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1.  Remote access to electronic library services through a campus network. 
The Health Science Library at University of Tennessee (UT), Memphis has taken advantage of a campuswide network for the purpose of providing enhanced access to library services. With a terminal or microcomputer, members of the UT Memphis community can use an electronic menu system to complete photocopy, interlibrary loan, and computer literature search request forms; leave messages or sign up for library workshops; use electronic mail to receive citations and abstracts from computer literature searches; use an electronic bulletin board to scan the library's new acquisitions lists, library hours, services, and policies; and use bibliographic retrieval software to search the library's locally mounted databases. Remote access to library services and electronic resources, which is available twenty-four hours a day, could potentially save users time and the institution money. Remote access, however, is intended to supplement, not to supplant or discourage, in-house library use.
PMCID: PMC225485  PMID: 1998820
2.  Retention of retrospective print journals in the digital age: trends and analysis 
Purpose: The issue of retaining retrospective print journals is examined in light of the shift to electronic titles, the reallocation of library budgets from print to electronic, and the changing research practices of today's library users. This article also examines the evolving role of the physical library and its impact on space allocation.
Methods: To determine current practice and opinion, a survey of health sciences librarians and academic librarians was conducted. To demonstrate the use patterns of older journal issues, citation analyses and interlibrary loan statistics were examined.
Results: All methods indicate that recent material is accessed more frequently than older material, with a significant drop in use of materials greater than 15 years old. Materials greater than 20 years old constituted less than 5% of interlibrary loans and less than 9% of articles noted in the citation analysis.
Conclusions: It is possible to eliminate older years of a print journal collection without a large impact on the needs of researchers. Librarians' preference to maintain full runs of journal titles may be motivated by reasons outside of actual usage or patrons needs.
PMCID: PMC1629447  PMID: 17082829
3.  SAIL: automating interlibrary loan. 
The National Library of Medicine (NLM) initiated the System for Automated Interlibrary Loan (SAIL) pilot project to study the feasibility of using imaging technology linked to the DOCLINE system to deliver copies of journal articles. During the project, NLM converted a small number of print journal issues to electronic form, linking the captured articles to the MEDLINE citation unique identifier. DOCLINE requests for these journals that could not be filled by network libraries were routed to SAIL. Nearly 23,000 articles from sixty-four journals recently selected for indexing in Index Medicus were scanned to convert them to electronic images. During fiscal year 1992, 4,586 scanned articles were used to fill 10,444 interlibrary loan (ILL) requests, and more than half of these were used only once. Eighty percent of all the articles were not requested at all. The total cost per article delivered was $10.76, substantially more than it costs to process a photocopy request. Because conversion costs were the major component of the total SAIL cost, and most of the articles captured for the project were not requested, this model was not cost-effective. Data on SAIL journal article use was compared with all ILL requests filled by NLM for the same period. Eighty-eight percent of all articles requested from NLM were requested only once. The results of the SAIL project demonstrated that converting journal articles to electronic images and storing them in anticipation of repeated requests would not meet NLM's objective to improve interlibrary loan.
PMCID: PMC225892  PMID: 8004020
4.  Willow: a uniform search interface. 
The objective of the Willow Project is to develop a uniform search interface that allows a diverse community of users to retrieve information from heterogeneous network-based information resources. Willow separates the user interface from the database management or information retrieval system. It provides a graphic user interface to a variety of information resources residing on diverse hosts, and using different search engines and idiomatic query languages through networked-based client-server and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols. It is based on a "database driver'' model, which allows new database hosts to be added without altering Willow itself. Willow employs a multimedia extension mechanism to launch external viewers to handle data in almost any form. Drivers are currently available for a local BRS/SEARCH system and the Z39.50 protocol. Students, faculty, clinicians, and researchers at the University of Washington are currently offered 30 local and remote databases via Willow. They conduct more than 250,000 sessions a month in libraries, medical centers and clinics, laboratories, and offices, and from home. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is implementing Willow as its uniform search interface to Z39.50 hosts.
PMCID: PMC116285  PMID: 8750388
5.  Interlibrary Loan, 1952-62: Ten Years of Progress? 
Although the revised General Interlibrary Loan Code of 1952 was designed to alleviate the “crisis” in interlibrary loan services existing at the time, libraries today find that they are still facing the same problems as they did in 1952, namely, excessive use of large, distant libraries for materials available locally, unverified references, stringent restrictions on the materials lent and their subsequent use, and the rising cost of operating interlibrary loan programs. A brief description of the use and abuse of interlibrary loans at the National Library of Medicine is followed by consideration of the alternatives to the concept of interlibrary loan presently under study in various regions. To relieve the current situation, it is proposed that federal funds be made available to medical and scientific libraries on the basis of the percentage of interlibrary loan transactions handled (2 percent of their total circulation figure), that present lending restrictions on materials be relaxed, that photocopying of articles in lieu of loan of the original be done to a greater extent, and that standardized procedures in handling requests be instituted.
PMCID: PMC198114  PMID: 14119304
6.  Regional Online Union Catalog of the Greater Midwest Regional Medical Library Network: development and operation. 
The GMRMLN Online Catalog was developed as an easily accessible locator tool for monographs and audiovisuals held within the Greater Midwest Regional Medical Library Network. The catalog was generated from machine-readable records in MARC formats contributed by regional libraries. It was mounted by BRS as a private database and is fully free text searchable using BRS search. Each institutional file was merged and purged of duplicates to create a single entry for each title. The catalog features an online interlibrary loan system that automatically routes a request to the two nearest, smallest libraries that own the title. If the request is not filled within the region, the system automatically routes it to the National Library of Medicine without the need to rekeyboard data. The system collects management data on interlibrary loan processing. Funding for the catalog permitted a trial period of use with cost support. Data on system operation were gathered during this demonstration.
PMCID: PMC227397  PMID: 6733326
7.  A comparison of interlibrary loan requests received by the National Library of Medicine: 1959 and 1984. 
In 1962, an analysis of interlibrary loan requests for serials filled by NLM in 1959 was published. In the twenty-five years following 1959, important changes occurred in the biomedical library community, which had a significant impact on interlibrary loan activities, including the development of MEDLARS and online searching, the Regional Medical Library (RML) network, and union listing for serials. To describe NLM's current interlibrary loan request traffic for serials and to identify any significant changes in traffic between 1959 and 1984, a comparative analysis of 1984 serial loan requests was performed, primarily by manipulation of automated request records. The changes in request traffic strongly suggest that the efforts to strengthen regional document delivery through the RML program have been successful and that NLM's collection is now used primarily as a last resort.
PMCID: PMC227597  PMID: 3828612
8.  Medical Interlibrary Loan Patterns * 
During the academic year 1958/59, a survey was made of interlibrary loan requests originating at Columbia University Medical Library. A high percentage of requests came from a relatively few requesters. However, analysis based on “one-time” and “repeat” categories for the patron and his requests indicated a situation less extreme than “monopoly use by an elite group.” Requests were classed by type, age, language, title, etc., and were also correlated with such variables as citation source, requester's academic status and experience, and estimated importance of material. The analysis aims to uncover patterns significant for cooperative planning. Did the repeat and one-time requester show distinctive characteristics and habits? Which materials attracted more repeat requests? Findings generally favored cooperation, at least for a library servicing nonstudent researchers. Unpredictability of researchers' needs was noted. Apart from specific findings, this paper offers methods for statistical analysis of interlibrary loans.
PMCID: PMC198256  PMID: 14271115
9.  A SERLINE-based union list of serials for basic health sciences libraries: a detailed protocol. 
In March 1981 the Consortium for Information Resources (CIR) was chosen by the Massachusetts Health Sciences Library Network to develop and automate a statewide biomedical union list of serials. Employing a commercial processor, ANSI standard Z39.42-1980, and SERLINE, CIR consolidated the journal holdings of six Massachusetts health-related library consortia. SERLINE, with its unique identifier as the single control element, governed the form of entry and bibliographic data for each journal. Additionally, SERLINE enhanced the union list by providing "see references" and general notations to map users to main titles or special information. An original feature of this union list is the "rolled" holdings and location statements intended to encourage even distribution of interlibrary loan transactions. The resulting union list of serials includes the holdings of 116 Massachusetts libraries, 94 of which are hospital libraries. The list includes nearly 3,000 unique titles and 15,000 holdings statements; production costs averaged $1.35 per unique title and 27 per holdings statement.
PMCID: PMC226745  PMID: 6758891
10.  Automating Veterans Administration libraries: II. Implementation at the Kansas City Medical Center Library. 
In 1985, the Kansas City Veterans Administration Medical Center began implementation of the Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP). An integrated library system, a subset of that program, was started by the medical library for acquisitions and an outline catalog. To test the system, staff of the Neurology Service were trained to use the outline catalog and electronic mail to request interlibrary loans and literature searches. In implementing the project with the Neurology Service, the library is paving the way for many types of electronic access and interaction with the library.
PMCID: PMC227629  PMID: 3594023
11.  Online journals: impact on print journal usage 
Purpose: The research sought to determine the impact of online journals on the use of print journals and interlibrary loan (ILL).
Setting: The Library of the Health Sciences–Peoria is a regional site of the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Library with a print journal collection of approximately 400 titles. Since 1999, UIC site licenses have given students and faculty affiliated with UIC–Peoria access to more than 4,000 online full-text journal titles through the Internet.
Methodology: The Library of the Health Sciences–Peoria has conducted a journal-use study over an extended period of time. The information collected from this study was used to assess the impact of 104 online journals, added to the collection in January 1999, on the use of print journals.
Results: Results of the statistical analysis showed print journal usage decreased significantly since the introduction of online journals (F(1,147) = 12.10, P < 0.001). This decrease occurred regardless of whether a journal was available only in print or both online and in print. Interlibrary loan requests have also significantly decreased since the introduction of online journals (F(2,30) = 4.46, P < 0.02).
Conclusions: The decrease in use of the print collection suggests that many patrons prefer to access journals online. The negative impact the online journals have had on the use of the journal titles available only in print suggests users may be compromising quality for convenience when selecting journal articles. Possible implications for collection development are discussed.
PMCID: PMC57966  PMID: 11837259
12.  Impact of DOCLINE on interlibrary loan service at the National Library of Medicine. 
In March 1985, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) began implementation of DOCLINE, its automated interlibrary loan request routing and referral system. By the end of fiscal year (FY) 1987, over 1,400 biomedical libraries in all seven regions of the Regional Medical Library network were using the system. This report summarizes the findings of an analysis of the interlibrary loan (ILL) requests received in FY 1987, comparing the results with a similar analysis done in FY 1984 to describe any changes in the requests or service which might be attributable to DOCLINE implementation. DOCLINE has had a substantial impact upon ILL loan service at NLM. An increase in the number of ILL requests (35% over FY 1984) can be attributed to the speed and ease with which requests may be routed to NLM through DOCLINE. Requests which cannot be filled by local or regional libraries are automatically routed by the system to NLM as the library of last resort. NLM's fill rate for serial requests has declined, however, from 78% filled in FY 1984 to 67% filled in FY 1987. Some of the decline results from the 11,000 requests that NLM did not fill because the borrowing libraries were not willing to pay the NLM charge for filling the loans.
PMCID: PMC227299  PMID: 2720209
13.  Electronic document delivery using the Internet. 
The Health Sciences Libraries Consortium (HSLC) was established in 1985 by thirteen founding member institutions in Pennsylvania and Delaware. In 1989, the Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery, and Union List Task Force, appointed by the HSLC Board of Directors, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of supplying 94% of all interlibrary loan (ILL) photocopy requests in forty-eight hours or less by a network application of group 3-level memory telefacsimiles. However, the expenses associated with the telefacsimile operation and the limitations associated with network polling protocols challenged participants to seek new alternatives for ILL. In 1990, the HSLC introduced HSLC HealthNET, an online wide-area network linking eleven of the thirteen institutions and their resources while providing access to the Internet. The HSLC HealthNET additionally supports a centralized shared library system, several locally mounted databases, and consortiumwide electronic mail. In 1991, a project was initiated to evaluate Ariel software, pioneered by the Research Libraries Group (RLG), compared to the existing network application of group 3-level telefacsimiles. Factors identified as critical to Ariel's potential to replace the telefacsimile network were the proprietary software specifications for Internet access, the use of HSLC's existing wide-area network (WAN), and a hardware platform that was optimal for an ILL environment. This article describes the Ariel project history, the transition to Ariel from the telefacsimile network, evaluation of equipment features for processing efficiency, and operational issues affecting ILL policy.
PMCID: PMC225890  PMID: 8004018
14.  Creating local bibliographic databases: new tools for evidence-based health care* 
The Internet has created new opportunities for librarians to present literature search results to clinicians. In order to take full advantage of these opportunities, libraries need to create locally maintained bibliographic databases. A simple method of creating a local bibliographic database and publishing it on the Web is described. The method uses off-the-shelf software and requires minimal programming. A hedge search strategy for outcome studies of clinical process interventions is created, and Ovid is used to search MEDLINE. The search results are saved and imported into EndNote libraries. The citations are modified, exported to a Microsoft Access database, and published on the Web. Clinicians can use a Web browser to search the database. The bibliographic database contains 13,803 MEDLINE citations of outcome studies. Most searches take between four and ten seconds and retrieve between ten and 100 citations. The entire cost of the software is under $900. Locally maintained bibliographic databases can be created easily and inexpensively. They significantly extend the evidence-based health care services that libraries can offer to clinicians.
PMCID: PMC35212  PMID: 10783968
15.  A look at LOANSOME DOC service. 
The Pacific Southwest Regional Medical Library (PSRML) launched a project in 1988 to assess the feasibility of electronic linkages between health professionals using GRATEFUL MED--the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) software program for searching the MEDLARS databases--and libraries using DOCLINE, NLM's automated interlibrary loan request-and-referral system. This paper describes the origins of LOANSOME DOC and initial usage experiences. Results of the LOANSOME DOC beta test, including usage statistics, are reported. The paper also describes the mechanics of nationwide implementation of LOANSOME DOC, including guidelines used by the Regional Medical Libraries (RMLs) to refer unaffiliated health professionals to DOCLINE libraries for LOANSOME DOC service. National usage statistics for the first full year of implementation (October 1, 1991, to September 30, 1992) are provided, and user satisfaction surveys conducted in 1993 by two RMLs are examined. Future enhancements to LOANSOME DOC are suggested.
PMCID: PMC225893  PMID: 8004021
16.  Mobilization of duplicates in a Regional Medical Library Program. 
An overabundance of duplicate journals without an efficient and economical method of distribution caused one library's staff to reassess traditional methods of dispersal. A simplified form for listing duplicates was devised. In conjunction with the Regional Medical Library Program and the extension program, lists of duplicates were distributed to hospital and clinical libraries. These libraries selected materials to strengthen their ability to fill information needs at the local level and to conserve RMLP support for esoteric and expensive materials. In a two-year period, 86,000 individual pieces were distributed. Some lessening of interlibrary loan requests from heavy users was documented. In an evaluation survey users expressed satisfaction with the program. The successful use of the duplicate program will lead to a further experiment--the library will attempt to fill interlibrary loan requests for common journals with hard copy rather than photocopy in a cost and time reduction effort.
PMCID: PMC198916  PMID: 1148444
17.  A comprehensive bibliography database using a microcomputer. 
A system was implemented using a commercial database management program and a microcomputer for computerising references from journals and other sources. In addition to the citation, the user can enter the address of the institution where the study was carried out, a description of the article and of the work, key words, and an abstract. References are added, edited, searched for, displayed on screen, typed on paper, or sent to a text file, using selection criteria entered by the user. When a search is performed the printout will include the abstract of each paper, similar to that obtained from larger bibliographic services. The computer also writes requests for reprints. This program now holds over 30 000 references and has been in use for over three years. Such a system is beneficial for personal study, for writing books, articles, and theses, and for use by institutions, departments, and small libraries.
PMCID: PMC1340711  PMID: 3087557
18.  Remote Access MicroMeSH: Demonstration of an Enhanced Microcomputer System for Searching the MEDLINE Database 
Remote Access MicroMeSH (RAMM) is a powerful but easy to use Microcomputer system for searching the medical literature. RAMM uses MicroMeSH, a system for accessing the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) vocabulary, to facilitate off-line creation and refinement of highly specific MEDLINE search queries. Using these queries RAMM automatically searches and retrieves citations from the MEDLINE databases through the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS). As search query creation and citation review are performed off-line the cost of on-line searching in minimized.
PMCID: PMC2245617
19.  Remote Access MicroMeSH: A Microcomputer System for Searching the MEDLINE Database 
This paper describes Remote Access - MicroMeSH (RAMM) a powerful but easy to use microcomputer system for searching the medical literature. RAMM uses MicroMeSH [1], a system for accessing the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) vocabulary, to facilitate off-line creation and refinement of highly specific MEDLINE search queries. Using these queries RAMM automatically searches and retrieves citations from the MEDLINE databases through the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS). RAMM is used by both staff and students at Harvard Medical School. As search query creation and citation review are performed off-line the cost of on-line searching in minimized.
PMCID: PMC2245285
20.  MEDLINE Evaluation Study 
MEDLINE (MEDLARS-ON-LINE) is the new on-line, interactive bibliographic searching system which was recently developed by the National Library of Medicine. The system provides users with lists of bibliographical citations and other information from a three-year file of over 1,250 biomedical journals. A survey testing user reactions was conducted at the University of Virginia Medical Library. The results of the survey are based on replies by 246 users who requested one or more MEDLINE searches between September 1972 and March 1973. The findings indicate that over 93% believe that MEDLINE is a substantial improvement over the traditional methods of searching through the printed indexes. These respondents also stated that the results of MEDLINE searches had assisted them in their clinical or research work, or both. Asked whether they would continue to use MEDLINE after the imposition of user charges on July 1, 1973, about 75% said that they would. The remaining 25% expressed some reservations and doubts. The survey gives reason to believe that with the imposition of user charges the use of MEDLINE will decline.
PMCID: PMC198743  PMID: 4812588
21.  An availability study of electronic articles in an academic health sciences library 
The purposes of this study were: to determine the number of articles requested by library users that could be retrieved from the library's collection using the library catalog and link resolver, in other words, the availability rate; and to identify the nature and frequency of problems encountered in this process, so that the problems could be addressed and access to full-text articles could be improved.
A sample of 414 requested articles was identified via link resolver log files. Library staff attempted to retrieve these articles using the library catalog and link resolver and documented access problems.
Staff were able to retrieve electronic full text for 310 articles using the catalog. An additional 21 articles were available in print, for an overall availability rate of nearly 80%. Only 68% (280) of articles could be retrieved electronically via the link resolver. The biggest barriers to access in both instances were lack of holdings and incomplete coverage. The most common problem encountered when retrieving articles via the link resolver was incomplete or inaccurate metadata.
An availability study is a useful tool for measuring the quality of electronic access provided by a library and identifying and quantifying barriers to access.
PMCID: PMC3193371  PMID: 22025906
22.  QSCOP-BLAST—fast retrieval of quantified structural information for protein sequences of unknown structure 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;35(Web Server issue):W411-W415.
QSCOP is a quantitative structural classification of proteins which distinguishes itself from other classifications by two essential properties: (i) QSCOP is concurrent with the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) Protein Data Bank and (ii) QSCOP covers the widely used SCOP classification with layers of quantitative structural information. The QSCOP-BLAST web server presented here combines the BLAST sequence search engine with QSCOP to retrieve, for a given query sequence, all structural information currently available. The resulting search engine is reliable in terms of the quality of results obtained, and it is efficient in that results are displayed instantaneously. The hierarchical organization of QSCOP is used to control the redundancy and diversity of the retrieved hits with the benefit that the often cumbersome and difficult interpretation of search results is an intuitive and straightforward exercise. We demonstrate the use of QSCOP-BLAST by example. The server is accessible at
PMCID: PMC1933160  PMID: 17478501
23.  botXminer: mining biomedical literature with a new web-based application 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;34(Web Server issue):W748-W752.
This paper outlines botXminer, a publicly available application to search XML-formatted MEDLINE® data in a complete, object-relational schema implemented in Oracle® XML DB. An advantage offered by botXminer is that it can generate quantitative results with certain queries that are not feasible through the Entrez-PubMed® interface. After retrieving citations associated with user-supplied search terms, MEDLINE fields (title, abstract, journal, MeSH® and chemical) and terms (MeSH qualifiers and descriptors, keywords, author, gene symbol and chemical), these citations are grouped and displayed as tabulated or graphic results. This work represents an extension of previous research for integrating these citations with relational systems. botXminer has a user-friendly, intuitive interface that can be freely accessed at .
PMCID: PMC1538892  PMID: 16845112
24.  The PRINTS protein fingerprint database in its fifth year. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1998;26(1):304-308.
PRINTS is a database of protein family 'fingerprints' offering a diagnostic resource for newly-determined sequences. By contrast with PROSITE, which uses single consensus expressions to characterise particular families, PRINTS exploits groups of motifs to build characteristic signatures. These signatures offer improved diagnostic reliability by virtue of the mutual context provided by motif neighbours. To date, 800 fingerprints have been constructed and stored in PRINTS. The current version, 17.0, encodes approximately 4500 motifs, covering a range of globular and membrane proteins, modular polypeptides, and so on. The database is accessible via the UCL Bioinformatics World Wide Web (WWW) Server at http://www. . We have recently enhanced the usefulness of PRINTS by making available new, intuitive search software. This allows both individual query sequence and bulk data submission, permitting easy analysis of single sequences or complete genomes. Preliminary results indicate that use of the PRINTS system is able to assign additional functions not found by other methods, and hence offers a useful adjunct to current genome analysis protocols.
PMCID: PMC147187  PMID: 9399860
25.  User interactions with the PDQ cancer information system. 
Searches by end users and intermediaries on the online PDQ (Physician Data Query) cancer information system were observed. With the National Library of Medicine (NLM) menu-based interface, end users (physicians) averaged fewer steps per question, while with the BRS command-drive interface, intermediaries appeared to be more efficient. Cancer Information Service (CIS) searchers, who have more PDQ experience than end users or intermediaries, made greater use of command stacking to anticipate menu selections. Retrieval was more complete in the NLM system, where both the menus and predefined print formats assisted the searchers.
PMCID: PMC225612  PMID: 1537014

Results 1-25 (348639)