In this paper, we investigated the role of sorting nexin 12 (SNX12) in the endocytic pathway. SNX12 is a member of the PX domain-containing sorting nexin family and shares high homology with SNX3, which plays a central role in the formation of intralumenal vesicles within multivesicular endosomes. We found that SNX12 is expressed at very low levels compared to SNX3. SNX12 is primarily associated with early endosomes and this endosomal localization depends on the binding to 3-phosphoinositides. We find that overexpression of SNX12 prevents the detachment (or maturation) of multivesicular endosomes from early endosomes. This in turn inhibits the degradative pathway from early to late endosomes/lysosomes, much like SNX3 overexpression, without affecting endocytosis, recycling and retrograde transport. In addition, while previous studies showed that Hrs knockdown prevents EGF receptor sorting into multivesicular endosomes, we find that overexpression of SNX12 restores the sorting process in an Hrs knockdown background. Altogether, our data show that despite lower expression level, SNX12 shares redundant functions with SNX3 in the biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes.
At the late endosomes, cargoes destined for the interior of the vacuole are sorted into invaginating vesicles of the multivesicular body. Both PtdIns(3,5)P2 and ubiquitin are necessary for proper sorting of some of these cargoes. We show that Ent5p, a yeast protein of the epsin family homologous to Ent3p, localizes to endosomes and specifically binds to PtdIns(3,5)P2 via its ENTH domain. In cells lacking Ent3p and Ent5p, ubiquitin-dependent sorting of biosynthetic and endocytic cargo into the multivesicular body is disrupted, whereas other trafficking routes to the vacuole are not affected. Ent3p and Ent5p are associated with Vps27p, a FYVE domain containing protein that interacts with ubiquitinated cargoes and is required for protein sorting into the multivesicular body. Therefore, Ent3p and Ent5p are the first proteins shown to be connectors between PtdIns(3,5)P2- and the Vps27p-ubiquitin-driven sorting machinery at the multivesicular body.
Endocytosed proteins are either delivered to the lysosome to be degraded or are exported from the endosomal system and delivered to other organelles. Sorting of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae reductive iron transporter, composed of the Fet3 and Ftr1 proteins, in the endosomal system is regulated by available iron; in iron-starved cells, Fet3-Ftr1 is sorted by Snx3/Grd19 and retromer into a recycling pathway that delivers it back to the plasma membrane, but when starved cells are exposed to iron, Fet3-Ftr1 is targeted to the lysosome-like vacuole and is degraded. We report that iron-induced endocytosis of Fet3-Ftr1 is independent of Fet3-Ftr1 ubiquitylation, and after endocytosis, degradation of Fet3-Ftr1 is mediated by the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. In mutant cells lacking any component of the ESCRT protein-dependent MVB sorting machinery, the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase, or in wild-type cells expressing Fet3-Ftr1 lacking cytosolic lysyl ubiquitin acceptor sites, Fet3-Ftr1 is constitutively sorted into the recycling pathway independent of iron status. In the presence and absence of iron, Fet3-Ftr1 transits an endosomal compartment where a subunit of the MVB sorting receptor (Vps27), Snx3/Grd19, and retromer proteins colocalize. We propose that this endosome is where Rsp5 ubiquitylates Fet3-Ftr1 and where the recycling and degradative pathways diverge.
The two major cellular sites for membrane protein degradation are the proteasome and the lysosome. Ubiquitin attachment is a sorting signal for both degradation routes. For lysosomal degradation, ubiquitination triggers the sorting of cargo proteins into the lumen of late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes. MVB formation occurs when a portion of the limiting membrane of an endosome invaginates and buds into its own lumen. Intralumenal vesicles are degraded when MVBs fuse to lysosomes. The proper delivery of proteins to the MVB interior relies on specific ubiquitination of cargo, recognition and sorting of ubiquitinated cargo to endosomal subdomains, and the formation and scission of cargo-filled intralumenal vesicles. Over the past five years, a number of proteins that may directly participate in these aspects of MVB function and biogenesis have been identified. However, major questions remain as to exactly what these proteins do at the molecular level and how they may accomplish these tasks.
endosome; lysosome; ubiquitin; ESCRT; downregulation; peptidase
Multivesicular body (MVB) formation is the result of invagination and budding of the endosomal limiting membrane into its intralumenal space. These intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) contain a subset of endosomal transmembrane cargoes destined for degradation within the lysosome, the result of active selection during MVB sorting. Membrane bending and scission during ILV formation is topologically similar to cytokinesis in that both events require the abscission of a membrane neck that is oriented away from the cytoplasm. The endosomal sorting machinery required for transport (ESCRTs) represents cellular machinery whose function makes essential contributions to both of these processes. In particular the AAA-ATPase Vps4 and its substrate ESCRT-III are key components that seem to execute the membrane abscission reaction. This review summarizes current knowledge about the Vps4-ESCRT-III system and discusses a model how the recruitment of Vps4 to the different sites of function might be regulated.
ESCRT; MVB pathway; cytokinesis; endocytosis; protein trafficking
When internalized receptors and other cargo are destined for lysosomal degradation, they are ubiquitinated and sorted by the ESCRT complexes 0, I, II, and III into multivesicular bodies. Multivesicular bodies are formed when cargo-rich patches of the limiting membrane of endosomes bud inward by an unknown mechanism and are then cleaved to yield cargo-bearing intralumenal vesicles. The biogenesis of multivesicular bodies was reconstituted and visualized using giant unilamellar vesicles, fluorescent ESCRT-0, I, II, and III complexes, and a membrane-tethered fluorescent ubiquitin fusion as a model cargo. ESCRT-0 forms domains of clustered cargo but does not deform membranes. ESCRT-I and II in combination deform the membrane into buds, in which cargo is confined. ESCRT-I and II localize to the bud necks, and recruit ESCRT-0-ubiquitin domains to the buds. ESCRT-III subunits localize to the bud neck and efficiently cleave the buds to form intralumenal vesicles. Intralumenal vesicles produced in this reaction contain the model cargo but are devoid of ESCRTs. The observations explain how the ESCRTs direct membrane budding and scission from the cytoplasmic side of the bud without being consumed in the reaction.
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, are thought to mediate the biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) and endosomal sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins. Here, we have compared the importance of the ESCRT-I subunit tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101) and the ESCRT-III subunit hVps24/CHMP3 for endosomal functions and receptor signaling. Like Tsg101, endogenous hVps24 localized mainly to late endosomes. Depletion of hVps24 by siRNA showed that this ESCRT subunit, like Tsg101, is important for degradation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and for transport of the receptor from early endosomes to lysosomes. Surprisingly, however, whereas depletion of Tsg101 caused sustained EGF activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, depletion of hVps24 had no such effect. Moreover, depletion of Tsg101 but not of hVps24 caused a major fraction of internalized EGF to accumulate in nonacidified endosomes. Electron microscopy of hVps24-depleted cells showed an accumulation of EGFRs in MVEs that were significantly smaller than those in control cells, probably because of an impaired fusion with lyso-bisphosphatidic acid-positive late endosomes/lysosomes. Together, our results reveal functional differences between ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III in degradative protein trafficking and indicate that degradation of the EGFR is not required for termination of its signaling.
Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P], a phospholipid produced by PI 3-kinases in early endosomes and multivesicular bodies, often serves as a marker of endosomal membranes. PtdIns(3)P recruits and activates effector proteins containing the FYVE or PX domain and therefore regulates a variety of biological processes including endo- and exocytosis, membrane trafficking, protein sorting, signal transduction and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Structures and PtdIns(3)P binding modes of several FYVE and PX domains have recently been characterized, unveiling the molecular basis underlying multiple cellular functions of these proteins. Here, structural and functional aspects and current mechanisms of the multivalent membrane anchoring by the FYVE and PX domains are reviewed and compared.
FYVE domain; PX domain; phosphoinositide; phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; membrane
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is targeted for lysosomal degradation by ubiquitin-mediated interactions with the ESCRTs (endosomal-sorting complexes required for transport) in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). We show that secretory carrier membrane protein, SCAMP3, localizes in part to early endosomes and negatively regulates EGFR degradation through processes that involve its ubiquitylation and interactions with ESCRTs. SCAMP3 is multimonoubiquitylated and is able to associate with Nedd4 HECT ubiquitin ligases and the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 via its PY and PSAP motifs, respectively. SCAMP3 also associates with the ESCRT-0 subunit Hrs. Depletion of SCAMP3 in HeLa cells by inhibitory RNA accelerated degradation of EGFR and EGF while inhibiting recycling. Conversely, overexpression enhanced EGFR recycling unless ubiquitylatable lysines, PY or PSAP motifs in SCAMP3 were mutated. Notably, dual depletions of SCAMP3 and ESCRT subunits suggest that SCAMP3 has a distinct function in parallel with the ESCRTs that regulates receptor degradation. This function may affect trafficking of receptors from prelysosomal compartments as SCAMP3 depletion appeared to sustain the incidence of EGFR-containing MVBs detected by immunoelectron microscopy. Together, our results suggest that SCAMP3, its modification with ubiquitin, and its interactions with ESCRTs coordinately regulate endosomal pathways and affect the efficiency of receptor down-regulation.
Multivesicular endosomes/bodies (MVBs) sort endocytosed proteins to different destinations. Many lysosomally directed membrane proteins are sorted onto intralumenal vesicles, whilst recycling proteins remain on the perimeter membrane from where they are removed via tubular extensions. MVBs move to the cell centre during this maturation process and, when all recycling proteins have been removed, fuse with lysosomes. Recent advances have identified endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-dependent and ESCRT-independent pathways in intralumenal vesicle formation and mechanisms for sorting recycling cargo into tubules. Cytoskeletal motors, through interactions with these machineries and by regulating MVB movement, help to co-ordinate events leading to a mature, fusion-competent MVB.
Phox (PX) domain-containing sorting nexins (SNXs) are emerging as important regulators of endocytic trafficking. Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) is unique, as it contains a PDZ (Psd-95/Dlg/ZO1) domain. We show here that SNX27 is primarily targeted to the early endosome by interaction of its PX domain with PtdIns(3)P. Although targeted ablation of the SNX27 gene in mice did not significantly affect growth and survival during embryonic development, SNX27 plays an essential role in postnatal growth and survival. N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 2C (NR2C) was identified as a novel SNX27-interacting protein, and this interaction is mediated by the PDZ domain of SNX27 and the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif of NR2C. Increased NR2C expression levels, together with impaired NR2C endocytosis in SNX27−/− neurons, indicate that SNX27 may function to regulate endocytosis and/or endosomal sorting of NR2C. This is consistent with a role of SNX27 as a general regulator for sorting of membrane proteins containing a PDZ-binding motif, and its absence may alter the trafficking of these proteins, leading to growth and survival defects.
Sorting of multivesicular bodies requires the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. The kinases Pkh1/2 phosphorylate the ESCRT-0 subunit Vps27 on residue S613. Furthermore, this phosphorylation regulates ESCRT-I recruitment to endosomes.
Multivesicular endosomes (MVBs) are major sorting platforms for membrane proteins and participate in plasma membrane protein turnover, vacuolar/lysosomal hydrolase delivery, and surface receptor signal attenuation. MVBs undergo unconventional inward budding, which results in the formation of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). MVB cargo sorting and ILV formation are achieved by the concerted function of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-0 to ESCRT-III. The ESCRT-0 subunit Vps27 is a key player in this pathway since it recruits the other complexes to endosomes. Here we show that the Pkh1/Phk2 kinases, two yeast orthologues of the 3-phosphoinositide–dependent kinase, phosphorylate directly Vps27 in vivo and in vitro. We identify the phosphorylation site as the serine 613 and demonstrate that this phosphorylation is required for proper Vps27 function. Indeed, in pkh-ts temperature-sensitive mutant cells and in cells expressing vps27S613A, MVB sorting of the carboxypeptidase Cps1 and of the α-factor receptor Ste2 is affected and the Vps28–green fluorescent protein ESCRT-I subunit is mainly cytoplasmic. We propose that Vps27 phosphorylation by Pkh1/2 kinases regulates the coordinated cascade of ESCRT complex recruitment at the endosomal membrane.
The trafficking of endocytosed receptors through phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P]-containing endosomes is thought to attenuate their signaling. Here, we show that the PtdIns(3)P 5-kinase Fab1/PIKfyve controls trafficking but not silencing of endocytosed receptors. Drosophila fab1 mutants contain undetectable phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate levels, show profound increases in cell and organ size, and die at the pupal stage. Mutant larvae contain highly enlarged multivesicular bodies and late endosomes that are inefficiently acidified. Clones of fab1 mutant cells accumulate Wingless and Notch, similarly to cells lacking Hrs, Vps25, and Tsg101, components of the endosomal sorting machinery for ubiquitinated membrane proteins. However, whereas hrs, vps25, and tsg101 mutant cell clones accumulate ubiquitinated cargo, this is not the case with fab1 mutants. Even though endocytic receptor trafficking is impaired in fab1 mutants, Notch, Wingless, and Dpp signaling is unaffected. We conclude that Fab1, despite its importance for endosomal functions, is not required for receptor silencing. This is consistent with the possibility that Fab1 functions at a late stage in endocytic receptor trafficking, at a point when signal termination has occurred.
In this paper, we report that the PX domain-containing protein SNX16, a member of the sorting nexin family, is associated with late endosome membranes. We find that SNX16 is selectively enriched on tubulo-cisternal elements of this membrane system, whose highly dynamic properties and formation depend on intact microtubules. By contrast, SNX16 was not found on vacuolar elements that typically contain LBPA, and thus presumably correspond to multivesicular endosomes. We conclude that SNX16, together with its partner phosphoinositide, define a highly dynamic subset of late endosomal membranes, supporting the notion that late endosomes are organized in distinct morphological and functional regions. Our data also indicate that SNX16 is involved in tubule formation and cholesterol transport as well as trafficking of the tetraspanin CD81, suggesting that the protein plays a role in the regulation of late endosome membrane dynamics.
Hrs and the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, are involved in the endosomal sorting of membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies and lysosomes or vacuoles. The ESCRT complexes are also required for formation of intraluminal endosomal vesicles and for budding of certain enveloped RNA viruses such as HIV. Here, we show that Hrs binds to the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 via a PSAP motif that is conserved in Tsg101-binding viral proteins. Depletion of Hrs causes a reduction in membrane-associated ESCRT-I subunits, a decreased number of multivesicular bodies and an increased size of late endosomes. Even though Hrs mainly localizes to early endosomes and Tsg101 to late endosomes, the two proteins colocalize on a subpopulation of endosomes that contain lyso-bisphosphatidic acid. Overexpression of Hrs causes accumulation of Tsg101 on early endosomes and prevents its localization to late endosomes. We conclude that Hrs mediates the initial recruitment of ESCRT-I to endosomes and, thereby, indirectly regulates multivesicular body formation.
endocytosis; lysosome; membrane traffic; Tsg101; protein sorting
The ESCRT system is essential for multivesicular body biogenesis, in which cargo sorting is coupled to the invagination and scission of intralumenal vesicles. The ESCRTs are also needed for budding of enveloped viruses including HIV-1, and for membrane abscission in cytokinesis. In yeast, ESCRT-III consists of Vps20, Snf7, Vps24, and Vps2, which assemble in that order, and require the ATPase Vps4 for their disassembly. The ESCRT-III-dependent budding and scission of intralumenal vesicles into giant unilamellar vesicles was reconstituted and visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Three subunits of ESCRT-III, Vps20, Snf7, and Vps24, were sufficient to detach intralumenal vesicles. Vps2, the ESCRT-III subunit responsible for recruiting Vps4, and the ATPase activity of Vps4 were required for ESCRT-III recycling and supported additional rounds of budding. The minimum set of ESCRT-III and Vps4 proteins capable of multiple cycles of vesicle detachment corresponds to the ancient set of ESCRT proteins conserved from archaea to animals.
Down-regulation of plasma membrane receptors via the endocytic pathway involves their monoubiquitylation, transport to endosomal membranes and eventual sorting into multi vesicular bodies (MVB) destined for lysosomal degradation. Successive assemblies of Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT-I, -II and III) largely mediate sorting of plasma membrane receptors at endosomal membranes, the formation of multivesicular bodies and their release into the endosomal lumen. In addition, the human ESCRT-II has been shown to form a complex with RNA polymerase II elongation factor ELL in order to exert transcriptional control activity.
Here we report the crystal structure of Vps25 at 3.1 Å resolution. Vps25 crystallizes in a dimeric form and each monomer is composed of two winged helix domains arranged in tandem. Structural comparisons detect no conformational changes between unliganded Vps25 and Vps25 within the ESCRT-II complex composed of two Vps25 copies and one copy each of Vps22 and Vps36 [1,2].
Our structural analyses present a framework for studying Vps25 interactions with ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III partners. Winged helix domain containing proteins have been implicated in nucleic acid binding and it remains to be determined whether Vps25 has a similar activity which might play a role in the proposed transcriptional control exerted by Vps25 and/or the whole ESCRT-II complex.
A novel MVB/lysosomal sorting pathway for signaling receptors bypasses the requirement for ubiquitination and ubiquitin-binding ESCRTs and may be broadly applicable to GPCRs containing YPXnL motifs.
The sorting of signaling receptors to lysosomes is an essential regulatory process in mammalian cells. During degradation, receptors are modified with ubiquitin and sorted by endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)–0, –I, –II, and –III complexes into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However, it remains unclear whether a single universal mechanism mediates MVB sorting of all receptors. We previously showed that protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, is internalized after activation and sorted to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination and the ubiquitin-binding ESCRT components hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate and Tsg101. In this paper, we report that PAR1 sorted to ILVs of MVBs through an ESCRT-III–dependent pathway independent of ubiquitination. We further demonstrate that ALIX, a charged MVB protein 4–ESCRT-III interacting protein, bound to a YPX3L motif of PAR1 via its central V domain to mediate lysosomal degradation. This study reveals a novel MVB/lysosomal sorting pathway for signaling receptors that bypasses the requirement for ubiquitination and ubiquitin-binding ESCRTs and may be applicable to a subset of GPCRs containing YPXnL motifs.
Many enveloped viruses use the ESCRT proteins of the cellular vacuolar protein sorting pathway for efficient egress from the cell. Recruitment of the ESCRT proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag is required for HIV-1 particle budding and egress. ESCRT proteins normally function at endosomal membranes, where they facilitate the downregulation of mitogen-activated receptors such as EGF receptor (EGFR) through multivesicular body biogenesis. It is not known whether the Gag-mediated recruitment of ESCRT proteins functionally depletes the pool of these molecules that is available for the downregulation of EGFR. Here we show that the expression of HIV-1 Gag decreases the rate of EGFR downregulation, as assessed by decreases in the rates of 125I-EGF and EGFR degradation. The effect of Gag was dependent on the presence of the TSG101 binding motif (PTAP) within the Gag C-terminal p6 domain. Cells expressing HIV-1 Gag retained more EGFR in late endosomes. This effect occurred when Gag was expressed alone from a heterologous promoter and when Gag expression was driven by the HIV-1 long terminal repeat within pHXB2ΔBalD25S, a noninfectious lentiviral vector. Gag-expressing cells exhibited higher levels of activated mitogen-activated protein kinase for longer times after EGF addition than did cells that did not express HIV-1 Gag. These results indicate that HIV-1 Gag can impinge upon the functioning of the cellular vacuolar protein sorting pathway and reveal yet another facet of the intricate effects of HIV-1 infection on host cell physiology.
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a critical determinant of plasma cholesterol levels that internalizes lipoprotein cargo via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL stimulates a previously unrecognized, clathrin-independent pathway for LDLR internalization. Real-time single-particle tracking and electron microscopy reveal that IDOL is recruited to the plasma membrane by LDLR, promotes LDLR internalization in the absence of clathrin or caveolae, and facilitates LDLR degradation by shuttling it into the multivesicular body (MVB) protein-sorting pathway. The IDOL-dependent degradation pathway is distinct from that mediated by PCSK9 as only IDOL employs ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport) complexes to recognize and traffic LDLR to lysosomes. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of ESCRT-0 (HGS) or ESCRT-I (TSG101) components prevents IDOL-mediated LDLR degradation. We further show that USP8 acts downstream of IDOL to deubiquitinate LDLR and that USP8 is required for LDLR entry into the MVB pathway. These results provide key mechanistic insights into an evolutionarily conserved pathway for the control of lipoprotein receptor expression and cellular lipid uptake.
Progression of activated EGF receptor (EGFR) through the endocytic pathway regulates EGFR signaling. Here we show that a non-ubiquitinated EGFR mutant, unable to bind the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) component, Hrs, is not efficiently targeted onto intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular endosomes/bodies (MVBs). Moreover, ubiquitination and ESCRT engagement of activated EGFR is required for EGF-stimulated ILV formation. Non-ubiquitinated EGFRs enter clathrin-coated tubules emanating from MVBs and show enhanced recycling to the plasma membrane, compared to wild type EGFR.
EGF receptor; multivesicular bodies; intralumenal vesicles; recycling; ubiquitination
The ESCRT protein complexes are recruited from the cytoplasm and assemble on the endosomal membrane into a protein network that functions in sorting of ubiquitinated transmembrane proteins into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. This transport pathway packages cargo proteins into vesicles that bud from the MVB limiting membrane into the lumen of the compartment and delivers these vesicles to the lysosome/vacuole for degradation. The dissociation of ESCRT machinery by the AAA-type ATPase Vps4 is a necessary late step in the formation of MVB vesicles. This ATP-consuming step is regulated by several Vps4-interacting proteins, including the newly identified regulator Ist1. Our data suggest that Ist1 has a dual role in the regulation of Vps4 activity: it localizes to the ESCRT machinery via Did2 where it positively regulates recruitment of Vps4 and it negatively regulates Vps4 by forming an Ist1-Vps4 heterodimer, in which Vps4 cannot bind to the ESCRT machinery. The activity of the MVB pathway might be in part determined by outcome of these two competing activities.
The ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery functions to sort cellular receptors into the lumen of the multivesicular body (MVB) prior to lysosomal degradation. ESCRT components can also be recruited by enveloped viruses to sites of viral assembly where they have been proposed to mediate viral egress. For example, HIV-1 budding is dependent on Gag-mediated recruitment of the cellular ESCRTs-I, -III, AIP1/Alix and Vps4 proteins. Viral recruitment of ESCRT proteins could therefore impact on host cell processes such as receptor downregulation.
Here we show that downregulation of the HIV-1 co-receptor, CXCR4, by its ligand SDF-1, is ESCRT-I dependent. Expression of HIV-1 Gag attenuated downregulation of CXCR4, resulting in accumulation of undegraded receptors within intracellular compartments. The effect of Gag was dependent on an ESCRT-I interacting motif within the C-terminal p6 region of Gag. In contrast, PMA-induced downregulation of the HIV-1 receptor CD4 was independent of ESCRT-I and Vps4; HIV-1 Gag had no effect on this process.
These results establish that the HIV-1 receptor, CD4, and co-receptor, CXCR4 are differentially regulated by ESCRT proteins. HIV-1 Gag selectively modulates protein sorting at the MVB, interfering with ESCRT-I dependent but not ESCRT-I independent processes.
While evidence is accumulating that phosphoinositide signaling plays a crucial role in growth factor and hormone receptor down-regulation, this signaling pathway has also been proposed to regulate endosomal membrane transport and multivesicular endosome biogenesis. Here, we have followed the fate of the down-regulated EGF receptor (EGFR) and bulk transport (fluid phase) markers in the endosomal pathway in vivo and in vitro. We find that bulk transport from early to late endosomes is not affected after inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) signaling pathway, but that the EGFR then remains trapped in early endosomes. Similarly, we find that hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is not directly involved in bulk solute transport, but is required for EGFR sorting. These observations thus show that transport and sorting can be uncoupled in the endosomal pathway. They also show that PI3P signaling does not regulate the core machinery of endosome biogenesis and transport, but controls the sorting of down-regulated receptor molecules in early endosomes via Hrs.
EGF receptor; phosphoinositide; FYVE; PHOX and PX; multivesicular body
LST-4/SNX9, SNX-1, and SNX-6 together drive the degradation of apoptotic cells, as PtdIns(3)P effectors, during Caenorhabditis elegans development. By inducing regional membrane curvature and maintaining RAB-7 GTPase on phagosomes, these three sorting nexins stimulate the fusion of endocytic organelles with phagosomes.
Apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by phagocytes and degraded inside phagosomes. Phagosome maturation requires phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P], yet how PtdIns(3)P triggers phagosome maturation remains largely unknown. Through a genome-wide PtdIns(3)P effector screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified LST-4/SNX9, SNX-1, and SNX-6, three BAR domain-containing sorting nexins, that act in two parallel pathways to drive PtdIns(3)P-mediated degradation of apoptotic cells. We found that these proteins were enriched on phagosomal surfaces through association with PtdIns(3)P and through specific protein–protein interaction, and they promoted the fusion of early endosomes and lysosomes to phagosomes, events essential for phagosome maturation. Specifically, LST-4 interacts with DYN-1 (dynamin), an essential phagosome maturation initiator, to strengthen DYN-1’s association to phagosomal surfaces, and facilitates the maintenance of the RAB-7 GTPase on phagosomal surfaces. Furthermore, both LST-4 and SNX-1 promote the extension of phagosomal tubules to facilitate the docking and fusion of intracellular vesicles. Our findings identify the critical and differential functions of two groups of sorting nexins in phagosome maturation and reveal a signaling cascade initiated by phagocytic receptor CED-1, mediated by PtdIns(3)P, and executed through these sorting nexins to degrade apoptotic cells.