The role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in determining the severity and outcome of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL status by using MRSA isolates from patients enrolled in two large, multinational phase three clinical trials assessing telavancin for the treatment of cSSSI (the ATLAS program). MRSA isolates from microbiologically evaluable patients were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for pvl and 31 other putative virulence determinants. A single baseline pathogen of MRSA was isolated from 522 microbiologically evaluable patients (25.1%) among 2,079 randomized patients. Of these MRSA isolates, 83.2% (432/519) exhibited the USA300 PFGE genotype and 89.1% (465/522) were pvl positive. Patients with pvl-positive MRSA were more likely than those with pvl-negative MRSA to be young, to be North American, and to present with major abscesses (P < 0.001 for each). Patients were significantly more likely to be cured if they were infected with pvl-positive MRSA than if they were infected with pvl-negative MRSA (91.6% versus 80.7%; P = 0.015). This observation remained statistically significant after adjustment for presence of abscess, fever, or leukocytosis; infection size; diabetes; patient age; and study medication received. The fnbA, cna, sdrC, map-eap, sed, seg, sei, sej, SCCmec type IV, and agr group II genes were also associated with clinical response (P < 0.05). This contemporary, international study demonstrates that pvl was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with MRSA cSSSI.
The impact of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) on the severity of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL presence in both methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from patients enrolled in two large, multinational phase three clinical trials assessing ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of cSSSI (the CANVAS 1 and 2 programs). Isolates from all microbiologically evaluable patients with monomicrobial MRSA or MSSA infections (n = 473) were genotyped by PCR for pvl and underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genes encoding pvl were present in 266/473 (56.2%) isolates. Infections caused by pvl-positive S. aureus were associated with younger patient age, North American acquisition, and presence of major abscesses (P<0.001 for each). Cure rates of patients infected with pvl-positive and pvl-negative S. aureus were similar overall (93.6% versus 92.8%; P = 0.72), and within MRSA-infected (94.5% vs. 93.1%; P = 0.67) and MSSA-infected patients (92.2% vs. 92.7%; P = 1.00). This finding persisted after adjustment for multiple patient characteristics. Outcomes were also similar when USA300 PVL+ and non-USA300 PVL+ infections were compared. The results of this contemporary, international study suggest that pvl presence was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with cSSSI due to either MRSA or MSSA.
Telavancin is a novel antibiotic being investigated for the treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) and pneumonia. This once-daily intravenous lipoglycopeptide exerts rapid bactericidal activity via a dual mechanism of action. It is intended for use to combat infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate strains of S. aureus (MRSA and VISA, respectively). Vancomycin is the current gold standard in treating serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, especially MRSA. In recent clinical trials, telavancin has shown excellent efficacy in phase II and III multinational, randomized, double-blinded studies of cSSSI. In the phase II FAST 2 study, which compared telavancin 10 mg/kg intravenously q 24 h vs standard therapy (an antistaphylococcal penicillin at 2 g IV q 6 h or vancomycin 1 gm IV q 12 h), the clinical success rate in the telavancin-treated group was 96% vs 94% in the standard therapy group. In two identical phase III trials comparing telavancin versus vancomycin at the doses of the FAST 2 study for cSSSI, the clinical cure rates were 88.3% and 87.1%, respectively. Two additional phase III clinical trials investigating telavancin for use in hospital-acquired pneumonia, caused by Gram-positive bacteria are currently ongoing. Telavancin is currently under regulatory review in both the United States and Europe for the indication of treatment of cSSSI.
telavancin; vancomycin; MRSA
Ceftaroline is an advanced-generation cephalosporin antibiotic recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs). This intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic exerts potent bactericidal activity by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. A high affinity for the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) makes the drug especially beneficial to patients with MRSA cSSSIs. Ceftaroline has proved in multiple well-conducted clinical trials to have an excellent safety and efficacy profile. In adjusted doses it is also recommended for patients with renal or hepatic impairment. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness and high cure rate demonstrated by ceftaroline in cSSSIs, including those caused by MRSA and other multidrug-resistant strains, warrants its consideration as a first-line treatment option for cSSSIs. This article reviews ceftaroline and its pharmacology, efficacy, and safety data to further elucidate its role in the treatment of cSSSIs.
ceftaroline; cephalosporin; complicated skin and skin-structure infections; cSSSIs; MRSA; Teflaro®
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Patients with MRSA require different empiric treatment than those with non-MRSA infections, yet no accurate tools exist to aid in stratifying the risk for a MRSA cSSSI. We sought to develop a simple bedside decision rule to tailor empiric coverage more accurately.
We conducted a large multicenter (N=62 hospitals) retrospective cohort study in a US-based database between April 2005 and March 2009. All adult initial admissions with ICD-9-CM codes specific to cSSSI were included. Patients admitted with MRSA vs. non-MRSA were compared with regard to baseline demographic, clinical and hospital characteristics. We developed and validated a model to predict the risk of MRSA, and compared its performance via sensitivity, specificity and other classification statistics to the healthcare-associated (HCA) infection risk factors.
Of the 7,183 patients with cSSSI, 2,387 (33.2%) had MRSA. Factors discriminating MRSA from non-MRSA were age, African-American race, no evidence of diabetes mellitus, cancer or renal dysfunction, and prior history of cardiac dysrhythmia. The score ranging from 0 to 8 points exhibited a consistent dose–response relationship. A MRSA score of 5 or higher was superior to the HCA classification in all characteristics, while that of 4 or higher was superior on all metrics except specificity.
MRSA is present in 1/3 of all hospitalized cSSSI. A simple bedside risk score can help discriminate the risk for MRSA vs. other pathogens with improved accuracy compared to the HCA definition.
Skin infection; Prediction rule; Clinical decision; MRSA; Hospitalization
Oritavancin is a novel lipoglycopeptide with demonstrated effectiveness against complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of oritavancin is favorable for single or infrequent dosing. A phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel, active-comparator study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00514527) of single and infrequent dosing of intravenous (i.v.) oritavancin for the treatment of cSSSI caused by Gram-positive pathogens (wound infections, major abscess, and cellulitis) was undertaken to evaluate the noninferiority of front-loaded dosing regimens compared to a daily-dosing regimen. A total of 302 patients ≥18 years of age were randomized equally to one of three oritavancin treatment groups, receiving either a daily dose (200 mg) administered for 3 to 7 days, a single dose (1,200 mg), or an infrequent dose (800-mg dose, with the option for an additional 400 mg on day 5). The primary efficacy was defined as a clinical response in clinically evaluable (CE) patients assessed at days 21 to 29 (test of cure [TOC]). The cure rates in the CE population were 72.4% (55/76) in the daily-dose group, 81.5% (66/81) in the 1,200-mg-single-dose group, and 77.5% (55/71) in the infrequent-dose group. In patients with MRSA at baseline, the cure rates were 78.3% (18/23), 73.0% (27/37), and 87.0% (20/23) in the daily-, 1,200-mg-single-, and infrequent-dose groups, respectively; however, the study was not powered to assess outcomes in the MRSA subpopulation, and given the heterogeneity of the types of infection and the small sample size, these do not suggest any true differences in efficacy rates for these pathogens. The frequencies of adverse events were similar among treatment groups. The results of this study show that single- and infrequent-dosing schedules of oritavancin were as efficacious as daily administration and had a similar safety profile in treating cSSSI caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including MRSA.
Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) frequently result in hospitalization with significant morbidity and mortality.
In this phase 3b/4 parallel, randomized, open-label, comparative study, 531 subjects with cSSSI received tigecycline (100 mg initial dose, then 50 mg intravenously every 12 hrs) or ampicillin-sulbactam 1.5-3 g IV every 6 hrs or amoxicillin-clavulanate 1.2 g IV every 6-8 hrs. Vancomycin could be added at the discretion of the investigator to the comparator arm if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was confirmed or suspected within 72 hrs of enrollment. The primary endpoint was clinical response in the clinically evaluable (CE) population at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit. Microbiologic response and safety were also assessed. The modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population comprised 531 subjects (tigecycline, n = 268; comparator, n = 263) and 405 were clinically evaluable (tigecycline, n = 209; comparator, n = 196).
In the CE population, 162/209 (77.5%) tigecycline-treated subjects and 152/196 (77.6%) comparator-treated subjects were clinically cured (difference 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.7, 8.6). The eradication rates at the subject level for the microbiologically evaluable (ME) population were 79.2% in the tigecycline treatment group and 76.8% in the comparator treatment group (difference 2.4; 95% CI: -9.6, 14.4) at the TOC assessment. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea rates were higher in the tigecycline group.
Tigecycline was generally safe and effective in the treatment of cSSSIs.
Tigecycline; Glycylcycline; cSSSI; Skin and skin structure infection
Ceftaroline, the bioactive metabolite of ceftaroline fosamil (previously PPI-0903, TAK-599), is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with potent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant gram-positive aerobic pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A randomized, observer-blinded study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ceftaroline versus standard therapy in treating complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) was performed. Adults with cSSSI, including at least one systemic marker of inflammation, were randomized (2:1) to receive intravenous (i.v.) ceftaroline (600 mg every 12 h) or i.v. vancomycin (1 g every 12 h) with or without adjunctive i.v. aztreonam (1 g every 8 h) for 7 to 14 days. The primary outcome measure was the clinical cure rate at a test-of-cure (TOC) visit 8 to 14 days after treatment. Secondary outcomes included the microbiological success rate (eradication or presumed eradication) at TOC and the clinical relapse rate 21 to 28 days following treatment. Of 100 subjects enrolled, 88 were clinically evaluable; the clinical cure rate was 96.7% (59/61) for ceftaroline versus 88.9% (24/27) for standard therapy. Among the microbiologically evaluable subjects (i.e., clinically evaluable and having had at least one susceptible pathogen isolated at baseline), the microbiological success rate was 95.2% (40/42) for ceftaroline versus 85.7% (18/21) for standard therapy. Relapse occurred in one subject in each group (ceftaroline, 1.8%; standard therapy, 4.3%). Ceftaroline exhibited a very favorable safety and tolerability profile, consistent with that of marketed cephalosporins. Most adverse events from ceftaroline were mild and not related to treatment. Ceftaroline holds promise as a new therapy for treatment of cSSSI and other serious polymicrobial infections.
A population pharmacokinetic model of telavancin, a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, was developed and used to identify sources of interindividual variability. Data were obtained from healthy subjects (seven phase 1 studies), patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI; two phase 2 and two phase 3 studies), and patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP; two phase 3 studies). A two-compartment open model with zero-order input best fit the telavancin data from healthy individuals and patients with cSSSI or HAP. Telavancin clearance was highly correlated with renal function and, to a lesser extent, with body weight. Other covariates were related to at least one parameter in cSSSI (gender, bacterial eradication, and surgery) or HAP (age of ≥75 years) but did not markedly affect exposure. These analyses support current dosing recommendations for telavancin based on patient weight and renal function.
Objective. The objective of this analysis was to compare clinical and cost outcomes associated with patients who had suspected or documented methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections treated with daptomycin, vancomycin, or linezolid in complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Design. This was a retrospective analysis conducted from February to June of 2007. Appropriate data was collected, collated, and subsequently evaluated with the purpose of quantifying length of stay, antibiotic therapy duration, clinical cure rates, adverse drug events, and cost of hospitalization. Results. All 82 patients included in the analysis experienced clinical cure. The duration of antibiotic therapy was similar among the three groups yet the length of hospitalization was slightly shorter in the daptomycin group. Conclusions. The incidence of resistant staphylococcal infections is increasing; therefore, judicious use of MRSA active agents is paramount. Future studies are necessary to determine if MRSA treatment options can be stratified based on the severity of the infectious process.
Torezolid (TR-700) is the active moiety of the prodrug torezolid phosphate ([TP] TR-701), a second-generation oxazolidinone with 4- to 16-fold greater potency than linezolid against Gram-positive species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A double-blind phase 2 study evaluated three levels (200, 300, or 400 mg) of oral, once-daily TP over 5 to 7 days for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Patients 18 to 75 years old with cSSSI caused by suspected or confirmed Gram-positive pathogens were randomized 1:1:1. Of 188 treated patients, 76.6% had abscesses, 17.6% had extensive cellulitis, and 5.9% had wound infections. S. aureus, the most common pathogen, was isolated in 90.3% of patients (139/154) with a baseline pathogen; 80.6% were MRSA. Cure rates in clinically evaluable patients were 98.2% at 200 mg, 94.4% at 300 mg, and 94.4% at 400 mg. Cure rates were consistent across diagnoses, regardless of lesion size or the presence of systemic signs of infection. Clinical cure rates in patients with S. aureus isolated at baseline were 96.6% overall and 96.8% for MRSA. TP was safe and well tolerated at all dose levels. No patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. Three-stage hierarchical population pharmacokinetic modeling yielded a geometric mean clearance of 8.28 liters/h (between-patient variability, 32.3%), a volume of the central compartment of 71.4 liters (24.0%), and a volume of the peripheral compartment of 27.9 liters (35.7%). Results of this study show a high degree of efficacy at all three dose levels without significant differences in the safety profile and support the continued evaluation of TP for the treatment of cSSSI in phase 3 trials.
Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are an increasing concern due to the resulting increase in morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs associated with the administration of inadequate or delayed antimicrobial therapy. The implications of inadequate antimicrobial therapy in complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) have gained more attention recently, most likely due to the recent emergence of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the already high prevalence of MRSA in the nosocomial setting. Due to the continuous threat of resistance arising and the limitations of currently available agents for the treatment of cSSSIs, it is necessary to develop new antimicrobials for this indication. Ceftobiprole medocaril, the prodrug of ceftobiprole, is a parental investigational cephalosporin for the treatment of cSSSIs displaying a wide-spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species, including MRSA. Ceftobiprole displays noncomplex linear pharmacokinetics, is eliminated primarily by glomerular filtration, and distributes to extracellular fluid. Additionally, it has been shown that the extent of distribution to the site of action with regard to cSSSIs, ie, the extracellular space fluid of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, is expected to be efficacious, as free concentrations meet efficacy targets for most pathogens. Similar to other beta-lactams, it displays an excellent safety and tolerability profile with the primary adverse events being dysgeusia in healthy volunteers, resulting from the conversion of the prodrug to the active, and nausea in patients. Ceftobiprole has demonstrated noninferiority in two large-scale pivotal studies comparing it to vancomycin, clinical cure rates 93.3% vs 93.5%, respectively, or vancomycin plus ceftazidime, clinical cure rates 90.5% vs 90.2%, respectively. Given the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, ceftobiprole is a promising new agent for the treatment of cSSSIs and has the potential to be used as a single agent for empiric treatment.
cSSSIs; resistance; MRSA; cephalosporins
Iclaprim is a novel antibacterial agent that is currently in development for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Iclaprim specifically and selectively inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, a critical enzyme in the bacterial folate pathway, and exhibits an extended spectrum of activity against various resistant pathogens, including methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The objective of this randomized, double-blind phase II study was to compare the efficacy and safety of iclaprim to those of vancomycin in patients with cSSSI. Patients were randomized to receive 0.8 mg iclaprim/kg of body weight, 1.6 mg/kg iclaprim, or 1 g vancomycin twice a day for 10 days. Clinical cure rates for the 0.8- and 1.6-mg/kg-iclaprim treatment groups were comparable to that for the vancomycin treatment group (26/28 patients [92.9%], 28/31 patients [90.3%], and 26/28 patients [92.9%], respectively). Iclaprim also showed high microbiological eradication rates. Iclaprim exhibited an eradication rate of 80% and 72% versus 59% observed with vancomycin for S. aureus, the pathogen most frequently isolated at baseline. Five MRSA cases were observed, four in the 0.8-mg/kg-iclaprim arm and one in the vancomycin arm, and all were both clinically and microbiologically cured. Iclaprim exhibited a safety profile similar to that of vancomycin, an established drug for the treatment of cSSSI. Results from this study indicate that iclaprim is a promising new therapy for the treatment of cSSSI, in particular those caused by S. aureus, including MRSA.
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of tigecycline, a newly developed glycylcycline antibiotic, with those of empirical antibiotic regimens which have been reported to possess good efficacy for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and other infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase was performed. Eight RCTs involving 4,651 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with therapy with empirical antibiotic regimens, tigecycline monotherapy was associated with similar clinical treatment success rates (for the clinically evaluable [CE] population, odds ratio [OR] = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76 to 1.12, P = 0.42; for the clinical modified intent-to-treat [c-mITT] population, OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.74 to 1.01, P = 0.06) and similar microbiological treatment success rates (for the microbiologically evaluable [ME] population, OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.07, P = 0.19). The incidence of adverse events in the tigecycline group was significantly higher than that in the other therapy groups with a statistical margin (for the modified intent-to-treat [mITT] population, OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.52, P < 0.0001), especially in the digestive system (mITT population, OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.67 to 3.46, P < 0.00001). No difference regarding all-cause mortality and drug-related mortality between tigecycline and the other regimens was found, although numerically higher mortality was found in the tigecycline group. This meta-analysis provides evidence that tigecycline monotherapy may be used as effectively as the comparison therapy for cSSSI, cIAIs, CAP, and infections caused by MRSA/VRE. However, because of the high risk of mortality, AEs, and emergence of resistant isolates, prudence with the clinical use of tigecycline monotherapy in infections is required.
Ceftobiprole is the first broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to be assessed in late-stage clinical trials. As a pivotal step in the clinical development of ceftobiprole, a multicenter, global, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of ceftobiprole to that of vancomycin in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by gram-positive bacteria. The primary objective was to assess noninferiority on the basis of the cure rates 7 to 14 days after the completion of therapy in patients administered ceftobiprole 500 mg every 12 h or vancomycin 1 g every 12 h. Of 784 patients randomized, 282 receiving ceftobiprole and 277 receiving vancomycin were clinically evaluable. Of these patients, 93.3% treated with ceftobiprole and 93.5% treated with vancomycin were cured (95% confidence interval of difference, −4.4%, 3.9%). The cure rates for patients with MRSA infections were 91.8% (56/61) with ceftobiprole treatment and 90.0% (54/60) with vancomycin treatment (95% confidence interval of difference, −8.4%, 12.1%). At least one adverse event (AE) was reported by 52% of the ceftobiprole-treated patients and 51% of the vancomycin-treated patients. The most common AEs reported by the ceftobiprole-treated patients were nausea (14%) and taste disturbance (8%). Discontinuation of the study drug because of treatment-emergent AEs occurred in 4% (n = 17) of the ceftobiprole-treated patients and 6% (n = 22) of the vancomycin-treated patients. The results of this trial support the use of ceftobiprole as an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with cSSSIs caused by a spectrum of gram-positive bacteria.
A randomized, investigator-blind, multicenter phase 2 trial involving patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) compared the safety and efficacy of omadacycline, a broad-spectrum agent with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), to those of linezolid (with or without aztreonam). Patients were randomized 1:1 to omadacycline (100 mg intravenously [i.v.] once a day [QD] with an option to transition to 200 mg orally QD) or linezolid (600 mg i.v. twice daily [BID] with an option to transition to 600 mg orally BID) at 11 U.S. sites. Patients suspected or documented to have infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria were given aztreonam (2 g i.v. every 12 h [q12h]) if randomized to linezolid or matching placebo infusions if randomized to omadacycline. Adverse events were reported in 46 (41.4%) omadacycline-treated and 55 (50.9%) linezolid-treated patients. Adverse events related to treatment were assessed by investigators in 24 (21.6%) omadacycline-treated and 33 (30.6%) linezolid-treated patients. The gastrointestinal tract was most commonly involved, with adverse events reported in 21 (18.9%) patients exposed to omadacycline and 20 (18.5%) exposed to linezolid. Rates of successful clinical response in the intent-to-treat (ITT) and clinical evaluable (CE) populations favored omadacycline (ITT, 88.3% versus 75.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 22.9; CE, 98.0% versus 93.2%; 95% CI, −1.7 to 11.3). For microbiologically evaluable (ME) patients with S. aureus infections, the clinical success rates were 97.2% (70/72) in omadacycline-treated and 92.7% (51/55) in linezolid-treated patients. This phase 2 experience supports conclusions that omadacycline is well tolerated in cSSSI patients and that this aminomethylcycline has potential to be an effective treatment for serious skin infections.
Traditional microbiology identification takes 48–72 h to complete. This lag forces clinicians to rely on broad-spectrum empiric coverage. To address this gap, manufacturers are developing rapid molecular diagnostics (RMD). We hypothesised that RMD's accuracy is more dependent upon population risk of harbouring the culprit pathogen than to their sensitivity and specificity.
A mathematical model.
Setting and participants
We used the range of risks (5–50%) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among patients hospitalised with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), pneumonia or sepsis.
Main outcome measures
We modelled the impact of changing a test's characteristics on its positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, and hence the risk of overtreatment or undertreatment, within strata of an organism's population prevalence. MRSA diagnostics provided assumptions for the test sensitivity and specificity (95–99%). Scenarios with low sensitivity and specificity (90%), and best-case and worst-case scenarios normalised to the annual universe of populations of interest, were examined.
With a low prevalence (5%) and high test specificity, the PPV was 84%. Conversely, with 50% prevalence and 95% test specificity the PPV rose to ≥95%. Even when the test's specificity and sensitivity were both 90%, in a high-risk population both PPV and NPV were ∼90%. In the worst-case scenario, 150 000 patients with cSSSI, pneumonia and sepsis annually were at risk for inappropriate treatment, 91% of these at risk for over-treatment. In the best-case scenario, 81% of 18 000 patients at risk for inappropriate coverage were subject to overtreatment.
Although promising for limiting exposure to excessive antimicrobial coverage, RMDs alone will not solve the issue of inappropriate, and particularly overtreatment. Increasing pretest probability as a strategy to minimise antibiotic abuse results in more accurate patient classification than does developing a test with near-perfect characteristics. The healthcare community must build robust evidence and information technology infrastructure to guide appropriate use of such testing.
Skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) are a common diagnosis encountered by ambulatory and inpatient practitioners across the country. As the SSSIs become more complicated, they require increased health care resources and often involve hospitalization and intravenous antimicrobials. Complicated SSSIs are caused by a variety of pathogens, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and anerobic bacteria. Empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage is warranted, taking into account area disease-state epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility data. Telavancin is an antimicrobial agent with a broad Gram-positive spectrum of activity which was recently approved for the treatment of SSSIs. It may especially benefit patients with resistant organisms, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This article reviews telavancin and its pharmacology, efficacy, and safety data to enhance the practitioner’s knowledge base on the appropriateness of telavancin for the treatment of SSSIs.
skin and skin structure infections; telavancin; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Ertapenem, a new carbapenem with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, has been approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal Infections (cIAIs), acute pelvic infections (APIs) and complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs). The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of ertapenem with piperacillin/tazobactam, which has been reported to possess good efficacy for the treatment of these complicated infections.
We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials identified in PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase that compared the efficacy and safety of ertapenem with piperacillin/tazobactam for the treatment of complicated infections including cIAIs, APIs, cSSSIs. The primary efficacy outcome was clinical treatment success assessed at the test-of-cure visit. The primary safety outcome was drug related clinical and laboratory adverse events occurred during the treatment and the post-treatment period.
Six RCTs, involving 3161 patients, were included in our meta-analysis. Ertapenem was associated similar clinical treatment success with piperacillin/tazobactam for complicated infections treatment (clinically evaluable population, 1937 patients, odds ratios: 1.15, 95% confidence intervals: 0.89-1.49; modified intention to treat population, 2855 patients, odds ratios: 1.03, 95% confidence intervals: 0.87-1.22). All of secondary efficacy outcomes analysis obtained similar findings with clinical treatment success. No difference was found about the incidence of drug related adverse events between ertapenem and piperacillin/tazobactam groups.
This meta-analysis provides evidence that ertapenem 1 g once a day can be used as effectively and safely as recommended dose of piperacillin/tazobactam, for the treatment of complicated infections, particularly of mild to moderate severity. It is an appealing option for the treatment of these complicated infections.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for an increasing number of serious hospital and community acquired infections. Virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus is orchestrated by regulators such as the accessory gene regulator (agr). Staphylococcal strains are divided into four major agr groups (agrI-IV) on the basis of agrD and agrC polymorphisms. The purpose of this study was to define the prevalence of MRSA strains in appointed Tehran's hospitals and then to define and compare the proportion of agr I, II, III, IV polymorphisms between MRSA and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains. A total of 235 isolates were evaluated by conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests and PCR for agr and mecA genes. 112 strains were MRSA (47.5%) and the most prevalent agr specific group was agr I followed by agr III, agr II and agr IV, respectively. The prevalence of agr groups amongst MRSA and MSSA strains was not statistically significant (P≥0.05). This study suggests that agr I is not only the most prevalent agr type in MRSAs but also the most common one in Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains in Iran.
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; agr; PCR
Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin (meticillin)-resistant staphylococci, was statistically noninferior to a combination of vancomycin plus ceftazidime in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). This analysis used data from this clinical trial to determine the relationship between therapeutic outcome and the percentage of time that the unbound ceftobiprole concentration exceeds the MIC (percent T>MIC). From the trial of ceftobiprole (500 mg every 8 h, 2-h infusion) for cSSSI due to gram-positive and/or gram-negative bacteria, data from 309 patients in the microbiological intent-to-treat analysis set with measured ceftobiprole concentrations and baseline MICs were used to assess the relationship between percent T>MIC and therapeutic outcome. Individual pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles were obtained from a three-compartment population PK model. The relationship between percent T>MIC and a clinical cure was determined. For the clinical trial dosing regimen, individual percent T>MICs were used to calculate fractional target attainment rates (TARs) for ≥30 and ≥50% T>MIC targets at various MICs. There was a statistically significant relationship between achieving a ≥30 or ≥50% T>MIC and a clinical cure (P = 0.003 and P = 0.007, respectively; Pearson's χ2 test). The fractional TAR was greater than 90% at a MIC of ≤4 mg/liter for patients with normal renal function. A relationship between percent T>MIC and a clinical cure with ceftobiprole was demonstrated. A ceftobiprole regimen of 500 mg every 8 h as a 2-h infusion has a high probability of achieving a target of ≥30 or ≥50% T>MIC for patients with cSSSI due to gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens.
Tigecycline, a first-in-class expanded glycylcycline antimicrobial agent, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) and complicated intra-abdominal (cIAI) infections. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for tigecycline was developed for patients with cSSSI or cIAI enrolled in two phase 2 clinical trials, and the influence of selected demographic factors and clinical laboratory measures was investigated. Tigecycline was administered as an intravenous loading dose followed by a 0.5- or 1-h infusion every 12 h for up to 14 days. Blood samples were collected the day before or the day of hospital discharge for the determination of serum tigecycline concentrations. Patient covariates were evaluated using stepwise forward (α = 0.05) and backward (α = 0.001) procedures. The predictive performance of the model was assessed separately using pooled data from either two phase 3 studies for patients with cSSSI or two phase 3 studies for patients with cIAI. A two-compartment model with zero-order input and first-order elimination adequately described the steady-state tigecycline concentration-time data. Tigecycline clearance was shown to increase with increasing weight, increasing creatinine clearance, and male gender (P < 0.001). The final model provided a relatively unbiased fit to each data set. Individual predicted values of the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC0-12) were generally unbiased (median prediction error, −1.60% to −3.78%) and were similarly precise (median absolute prediction error, <4%) when compared across data sets. The population PK model provided the basis to obtain individual estimates of steady-state AUC0-12 in later exposure-response analyses of tigecycline safety and efficacy in patients with cSSSI or cIAI.
Wilson et al. (Am. J. Surg. 185:369–375, 2003) developed a disease severity classification system for use in complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Two phase 3 trials of ceftaroline fosamil in cSSSI provided the opportunity to evaluate the association between Wilson Severity Risk Class and clinical cure rates. Our analyses did not confirm that an association exists between Wilson Severity Risk Class and clinical cure rate and, thus, did not validate its predictive utility.
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have increased dramatically over the last two decades. The types of infections can range from complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) to pneumonia and endocarditis. Oral antimicrobial therapy, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, long-acting tetracyclines, or linezolid may provide enhanced benefit to those with uncomplicated cutaneous lesions when used in conjunction with incision and drainage in an outpatient setting. However, resistance, susceptibilities, patient-specific circumstances, and adverse effects can impact a healthcare professional’s choice of antibiotics. In patients with complicated infections requiring hospitalization or parenteral treatment, vancomycin remains the drug of choice, even though increased resistance and decreased efficacy have crept into clinical practice. Linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, and tigecycline are alternative intravenous agents for the treatment of CA-MRSA. Investigational agents such as dalbavancin, telavancin, oritivancin, iclaprim, ceftobiprole, ceftaroline, and others may expand our therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of infections caused by CA-MRSA in the future.
community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; CA-MRSA; complicated skin and skin structure infections; cSSSI; Panton-Valentine leukocidin; PVL; in vitro activity
Telavancin, a novel lipoglycopeptide with rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal effects, is a semisynthetic derivative of the glycopeptide, vancomycin. Telavancin has a dual mechanism of action, ie, inhibition of peptidoglycan polymerization and disruption of the bacterial membrane. It has linear pharmacokinetics, rapid bactericidal killing, and broad spectrum activity against Gram positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. Phase II and III clinical trials for complicated skin and skin structure infections have shown telavancin to have similar efficacy and tolerability to that of vancomycin and standard anti-staphylococcal β-lactams plus vancomycin. In Phase II trials, there was a significant difference in eradication of MRSA between groups, ie, telavancin therapy 92% and standard therapy (vancomycin, nafcillin, oxacillin, or cloxacillin) 68% (P < 0.05). In Phase III trials, among clinically evaluable patients who had MRSA isolated at baseline, the overall therapeutic response was higher in patients treated with telavancin than in patients treated with vancomycin (89.9% versus 84.7%; 95% CI −0.3, 10.5). Also, the efficacy of telavancin was not inferior to that of vancomycin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections in the clinical trials.
telavancin; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; complicated skin and skin structure infections; Gram-positive bacteria