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1.  Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research 
Background
Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership.
Methods
With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system.
Results
In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership.
Conclusion
The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-4-17
PMCID: PMC2670256  PMID: 19335915
2.  The CITRA Pilot Studies Program: Mentoring Translational Research 
The Gerontologist  2007;47(6):845-850.
Purpose
We developed an innovative pilot studies program to foster partnerships between university researchers and agencies serving older people in New York City. The development of researchers willing to collaborate with frontline service agencies and service agencies ready to partner with researchers is critical for translating scientific research into evidence-based practice that benefits community-dwelling older adults.
Design and Methods
We adapted the traditional academic pilot studies model to include key features of community-based participatory research.
Results
In partnership with a network of 265 senior centers and service agencies, we built a multistep program to recruit and educate scientific investigators and agencies in the principles of community-based research and to fund research partnerships that fulfilled essential elements of research translation from university to community: scientific rigor, sensitivity to community needs, and applicability to frontline practice. We also developed an educational and monitoring infrastructure to support projects.
Implications
Pilot studies programs developing community-based participatory research require an infrastructure that can supplement individual pilot investigator efforts with centralized resources to ensure proper implementation and dissemination of the research. The financial and time investment required to maintain programs such as those at the Cornell Institute for Translational Research on Aging, or CITRA, may be a barrier to establishing similar programs.
PMCID: PMC3981742  PMID: 18192638
Community-based participatory research; Investigator development; Research to practice
3.  Research-policy partnerships - experiences of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia 
Background
Partnerships are increasingly common in conducting research. However, there is little published evidence about processes in research-policy partnerships in different contexts. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing experiences of research-policy partnerships between Ministries of Health and research organisations for the implementation of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia.
Methods
A conceptual framework for understanding and assessing research-policy partnerships was developed and guided this study. The data collection methods for this qualitative study included semi-structured interviews with Ministry of Health Partners (MOHPs) and Research Partners (RPs) in each country.
Results
The term partnership was perceived by the partners as a collaboration involving mutually-agreed goals and objectives. The principles of trust, openness, equality and mutual respect were identified as constituting the core of partnerships. The MOHPs and RPs had clearly defined roles, with the MOHPs largely providing political support and RPs leading the research agenda. Different influences affected partnerships. At the individual level, personal relationships and ability to compromise within partnerships were seen as important. At the organisational level, the main influences included the degree of formalisation of roles and responsibilities and the internal structures and procedures affecting decision-making. At the contextual level, political environment and the degree of health system decentralisation affected partnerships.
Conclusions
Several lessons can be learned from these experiences. Taking account of influences on the partnership at individual, organisation and contextual/system levels can increase its effectiveness. A common understanding of mutually-agreed goals and objectives of the partnership is essential. It is important to give attention to the processes of initiating and maintaining partnerships, based on clear roles, responsibilities and commitment of parties at different levels. Although partnerships are often established for a specific purpose, such as carrying out a particular project, the effects of partnership go beyond a particular initiative.
doi:10.1186/1478-4505-10-30
PMCID: PMC3542094  PMID: 22978604
Partnership; Mental health; Africa; Research-policy; Ministry of health
4.  A Community-Researcher Alliance to Improve Chronic Wound Care 
Healthcare Policy  2007;2(4):72-78.
A partnership between health services researchers from Queen’s University and the University of Ottawa, a community nursing agency and a home care authority in Ottawa led to major improvements in the quality of care for people with leg ulcers. The synthesis of both external and local evidence played a key role in the adoption of an evidence-based protocol and provided the critical context to support a significant reorganization of the existing service delivery model. This case demonstrates that, with a collaborative partnership approach, systematic and transparent research processes can be rapidly developed to support policy change.
PMCID: PMC2585464  PMID: 19305734
5.  A qualitative exploration of alternative strategies for building community health partnerships: Collaboration-versus issue-oriented approaches 
Broad-based community partnerships are seen as an effective way of addressing many community, health issues, but the partnership approach has had relatively limited success in producing measurable improvements in long-term health outcomes. One potential reason, among many, for this lack of success is a mismatch between the goals of the partnership, and its structure/membership. This article reports on an exploratory, empirical analysis relating the structure of partnerships to the types of issues they address. A qualitative analysis of 34 “successful” community health partnerships, produced two relatively clear patterns relating partnership goals to structurel membership: (1) “collaboration-oriented” partnerships that included substantial resident involvement and focused on broader determinants of health with interventions aimed at producing immediate, concrete community improvements; and (2) “issueoriented” partnerships that focused on a single, typically health-related issue with multilevel interventions that included a focus on higher-level systems and policy change. Issue-oriented partnerships tended to have larger organizations governing the partnership with resident input obtained in other ways. The implication of these results, if confirmed by further research, is that funders and organizers of community health partnerships may need to pay closer attention to the alignment between, the membership/structure of a community partnership and its goals particularly with respect to the involvement of community residents.
doi:10.1093/jurban/jti120
PMCID: PMC3456682  PMID: 16207934
Collaboration; Community health partnerships; Community-based health promotion; Resident involvement
6.  Prevention of non-communicable diseases in Pakistan: an integrated partnership-based model 
Development and implementation of non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention polices in the developing countries is a multidimensional challenge. This article highlights the evolution of a strategic approach in Pakistan. The model is evidence-based and encompasses a concerted and integrated approach to NCDs. It has been modelled to impact a set of indicators through the combination of a range of actions capitalizing on the strengths of a public-private partnership. The paper highlights the merits and limitations of this approach. The experience outlines a number of clear imperatives for fostering an enabling environment for integrated NCD prevention public health models, which involve roles played by a range of stakeholders. It also highlights the value that such partnership arrangements bring in facilitating the mission and mandates of ministries of health, international agencies with global health mandates, and the non-profit private sector. The experience is of relevance to developing countries that have NCD programs running and those that need to develop them. It provides an empirical basis for enhancing the performance of the health system by fostering partnerships within integrated evidence-based models and permits an analysis of health systems models built on shared responsibility for the purpose of providing sustainable health outcomes.
doi:10.1186/1478-4505-2-7
PMCID: PMC520824  PMID: 15363112
7.  Partnerships to Address Obesity Disparities in Hawai`i: The PILI `Ohana Project 
Hawaii medical journal  2008;67(9):237-241.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to scientific research that is gaining broader application to address persistent problems in health care disparities and other hypothesis-driven research. However, information on how to form CBPR community-academic partnerships and how to best involve community partners in scientific research is not well-defined. The purpose of this paper is to share the experience of the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Interventions (PILI) `Ohana Project in forming a co-equal CBPR community-academic partnership that involved 5 different community partners in a scientific research study to address obesity disparities in Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Peoples (i.e., Samoans, Chuukese, and Filipinos). Specifically, the paper discusses 1) the formation of our community-academic partnership including identification of the research topic; 2) the development of the CBPR infrastructure to foster a sustainable co-equal research environment; and 3) the collaboration in designing a community-based and community-led intervention. The paper concludes with a brief summary of the authors' thoughts about CBPR partnerships from both the academic and community perspectives.
PMCID: PMC2585997  PMID: 18853898
8.  Developing a Community-Academic Partnership to Improve Recognition and Treatment of Depression in Underserved African American and White Elders 
Objective
Reducing mental health disparities among underserved populations, particularly African American elders, is an important public health priority. The authors describe the process and challenges of developing a community/academic research partnership to address these disparities.
Methods
The authors are using a Community-Based Participatory Research approach to gain access to underserved populations in need of depression treatment. The authors identify six stages: 1) Collaborating to Secure Funding; 2) Building a Communications Platform and Research Infrastructure; 3) Fostering Enduring Relationships; 4) Assessing Needs/Educating about Research Process; 5) Initiating Specific Collaborative Projects (meeting mutual needs/interests); and 6) Maintaining a Sustainable and Productive Partnership. Data from a needs assessment developed collaboratively by researchers and community agencies facilitated agreement on mutual research goals, while strengthening the partnership.
Results
A community/academic-based partnership with a solid research infrastructure has been established and maintained for 3 years. Using the results of a needs assessment, the working partnership prioritized and launched several projects. Through interviews and questionnaires, community partners identified best practices for researchers working in the community. Future research and interventional projects have been developed, including plans for sustainability that will eventually shift more responsibility from the academic institution to the community agencies.
Conclusions
To reach underserved populations by developing and implementing models of more effective mental health treatment, it is vital to engage community agencies offering services to this population. A successful partnership requires “cultural humility,” collaborative efforts, and the development of flexible protocols to accommodate diverse communities.
doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e31818f3a7e
PMCID: PMC3044484  PMID: 20104053
Community partnerships; depression; community-based participatory research
9.  Opportunities to Meet Challenges in Rural Prevention Research 
Various rural prevention research challenges have been articulated through a series of sessions convened since the mid 1990s by the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Salient in this articulation was the need for effective collaboration among rural practitioners and scientists, with special consideration of accommodating the diversity of rural areas and surmounting barriers to implementation of evidence-based interventions. This paper summarizes the range of challenges in rural prevention research and describes an evolving community-university partnership model addressing them. The model entails involvement of public school staff and other rural community stakeholders, linked with scientists by Land Grant University-based Extension system staff. Examples of findings from over 16 years of partnership-based intervention research projects include those on engagement of rural residents, quality implementation of evidence-based interventions, and long-term community-level outcomes, as well as factors in effectiveness of the partnerships. Findings suggest a future focus on building capacity for practitioner-scientist collaboration and developing a network for more widespread implementation of the partnership model in a manner informed by lessons learned from partnership-based research to date.
doi:10.1111/j.1748-0361.2007.00123.x
PMCID: PMC2848441  PMID: 18237324
10.  Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) Network: First-Person Accounts in a Community-University Partnership 
Community research and action projects undertaken by community-university partnerships can lead to contextually appropriate and sustainable community improvements in rural and urban localities. However, effective implementation is challenging and prone to failure when poorly executed. The current paper seeks to inform rural community-university partnership practice through consideration of first-person accounts from five stakeholders in the Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) Network. The REACH Network is a unique community-university partnership aimed at improving rural health services by identifying, implementing, and evaluating innovative health interventions delivered by local caregivers. The first-person accounts provide an insider’s perspective on the nature of collaboration. The unique perspectives identify three critical challenges facing the REACH Network: trust, coordination, and sustainability. Through consideration of the challenges, we identified several strategies for success. We hope readers can learn their own lessons when considering the details of our partnership’s efforts to improve the delivery infrastructure for rural healthcare.
doi:10.1007/s10464-012-9515-9
PMCID: PMC3437235  PMID: 22547002
Community-Based Participatory Research; Community-University Partnerships; Collaboration; Rural Health Care; Rural Elderly; Health Education; Prevention
11.  Health information generation and utilization for informed decision-making in equitable health service management: The case of Kenya Partnership for Health program 
Context
The Kenya Partnership for Health (KPH) program began in 1999, and is currently one of the 12 field projects participating in the WHO's 'Towards Unity for Health initiative' implemented to develop partnership synergies in support of the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach [1].
Content
This paper illustrates how Program-linked Information Management by Integrative-participatory Research Approach (PIMIRA) as practised under KPH has been implemented within Trans-Nzoia District, Kenya to enhance community-based health initiatives. It shows how this model is strategically being scaled-up from one community to another in the management of political, social, cultural and economic determinants (barriers and enhancers) of health.
Objective
Target rural communities in the development of a community-based health information management and feedback initiatives that can provide insights on the social, cultural, political and economic determinants of health for utilization in informed health service management.
Key Findings and Achievements
1. Cues for health seeking and health service utilization are determined by the social, cultural, political and economic factors as seen by the individual and as defined by the community but not due to the pathological nature of the illness.
2. Establishment of community-based health surveillance and health action initiatives as the best practices in transferring health as a resource that can be 'owned and guarded' by the community.
3. Establishment of Healthy Villages Initiative (HVI) through which health service delivery and scale-up can be sustained at the community level.
4. Provision of actionable health information necessary for health planning and evaluation of preventive health programs thorough PIMIRA.
Conclusion
It has been realized that for every one person who visits a health facility for medication, there are nine others who had the same condition but sought health care from other sources including self-medication and five others who never sought health care. Innovative means of involving the community in health information management and utilization such as PIMIRA are hence the best ways of guaranteeing equitable delivery of health services that are accessible and sustainable by the community.
doi:10.1186/1475-9276-4-8
PMCID: PMC1183232  PMID: 15978130
built-in health information management; communities' health needs; service-linked data; social; cultural; political and economic determinants of health; community-based health information management; community-based health surveillance; health seeking behaviour; Healthy Villages Initiative
12.  Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach 
Emerging Health Threats Journal  2013;6:10.3402/ehtj.v6i0.19957.
The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR.
doi:10.3402/ehtj.v6i0.19957
PMCID: PMC3557956  PMID: 23362419
APEIR; pandemic preparedness; multi-country; multi-sectoral; multi-disciplinary; trust-based research network; emerging infectious disease; policy
13.  The NIHR collaboration for leadership in applied health research and care (CLAHRC) for greater manchester: combining empirical, theoretical and experiential evidence to design and evaluate a large-scale implementation strategy 
Background
In response to policy recommendations, nine National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) were established in England in 2008, aiming to create closer working between the health service and higher education and narrow the gap between research and its implementation in practice. The Greater Manchester (GM) CLAHRC is a partnership between the University of Manchester and twenty National Health Service (NHS) trusts, with a five-year mission to improve healthcare and reduce health inequalities for people with cardiovascular conditions. This paper outlines the GM CLAHRC approach to designing and evaluating a large-scale, evidence- and theory-informed, context-sensitive implementation programme.
Discussion
The paper makes a case for embedding evaluation within the design of the implementation strategy. Empirical, theoretical, and experiential evidence relating to implementation science and methods has been synthesised to formulate eight core principles of the GM CLAHRC implementation strategy, recognising the multi-faceted nature of evidence, the complexity of the implementation process, and the corresponding need to apply approaches that are situationally relevant, responsive, flexible, and collaborative. In turn, these core principles inform the selection of four interrelated building blocks upon which the GM CLAHRC approach to implementation is founded. These determine the organizational processes, structures, and roles utilised by specific GM CLAHRC implementation projects, as well as the approach to researching implementation, and comprise: the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework; a modified version of the Model for Improvement; multiprofessional teams with designated roles to lead, facilitate, and support the implementation process; and embedded evaluation and learning.
Summary
Designing and evaluating a large-scale implementation strategy that can cope with and respond to the local complexities of implementing research evidence into practice is itself complex and challenging. We present an argument for adopting an integrative, co-production approach to planning and evaluating the implementation of research into practice, drawing on an eclectic range of evidence sources.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-6-96
PMCID: PMC3170237  PMID: 21861886
14.  Connecting Community With Campus to Address Cancer Health Disparities: A Community Grants Program Model 
Background
With growing interest in the CBPR approach to cancer health disparities research, mechanisms are needed to support adherence to its principles. The Carolina Community Network (CCN), 1 of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), developed a model for providing funds to community-based organizations.
Objectives
This paper presents the rationale and structure of a Community Grants Program (CGP) model, describes the steps taken to implement the program, and discusses the lessons learned and recommendations for using the grants model for CBPR.
Methods
Three types of projects—cancer education, implementation of an evidence-based intervention, and the development of community–academic research partnerships—could be supported by a community grant. The CGP consists of four phases: Pre-award, peer-review process, post-award, and project implementation.
Results
The CGP serves as a catalyst for developing and maintaining community–academic partnerships through its incorporation of CBPR principles.
Conclusions
Providing small grants to community-based organizations can identify organizations to serve as community research partners, fostering the CBPR approach in the development of community–academic partnerships by sharing resources and building capacity.
doi:10.1353/cpr.2011.0027
PMCID: PMC3612535  PMID: 21623024
NCI’s Community Networks Program; cancer health disparities; community-based participatory research; community–academic research partnerships; microgrants
15.  Partnership Selection and Formation: A Case Study of Developing Adolescent Health Community-Researcher Partnerships in 15 U.S. Communities 
Purpose
This study describes the partner selection process in 15 U.S. communities developing community-researcher partnerships for the Connect to Protect® (C2P): Partnerships for Youth Prevention Interventions, an initiative of the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions.
Methods
Each site generated an epidemiological profile of urban youth in their community, selected a focus population and geographic area of youth at risk for HIV, conducted a series of successive structured interviews, and engaged in a process of relationship-building efforts culminating in a collaborative network of community agencies.
Results
Sites chose as their primary target population young women who have sex with men (n=8 sites), young men who have sex with men (n=6), and intravenous drug users (n=1). Of 1,162 agencies initially interviewed, 281 of 335 approached (84%) agreed to join the partnership (average 19/site). A diverse array of community agencies were represented in the final collaborative network; specific characteristics included: 93% served the sites' target population, 54% were predominantly youth-oriented, 59% were located in the geographical area of focus, and 39% reported provision of HIV/STI prevention services. Relationship-building activities, development of collaborative relationships, and lessons learned, including barriers and facilitators to partnership, are also described.
Conclusions
Study findings address a major gap in the community partner research literature. Health researchers and policy makers need an effective partner selection framework whereby community-researcher partnerships can develop a solid foundation to address public health concerns.
doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.11.136
PMCID: PMC1950847  PMID: 17531754
Collaboration; Coalition; Community Involvement; Partnership Selection; Community Researcher Partnership; Neighborhood Collaboratives
16.  Promoting Environmental Health Policy Through Community Based Participatory Research: A Case Study from Harlem, New York 
Journal of Urban Health   2006;83(1):101-110.
Community–academic partnerships have demonstrated potential for studying and improving community and environmental health, but only recently have their policy impacts been systematically studied. This case study highlights the evolution, research, and policy processes and outcomes of a community based participatory research (CBPR) partnership that has had multilevel impacts on health policy concerning diesel bus emissions and related environmental justice issues. The partnership between West Harlem Environmental ACTion, Inc. (WE ACT) and the Columbia University Center for Children’s Environmental Health was explored using a multimethod case study approach. The conversion of New York City’s bus fleet to clean diesel and the installation by the EPA of permanent air monitors in Harlem and other “hot spots” were among the outcomes for which the partnership’s research and policy work was given substantial credit. Lessons for other urban community–academic partnerships interested in using CBPR to promote healthy public policy are discussed.
doi:10.1007/s11524-005-9010-9
PMCID: PMC2258322  PMID: 16736358
Community based participatory research; Community partnerships; Environmental justice
17.  Aligning research to meet policy objectives for migrant families: an example from Canada 
Background
'Evidence-based policy making' for immigrants is a complicated undertaking. In striving toward this goal, federal Canadian partners created the Metropolis Project in 1995 to optimize a two-way transfer of knowledge (researchers – policy makers) within five Canadian Centres of Excellence focused on migrants newly arrived in Canada. Most recently, Metropolis federal partners, including the Public Health Agency of Canada, defined one of six research priority areas as, immigrant 'families, children, and youth'. In order to build on previous work in the partnership, we sought to determine what has been studied within this research-policy partnership about immigrant 'families, children, and youth' since its inception.
Methods
Annual reports and working papers produced in the five Centres of Excellence between 1996–2006 were culled. Data on academic works were extracted, results coded according to eleven stated federal policy priority themes, and analyzed descriptively.
Results
139 academic works were reviewed. All federal priority themes, but few specific policy questions were addressed. The greatest volume of policy relevant works were identified for Services (n = 42) and Education and Cultural Identity (n = 39) priority themes.
Conclusion
Research conducted within the last 10 years is available to inform certain, not all, federal policy questions. Greater specificity in federal priorities can be expected to more clearly direct future research within this policy-research partnership.
doi:10.1186/1478-4505-7-15
PMCID: PMC2711941  PMID: 19515260
18.  Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships 
Background
While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery.
Methods
Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively.
Results
Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically challenging aspects, these informants considered that with flexibility of data collection to account for the preferences of Aboriginal members, then the method was appropriate in cross-cultural contexts for the difficult discussions that are needed to improve partnerships.
Conclusion
Critical reflection showed that the preconditions for difficult discussions are, first, that partners have the capacity to engage in such discussions, second, that partners assess whether the effort required for these discussions is balanced by the benefits they gain from the partnership, and, third, that “boundary spanning” staff can facilitate commitment to partnership goals.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-152
PMCID: PMC3472193  PMID: 22682504
19.  Community Size as a Factor in Health Partnerships in Community Parks and Recreation, 2007 
Introduction
Although partnerships between park and recreation agencies and health agencies are prevalent, little research has examined partnership characteristics and effectiveness among communities of different sizes. The objective of this study was to determine whether park and recreation leaders’ perceptions of partnership characteristics, effectiveness, and outcomes vary by community size.
Methods
A web-based survey was completed in 2007 by 1,217 National Recreation and Park Association members. Community size was divided into 4 categories: very small, small, medium, and large. Questions measured agencies’ recognition of the need for partnerships, their level of experience, and the effectiveness and outcomes of partnerships.
Results
Larger communities were significantly more likely to recognize the need for and have more experience with partnerships than smaller communities. Very small and large communities partnered significantly more often with senior services, nonprofit health promotion agencies, and public health agencies than did small and medium ones. Large and small communities were significantly more likely than very small and medium communities to agree that their decision making in partnerships is inclusive and that they have clearly defined goals and objectives. Large communities were significantly more likely than very small communities to report that their partnership helped leverage resources, make policy changes, meet their mission statement, and link to funding opportunities.
Conclusion
Community size shapes partnership practices, effectiveness, and outcomes. Very small communities are disadvantaged in developing and managing health partnerships. Increasing education, training, and funding opportunities for small and rural park and recreation agencies may enable them to more effectively partner with organizations to address community health concerns.
doi:10.5888/pcd10.120238
PMCID: PMC3725847  PMID: 23886043
20.  Building a Community-Academic Partnership: Implementing a Community-Based Trial of Telephone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Rural Latinos 
Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking) primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities.
doi:10.1155/2012/257858
PMCID: PMC3459258  PMID: 23050133
21.  The East Side Village Health Worker Partnership: integrating research with action to reduce health disparities. 
Public Health Reports  2001;116(6):548-557.
This article describes the work of the East Side Village Health Worker Partnership as a case study of an initiative that seeks to reduce the disproportionate health risks experienced by residents of Detroit's east side. The Partnership is a community-based participatory research and intervention collaboration among academia, public health practitioners, and the east side Detroit community. The Partnership is guided by a steering committee that is actively involved in all aspects of the research, intervention, and dissemination process, made up of representatives of five community-based organizations, residents of Detroit's east side, the local health department, a managed care provider, and an academic institution. The major goal of the East Side Village Health Worker Partnership is to address the social determinants of health on Detroit's east side, using a lay health advisor intervention approach. Data collected from 1996 to 2001 are used here to describe improvements in research methods, practice activities, and community relationships that emerged through this academic-practice-community linkage.
PMCID: PMC1497386  PMID: 12196614
22.  A Policy-into-Practice Intervention to Increase the Uptake of Evidence-Based Management of Low Back Pain in Primary Care: A Prospective Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e38037.
Background
Persistent non-specific low back pain (nsLBP) is poorly understood by the general community, by educators, researchers and health professionals, making effective care problematic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a policy-into-practice intervention developed for primary care physicians (PCPs).
Methods
To encourage PCPs to adopt practical evidence-based approaches and facilitate time-efficient, integrated management of patients with nsLBP, we developed an interdisciplinary evidence-based, practical pain education program (gPEP) based on a contemporary biopsychosocial framework. One hundred and twenty six PCPs from primary care settings in Western Australia were recruited. PCPs participated in a 6.5-hour gPEP. Self-report measures recorded at baseline and at 2 months post-intervention included PCPs' attitudes, beliefs (modified Health Care Providers Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), evidence-based clinical practices (knowledge and skills regarding nsLBP management: 5-point Likert scale with 1 =  nil and 5 =  excellent) and practice behaviours (recommendations based on a patient vignette; 5-point Likert scale).
Results
Ninety one PCPs participated (attendance rate of 72%; post-intervention response rate 88%). PCP-responders adopted more positive, guideline-consistent beliefs, evidenced by clinically significant HC-PAIRS score differences (mean change  = −5.6±8.2, p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: −7.6 to −3.6) and significant positive shifts on all measures of clinical knowledge and skills (p<0.0001 for all questions). Self management strategies were recommended more frequently post-intervention. The majority of responders who were guideline-inconsistent for work and bed rest recommendations (82% and 62% respectively) at pre-intervention, gave guideline-consistent responses at post-intervention.
Conclusion
An interprofessional pain education program set within a framework that aligns health policy and practice, encourages PCPs to adopt more self-reported evidence-based attitudes, beliefs and clinical behaviours in their management of patients with nsLBP. However, further research is required to determine cost effectiveness of this approach when compared with other modes of educational delivery and to examine PCP behaviours in actual clinical practice.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038037
PMCID: PMC3360643  PMID: 22662264
23.  Adapting Evidence-based Mental Health Treatments in Community Settings: Preliminary Results from a Partnership Approach 
Behavior modification  2008;33(1):82-103.
This paper describes the application of a university-community partnership model to the problem of adapting evidence-based treatment approaches in a community mental health setting. Background on partnership research is presented, with consideration of methodological and practical issues related to this kind of research. Then, a rationale for using partnerships as a basis for conducting mental health treatment research is presented. Finally, an ongoing partnership research project concerned with the adaptation of evidence-based mental health treatments for childhood internalizing problems in community settings is presented, with preliminary results of the ongoing effort discussed.
doi:10.1177/0145445508322624
PMCID: PMC2674398  PMID: 18697917
effectiveness research; partnership research; children’s mental health; evidence-based treatments
24.  Connect to Protect® Researcher-Community Partnerships: Assessing Change in Successful Collaboration Factors over Time 
Fifteen research sites within the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions launched Connect to Protect community coalitions in urban areas across the United States and in Puerto Rico. Each coalition has the same overarching goal: Reducing local youth HIV rates by changing community structural elements such as programs, policies, and practices. These types of transformations can take significant amounts of time to achieve; thus, ongoing successful collaboration among coalition members is critical for success. As a first step toward building their coalitions, staff from each research site invited an initial group of community partners to take part in Connect to Protect activities. In this paper, we focus on these researcher-community partnerships and assess change in collaboration factors over the first year. Respondents completed the Wilder Collaboration Factors Inventory at five time points, approximately once every two to three months. Results across all fifteen coalitions show significant and positive shifts in ratings of process/structure (p<.05). This suggests that during the first year they worked together, Connect to Protect researcher-community partners strengthened their group infrastructures and operating procedures. The findings shed light on how collaboration factors evolve during coalition formation and highlight the need for future research to examine change throughout subsequent coalition phases.
PMCID: PMC2998234  PMID: 21152354
coalition formation; researcher-community partnerships; successful collaboration factors; youth HIV prevention; structural change
25.  Partnerships Among Canadian Agencies Serving Women with Substance Abuse Issues and Their Children 
Women with substance use issues and their children have unique needs that are best met through collaborative and coordinated service delivery offered by a variety of agencies. However, in Canada and elsewhere, services tend to be fragmented and fail to address children’s needs. This study aimed to describe the partnership patterns, activities, and qualities among Canadian agencies serving women with addictions and to determine predictors of partnerships. We found that a number of partnerships exist, and that the extent and characteristics of these partnerships vary. Agency responsiveness to clients was predictive of sending referrals whereas friendliness predicted joint programming and consultation. Four central agencies played key linkage roles. Efforts should be made to build on the social capital inherent in these agencies to strengthen existing networks, further develop linkages to improve service delivery, and promote evidence-informed practice in a field where there is an identified research-practice gap.
doi:10.1007/s11469-012-9418-x
PMCID: PMC3663195  PMID: 23710160
Substance abuse; Women; Agency partnerships; Service collaboration; Social network analysis

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