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1.  Developing a virtual community for health sciences library book selection: Doody's Core Titles 
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe Doody's Core Titles in the Health Sciences as a new selection guide and a virtual community based on an effective use of online systems and to describe its potential impact on library collection development.
Setting/Participants/Resources: The setting is the availability of health sciences selection guides. Participants include Doody Enterprise staff, Doody's Library Board of Advisors, content specialists, and library selectors. Resources include the online system used to create Doody's Core Titles along with references to complementary databases.
Brief Description: Doody's Core Titles is described and discussed in relation to the literature of selection guides, especially in comparison to the Brandon/Hill selected lists that were published from 1965 to 2003. Doody's Core Titles seeks to fill the vacuum created when the Brandon/Hill lists ceased publication. Doody's Core Titles is a unique selection guide based on its method of creating an online community of experts to identify and score a core list of titles in 119 health sciences specialties and disciplines.
Results/Outcome: The result is a new selection guide, now available annually, that will aid health sciences librarians in identifying core titles for local collections.
Evaluation Method: Doody's Core Titles organizes the evaluation of core titles that are identified and recommended by content specialists associated with Doody's Book Review Service and library selectors. A scoring mechanism is used to create the selection of core titles, similar to the star rating system employed in other Doody Enterprise products and services.
PMCID: PMC1324773  PMID: 16404471
5.  Mapping the literature of health care management 
Objectives: The research provides an overview of the health care management literature and the indexing coverage of core journal literature.
Method: Citations from five source journals for the years 2002 through 2004 were studied using the protocols of the Mapping the Literature of Allied Health Project and Mapping the Literature of Nursing Project. The productivity of cited journals was analyzed by applying Bradford's Law of Scattering.
Results: Journals were the most frequently cited format, followed by books. Only 3.2% of the cited journal titles from all 5 source journals generated two-thirds of the cited titles. When only the health care management practitioner–oriented source journals were considered, two-thirds of the output of cited journal titles came from 10.8% of the titles. Science Citation Index and PubMed provided the best overall coverage of the titles cited by all 5 source journals, while the cited titles from the 2 practitioner-oriented journals were covered most completely by Social Sciences Citation Index and Business Source Complete.
Conclusions: Health care management is a multidisciplinary field. Librarians must consider the needs of their users and assist them by providing the necessary materials and combination of indexes to access this field adequately.
PMCID: PMC1852631  PMID: 17443238
6.  What Is eHealth (3): A Systematic Review of Published Definitions 
The term eHealth is widely used by many individuals, academic institutions, professional bodies, and funding organizations. It has become an accepted neologism despite the lack of an agreed-upon clear or precise definition. We believe that communication among the many individuals and organizations that use the term could be improved by comprehensive data about the range of meanings encompassed by the term.
To report the results of a systematic review of published, suggested, or proposed definitions of eHealth.
Data Sources
Using the search query string “eHealth” OR “e-Health” OR “electronic health”, we searched the following databases: Medline and Premedline (1966-June 2004), EMBASE (1980-May 2004), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-May 2004), Web of Science (all years), Information Sciences Abstracts (1966-May 2004), Library Information Sciences Abstracts (1969-May 2004), and Wilson Business Abstracts (1982-March 2004). In addition, we searched dictionaries and an Internet search engine.
Study Selection
We included any source published in either print format or on the Internet, available in English, and containing text that defines or attempts to define eHealth in explicit terms. Two of us independently reviewed titles and abstracts of citations identified in the bibliographic databases and Internet search, reaching consensus on relevance by discussion.
Data Extraction
We retrieved relevant reports, articles, references, letters, and websites containing definitions of eHealth. Two of us qualitatively analyzed the definitions and coded them for content, emerging themes, patterns, and novel ideas.
Data Synthesis
The 51 unique definitions that we retrieved showed a wide range of themes, but no clear consensus about the meaning of the term eHealth. We identified 2 universal themes (health and technology) and 6 less general (commerce, activities, stakeholders, outcomes, place, and perspectives).
The widespread use of the term eHealth suggests that it is an important concept, and that there is a tacit understanding of its meaning. This compendium of proposed definitions may improve communication among the many individuals and organizations that use the term.
PMCID: PMC1550636  PMID: 15829471
eHealth; Internet; medical informatics; systematic review; information services; telemedicine
7.  WHO systematic review of prevalence of chronic pelvic pain: a neglected reproductive health morbidity 
BMC Public Health  2006;6:177.
Health care planning for chronic pelvic pain (CPP), an important cause of morbidity amongst women is hampered due to lack of clear collated summaries of its basic epidemiological data. We systematically reviewed worldwide literature on the prevalence of different types of CPP to assess the geographical distribution of data, and to explore sources of variation in its estimates.
We identified data available from Medline (1966 to 2004), Embase (1980 to 2004), PsycINFO (1887 to 2003), LILACS (1982 to 2004), Science Citation index, CINAHL (January 1980 to 2004) and hand searching of reference lists. Two reviewers extracted data independently, using a piloted form, on participants' characteristics, study quality and rates of CPP. We considered a study to be of high quality (valid) if had at least three of the following features: prospective design, validated measurement tool, adequate sampling method, sample size estimation and response rate >80%. We performed both univariate and multivariate meta-regression analysis to explore heterogeneity of results across studies.
There were 178 studies (459975 participants) in 148 articles. Of these, 106 studies were (124259 participants) on dysmenorrhoea, 54 (35973 participants) on dyspareunia and 18 (301756 participants) on noncyclical pain. There were only 19/95 (20%) less developed and 1/45 (2.2%) least developed countries with relevant data in contrast to 22/43 (51.2%) developed countries. Meta-regression analysis showed that rates of pain varied according to study quality features. There were 40 (22.5%) high quality studies with representative samples. Amongst them, the rate of dysmenorrhoea was 16.8 to 81%, that of dyspareunia was 8 to 21.8%, and that for noncyclical pain was 2.1 to 24%.
There were few valid population based estimates of disease burden due to CPP from less developed countries. The variation in rates of CPP worldwide was due to variable study quality. Where valid data were available, a high disease burden of all types of pelvic pain was found.
PMCID: PMC1550236  PMID: 16824213
8.  The Increasing Use of Theory in Social Gerontology: 1990–2004 
To determine how often theory is used in published research in social gerontology, compare theory use over a 10-year period (1990–1994 to 2000–2004), and identify the theories most frequently used in social gerontology research.
Systematic review of articles published in eight leading journals from 2000 to 2004 (N = 1,046) and comparison with a review conducted 10 years earlier.
Theory was mentioned in 39% of articles published from 2000 to 2004, representing a 12% increase in the use of theory over 10 years. This increase was driven by theories outside the core sociology of aging theories identified by Bengtson, V. L., Burgess, E. O., and Parrott, T. M. (1997). Theory, explanation, and a third generation of theoretical development in social gerontology. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 52B, S72–S88. The five most frequently used theories included the life course perspective, life-span developmental theories, role theory, exchange theory, and person–environment theory/ecological theories of aging. Commonly used models included stress process/stress and coping models, successful aging models, the Andersen behavioral model of health services use, models of control/self-efficacy/mastery, and disablement process models.
Theory use in social gerontology increased between 1990 and 2004, with a shift toward theories that cross disciplines. However, the majority of research in social gerontology continues to be atheoretical. Models are widely used as a supplement to or substitute for theory. Many of these models are currently being debated and elaborated, and over time, they may emerge as important theoretical contributions to social gerontology.
PMCID: PMC2920947  PMID: 20675614
Models; Science of gerontology; Theories of aging
9.  Online medical books: their availability and an assessment of how health sciences libraries provide access on their public Websites 
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the number and topical range of available online medical books and to assess how health sciences libraries were providing access to these resources on their public Websites.
Method: The collection-based evaluative technique of list checking was used to assess the number and topical range of online medical books of the six largest publishers. Publisher inventory lists were downloaded over a two-day period (May 16–17, 2004). Titles were counted and compared with the 2003 Brandon/Hill list. A sample of health sciences libraries was subsequently derived by consulting the 2004 “Top Medical Schools-Research” in U.S. News & World Report. Bibliographic and bibliothecal access methods were evaluated based on an inspection of the publicly available Websites of the sample libraries.
Results: Of 318 currently published online medical books, 151 (47%) were Brandon/Hill titles covering 42 of 59 Brandon/Hill topics (71%). These 151 titles represented 22% (N = 672) of the Brandon/Hill list, which further broke down as 52 minimal core, 41 initial purchase, and 58 other recommended Brandon/Hill titles. These numbers represented 50%, 28%, and 12%, respectively, of all Brandon/Hill titles corresponding to those categories. In terms of bibliographic access, 20 of 21 of sampled libraries created catalog records for their online medical books, 1 of which also provided analytical access at the chapter level, and none provided access at the chapter section level. Of the 21 libraries, 19 had library Website search engines that provided title-level access and 4 provided access at the chapter level and none that at the chapter section level. For bibliothecal access, 19 of 21 libraries provided title-level access to medical books, 8 of which provided classified and alphabetic arrangements, 1 provided a classified arrangement only, and 10 provided an alphabetic arrangement only. No library provided a bibliothecal arrangement for medical book chapters or chapter sections.
Conclusions: This study shows that the number and topical range of online medical books is reaching a point where collection-level consideration is warranted to facilitate efficient use and to prevent the problem of split files. However, the results also show that few efforts are underway on the publicly available Websites of the surveyed health sciences libraries to provide the analytical access necessary to meet the structural needs of clinical information seekers.
PMCID: PMC1324775  PMID: 16404473
10.  Assessing Deaf Cultural Competency of Physicians and Medical Students 
Journal of Cancer Education  2010;26(1):175-182.
The Medical Students, Cancer Control, and the Deaf Community Training program (DCT) intended to create physicians who were culturally competent to care for deaf patients were evaluated. DCT medical students (n = 22), UCSD medical faculty (n = 131), and non-DCT medical students (n = 211) were anonymously surveyed about their perceptions related to deaf patients, deaf cultural competency, and interpreter use. The faculty and non-DCT medical students displayed less knowledge than the DCT students. These findings suggest that training medical students in deaf cultural competency can significantly increase their capacity to care for community members and reduce the health disparities experienced by this community.
PMCID: PMC3041910  PMID: 20652475
Deaf cultural competency; Physicians; Medical students
11.  Application of statistical process control in healthcare improvement: systematic review 
Quality & Safety in Health Care  2007;16(5):387-399.
To systematically review the literature regarding how statistical process control—with control charts as a core tool—has been applied to healthcare quality improvement, and to examine the benefits, limitations, barriers and facilitating factors related to such application.
Data sources
Original articles found in relevant databases, including Web of Science and Medline, covering the period 1966 to June 2004.
Study selection
From 311 articles, 57 empirical studies, published between 1990 and 2004, met the inclusion criteria.
A standardised data abstraction form was used for extracting data relevant to the review questions, and the data were analysed thematically.
Statistical process control was applied in a wide range of settings and specialties, at diverse levels of organisation and directly by patients, using 97 different variables. The review revealed 12 categories of benefits, 6 categories of limitations, 10 categories of barriers, and 23 factors that facilitate its application and all are fully referenced in this report. Statistical process control helped different actors manage change and improve healthcare processes. It also enabled patients with, for example asthma or diabetes mellitus, to manage their own health, and thus has therapeutic qualities. Its power hinges on correct and smart application, which is not necessarily a trivial task. This review catalogues 11 approaches to such smart application, including risk adjustment and data stratification.
Statistical process control is a versatile tool which can help diverse stakeholders to manage change in healthcare and improve patients' health.
PMCID: PMC2464970  PMID: 17913782
12.  Mapping the literature of athletic training 
Purpose: This paper identifies the core literature of athletic training and determines which major databases provide the most thorough intellectual access to this literature.
Methods: This study collected all cited references from 2002 to 2004 of three journals widely read by those in the athletic training field. Bradford's Law of Scattering was applied to the resulting list to determine the core journal titles in the discipline. Three major databases were reviewed for extent of their coverage of these core journals.
Results: Of the total 8,678 citations, one-third referenced a compact group of 6 journals; another third of the citations referenced an additional 40 titles. The remaining 2,837 citations were scattered across 1,034 additional journal titles.
Conclusions: The number and scatter of citations over a three-year period identified forty-six key journals in athletic training. The study results can inform athletic trainers of the core literature in their field, encourage database producers (e.g., MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL) to increase coverage of titles that are not indexed or underindexed, and guide purchasing decisions for libraries serving athletic training programs.
PMCID: PMC1852615  PMID: 17443253
13.  A university system's approach to enhancing the educational mission of health science schools and institutions: the University of Texas Academy of Health Science Education 
Medical Education Online  2013;18:10.3402/meo.v18i0.20540.
The academy movement developed in the United States as an important approach to enhance the educational mission and facilitate the recognition and work of educators at medical schools and health science institutions.
Academies initially formed at individual medical schools. Educators and leaders in The University of Texas System (the UT System, UTS) recognized the academy movement as a means both to address special challenges and pursue opportunities for advancing the educational mission of academic health sciences institutions.
The UTS academy process was started by the appointment of a Chancellor's Health Fellow for Education in 2004. Subsequently, the University of Texas Academy of Health Science Education (UTAHSE) was formed by bringing together esteemed faculty educators from the six UTS health science institutions.
Currently, the UTAHSE has 132 voting members who were selected through a rigorous, system-wide peer review and who represent multiple professional backgrounds and all six campuses. With support from the UTS, the UTAHSE has developed and sustained an annual Innovations in Health Science Education conference, a small grants program and an Innovations in Health Science Education Award, among other UTS health science educational activities. The UTAHSE represents one university system's innovative approach to enhancing its educational mission through multi- and interdisciplinary as well as inter-institutional collaboration.
The UTAHSE is presented as a model for the development of other consortia-type academies that could involve several components of a university system or coalitions of several institutions.
PMCID: PMC3597777  PMID: 23490406
academy; consortium; faculty development; Health Science Education; Innovations Conference
14.  The developing world in The New England Journal of Medicine 
Rampant disease in poor countries impedes development and contributes to growing North-South disparities; however, leading international medical journals underreport on health research priorities for developing countries.
We examined 416 weekly issues of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) over an eight-year period, January 1997 to December 2004. A total of 8857 articles were reviewed by both authors. The content of each issue was evaluated in six categories: research, review articles, editorial, correspondence, book reviews and miscellaneous. If the title or abstract concerned a topic pertinent to any health issue in the developing world, the article was reviewed.
Over the eight years covered in this study, 1997–2004, in the three essential categories of original research articles, review articles and editorials, less than 3.0 percent of these addressed health issues in the developing world. Publications relevant to DC were largely concerned with HIV and communicable diseases and constituted 135 of the 202 articles of which 63 were devoted to HIV. Only 23 articles addressed non-communicable disease in the DC and only a single article – a book review – discussed heart disease.
The medical information gap between rich and poor countries as judged by publications in the NEJM appears to be larger than the gap in the funding for research. Under-representation of developing world health issues in the medical literature is a global phenomenon. International medical journals cannot rectify global inequities, but they have an important role in educating their constituencies about the global divide.
PMCID: PMC1459140  PMID: 16542448
15.  Ordering folate assays is no longer justified for investigation of anemias, in folic acid fortified countries 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:22.
Since 1998, in the countries where there is mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid, folate deficiency has become very rare. Consequently, we decided to find out whether there is any justification for ordering folate assays for investigation of anemias.
We reviewed serum folate (SF) and red cell folate (RF) data at two teaching hospitals in Canada. At the Health Sciences Centre (HSC) the folate data for the year 2001 were analyzed and the medical records of those with low SF or low RF were reviewed. At St. Boniface General Hospital(SBGH)all folate data between January 1996 and Dec 31,2004 were analyzed and the medical records of all who had low RF between January 1,1999 and December 31,2004 were reviewed.
In 2001, at HSC, 11 out of 2154(0.5%)SF were low(<7.0 nmol/L) and 4 out of 560 (0.7%) RF were low (<417 nmol/L). In no subject with low SF or RF could the anemia be attributed to folate deficiency. At SBGH during the 3-year-period of 1999-2001, 19 out of 991(1.9%) had low RF (<225 nmol/L) but in only 2 patients (0.2%) the low RF was in folate deficiency anemia range; but neither of them had anemia.
In countries where there is mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid, folate deficiency to the degree that could cause anemia is extremely rare. Ordering folate assays for investigation of anemias, in these countries, is waste of time and money. The result of these tests is more likely to mislead the physicians than to provide any useful information.
PMCID: PMC2843732  PMID: 20181007
16.  Roles of DctA and DctB in Signal Detection by the Dicarboxylic Acid Transport System of Rhizobium leguminosarum 
Journal of Bacteriology  1998;180(10):2660-2669.
The dctA gene, coding for the dicarboxylate transport protein, has an inducible promoter dependent on activation by the two-component sensor-regulator pair DctB and DctD. LacZ fusion analysis indicates that there is a single promoter for dctB and dctD. The dctA promoter is also induced by nitrogen limitation, an effect that requires DctB-DctD and NtrC. DctB alone is able to detect dicarboxylates in the absence of DctA and initiate transcription via DctD. However, DctA modifies signal detection by DctB such that in the absence of DctA, the ligand specificity of DctB is broader. dctAp also responds to heterologous induction by osmotic stress in the absence of DctA. This effect requires both DctB and DctD. A transposon insertion in the dctA-dctB intergenic region (dctA101) which locks transcription of dctA at a constitutive level independent of DctB-DctD results in improper signalling by DctB-DctD. Strain RU150, which carries this insertion, is defective in nitrogen fixation (Fix−) and grows very poorly on ammonia as a nitrogen source whenever the DctB-DctD signalling circuit is activated by the presence of a dicarboxylate ligand. Mutation of dctB or dctD in strain RU150 reinstates normal growth on dicarboxylates. This suggests that DctD-P improperly regulates a heterologous nitrogen-sensing operon. Increased expression of DctA, either via a plasmid or by chromosomal duplication, restores control of DctB-DctD and allows strain RU150 to grow on ammonia in the presence of a dicarboxylate. Thus, while DctB is a sensor for dicarboxylates in its own right, it is regulated by DctA. The absence of DctA allows DctB and DctD to become promiscuous with regard to signal detection and cross talk with other operons. This indicates that DctA contributes significantly to the signalling specificity of DctB-DctD and attenuates cross talk with other operons.
PMCID: PMC107217  PMID: 9573150
17.  Tailored Internal Communication Strategies for the Life Science Shared Resource 
In the life-science laboratory management setting, there is a constant need to address the question, “what can make us better?” Although there are many variables that can be examined, a review of internal-communication practices can identify areas of opportunity. People in a shared-resource management position have a number of levels of communication responsibilities: communication with the organization's highest-level administration, with individual core facilities, with the users of the shared resource, with peers in academia and industry, and with direct reports. The description and application of internal-communication strategies in the life-science research setting, tailored from the internal strategies originally described by Downs & Adrian in Assessing Organizational Communication (2004), are presented along with ideas for approaches fostering innovation.
PMCID: PMC3635327
18.  “Brimful of STARLITE”: toward standards for reporting literature searches 
Context: Systematic reviews of qualitative research studies extend understanding of health care beyond effectiveness to acceptability and user views.
Objective: The paper surveys reports of qualitative systematic reviews and, by characterizing techniques used to identify articles for inclusion, proposes standards for reporting of literature searches.
Data Sources and Study Selection: A search of MEDLINE was performed for qualitative systematic reviews published from 1988 to December 2004, supported by searches of CINAHL, Web of Knowledge (including the Science and Social Sciences Citation Index), and the Cochrane Methodology Register, and Internet searches using the Copernic Agent Professional meta-search agent. Studies were included if they used techniques of qualitative synthesis in reviewing research studies in health care. Narrative reviews were excluded.
Data Extraction: Authors, year of publication, sampling strategy, databases, keywords, and other approaches used were extracted.
Data Synthesis: Sixty-four studies were identified, and forty-three met inclusion criteria for this review. A summary of searching methods was produced and used to construct the STARLITE mnemonic (sampling strategy, type of study, approaches, range of years, limits, inclusion and exclusions, terms used, electronic sources).
Conclusions: Considerable variation exists in search methods for qualitative systematic reviews. While diversity in methods is appropriate during the development of review methodology, major concerns remain about the absence of an accepted standard and the consequent poor quality of reporting.
PMCID: PMC1629442  PMID: 17082834
19.  Compassion and Vigilance: Investigators' Strategies To Manage Ethical Concerns in Palliative and End-of-Life Research 
Journal of Palliative Medicine  2012;15(8):880-889.
Ethical concerns were identified as a potential barrier to advancing palliative and end-of-life science at the 2004 National Institutes of Health State of the Science Meeting. However, data are lacking about the nature of ethical concerns and strategies for balancing the need to advance science with human subjects protections.
A qualitative case-study design was used to follow 43 end-of-life studies from proposal development through the review process and implementation. Investigators participated in semi-structured telephone interviews and provided document data regarding their experiences with grant and IRB reviews. Using constant comparative analysis within and across cases, the investigators identified commonly encountered and unique concerns and strategies for managing these concerns.
Investigator strategies fell into two broad categories: 1) Recruitment and consent strategies related to subject identification and enrollment; and 2) Protocol-related strategies related to the process of data collection. These strategies shared the overarching meta-themes of compassion, as evidenced by a heightened sensitivity to the needs of the population, coupled with vigilance, as evidenced by close attention to the possible effects of study participation on the participants' well-being, clinical care, and the needs of research staff.
Ethical concerns have led to the development of compassionate and vigilant strategies designed to balance the potential for risk of harm with the need to advance the science of palliative and end-of-life care. These strategies can be used by investigators to address ethical concerns and minimize barriers to the development of palliative and end-of-life care science.
PMCID: PMC3396150  PMID: 22731516
20.  Time to endoscopy and outcomes in upper gastrointestinal bleeding 
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies show that immediate endoscopies do not affect outcomes in patients; however, endoscopic interventions have evolved. The present retrospective review of endoscopies performed at a large teaching hospital assessed the timing of endoscopy with respect to the morbidity and mortality of UGIB.
Diagnostic billing codes were used to assess all inpatients of gastroenterologists at the University Hospital of the London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, from July 2004 to June 2006, using a centralized data recording system. Time to endoscopy (within 6 h, 6 h to 24 h and beyond 24 h) were compared for the outcomes of mortality, need for surgery and transfusion requirements.
From July 2004 to June 2006, there were 502 upper endoscopies performed for the indication of suspected UGIB and 375 for overt acute nonvariceal UGIB. Approximately 10% of cases revealed variceal bleeding. When comparing endoscopy within 6 h with endoscopy at 6 h to 24 h, there were no significant differences in mortality, need for surgery (OR 3.6 and 2.8, respectively, compared with endoscopy beyond 24 h) or transfusion requirements. Even when assessing the group that received endoscopic hemostasis, time to endoscopy was not associated with better outcomes. Multivariate analysis did not demonstrate any advantages for early endoscopy (less than 6 h) compared with endoscopy within 24 h.
Most patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding can be effectively managed with endoscopy within 24 h.
PMCID: PMC2722469  PMID: 19623332
Endoscopy; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Gastroscopy; Peptic ulcer hemorrhage
21.  catena-Poly[[bis­(dimethyl­ammonium) [cadmate(II)-bis­(μ-1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl-3,3′′-dicarboxyl­ato)]] dimethyl­formamide disolvate] 
In the title compound, {(C2H8N)2[Cd(C20H12O4)2]·2C3H7NO}n, the CdII ion lies on a twofold rotation axis and is in a distorted octa­hedral CdO6 environment, defined by four O atoms of two μ2-coordinated 1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl-3,3′′-dicarboxyl­ate (DCT) ligands and two O atoms of two μ1-coordinated DCT ligands. Both types of DCT ligands act as bridging, forming a one-dimensional polymeric structure propagating parallel to [10].
PMCID: PMC3050304  PMID: 21522589
22.  Information needs of rural health professionals: a retrospective use study. 
To explore the information needs of rural health professionals, a retrospective study was undertaken of 1,224 document delivery requests made during the course of three outreach projects in west and central Illinois. The 547 unique journals from which the articles were requested were analyzed for frequency of request, subject content, and inclusion on core lists. These rural health professionals were found to request current information on a wide range of topics in clinical medicine, nursing, health administration, allied health, social sciences, and basic sciences. While 10% of the titles filled 37% of the requests, 58% of the titles were requested once and filled 26% of the requests. A high correlation with Abridged Index Medicus and Brandon/Hill list titles was found, but titles from either of these lists could fill no more than 30% of the total requests. Besides demonstrating the complex information needs of rural health professionals and depicting the difficulty of building a collection to support them, the study exemplifies a method for need-based journal collection development and begins to identify titles commonly requested in a rural health setting.
PMCID: PMC226290  PMID: 9431422
23.  The Structure of Medical Informatics Journal Literature 
Abstract Objective: Medical informatics is an emergent interdisciplinary field described as drawing upon and contributing to both the health sciences and information sciences. The authors elucidate the disciplinary nature and internal structure of the field.
Design: To better understand the field's disciplinary nature, the authors examine the intercitation relationships of its journal literature. To determine its internal structure, they examined its journal cocitation patterns.
Measurements: The authors used data from the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) to perform intercitation studies among productive journal titles, and software routines from SPSS to perform multivariate data analyses on cocitation data for proposed core journals.
Results: Intercitation network analysis suggests that a core literature exists, one mark of a separate discipline. Multivariate analyses of cocitation data suggest that major focus areas within the field include biomedical engineering, biomedical computing, decision support, and education. The interpretable dimensions of multidimensional scaling maps differed for the SCI and SSCI data sets. Strong links to information science literature were not found.
Conclusion: The authors saw indications of a core literature and of several major research fronts. The field appears to be viewed differently by authors writing in journals indexed by SCI from those writing in journals indexed by SSCI, with more emphasis placed on computers and engineering versus decision making by the former and more emphasis on theory versus application (clinical practice) by the latter.
PMCID: PMC61326  PMID: 9760393
24.  Design and Update of a Classification System: The UCSD Map of Science 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e39464.
Global maps of science can be used as a reference system to chart career trajectories, the location of emerging research frontiers, or the expertise profiles of institutes or nations. This paper details data preparation, analysis, and layout performed when designing and subsequently updating the UCSD map of science and classification system. The original classification and map use 7.2 million papers and their references from Elsevier’s Scopus (about 15,000 source titles, 2001–2005) and Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science (WoS) Science, Social Science, Arts & Humanities Citation Indexes (about 9,000 source titles, 2001–2004)–about 16,000 unique source titles. The updated map and classification adds six years (2005–2010) of WoS data and three years (2006–2008) from Scopus to the existing category structure–increasing the number of source titles to about 25,000. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a widely used map of science was updated. A comparison of the original 5-year and the new 10-year maps and classification system show (i) an increase in the total number of journals that can be mapped by 9,409 journals (social sciences had a 80% increase, humanities a 119% increase, medical (32%) and natural science (74%)), (ii) a simplification of the map by assigning all but five highly interdisciplinary journals to exactly one discipline, (iii) a more even distribution of journals over the 554 subdisciplines and 13 disciplines when calculating the coefficient of variation, and (iv) a better reflection of journal clusters when compared with paper-level citation data. When evaluating the map with a listing of desirable features for maps of science, the updated map is shown to have higher mapping accuracy, easier understandability as fewer journals are multiply classified, and higher usability for the generation of data overlays, among others.
PMCID: PMC3395643  PMID: 22808037
25.  Quantity, Design, and Scope of the Palliative Oncology Literature 
The Oncologist  2011;16(5):694-703.
The quantity, research design, and research topics of palliative oncology publications in the first 6 months of 2004 and 2009 were reviewed, and significant deficiencies were identified.
The current state of the palliative oncology literature is unclear. We examined and compared the quantity, research design, and research topics of palliative oncology publications in the first 6 months of 2004 with the first 6 months of 2009. We systematically searched MEDLINE, PsychInfo, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL for original studies, review articles, and systematic reviews related to “palliative care” and “cancer” during the first 6 months of 2004 and 2009. Two physicians reviewed the literature independently and coded the study characteristics with high inter-rater reliability. We found a consistent decrease in the proportion of oncology studies related to palliative care between 2004 and 2009, despite an absolute increase in the total number of palliative oncology studies. Combining the two time periods, the most common original study designs were case report/series, cross-sectional studies, and qualitative studies. Randomized controlled trials comprised 6% of all original studies. The most common topics were physical symptoms, health services research, and psychosocial issues. Communication, decision making, spirituality, education, and research methodologies all represented <5% of the literature. Comparing 2004 with 2009, we found an increase in the proportion of original studies among all palliative oncology publications but no significant difference in study design or research topic. We identified significant deficiencies in the quantity, design, and scope of the palliative oncology literature. Further effort and resources are necessary to improve the evidence base for this important field.
PMCID: PMC3228194  PMID: 21471275
Literature; Neoplasms; Palliative care; Research design

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