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1.  SNX12 Role in Endosome Membrane Transport 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38949.
In this paper, we investigated the role of sorting nexin 12 (SNX12) in the endocytic pathway. SNX12 is a member of the PX domain-containing sorting nexin family and shares high homology with SNX3, which plays a central role in the formation of intralumenal vesicles within multivesicular endosomes. We found that SNX12 is expressed at very low levels compared to SNX3. SNX12 is primarily associated with early endosomes and this endosomal localization depends on the binding to 3-phosphoinositides. We find that overexpression of SNX12 prevents the detachment (or maturation) of multivesicular endosomes from early endosomes. This in turn inhibits the degradative pathway from early to late endosomes/lysosomes, much like SNX3 overexpression, without affecting endocytosis, recycling and retrograde transport. In addition, while previous studies showed that Hrs knockdown prevents EGF receptor sorting into multivesicular endosomes, we find that overexpression of SNX12 restores the sorting process in an Hrs knockdown background. Altogether, our data show that despite lower expression level, SNX12 shares redundant functions with SNX3 in the biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes.
PMCID: PMC3376135  PMID: 22719997
2.  SNX31: A Novel Sorting Nexin Associated with the Uroplakin-Degrading Multivesicular Bodies in Terminally Differentiated Urothelial Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99644.
Uroplakins (UP), a group of integral membrane proteins, are major urothelial differentiation products that form 2D crystals of 16-nm particles (urothelial plaques) covering the apical surface of mammalian bladder urothelium. They contribute to the urothelial barrier function and, one of them, UPIa, serves as the receptor for uropathogenic Escherichia coli. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism by which these surface-associated uroplakins are degraded. While it is known that endocytosed uroplakin plaques are targeted to and line the multivesicular bodies (MVBs), it is unclear how these rigid-looking plaques can go to the highly curved membranes of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). From a cDNA subtraction library, we identified a highly urothelium-specific sorting nexin, SNX31. SNX31 is expressed, like uroplakins, in terminally differentiated urothelial umbrella cells where it is predominantly associated with MVBs. Apical membrane proteins including uroplakins that are surface biotin-tagged are endocytosed and targeted to the SNX31-positive MVBs. EM localization demonstrated that SNX31 and uroplakins are both associated not only with the limiting membranes of MVBs containing uroplakin plaques, but also with ILVs. SNX31 can bind, on one hand, the PtdIns3P-enriched lipids via its N-terminal PX-domain, and, on the other hand, it binds uroplakins as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay, and by its reduced membrane association in uroplakin II-deficient urothelium. The fact that in urothelial umbrella cells MVBs are the only major intracellular organelles enriched in both PtdIns3P and uroplakins may explain SNX31's MVB-specificity in these cells. However, in MDCK and other cultured cells transfected SNX31 can bind to early endosomes possibly via lipids. These data support a model in which SNX31 mediates the endocytic degradation of uroplakins by disassembling/collapsing the MVB-associated uroplakin plaques, thus enabling the uroplakin-containing (but ‘softened’) membranes to bud and form the ILVs for lysosomal degradation and/or exosome formation.
PMCID: PMC4051706  PMID: 24914955
3.  Biogenesis and Function of Multivesicular Bodies 
The two major cellular sites for membrane protein degradation are the proteasome and the lysosome. Ubiquitin attachment is a sorting signal for both degradation routes. For lysosomal degradation, ubiquitination triggers the sorting of cargo proteins into the lumen of late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes. MVB formation occurs when a portion of the limiting membrane of an endosome invaginates and buds into its own lumen. Intralumenal vesicles are degraded when MVBs fuse to lysosomes. The proper delivery of proteins to the MVB interior relies on specific ubiquitination of cargo, recognition and sorting of ubiquitinated cargo to endosomal subdomains, and the formation and scission of cargo-filled intralumenal vesicles. Over the past five years, a number of proteins that may directly participate in these aspects of MVB function and biogenesis have been identified. However, major questions remain as to exactly what these proteins do at the molecular level and how they may accomplish these tasks.
PMCID: PMC2911632  PMID: 17506697
endosome; lysosome; ubiquitin; ESCRT; downregulation; peptidase
4.  Endosomal Type Iγ PIP 5-Kinase Controls EGF Receptor Lysosomal Sorting 
Developmental cell  2013;25(2):144-155.
Endosomal trafficking and degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) play an essential role in control of its signaling. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2) is an established regulator of endocytosis, whereas PtdIns3P modulates endosomal trafficking. However, here we demonstrate that type Igamma phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase i5 (PIPKIγi5), an enzyme that synthesizes PtdIns4,5P2, controls endosome to lysosome sorting of EGFR. In this pathway, PIPKIγi5 interacts with sorting nexin 5 (SNX5), a protein that binds PtdIns4,5P2 and other phosphoinositides. PIPKIγi5 and SNX5 localize to endosomes, and loss of either protein blocks EGFR sorting into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of the multivesicular body (MVB). Loss of ILV sorting greatly enhances and prolongs EGFR signaling. PIPKIγi5 and SNX5 prevent Hrs ubiquitination and this facilitates the Hrs association with EGFR that is required for ILV sorting. These findings reveal that PIPKIγi5 and SNX5 form a unique signaling nexus that controls EGFR endosomal sorting, degradation, and signaling.
PMCID: PMC3740164  PMID: 23602387
5.  Characterization of Multiple Multivesicular Body Sorting Determinants within Sna3: A Role for the Ubiquitin Ligase Rsp5 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2007;18(2):707-720.
A subset of proteins that transit the endosomal system are directed into the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). MVB formation is critical for a variety of cellular functions including receptor down-regulation, viral budding, antigen presentation, and the generation of lysosome-related organelles. Entry of transmembrane proteins into the intralumenal vesicles of a MVB is a highly regulated process that is positively modulated by covalent modification of cargoes with ubiquitin. To identify additional MVB sorting signals, we examined the previously described ubiquitination-independent MVB cargo Sna3. Although Sna3 ubiquitination is not essential, Sna3 MVB sorting is positively modulated by its ubiquitination. Examination of MVB sorting determinants within a form of Sna3 lacking all lysine residues identified two critical regions: an amino-terminal tyrosine-containing region and a carboxyl-terminal PPAY motif. This PPAY motif interacts with the WW domains of the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, and mutations in either the WW or, surprisingly, the HECT domains of Rsp5 negatively impacted MVB targeting of lysine-minus Sna3. These data indicate that Rsp5 function is required for MVB targeting of Sna3 in a capacity beyond cargo ubiquitination. These results uncover a series of determinants impacting Sna3 MVB sorting, including unexpected roles for Rsp5.
PMCID: PMC1783786  PMID: 17182849
6.  Old World Arenaviruses Enter the Host Cell via the Multivesicular Body and Depend on the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport 
PLoS Pathogens  2011;7(9):e1002232.
The highly pathogenic Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) and the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) use α-dystroglycan as a cellular receptor and enter the host cell by an unusual endocytotic pathway independent of clathrin, caveolin, dynamin, and actin. Upon internalization, the viruses are delivered to acidified endosomes in a Rab5-independent manner bypassing classical routes of incoming vesicular trafficking. Here we sought to identify cellular factors involved in the unusual and largely unknown entry pathway of LASV and LCMV. Cell entry of LASV and LCMV required microtubular transport to late endosomes, consistent with the low fusion pH of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Productive infection with recombinant LCMV expressing LASV envelope glycoprotein (rLCMV-LASVGP) and LCMV depended on phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) as well as lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), an unusual phospholipid that is involved in the formation of intraluminal vesicles (ILV) of the multivesicular body (MVB) of the late endosome. We provide evidence for a role of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) in LASV and LCMV cell entry, in particular the ESCRT components Hrs, Tsg101, Vps22, and Vps24, as well as the ESCRT-associated ATPase Vps4 involved in fission of ILV. Productive infection with rLCMV-LASVGP and LCMV also critically depended on the ESCRT-associated protein Alix, which is implicated in membrane dynamics of the MVB/late endosomes. Our study identifies crucial cellular factors implicated in Old World arenavirus cell entry and indicates that LASV and LCMV invade the host cell passing via the MVB/late endosome. Our data further suggest that the virus-receptor complexes undergo sorting into ILV of the MVB mediated by the ESCRT, possibly using a pathway that may be linked to the cellular trafficking and degradation of the cellular receptor.
Author Summary
Old World arenaviruses include the prototypic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the highly pathogenic Lassa virus (LASV) that causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and infects several thousand individuals per year in Western Africa. Cell entry of a virus is the first step of every virus infection and represents a promising target for therapeutic intervention. We and others had shown that LCMV and LASV attach to a cellular receptor, α-dystroglycan, followed by internalization by endocytosis via a novel and unusual pathway. Here we investigated the largely unknown molecular mechanisms of cell entry of LASV and LCMV with the goal to identify host cell factors involved. We discovered that during cell entry LASV and LCMV pass through a particular intracellular compartment, the multivesicular body (MVB)/late endosome, which is implicated in the internalization and degradation of cellular membrane receptors. Productive infection of LASV and LCMV critically depended on cellular factors involved in the membrane dynamics and sorting processes in the MVB. Based on our studies, we propose a model for Old World arenavirus entry in which the viruses hijack a pathway that may be linked to the cellular trafficking and degradation of their cellular receptor.
PMCID: PMC3169553  PMID: 21931550
7.  Molecular Mechanism of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis by ESCRT Complexes 
Nature  2010;464(7290):864-869.
When internalized receptors and other cargo are destined for lysosomal degradation, they are ubiquitinated and sorted by the ESCRT complexes 0, I, II, and III into multivesicular bodies. Multivesicular bodies are formed when cargo-rich patches of the limiting membrane of endosomes bud inward by an unknown mechanism and are then cleaved to yield cargo-bearing intralumenal vesicles. The biogenesis of multivesicular bodies was reconstituted and visualized using giant unilamellar vesicles, fluorescent ESCRT-0, I, II, and III complexes, and a membrane-tethered fluorescent ubiquitin fusion as a model cargo. ESCRT-0 forms domains of clustered cargo but does not deform membranes. ESCRT-I and II in combination deform the membrane into buds, in which cargo is confined. ESCRT-I and II localize to the bud necks, and recruit ESCRT-0-ubiquitin domains to the buds. ESCRT-III subunits localize to the bud neck and efficiently cleave the buds to form intralumenal vesicles. Intralumenal vesicles produced in this reaction contain the model cargo but are devoid of ESCRTs. The observations explain how the ESCRTs direct membrane budding and scission from the cytoplasmic side of the bud without being consumed in the reaction.
PMCID: PMC2851844  PMID: 20305637
8.  MVB-12, a Fourth Subunit of Metazoan ESCRT-I, Functions in Receptor Downregulation 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(9):e956.
After ligand binding and endocytosis, cell surface receptors can continue to signal from endosomal compartments until sequestered from the cytoplasm. An important mechanism for receptor downregulation in vivo is via the inward budding of receptors into intralumenal vesicles to form specialized endosomes called multivesicular bodies (MVBs) that subsequently fuse with lysosomes, degrading their cargo. This process requires four heterooligomeric protein complexes collectively termed the ESCRT machinery. In yeast, ESCRT-I is a heterotetrameric complex comprised of three conserved subunits and a fourth subunit for which identifiable metazoan homologs were lacking. Using C. elegans, we identify MVB-12, a fourth metazoan ESCRT-I subunit. Depletion of MVB-12 slows the kinetics of receptor downregulation in vivo, but to a lesser extent than inhibition of other ESCRT-I subunits. Consistent with these findings, targeting of MVB-12 to membranes requires the other ESCRT-I subunits, but MVB-12 is not required to target the remaining ESCRT-I components. Both endogenous and recombinant ESCRT-I are stable complexes with a 1:1:1:1 subunit stoichiometry. MVB-12 has two human homologs that co-localize and co-immunoprecipitate with the ESCRT-I component TSG101. Thus, MVB-12 is a conserved core component of metazoan ESCRT-I that regulates its activity during MVB biogenesis.
PMCID: PMC1978536  PMID: 17895996
9.  Multivesicular Body Formation Requires OSBP–Related Proteins and Cholesterol 
PLoS Genetics  2010;6(8):e1001055.
In eukaryotes, different subcellular organelles have distinct cholesterol concentrations, which is thought to be critical for biological functions. Oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) have been assumed to mediate nonvesicular cholesterol trafficking in cells; however, their in vivo functions and therefore the biological significance of cholesterol in each organelle are not fully understood. Here, by generating deletion mutants of ORPs in Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that ORPs are required for the formation and function of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). In an RNAi enhancer screen using obr quadruple mutants (obr-1; -2; -3; -4), we found that MVB–related genes show strong genetic interactions with the obr genes. In obr quadruple mutants, late endosomes/lysosomes are enlarged and membrane protein degradation is retarded, although endocytosed soluble proteins are normally delivered to lysosomes and degraded. We also found that the cholesterol content of late endosomes/lysosomes is reduced in the mutants. In wild-type worms, cholesterol restriction induces the formation of enlarged late endosomes/lysosomes, as observed in obr quadruple mutants, and increases embryonic lethality upon knockdown of MVB–related genes. Finally, we show that knockdown of ORP1L, a mammalian ORP family member, induces the formation of enlarged MVBs in HeLa cells. Our in vivo findings suggest that the proper cholesterol level of late endosomes/lysosomes generated by ORPs is required for normal MVB formation and MVB–mediated membrane protein degradation.
Author Summary
The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway provides a mechanism for the lysosomal degradation of membrane proteins, such as growth factor receptors. The formation of MVBs is unique in that the curvature is directed toward the lumen of the compartment rather than the cytosol. During MVB formation, the curvature-inducing proteins, such as clathrins, could not be involved in the inward invagination of the endosomal membrane. Under these circumstances, lipids have been assumed to play a role in the membrane invagination step by creating local membrane environments; however, the lipids involved in this step have not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that cholesterol, an essential membrane component in animals, is critical for MVB formation and function. We found that disruption of OSBP–related proteins (ORPs), which have been proposed to function in cellular cholesterol distribution and metabolism, reduces the cholesterol content in late endosomes/lysosomes, leading to impaired MVB function. MVB sorting pathway is known to be involved in many processes, including growth factor receptor down-regulation, exosome secretion, antigen presentation, the budding of enveloped viruses, and cytokinesis. Our findings provide a novel link between cholesterol and these biologically important functions.
PMCID: PMC2916882  PMID: 20700434
10.  Three sorting nexins drive the degradation of apoptotic cells in response to PtdIns(3)P signaling 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2011;22(3):354-374.
LST-4/SNX9, SNX-1, and SNX-6 together drive the degradation of apoptotic cells, as PtdIns(3)P effectors, during Caenorhabditis elegans development. By inducing regional membrane curvature and maintaining RAB-7 GTPase on phagosomes, these three sorting nexins stimulate the fusion of endocytic organelles with phagosomes.
Apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by phagocytes and degraded inside phagosomes. Phagosome maturation requires phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P], yet how PtdIns(3)P triggers phagosome maturation remains largely unknown. Through a genome-wide PtdIns(3)P effector screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified LST-4/SNX9, SNX-1, and SNX-6, three BAR domain-containing sorting nexins, that act in two parallel pathways to drive PtdIns(3)P-mediated degradation of apoptotic cells. We found that these proteins were enriched on phagosomal surfaces through association with PtdIns(3)P and through specific protein–protein interaction, and they promoted the fusion of early endosomes and lysosomes to phagosomes, events essential for phagosome maturation. Specifically, LST-4 interacts with DYN-1 (dynamin), an essential phagosome maturation initiator, to strengthen DYN-1’s association to phagosomal surfaces, and facilitates the maintenance of the RAB-7 GTPase on phagosomal surfaces. Furthermore, both LST-4 and SNX-1 promote the extension of phagosomal tubules to facilitate the docking and fusion of intracellular vesicles. Our findings identify the critical and differential functions of two groups of sorting nexins in phagosome maturation and reveal a signaling cascade initiated by phagocytic receptor CED-1, mediated by PtdIns(3)P, and executed through these sorting nexins to degrade apoptotic cells.
PMCID: PMC3031466  PMID: 21148288
11.  Regulation of Vps4 during MVB Sorting and Cytokinesis 
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)  2011;12(10):1298-1305.
Multivesicular body (MVB) formation is the result of invagination and budding of the endosomal limiting membrane into its intralumenal space. These intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) contain a subset of endosomal transmembrane cargoes destined for degradation within the lysosome, the result of active selection during MVB sorting. Membrane bending and scission during ILV formation is topologically similar to cytokinesis in that both events require the abscission of a membrane neck that is oriented away from the cytoplasm. The endosomal sorting machinery required for transport (ESCRTs) represents cellular machinery whose function makes essential contributions to both of these processes. In particular the AAA-ATPase Vps4 and its substrate ESCRT-III are key components that seem to execute the membrane abscission reaction. This review summarizes current knowledge about the Vps4-ESCRT-III system and discusses a model how the recruitment of Vps4 to the different sites of function might be regulated.
PMCID: PMC3171586  PMID: 21658171
ESCRT; MVB pathway; cytokinesis; endocytosis; protein trafficking
12.  The role of ubiquitination in lysosomal trafficking of δ-opioid receptors 
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)  2010;12(2):170-184.
Lysyl-ubiquitination of signaling receptors is widely recognized to drive their proteolytic down-regulation via the multivesicular body (MVB) / lysosome pathway. Ubiquitination can act at multiple steps in this pathway, depending on receptor type and organism examined. No previous study has identified specific trafficking step(s) controlled by ubiquitination of a mammalian seven-transmembrane receptor (7TMR). The δ-opioid receptor (DOR) undergoes ligand-induced is a mammalian 7TMR down-regulation by ESCRT-dependent endocytic trafficking to lysosomes. In contrast to a number of other signaling receptors, the DOR can down-regulate effectively when its ubiquitination is prevented. We explored the membrane trafficking basis of this behavior. First, we show that that undergoes rapid lysosomal down-regulation physiologically, but this 7TMR has a still-unexplained ability to down-regulate effectively even when its ubiquitination is blocked. define pathway underlying internalized DORs traverse the canonical MVB pathway and localize to intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). Second, we show that DOR ubiquitination stimulates, but is not essential for, receptor transfer to ILVs and proteolysis of the receptor endodomain. Third, we show that receptor uHere we show that DORs traffic via morphologically typical MVBs and, similar to other signaling receptors, ubiquitination of DORs promotes the transfer of receptors from the limiting membrane of MVBs into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). However, biquitination plays no detectable role in the early sorting of internalized DORs out of the recycling pathway. Finally, we show that DORs undergo extensive proteolytic fragmentation in the ectodomain, even when receptor ubiquitination is prevented or ILV formation itself is blocked. Together these results are sufficient to explain why DORs down-regulate effectively in the absence of ubiquitination, and they place a discrete molecular sorting operation in the MVB pathway effectively upstream of the ESCRT. selectively of without More generally, these findings support the hypothesis that unlike other signaling receptors presently described, this topological sorting function is regulatory rather than essential. Further, ubiquitination of DORs plays no detectable role in excluding internalized receptors from the bulk-recycling pathway. Together, these observations are sufficient to explain biochemical data indicating that ubiquitination of DORs produces a relatively subtle effect on the later digestion of receptor-derived proteolytic fragments. To our knowledge, this study provides the first systematic analysis of the role of ubiquitination in mediating lysosomal down-regulation of a mammalian 7TMR. This sbiochemically and functionally distinct mammalian cells can control the cytoplasmic accessibility of internalized signaling receptors independently from their ultimate trafficking fate.
PMCID: PMC3075729  PMID: 21106040
GPCR; microscopy; sorting; ubiquitin
13.  In Vitro Budding of Intralumenal Vesicles into Late Endosomes Is Regulated by Alix and Tsg101 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2008;19(11):4942-4955.
Endosomes along the degradation pathway leading to lysosomes accumulate membranes in their lumen and thus exhibit a characteristic multivesicular appearance. These lumenal membranes typically incorporate down-regulated EGF receptor destined for degradation, but the mechanisms that control their formation remain poorly characterized. Here, we describe a novel quantitative biochemical assay that reconstitutes the formation of lumenal vesicles within late endosomes in vitro. Vesicle budding into the endosome lumen was time-, temperature-, pH-, and energy-dependent and required cytosolic factors and endosome membrane components. Our light and electron microscopy analysis showed that the compartment supporting the budding process was accessible to endocytosed bulk tracers and EGF receptor. We also found that the EGF receptor became protected against trypsin in our assay, indicating that it was sorted into the intraendosomal vesicles that were formed in vitro. Our data show that the formation of intralumenal vesicles is ESCRT-dependent, because the process was inhibited by the K173Q dominant negative mutant of hVps4. Moreover, we find that the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 and its partner Alix control intralumenal vesicle formation, by acting as positive and negative regulators, respectively. We conclude that budding of the limiting membrane toward the late endosome lumen, which leads to the formation of intraendosomal vesicles, is controlled by the positive and negative functions of Tsg101 and Alix, respectively.
PMCID: PMC2575168  PMID: 18768755
14.  Opposing Activities of the Snx3-Retromer Complex and ESCRT Proteins Mediate Regulated Cargo Sorting at a Common Endosome 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2008;19(11):4694-4706.
Endocytosed proteins are either delivered to the lysosome to be degraded or are exported from the endosomal system and delivered to other organelles. Sorting of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae reductive iron transporter, composed of the Fet3 and Ftr1 proteins, in the endosomal system is regulated by available iron; in iron-starved cells, Fet3-Ftr1 is sorted by Snx3/Grd19 and retromer into a recycling pathway that delivers it back to the plasma membrane, but when starved cells are exposed to iron, Fet3-Ftr1 is targeted to the lysosome-like vacuole and is degraded. We report that iron-induced endocytosis of Fet3-Ftr1 is independent of Fet3-Ftr1 ubiquitylation, and after endocytosis, degradation of Fet3-Ftr1 is mediated by the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. In mutant cells lacking any component of the ESCRT protein-dependent MVB sorting machinery, the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase, or in wild-type cells expressing Fet3-Ftr1 lacking cytosolic lysyl ubiquitin acceptor sites, Fet3-Ftr1 is constitutively sorted into the recycling pathway independent of iron status. In the presence and absence of iron, Fet3-Ftr1 transits an endosomal compartment where a subunit of the MVB sorting receptor (Vps27), Snx3/Grd19, and retromer proteins colocalize. We propose that this endosome is where Rsp5 ubiquitylates Fet3-Ftr1 and where the recycling and degradative pathways diverge.
PMCID: PMC2575174  PMID: 18768754
15.  Multivesicular bodies: co-ordinated progression to maturity 
Current Opinion in Cell Biology  2008;20(4-24):408-414.
Multivesicular endosomes/bodies (MVBs) sort endocytosed proteins to different destinations. Many lysosomally directed membrane proteins are sorted onto intralumenal vesicles, whilst recycling proteins remain on the perimeter membrane from where they are removed via tubular extensions. MVBs move to the cell centre during this maturation process and, when all recycling proteins have been removed, fuse with lysosomes. Recent advances have identified endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-dependent and ESCRT-independent pathways in intralumenal vesicle formation and mechanisms for sorting recycling cargo into tubules. Cytoskeletal motors, through interactions with these machineries and by regulating MVB movement, help to co-ordinate events leading to a mature, fusion-competent MVB.
PMCID: PMC2577128  PMID: 18502633
16.  PIKfyve Controls Fluid Phase Endocytosis but Not Recycling/Degradation of Endocytosed Receptors or Sorting of Procathepsin D by Regulating Multivesicular Body Morphogenesis 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2003;14(11):4581-4591.
The mammalian phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 5-P/PtdIns 3,5-P2–producing kinase PIKfyve has been implicated in maintaining endomembrane homeostasis in mammalian cells. To address the role of PIKfyve in trafficking processes, we examined the functioning of the biosynthetic, endocytic, and recycling pathways in stable human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines inducibly expressing the wild-type or kinase-defective dominant-negative form. PIKfyveWT or PIKfyveK1831E expression did not affect the processing and lysosomal targeting of newly synthesized procathepsin D. Likewise the rates of transferrin uptake/recycling or epidermal growth factor receptor degradation were not altered upon expression of either protein. In contrast, PIKfyveK1831E but not PIKfyveWT expression markedly impaired the late uptake of fluid phase marker horseradish peroxidase. Inspection of the organelle morphology by confocal microscopy with specific markers in COS cells transiently expressing PIKfyveK1831E showed the Golgi apparatus, end lysosomes, and the recycling compartment indistinguishable from nontransfected cells, despite the dramatic PIKfyveK1831E-induced endomembrane vacuolation. In contrast, we observed a striking effect on the late endocytic compartment, marked by disruption of the dextran-labeled perinuclear endosomal compartment and formation of dispersed enlarged vesicles. Electron microscopy identified the cytoplasmic vacuoles in the PIKfyveK1831E-expressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells as enlarged multivesicular body-like structures with substantially lower number of internal vesicles and membrane whorls. Together, these data indicate that PIKfyve selectively regulates the sorting and traffic of peripheral endosomes containing lysosomaly directed fluid phase cargo through controlling the morphogenesis and function of multivesicular bodies.
PMCID: PMC266774  PMID: 14551253
17.  Distinct Roles for Tsg101 and Hrs in Multivesicular Body Formation and Inward Vesiculation 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2006;17(8):3469-3483.
In mammalian cells, epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation promotes multivesicular body (MVB) formation and inward vesiculation within MVB. Annexin 1 is required for EGF-stimulated inward vesiculation but not MVB formation, demonstrating that MVB formation (the number of MVBs/unit cytoplasm) and inward vesiculation (the number of internal vesicles/MVB) are regulated by different mechanisms. Here, we show that EGF-stimulated MVB formation requires the tumor susceptibility gene, Tsg101, a component of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery. Depletion of Tsg101 potently inhibits EGF degradation and MVB formation and causes the vacuolar domains of the early endosome to tubulate. Although Tsg101 depletion inhibits MVB formation and alters the morphology of the early endosome in unstimulated cells, these effects are much greater after EGF stimulation. In contrast, depletion of hepatocyte growth factor receptor substrate (Hrs) only modestly inhibits EGF degradation, does not induce tubulation of the early endosome, and causes the generation of enlarged MVBs that retain the ability to fuse with the lysosome. Together, these results indicate that Tsg101 is required for the formation of stable vacuolar domains within the early endosome that develop into MVBs and Hrs is required for the accumulation of internal vesicles within MVBs and that both these processes are up-regulated by EGF stimulation.
PMCID: PMC1525239  PMID: 16707569
18.  AP-3 regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent MVB/lysosomal sorting via an ALIX-mediated pathway 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2012;23(18):3612-3623.
A GPCR ubiquitin-independent MVB/lysosomal sorting pathway is regulated by the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) and ALIX, a noncanonical ESCRT component. AP-3 binds to a PAR1 C-tail–localized, tyrosine-based motif and mediates PAR1 lysosomal degradation. AP-3 also facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting.
The sorting of signaling receptors within the endocytic system is important for appropriate cellular responses. After activation, receptors are trafficked to early endosomes and either recycled or sorted to lysosomes and degraded. Most receptors trafficked to lysosomes are modified with ubiquitin and recruited into an endosomal subdomain enriched in hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), a ubiquitin-binding component of the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, and then sorted into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/lysosomes. However, not all receptors use ubiquitin or the canonical ESCRT machinery to sort to MVBs/lysosomes. This is exemplified by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein–coupled receptor for thrombin, which sorts to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination and HRS. We recently showed that the adaptor protein ALIX binds to PAR1, recruits ESCRT-III, and mediates receptor sorting to ILVs of MVBs. However, the mechanism that initiates PAR1 sorting at the early endosome is not known. We now report that the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent sorting to MVBs through an ALIX-dependent pathway. AP-3 binds to a PAR1 cytoplasmic tail–localized tyrosine-based motif and mediates PAR1 lysosomal degradation independent of ubiquitination. Moreover, AP-3 facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting.
PMCID: PMC3442409  PMID: 22833563
19.  Multivesicular endosomes containing internalized EGF-EGF receptor complexes mature and then fuse directly with lysosomes 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1996;132(6):1011-1023.
We have followed the transfer of EGF-EGF receptor (EGFR) complexes from endosomal vacuoles that contain transferrin receptors (TfR) to lysosome vacuoles identified by their content of HRP loaded as a 15-min pulse 4 h previously. We show that the HRP-loaded lysosomes are lysosomal- associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) positive, mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR) negative. and contain active acid hydrolase. EGF-EGFR complexes are delivered to these lysosomes intact and are then rapidly degraded. Preactivating the HRP contained within the preloaded lysosomes inhibits the delivery of EGFR and degradation of EGF, and results in the accumulation of EGFR-containing multivesicular bodies (MVB). With time these accumulating MVB undergo a series of maturation changes that include the loss of TfR, the continued recruitment of EGFR, and the accumulation of internal vesicles, but they remain LAMP-1 and M6PR negative. The mature MVB are often seen to make direct contact with lysosomes containing preactivated HRP, but their perimeter membranes remain intact. Together our observations suggest that the transfer of EGF-EGFR complexes from the TfR-containing endosome compartment to the lysosomes that degrade them employs a single vacuolar intermediate, the maturing MVB, and can be achieved by a single heterotypic fusion step.
PMCID: PMC2120766  PMID: 8601581
20.  Pkh1/2-dependent phosphorylation of Vps27 regulates ESCRT-I recruitment to endosomes 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2012;23(20):4054-4064.
Sorting of multivesicular bodies requires the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. The kinases Pkh1/2 phosphorylate the ESCRT-0 subunit Vps27 on residue S613. Furthermore, this phosphorylation regulates ESCRT-I recruitment to endosomes.
Multivesicular endosomes (MVBs) are major sorting platforms for membrane proteins and participate in plasma membrane protein turnover, vacuolar/lysosomal hydrolase delivery, and surface receptor signal attenuation. MVBs undergo unconventional inward budding, which results in the formation of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). MVB cargo sorting and ILV formation are achieved by the concerted function of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-0 to ESCRT-III. The ESCRT-0 subunit Vps27 is a key player in this pathway since it recruits the other complexes to endosomes. Here we show that the Pkh1/Phk2 kinases, two yeast orthologues of the 3-phosphoinositide–dependent kinase, phosphorylate directly Vps27 in vivo and in vitro. We identify the phosphorylation site as the serine 613 and demonstrate that this phosphorylation is required for proper Vps27 function. Indeed, in pkh-ts temperature-sensitive mutant cells and in cells expressing vps27S613A, MVB sorting of the carboxypeptidase Cps1 and of the α-factor receptor Ste2 is affected and the Vps28–green fluorescent protein ESCRT-I subunit is mainly cytoplasmic. We propose that Vps27 phosphorylation by Pkh1/2 kinases regulates the coordinated cascade of ESCRT complex recruitment at the endosomal membrane.
PMCID: PMC3469520  PMID: 22918958
21.  Human VPS34 is required for internal vesicle formation within multivesicular endosomes 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2001;155(7):1251-1264.
After internalization from the plasma membrane, activated EGF receptors (EGFRs) are delivered to multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Within MVBs, EGFRs are removed from the perimeter membrane to internal vesicles, thereby being sorted from transferrin receptors, which recycle back to the plasma membrane. The phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3′-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, inhibits internal vesicle formation within MVBs and causes EGFRs to remain in clusters on the perimeter membrane. Microinjection of isotype-specific inhibitory antibodies demonstrates that the PI 3′-kinase required for internal vesicle formation is hVPS34. In the presence of wortmannin, EGFRs continue to be delivered to lysosomes, showing that their removal from the recycling pathway and their delivery to lysosomes does not depend on inward vesiculation. We showed previously that tyrosine kinase-negative EGFRs fail to accumulate on internal vesicles of MVBs but are recycled rather than delivered to lysosomes. Therefore, we conclude that selection of EGFRs for inclusion on internal vesicles requires tyrosine kinase but not PI 3′-kinase activity, whereas vesicle formation requires PI 3′-kinase activity. Finally, in wortmannin-treated cells there is increased EGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation when EGFRs are retained on the perimeter membrane of MVBs. Therefore, we suggest that inward vesiculation is involved directly with attenuating signal transduction.
PMCID: PMC2199316  PMID: 11756475
EGF receptor; VPS34; endosome; lysosome; phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase
22.  Internalization of type 1 complement receptors and de novo multivesicular body formation during chemoattractant-induced endocytosis in human neutrophils. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1994;94(3):1113-1125.
Upon activation of human neutrophils by chemoattractants, functionally important proteins are rapidly transported from intracellular granules and storage vesicles to the plasma membrane. This is accompanied by a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis and by ligand-independent internalization of type 1 complement receptors (CR1). To define the pathway of endocytosis, we used gold-conjugated BSA in a pulse-chase protocol. This tracer was initially internalized into small endocytic vesicles which rapidly traversed the cytoplasm and coalesced to form large, conspicuous multivesicular bodies. Within 5 min after addition of the chemoattractant, multivesicular bodies contained > 60% of the cell-associated BSA-gold. CR1 colocalized with the endocytic tracer in both the early endosomes and multivesicular bodies. In unstimulated cells, there was much less uptake of BSA-gold and multivesicular bodies were rarely seen. Using the acidotropic amine, DAMP, and anti-DNP antibodies, we found that the multivesicular bodies were acidified but the early endosomes did not concentrate DAMP. Neither the early endosomes nor the multivesicular bodies initially contained the lysosomal membrane antigens hLAMP 1 or 2, but hLAMP-positive structures subsequently joined the multivesicular bodies. The rapid activation of the endocytic pathway upon stimulation of neutrophils allowed us to visualize the de novo formation and maturation of multivesicular bodies. Our observations suggest that vesicles containing ion pumps and acid hydrolases fuse with multivesicular bodies, giving them characteristics of lysosomes, and that these are the probable sites of degradation of CR1. The observations do not support models which would require transport of CR1 from multivesicular bodies to defined, pre-existing lysosomes for degradation.
PMCID: PMC295175  PMID: 8083352
23.  Coordinated binding of Vps4 to ESCRT-III drives membrane neck constriction during MVB vesicle formation 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2014;205(1):33-49.
Vps4 both recycles ESCRT-III subunits and cooperates with ESCRT-III to drive distinct membrane remodeling steps that lead to efficient membrane scission during the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies.
Five endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) mediate the degradation of ubiquitinated membrane proteins via multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in lysosomes. ESCRT-0, -I, and –II interact with cargo on endosomes. ESCRT-II also initiates the assembly of a ringlike ESCRT-III filament consisting of Vps20, Snf7, Vps24, and Vps2. The AAA–adenosine triphosphatase Vps4 disassembles and recycles the ESCRT-III complex, thereby terminating the ESCRT pathway. A mechanistic role for Vps4 in intraluminal vesicle (ILV) formation has been unclear. By combining yeast genetics, biochemistry, and electron tomography, we find that ESCRT-III assembly on endosomes is required to induce or stabilize the necks of growing MVB ILVs. Yet, ESCRT-III alone is not sufficient to complete ILV biogenesis. Rather, binding of Vps4 to ESCRT-III, coordinated by interactions with Vps2 and Snf7, is coupled to membrane neck constriction during ILV formation. Thus, Vps4 not only recycles ESCRT-III subunits but also cooperates with ESCRT-III to drive distinct membrane-remodeling steps, which lead to efficient membrane scission at the end of ILV biogenesis in vivo.
PMCID: PMC3987140  PMID: 24711499
24.  The mammalian phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) regulates endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport 
Journal of cell science  2006;119(Pt 19):3944-3957.
The yeast gene fab1 and its mammalian orthologue Pip5k3 encode the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] 5-kinases Fab1p and PIKfyve, respectively, enzymes that generates phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2]. A shared feature of fab1Δ yeast cells and mammalian cells overexpressing a kinase-dead PIKfyve mutant is the formation of a swollen vacuolar phenotype: a phenotype that is suggestive of a conserved function for these enzymes and their product, PtdIns(3,5)P2, in the regulation of endomembrane homeostasis. In the current study, fixed and live cell imaging has established that, when overexpressed at low levels in HeLa cells, PIKfyve is predominantly associated with dynamic tubular and vesicular elements of the early endosomal compartment. Moreover, through the use of small interfering RNA, it has been shown that suppression of PIKfyve induces the formation of swollen endosomal structures that maintain their early and late endosomal identity. Although internalisation, recycling and degradative sorting of receptors for epidermal growth factor and transferrin was unperturbed in PIKfyve suppressed cells, a clear defect in endosome to trans-Golgi-network (TGN) retrograde traffic was observed. These data argue that PIKfyve is predominantly associated with the early endosome, from where it regulates retrograde membrane trafficking to the TGN. It follows that the swollen endosomal phenotype observed in PIKfyve-suppressed cells results primarily from a reduction in retrograde membrane fission rather than a defect in multivesicular body biogenesis.
PMCID: PMC1904490  PMID: 16954148
PIKfyve; Fab1p; Early endosome; Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate; Endosomal sorting
25.  The mammalian phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) regulates endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport 
Journal of cell science  2006;119(Pt 19):3944-3957.
The yeast gene fab1 and its mammalian orthologue Pip5k3 encode the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] 5-kinases Fab1p and PIKfyve, respectively, enzymes that generates phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2]. A shared feature of fab1Δ yeast cells and mammalian cells overexpressing a kinase-dead PIKfyve mutant is the formation of a swollen vacuolar phenotype: a phenotype that is suggestive of a conserved function for these enzymes and their product, PtdIns(3,5)P2, in the regulation of endomembrane homeostasis. In the current study, fixed and live cell imaging has established that, when overexpressed at low levels in HeLa cells, PIKfyve is predominantly associated with dynamic tubular and vesicular elements of the early endosomal compartment. Moreover, through the use of small interfering RNA, it has been shown that suppression of PIKfyve induces the formation of swollen endosomal structures that maintain their early and late endosomal identity. Although internalisation, recycling and degradative sorting of receptors for epidermal growth factor and transferrin was unperturbed in PIKfyve suppressed cells, a clear defect in endosome to trans-Golgi-network (TGN) retrograde traffic was observed. These data argue that PIKfyve is predominantly associated with the early endosome, from where it regulates retrograde membrane trafficking to the TGN. It follows that the swollen endosomal phenotype observed in PIKfyve-suppressed cells results primarily from a reduction in retrograde membrane fission rather than a defect in multivesicular body biogenesis.
PMCID: PMC1904490  PMID: 16954148
PIKfyve; Fab1p; Early endosome; Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate; Endosomal sorting

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