Background and Objective
Saliva has been proposed as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid that could be used in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. The levels of salivary biomarkers such as cytokines could potentially be used as a surrogate to distinguish periodontally healthy from periodontitis subjects. Therefore, the goal of the present investigation was to determine if the levels of 10 cytokines in saliva would differ between a group of periodontally healthy and periodontitis subjects. Correlations between the concentration of these 10 cytokines and clinical parameters of periodontal disease were also examined.
Material and Methods
In this cross-sectional study, 74 chronic periodontitis and 44 periodontally healthy individuals were periodontally examined and had the levels of GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α measured in whole saliva using a multiplexed bead immunoassay (Luminex). Significance of statistical differences in the levels of salivary cytokines between groups was determined using non-parametric ANCOVA adjusting for age and smoking status. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to explore associations between mean levels of salivary cytokines and mean clinical parameters.
There were no statistically significant differences between groups for any of the cytokines. There were weak statistically significant positive associations between salivary IL-8 and PD (rs=0.2, p<0.05) and BOP (rs=0.2, p<0.05) and weak negative correlations between salivary IL-10 and AL (rs=−0.2, p<0.05) and BOP (rs=−0.3, p<0.001).
Mean salivary levels of GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α could not discriminate between periodontal health and disease.