Italy. This article is based on a session of the Fifth CSSI Congress held in Québec commemorating Professor Ritossa and his discovery.
doi:10.1007/s12192-012-0320-z
PMCID: PMC3273555  PMID: 22252402
21.  Introducing the medical bioinformatics in Journal of Translational Medicine 
The explosion of genome sequencing data along with genotype to phenotype correlation studies has created data deluge in the area of biomedical sciences. The aim of the Medical bioinformatics section is to aid the development and maturation of the field by providing a platform for the translation of these datasets into useful clinical applications. The increase in computing capabilities and availability of different data from advanced technologies will allow researchers to build System Biology models of various diseases in order to efficiently develop new therapeutic interventions and reduce the current prohibitively large costs of drug discovery.
The section welcomes studies on the development of Biomedical Informatics for translational medicine and clinical applications, including tools, methodologies and data integration.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-10-202
PMCID: PMC3533924  PMID: 23013487
22.  Almanac 2011: Cardiomyopathies. the National Society Journals Present Selected Research That Has Driven Recent Advances in Clinical Cardiology 
Acta Informatica Medica  2011;19(4):235-240.
As we approach the end of 2011 it is clear that the next few years are going to be dominated by the application of new high throughput genetic screening techniques, capable of screening the entire exome or indeed genome. Understanding the data generated by these techniques will require new and equally sophisticated analysis of large and complex datasets, using a systems biology approach with deeper phenotyping and advanced modelling techniques that have the flexibility for continuous update, refinement with discovery of new knowledge. Exciting new developments that may also transform cardiomyopathy research include those of infrastructure and organisation (multi-centre collaborations) and spin-offs from the field of regenerative medicine research. For clinical researchers that translate this information to the clinic the focus will however remain the same; namely improvement of quality and quantity of life.
doi:10.5455/aim.2011.19.235-240
PMCID: PMC3564172  PMID: 23407769
cardiomyopathies; clinical cardiology.
23.  Harmonic Medicine: The Influence of Music Over Mind and Medical Practice 
The Yale Medical Orchestra displayed exceptional talent and inspiration as it performed a timeless composition to celebrate Yale School of Medicine’s bicentennial anniversary during a December 2010 concert. Under the leadership of musical directors Robert Smith and Adrian Slywotzky, the richly emotional meditations of Mendelssohn, Dvorak, Schubert, and Yale’s own Thomas C. Duffy filled the minds and hearts of an audience as diverse as the orchestra. I intend to retrace the steps of that melodic journey in this essay, fully aware of the limits imposed on me to recreate the aural art form through the medium of text. While these symbols can be pale representations of the beauty and complexity of the music, I hope they will be the building blocks for the emotional experience of the audience. I describe the works’ inception and their salient musical features and then review what we know about the effects of melody, meter, and timbre on our brains. My intentions are to provide evidence to encourage the further use of music as a tool in medical practice, provide interest in the works explored by the Yale orchestra, support the orchestra itself, and investigate a personal passion.
PMCID: PMC3117413  PMID: 21698051
Yale Symphony Orchestra; music therapy; sound perception; primary auditory cortex; Mozart effect
24.  Putting Together the Pieces of Polio: How Dorothy Horstmann Helped Solve the Puzzle 
Dr. Dorothy Horstmann, epidemiologist, virologist, clinician, and educator, was the first woman appointed as a professor at the Yale School of Medicine. Horstmann made significant contributions to the fields of public health and virology, her most notable being the demonstration that poliovirus reached the central nervous system via the bloodstream, upsetting conventional wisdom and paving the way for polio vaccines. In 1961, she was appointed a professor at Yale School of Medicine, and in 1969, she became the first woman at Yale to receive an endowed chair, which was named in honor of her mentor, Dr. John Rodman Paul. In this review, the major scientific contributions of Dr. Dorothy Horstmann will be highlighted from her more than 50-year tenure at Yale School of Medicine.
PMCID: PMC3117421  PMID: 21698038
polio; poliovirus; poliovirus vaccine; oral
25.  What do evidence-based secondary journals tell us about the publication of clinically important articles in primary healthcare journals? 
BMC Medicine  2004;2:33.
Background
We conducted this analysis to determine i) which journals publish high-quality, clinically relevant studies in internal medicine, general/family practice, general practice nursing, and mental health; and ii) the proportion of clinically relevant articles in each journal.
Methods
We performed an analytic survey of a hand search of 170 general medicine, general healthcare, and specialty journals for 2000. Research staff assessed individual articles by using explicit criteria for scientific merit for healthcare application. Practitioners assessed the clinical importance of these articles. Outcome measures were the number of high-quality, clinically relevant studies published in the 170 journal titles and how many of these were published in each of four discipline-specific, secondary "evidence-based" journals (ACP Journal Club for internal medicine and its subspecialties; Evidence-Based Medicine for general/family practice; Evidence-Based Nursing for general practice nursing; and Evidence-Based Mental Health for all aspects of mental health). Original studies and review articles were classified for purpose: therapy and prevention, screening and diagnosis, prognosis, etiology and harm, economics and cost, clinical prediction guides, and qualitative studies.
Results
We evaluated 60,352 articles from 170 journal titles. The pass criteria of high-quality methods and clinically relevant material were met by 3059 original articles and 1073 review articles. For ACP Journal Club (internal medicine), four titles supplied 56.5% of the articles and 27 titles supplied the other 43.5%. For Evidence-Based Medicine (general/family practice), five titles supplied 50.7% of the articles and 40 titles supplied the remaining 49.3%. For Evidence-Based Nursing (general practice nursing), seven titles supplied 51.0% of the articles and 34 additional titles supplied 49.0%. For Evidence-Based Mental Health (mental health), nine titles supplied 53.2% of the articles and 34 additional titles supplied 46.8%. For the disciplines of internal medicine, general/family practice, and mental health (but not general practice nursing), the number of clinically important articles was correlated withScience Citation Index (SCI) Impact Factors.
Conclusions
Although many clinical journals publish high-quality, clinically relevant and important original studies and systematic reviews, the articles for each discipline studied were concentrated in a small subset of journals. This subset varied according to healthcare discipline; however, many of the important articles for all disciplines in this study were published in broad-based healthcare journals rather than subspecialty or discipline-specific journals.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-2-33
PMCID: PMC518974  PMID: 15350200

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