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1.  Acute-phase serum amyloid A production by rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue 
Arthritis Research  2000;2(2):142-144.
Acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) is a major component of the acute-phase response. A sustained acute-phase response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased joint damage. A-SAA mRNA expression was confirmed in all samples obtained from patients with RA, but not in normal synovium. A-SAA mRNA expression was also demonstrated in cultured RA synoviocytes. A-SAA protein was identified in the supernatants of primary synoviocyte cultures, and its expression colocalized with sites of macrophage accumulation and with some vascular endothelial cells. It is concluded that A-SAA is produced by inflamed RA synovial tissue. The known association between the acute-phase response and progressive joint damage may be the direct result of synovial A-SAA-induced effects on cartilage degradation.
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is the circulating precursor of amyloid A protein, the fibrillar component of amyloid deposits. In humans, four SAA genes have been described. Two genes (SAA1 and SAA2) encode A-SAA and are coordinately induced in response to inflammation. SAA1 and SAA2 are 95% homologous in both coding and noncoding regions. SAA3 is a pseudogene. SAA4 encodes constitutive SAA and is minimally inducible. A-SAA increases dramatically during acute inflammation and may reach levels that are 1000-fold greater than normal. A-SAA is mainly synthesized in the liver, but extrahepatic production has been demonstrated in many species, including humans. A-SAA mRNA is expressed in RA synoviocytes and in monocyte/macrophage cell lines such as THP-1 cells, in endothelial cells and in smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic lesions. A-SAA has also been localized to a wide range of histologically normal tissues, including breast, stomach, intestine, pancreas, kidney, lung, tonsil, thyroid, pituitary, placenta, skin and brain.
To identify the cell types that produce A-SAA mRNA and protein, and their location in RA synovium.
Materials and methods:
Rheumatoid synovial tissue was obtained from eight patients undergoing arthroscopic biopsy and at joint replacement surgery. Total RNA was analyzed by reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for A-SAA mRNA. PCR products generated were confirmed by Southern blot analysis using human A-SAA cDNA. Localization of A-SAA production was examined by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit antihuman A-SAA polyclonal antibody. PrimaryRA synoviocytes were cultured to examine endogenous A-SAA mRNA expression and protein production.
A-SAA mRNA expression was detected using RT-PCR in all eight synovial tissue samples studied. Figure 1 demonstrates RT-PCR products generated using synovial tissue from three representative RA patients. Analysis of RA synovial tissue revealed differences in A-SAA mRNA levels between individual RA patients.
In order to identify the cells that expressed A-SAA mRNA in RA synovial tissue, we analyzed primary human synoviocytes (n = 2). RT-PCR analysis revealed A-SAA mRNA expression in primary RA synoviocytes (n = 2; Fig. 2). The endogenous A-SAA mRNA levels detected in individual primary RA synoviocytes varied between patients. These findings are consistent with A-SAA expression in RA synovial tissue (Fig. 1). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) levels were relatively similar in the RA synoviocytes examined (Fig. 2). A-SAA protein in the supernatants of primary synoviocyte cultures from four RA patients was measured using ELISA. Mean values of a control and four RA samples were 77.85, 162.5, 249.8, 321.5 and 339.04 μg/l A-SAA, respectively, confirming the production of A-SAA protein by the primary RA synoviocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to localize sites of A-SAA production in RA synovial tissue. Positive staining was present in both the lining and sublining layers of all eight RA tissues examined (Fig. 3a). Staining was intense and most prominent in the cells closest to the surface of the synovial lining layer. Positively stained cells were evident in the perivascular areas of the sublining layer. In serial sections stained with anti-CD68 monoclonal antibody, positive staining of macrophages appeared to colocalize with A-SAA-positive cells (Fig. 3b). Immunohistochemical studies of cultured primary RA synoviocytes confirmed specific cytoplasmic A-SAA expression in these cells. The specificity of the staining was confirmed by the absence of staining found on serial sections and synoviocyte cells treated with IgG (Fig. 3c).
This study demonstrates that A-SAA mRNA is expressed in several cell populations infiltrating RA synovial tissue. A-SAA mRNA expression was observed in all eight unseparated RA tissue samples studied. A-SAA mRNA expression and protein production was demonstrated in primary cultures of purified RA synoviocytes. Using immunohistochemical techniques, A-SAA protein appeared to colocalize with both lining layer and sublining layer synoviocytes, macrophages and some endothelial cells. The detection of A-SAA protein in culture media supernatants harvested from unstimulated synoviocytes confirms endogenous A-SAA production, and is consistent with A-SAA mRNA expression and translation by the same cells. Moreover, the demonstration of A-SAA protein in RA synovial tissue, RA cultured synoviocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells is consistent with previous studies that demonstrated A-SAA production by a variety of human cell populations.
The RA synovial lining layer is composed of activated macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The macrophage is the predominant cell type and it has been shown to accumulate preferentially in the surface of the lining layer and in the perivascular areas of the sublining layer. Nevertheless, our observations strongly suggest that A-SAA is produced not only by synoviocytes, but also by synovial tissue macrophage populations. Local A-SAA protein production by vascular endothelial cells was detected in some, but not all, of the tissues examined. The reason for the variability in vascular A-SAA staining is unknown, but may be due to differences in endothelial cell activation, events related to angiogenesis or the intensity of local inflammation.
The value of measuring serum A-SAA levels as a reliable surrogate marker of inflammation has been demonstrated for several diseases including RA, juvenile chronic arthritis, psoriatic arthropathy, ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet's disease, reactive arthritis and Crohn's disease. It has been suggested that serum A-SAA levels may represent the most sensitive measurement of the acute-phase reaction. In RA, A-SAA levels provide the strongest correlations with clinical measurements of disease activity, and changes in serum levels best reflect the clinical course.
A number of biologic activities have been described for A-SAA, including several that are relevant to the understanding of inflammatory and tissue-degrading mechanisms in human arthritis. A-SAA induces migration, adhesion and tissue infiltration of circulating monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In addition, human A-SAA can induce interleukin-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and soluble type II tumour necrosis factor receptor production by a monocyte cell line. Moreover, A-SAA can stimulate the production of cartilage-degrading proteases by both human and rabbit synoviocytes. The effects of A-SAA on protease production are interesting, because in RA a sustained acute-phase reaction has been strongly associated with progressive joint damage. The known association between the acute-phase response and progressive joint damage may be the direct result of synovial A-SAA-induced effects on cartilage degradation.
In contrast to noninflamed synovium, A-SAA mRNA expression was identified in all RA tissues examined. A-SAA appeared to be produced by synovial tissue synoviocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells. The observation of A-SAA mRNA expression in cultured RA synoviocytes and human RA synovial tissue confirms and extends recently published findings that demonstrated A-SAA mRNA expression in stimulated RA synoviocytes, but not in unstimulated RA synoviocytes.
PMCID: PMC17807  PMID: 11062604
acute-phase response; rheumatoid arthritis; serum amyloid A; synovial tissue
2.  A novel pathogenic role of the ER chaperone GRP78/BiP in rheumatoid arthritis 
The ER chaperone GRP78/BiP is crucial for the development of rheumatoid arthritis.
An accumulation of misfolded proteins can trigger a cellular survival response in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we found that ER stress–associated gene signatures were highly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviums and synovial cells. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-1β, increased the expression of GRP78/BiP, a representative ER chaperone, in RA synoviocytes. RA synoviocytes expressed higher levels of GRP78 than osteoarthritis (OA) synoviocytes when stimulated by thapsigargin or proinflammatory cytokines. Down-regulation of Grp78 transcripts increased the apoptosis of RA synoviocytes while abolishing TNF- or TGF-β–induced synoviocyte proliferation and cyclin D1 up-regulation. Conversely, overexpression of the Grp78 gene prevented synoviocyte apoptosis. Moreover, Grp78 small interfering RNA inhibited VEGF165-induced angiogenesis in vitro and also significantly impeded synoviocyte proliferation and angiogenesis in Matrigel implants engrafted into immunodeficient mice. Additionally, repeated intraarticular injections of BiP-inducible factor X, a selective GRP78 inducer, increased synoviocyte proliferation and angiogenesis in the joints of mice with experimental OA. In contrast, mice with Grp78 haploinsufficiency exhibited the suppression of experimentally induced arthritis and developed a limited degree of synovial proliferation and angiogenesis. In summary, this study shows that the ER chaperone GRP78 is crucial for synoviocyte proliferation and angiogenesis, the pathological hallmark of RA.
PMCID: PMC3328363  PMID: 22430489
3.  Ionic currents in intimal cultured synoviocytes from the rabbit 
Hyaluronan, a joint lubricant and regulator of synovial fluid content, is secreted by fibroblast-like synoviocytes lining the joint cavity, and secretion is greatly stimulated by Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C. This study aimed to define synoviocyte membrane currents and channels that may influence synoviocyte Ca2+ dynamics. Resting membrane potential ranged from −30 mV to −66 mV (mean −45 ± 8.60 mV, n = 40). Input resistance ranged from 0.54 GΩ to 2.6 GΩ (mean 1.28 ± 0.57 GΩ; ν = 33). Cell capacitance averaged 97.97 ± 5.93 pF. Voltage clamp using Cs+ pipette solution yielded a transient inward current that disappeared in Ca2+-free solutions and was blocked by 1 μM nifedipine, indicating an L-type calcium current. The current was increased fourfold by the calcium channel activator FPL 64176 (300 nM). Using K+ pipette solution, depolarizing steps positive to −40 mV evoked an outward current that showed kinetics and voltage dependence of activation and inactivation typical of the delayed rectifier potassium current. This was blocked by the nonspecific delayed rectifier blocker 4-aminopyridine. The synoviocytes expressed mRNA for four Kv1 subtypes (Kv1.1, Kv1.4, Kv1.5, and Kv1.6). Correolide (1 μM), margatoxin (100 nM), and α-dendrotoxin block these Kv1 subtypes, and all of these drugs significantly reduced synoviocyte outward current. The current was blocked most effectively by 50 nM κ-dendrotoxin, which is specific for channels containing a Kv1.1 subunit, indicating that Kv1.1 is critical, either as a homomultimeric channel or as a component of a heteromultimeric Kv1 channel. When 50 nM κ-dendrotoxin was added to current-clamped synoviocytes, the cells depolarized by >20 mV and this was accompanied by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Similarly, depolarization of the cells with high external potassium solution caused an increase in intracellular calcium, and this effect was greatly reduced by 1 μM nifedipine. In conclusion, fibroblast-like synoviocytes cultured from the inner synovium of the rabbit exhibit voltage-dependent inward and outward currents, including Ca2+ currents. They thus express ion channels regulating membrane Ca2+ permeability and electrochemical gradient. Since Ca2+-dependent kinases are major regulators of synovial hyaluronan secretion, the synoviocyte ion channels are likely to be important in the regulation of hyaluronan secretion.
PMCID: PMC2980311  PMID: 20720182
L-type calcium; synovium
4.  Potential role and mechanism of IFN-gamma inducible protein-10 on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2011;13(3):R104.
IFN-gamma inducible protein-10 (CXCL10), a member of the CXC chemokine family, and its receptor CXCR3 contribute to the recruitment of T cells from the blood stream into the inflamed joints and have a crucial role in perpetuating inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial joints. Recently we showed the role of CXCL10 on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression in an animal model of RA and suggested the contribution to osteoclastogenesis. We tested the effects of CXCL10 on the expression of RANKL in RA synoviocytes and T cells, and we investigated which subunit of CXCR3 contributes to RANKL expression by CXCL10.
Synoviocytes derived from RA patients were kept in culture for 24 hours in the presence or absence of TNF-α. CXCL10 expression was measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of cultured synoviocytes. Expression of RANKL was measured by RT-PCR and western blot in cultured synoviocytes with or without CXCL10 and also measured in Jurkat/Hut 78 T cells and CD4+ T cells in the presence of CXCL10 or dexamethasone. CXCL10 induced RANKL expression in Jurkat T cells was tested upon the pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi subunit of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR). The synthetic siRNA for Gαi2 was used to knock down gene expression of respective proteins.
CXCL10 expression in RA synoviocytes was increased by TNF-α. CXCL10 slightly increased RANKL expression in RA synoviocytes, but markedly increased RANKL expression in Jurkat/Hut 78 T cell or CD4+ T cell. CXCL10 augmented the expression of RANKL by 62.6%, and PTX inhibited both basal level of RANKL (from 37.4 ± 16.0 to 18.9 ± 13.0%) and CXCL10-induced RANKL expression in Jurkat T cells (from 100% to 48.6 ± 27.3%). Knock down of Gαi2 by siRNA transfection, which suppressed the basal level of RANKL (from 61.8 ± 17.9% to 31.1 ± 15.9%) and CXCL10-induced RANKL expression (from 100% to 53.1 ± 27.1%) in Jurkat T cells, is consistent with PTX, which inhibited RANKL expression.
CXCL10 increased RANKL expression in CD4+ T cells and it was mediated by Gαi subunits of CXCR3. These results indicate that CXCL10 may have a potential role in osteoclastogenesis of RA synovial tissue and subsequent joint erosion.
PMCID: PMC3218919  PMID: 21708014
5.  Plasma and synovial fluid microRNAs as potential biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis 
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous small noncoding RNAs regulating the activities of target mRNAs and cellular processes, are present in human plasma in a stable form. In this study, we investigated whether miRNAs are also stably present in synovial fluids and whether plasma and synovial fluid miRNAs could be biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA).
We measured concentrations of miR-16, miR-132, miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-223 in synovial fluid from patients with RA and OA, and those in plasma from RA, OA and healthy controls (HCs) by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, miRNAs in the conditioned medium of synovial tissues, monolayer fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and mononuclear cells were examined. Correlations between miRNAs and biomarkers or disease activities of RA were statistically examined.
Synovial fluid miRNAs were present and as stable as plasma miRNAs for storage at -20°C and freeze-thawing from -20°C to 4°C. In RA and OA, synovial fluid concentrations of miR-16, miR-132, miR-146a, and miR-223 were significantly lower than their plasma concentrations, and there were no correlation between plasma and synovial fluid miRNAs. Interestingly, synovial tissues, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and mononuclear cells secreted miRNAs in distinct patterns. The expression patterns of miRNAs in synovial fluid of OA were similar to miRNAs secreted by synovial tissues. Synovial fluid miRNAs of RA were likely to originate from synovial tissues and infiltrating cells. Plasma miR-132 of HC was significantly higher than that of RA or OA with high diagnosability. Synovial fluid concentrations of miR-16, miR-146a miR-155 and miR-223 of RA were significantly higher than those of OA. Plasma miRNAs or ratio of synovial fluid miRNAs to plasma miRNAs, including miR-16 and miR-146a, significantly correlated with tender joint counts and 28-joint Disease Activity Score.
Plasma miRNAs had distinct patterns from synovial fluid miRNAs, which appeared to originate from synovial tissue. Plasma miR-132 well differentiated HCs from patients with RA or OA, while synovial fluid miRNAs differentiated RA and OA. Furthermore, plasma miRNAs correlated with the disease activities of RA. Thus, synovial fluid and plasma miRNAs have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for RA and OA and as a tool for the analysis of their pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2911870  PMID: 20470394
6.  NFAT5 is a critical regulator of inflammatory arthritis 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2011;63(7):10.1002/art.30229.
To investigate the role of nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), which is known as an osmoprotective transcription factor, in synovial hyperplasia and angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Expression of NFAT5 was examined in the synovial tissues and synoviocytes of RA patients using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, respectively. The mRNAs of RA synoviocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) transfected with dummy siRNA or NFAT5 siRNA were profiled using microarray technology. Assays to determine synoviocyte apoptosis and proliferation were performed in the presence of NFAT5 siRNA.VEGF165-induced angiogenesis was assessed by measuring the proliferation, tube formation, and wounding migration of HUVEC. Experimental arthritis was induced in mice by injection of anti-type II collagen antibody.
NFAT5 was highly expressed in the rheumatoid synovium and its activity was increased by proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and TNF-α. The mRNA profiling of synoviocytes and HUVEC transfected with NFAT5-targeted siRNA revealed three major changes in cellular processes associated with the pathogenesis of RA: cell cycle and survival, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Consistent with these results, NFAT5 knock-down in RA synoviocytes and HUVEC inhibited their proliferation/survival and impeded angiogenic processes in HUVEC. Mice with NFAT5 haplo-insufficiency (NFAT5+/-) developed very limited degree of synovial proliferation in histological analysis, decreased angiogenesis, and exhibited a nearly complete suppression of experimentally induced arthritis.
NFAT5 regulates synovial proliferation and angiogenesis in chronic arthritis.
PMCID: PMC3084342  PMID: 21717420
NFAT5; synoviocytes proliferation; angiogenesis; rheumatoid arthritis
7.  Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 expression in rheumatoid synovial tissues. Effects of interleukin-1 beta, phorbol ester, and corticosteroids. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1994;93(3):1095-1101.
High levels of immunoreactive cyclooxygenase (Cox; prostaglandin H synthase) are present in synovia from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We now show that the recently identified inducible isoform of Cox, Cox-2, is expressed in synovia from patients with RA. To further explore modulation of the Cox isoforms in RA synovial tissues, we examined the expression and modulation of Cox-1 and -2 in rheumatoid synovial explant cultures and cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblast-like cells (synoviocytes). Immunoprecipitation of in vitro labeled proteins and Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of both Cox-1 and -2 under basal conditions in freshly explanted rheumatoid synovial tissues. De novo synthesis of Cox-2 polypeptide was enhanced by IL-1 beta or PMA, and dramatically suppressed by dexamethasone (dex). Cox-1 expression, under the same conditions, showed only minor variation. Since mRNA for Cox-2 is highly unstable, we examined the regulation of Cox-2 transcripts in cultured rheumatoid synoviocytes. Under basal conditions both Cox-1 and -2 mRNAs were present at low levels, but Cox-2 mRNA was markedly increased by treatment with IL-1 beta or PMA. dex markedly suppressed the induction of Cox-2 mRNA. In sharp contrast, Cox-1 transcripts were not modulated by IL-1 beta or dex. These data suggest that modulation of Cox-2 expression by IL-1 beta and corticosteroids may be an important component of the inflammatory process in synovial tissues from patients with RA.
PMCID: PMC294048  PMID: 8132748
8.  High mobility group box 1 potentiates the pro-inflammatory effects of interleukin-1β in osteoarthritic synoviocytes 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2010;12(4):R165.
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is released by necrotic cells or secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli. Extracellular HMGB1 may act as a pro-inflammatory cytokine in rheumatoid arthritis. We have recently reported that HMGB1 is released by osteoarthritic synoviocytes after activation with interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) The present study investigated the role of HMGB1 in synovial inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA).
HMGB1 was determined in human synovium using immunohistochemistry, comparing normal to OA. OA synoviocytes were incubated with HMGB1 at 15 or 25 ng/ml in the absence or presence of IL-1β (10 ng/ml). Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative PCR and protein expression by Western Blot and ELISA. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was studied by fluorometric procedures and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by transient transfection with a NF-κB-luciferase plasmid.
In the normal synovium, HMGB1 was found in the synovial lining cells, sublining cells, and in the vascular wall cells. The distribution of HMGB1 in OA synovium was similar but the number of HMGB1 positive cells was higher and HMGB1 was also present in infiltrated cells. In normal synovial membrane cells, HMGB1 was found mostly in the nuclei, whereas in OA, HMGB1 was generally found mostly in the cytoplasm. In OA synoviocytes, HMGB1 alone at concentrations of 15 or 25 ng/ml did not affect the production of IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL20, MMP-1 or MMP-3, but in the presence of IL-1β, a significant potentiation of protein and mRNA expression, as well as MMP activity was observed. HMGB1 also enhanced the phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 levels, with a lower effect on phosphorylated Akt. In contrast, JNK1/2 phosphorylation was not affected. In addition, HMGB1 at 25 ng/ml significantly potentiated NF-κB activation in the presence of IL-1β.
Our results indicate that HMGB1 is overexpressed in OA synovium and mostly present in extracellular form. In OA synoviocytes, HMGB1 cooperates with IL-1β to amplify the inflammatory response leading to the production of a number of cytokines, chemokines and MMPs. Our data support a pro-inflammatory role for this protein contributing to synovitis and articular destruction in OA.
PMCID: PMC2945068  PMID: 20799933
9.  CD147 overexpression on synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis enhances matrix metalloproteinase production and invasiveness of synoviocytes 
Macrophage-like synoviocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are known as the most active cells of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are close to the articular cartilage in a position enabling them to invade the cartilage. Macrophage-like synoviocytes and FLS expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their interaction has aroused great interest. The present article studied the expression of CD147, also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, on monocytes/macrophages and FLS from RA patients and its potential role in enhancing MMPs and the invasiveness of synoviocytes. Expression of CD147 on FLS derived from RA patients and from osteoarthritis patients, and expression of CD147 on monocytes/macrophages from rheumatic synovial fluid and healthy peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. The levels of CD147, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA in FLS were detected by RT-PCR. The role of CD147 in MMP production and the cells' invasiveness in vitro were studied by the co-culture of FLS with the human THP-1 cell line or monocytes/macrophages, by gel zymography and by invasion assay. The results showed that the expression of CD147 was higher on RA FLS than on osteoarthritis FLS and was higher on monocytes/macrophages from rheumatic synovial fluid than on monocytes/macrophages from healthy peripheral blood. RT-PCR showed that the expressions of CD147, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA was higher in RA FLS than in osteoarthritis FLS. A significantly elevated secretion and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were observed in RA FLS co-cultured with differentiated THP-1 cells or RA synovial monocytes/macrophages, compared with those co-cultured with undifferentiated THP-1 cells or healthy control peripheral blood monocytes. Invasion assays showed an increased number of invading cells in the co-cultured RA FLS with differentiated THP-1 cells or RA synovial monocytes/macrophages. CD147 antagonistic peptide inhibited the MMP production and the invasive potential. Our studies demonstrated that the CD147 overexpression on monocytes/macrophages and FLS in RA patients may be responsible for the enhanced MMP secretion and activation and for the invasiveness of synoviocytes. These findings suggest that CD147 may be one of the important factors in progressive joint destruction of RA and that CD147 may be a potential therapeutic target in RA treatment.
PMCID: PMC1526600  PMID: 16507143
10.  CP690,550 inhibits oncostatin M-induced JAK/STAT signaling pathway in rheumatoid synoviocytes 
Interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines exert their effects through activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling cascade. The JAK/STAT pathways play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis, since JAK inhibitors have exhibited dramatic effects on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical trials. In this study, we investigated the molecular effects of a small molecule JAK inhibitor, CP690,550 on the JAK/STAT signaling pathways and examined the role of JAK kinases in rheumatoid synovitis.
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were isolated from RA patients and stimulated with recombinant oncostatin M (OSM). The cellular supernatants were analyzed using cytokine protein chips. IL-6 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by real-time PCR method and ELISA, respectively. Protein phosphorylation of rheumatoid synoviocytes was assessed by Western blot using phospho-specific antibodies.
OSM was found to be a potent inducer of IL-6 in FLS. OSM stimulation elicited rapid phosphorylation of STATs suggesting activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in FLS. CP690,550 pretreatment completely abrogated the OSM-induced production of IL-6, as well as OSM-induced JAK/STAT, and activation of mitogen-activated kinases (MAPKs) in FLS.
These findings suggest that IL-6-type cytokines contribute to rheumatoid synovitis through activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in rheumatoid synoviocytes. Inhibition of these pro-inflammatory signaling pathways by CP690,550 could be important in the treatment of RA.
PMCID: PMC3218881  PMID: 21548952
11.  Synoviocyte innate responses: II. Pivotal role of interferon regulatory factor 3 
Innate immune responses likely contribute to synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Of the innate receptors implicated in RA, TLR3 activates several signaling cascades, including -interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF), resulting in production of viral-stress IFN-inducible genes. The present study was designed to investigate the contributions of IRF3 and IRF7 to the type I IFN response as well as the expression of other cytokines, chemokines, and degradative enzymes in synoviocytes.
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were stimulated with poly (I-C) after transfection with IRF3 or IRF7 siRNA to knockdown transcription factor expression. Western blots, luciferase assay after transfection with reporter constructs, Q-PCR, and AP-1 DNA binding ELISA was performed to evaluate the role of IRF3 and IRF7 in poly (I-C)-induced signaling and synoviocyte gene expression.
IRF3 and IRF7 knockdown showed that IRF3 regulates IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activity as well as IFNβ, IRF5, IRF7, RANTES, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIP1α gene expression in response to poly (I-C). IRF7 knockdown modestly decreased a subset of genes and ISRE activity, although the results were not significant. Surprisingly, IRF3 knockdown almost completely blocked expression of additional genes in which the ISRE is not traditionally considered a dominant promoter site in FLS, including MMP3, MMP9, IL-6 and IL-8. We then investigated a possible role for IRF3 in c-Jun activation and AP-1 binding because its promoter site is present in all four of the non-IFN regulated genes. IRF3 deficiency significantly decreased AP-1 binding of activated c-Jun compared with control.
In contrast to immune cells, IRF3 rather than IRF7 regulates TLR3-mediated type I IFN responses in human synoviocytes. IRF3 activates IFN-response gene expression by increasing ISRE promoter activity. In addition, IRF3 regulates other cytokines, chemokines, and MMPs through a novel mechanism that involves c-Jun and the AP-1 promoter site. Because the signaling pathway modulated by IRF3 plays a crucial role in synoviocytes, targeting IRF3 represents a potential approach to suppress diverse mediators while limiting suppression of IRF7-mediated immune responses.
PMCID: PMC2913682  PMID: 20483755
Rheumatoid arthritis; signal transduction; transcription factors; interferon
12.  c-Jun N-terminal kinase is required for metalloproteinase expression and joint destruction in inflammatory arthritis 
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are involved in inflammation and tissue destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In particular, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is highly activated in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes and synovium. However, defining the precise function of this kinase has been difficult because a selective JNK inhibitor has not been available. We now report the use of a novel selective JNK inhibitor and JNK knockout mice to determine the function of JNK in synoviocyte biology and inflammatory arthritis. The novel JNK inhibitor SP600125 (anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one) completely blocked IL-1–induced accumulation of phospho-Jun and induction of c-Jun transcription in synoviocytes. Furthermore, AP-1 binding and collagenase mRNA accumulation were completely suppressed by SP600125. In contrast, complete inhibition of p38 had no effect, and ERK inhibition had only a modest effect. The essential role of JNK was confirmed in cultured synoviocytes from JNK1 knockout mice and JNK2 knockout mice, each of which had a partial defect in IL-1–induced AP-1 activation and collagenase-3 expression. Administration of SP600125 modestly decreased the rat paw swelling in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. More striking was the near-complete inhibition of radiographic damage that was associated with decreased AP-1 activity and collagenase-3 gene expression. Therefore, JNK is a critical MAPK pathway for IL-1–induced collagenase gene expression in synoviocytes and in joint arthritis, indicating that JNK is an important therapeutic target for RA.
PMCID: PMC209341  PMID: 11435459
13.  Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) enhances functional thermal and chemical responses of TRP cation channels in human synoviocytes 
Molecular Pain  2009;5:49.
We have shown functional expression of several TRP channels on human synovial cells, proposing significance in known calcium dependent proliferative and secretory responses in joint inflammation. The present study further characterizes synoviocyte TRP expression and activation responses to thermal and osmotic stimuli after pre-treatment with proinflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, EC50 1.3221 × 10-10g/L).
Fluorescent imaging of Fura-2 loaded human SW982 synoviocytes reveals immediate and delayed cytosolic calcium oscillations elicited by (1) TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (20 – 40% of cells), (2) moderate and noxious temperature change, and (3) osmotic stress TRPV4 activation (11.5% of cells). TNF-alpha pre-treatment (1 ng/ml, 8 – 16 hr) significantly increases (doubles) capsaicin responsive cell numbers and [Ca2+]i spike frequency, as well as enhances average amplitude of temperature induced [Ca2+]i responses. With TNF-alpha pre-treatment for 8, 12, and 16 hr, activation with 36 or 45 degree bath solution induces bimodal [Ca2+]i increase (temperature controlled chamber). Initial temperature induced rapid transient spikes and subsequent slower rise reflect TRPV1 and TRPV4 channel activation, respectively. Only after prolonged TNF-alpha exposure (12 and 16 hr) is recruitment of synoviocytes observed with sensitized TRPV4 responses to hypoosmolarity (3–4 fold increase). TNF-alpha increases TRPV1 (8 hr peak) and TRPV4 (12 hr peak) immunostaining, mRNA and protein expression, with a TRPV1 shift to membrane fractions.
TNF-α provides differentially enhanced synoviocyte TRPV1 and TRPV4 expression and [Ca2+]i response dependent on the TRP stimulus and time after exposure. Augmented relevance of TRPV1 and TRPV4 as inflammatory conditions persist would provide calcium mediated cell signaling required for pathophysiological responses of synoviocytes in inflammatory pain states.
PMCID: PMC3152771  PMID: 19695100
14.  Activation of the STAT1 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2004;63(3):233-239.
Background: Expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), the mediator of interferon (IFN) signalling, is raised in synovial tissue (ST) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Objectives: To determine the extent to which this pathway is activated by phosphorylation in RA synovium. Additionally, to investigate the cellular basis of STAT1 activation in RA ST.
Methods: ST specimens from 12 patients with RA and 14 disease controls (patients with osteoarthritis and reactive arthritis) were analysed by immunohistochemistry, using antibodies to STAT1, tyrosine phosphorylated STAT1, and serine phosphorylated STAT1. Lysates of cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes stimulated with IFNß were analysed by western blotting. Phenotypic characterisation of cells expressing STAT1 in RA ST was performed by double immunolabelling for STAT1 and CD3, CD22, CD55, or CD68.
Results: Raised levels of total STAT1 protein and both its activated tyrosine and serine phosphorylated forms were seen in RA synovium as compared with controls. STAT1 was predominantly abundant in T and B lymphocytes in focal inflammatory infiltrates and in fibroblast-like synoviocytes in the intimal lining layer. Raised levels of STAT1 are sustained in cultured RA compared with OA fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and STAT1 serine and tyrosine phosphorylation is rapidly induced upon stimulation with IFNß.
Conclusion: These results demonstrate activation of the STAT1 pathway in RA synovium by raised STAT1 protein expression and concomitantly increased tyrosine (701) and serine (727) phosphorylation. High expression of STAT1 is intrinsic to RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes in the intimal lining layer, whereas activation of the pathway by phosphorylation is an active process.
PMCID: PMC1754903  PMID: 14962955
15.  Transition of healthy to diseased synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with gain of mesenchymal/fibrotic characteristics 
The healthy synovial lining layer consists of a single cell layer that regulates the transport between the joint cavity and the surrounding tissue. It has been suggested that abnormalities such as somatic mutations in the p53 tumor-suppressor gene contribute to synovial hyperplasia and invasion in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, expression of epithelial markers on healthy and diseased synovial lining tissue was examined. In addition, we investigated whether a regulated process, resembling epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)/fibrosis, could be responsible for the altered phenotype of the synovial lining layer in RA. Synovial tissue from healthy subjects and RA patients was obtained during arthroscopy. To detect signs of EMT, expression of E-cadherin (epithelial marker), collagen type IV (indicator of the presence of a basement membrane) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-sma; a myofibroblast marker) was investigated on frozen tissue sections using immunohistochemistry. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from healthy subjects were isolated and subjected to stimulation with synovial fluid (SF) from two RA patients and to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. To detect whether EMT/fibrotic markers were increased, expression of collagen type I, α-sma and telopeptide lysylhydroxylase (TLH) was measured by real time PCR. Expression of E-cadherin and collagen type IV was found in healthy and arthritic synovial tissue. Expression of α-sma was only found in the synovial lining layer of RA patients. Stimulation of healthy FLSs with SF resulted in an upregulation of α-sma and TLH mRNA. Collagen type I and TLH mRNA were upregulated after stimulation with TGF-β. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 to healthy FLS stimulated with SF inhibited the expression of α-sma mRNA. The finding that E-cadherin and collagen type IV are expressed in the lining layer of healthy and arthritic synovium indicates that these lining cells display an epithelial-like phenotype. In addition, the presence of α-sma in the synovial lining layer of RA patients and induction of fibrotic markers in healthy FLSs by SF from RA patients indicate that a regulated process comparable to EMT might cause the alteration in phenotype of RA FLSs. Therefore, BMP-7 may represent a promising agent to counteract the transition imposed on synoviocytes in the RA joint.
PMCID: PMC1794508  PMID: 17076892
16.  Engagement of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by superantigen induces inflammatory cytokine gene expression in human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes 
Cells in the rheumatoid synovium express high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules in vivo. We have therefore examined the ability of engagement of MHC class II molecules by the superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) to activate interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 gene expression in type B synoviocytes isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. SEA had a minimal or undetectable effect on the expression of either gene in resting synoviocytes, as determined by Northern blot and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, induction of MHC class II molecule expression after treatment of synoviocytes with interferon gamma (IFN- gamma) enabled the cells to respond to SEA in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in an increase in both the level of steady-state mRNA for IL- 6 and IL-8, and the release of these cytokines into the supernatant. IFN-gamma by itself had no effect on the expression of either cytokine. Pretreatment of the cells with the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D prevented the increase in cytokine mRNA induced by SEA, whereas cycloheximide superinduced mRNA for both cytokines after stimulation by SEA. Taken together, these results indicate that signaling through MHC class II molecules may represent a novel mechanism by which inflammatory cytokine production is regulated in type B rheumatoid synoviocytes, and potentially provides insight into the manner by which superantigens may initiate and/or propagate autoimmune diseases.
PMCID: PMC2119106  PMID: 1732419
17.  Acid-sensing ion channel 3 decreases phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and induces synoviocyte cell death by increasing intracellular calcium 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2014;16(3):R121.
Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is expressed in synoviocytes, activated by decreases in pH, and reduces inflammation in animal models of inflammatory arthritis. The purpose of the current study was to characterize potential mechanisms underlying the control of inflammation by ASIC3 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS).
Experiments were performed in cultured FLS from wild-type (WT) and ASIC3-/- mice, ASIC1-/- mice, and people with rheumatoid arthritis. We assessed the effects of acidic pH with and without interleukin-1β on FLS and the role of ASICs in modulating intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i, mitogen activated kinase (MAP kinase) expression, and cell death. [Ca2+]i was assessed by fluorescent calcium imaging, MAP kinases were measured by Western Blots; ASIC, cytokine and protease mRNA expression were measured by quantitative PCR and cell death was measured with a LIVE/DEAD assay.
Acidic pH increased [Ca2+]i and decreased p-ERK expression in WT FLS; these effects were significantly smaller in ASIC3-/- FLS and were prevented by blockade of [Ca2+]i. Blockade of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) prevented the pH-induced decreases in p-ERK. In WT FLS, IL-1β increases ASIC3 mRNA, and when combined with acidic pH enhances [Ca2+]i, p-ERK, IL-6 and metalloprotienase mRNA, and cell death. Inhibitors of [Ca2+]i and ERK prevented cell death induced by pH 6.0 in combination with IL-1β in WT FLS.
Decreased pH activates ASIC3 resulting in increased [Ca2+]i, and decreased p-ERK. Under inflammatory conditions, acidic pH results in enhanced [Ca2+]i and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase that leads to cell death. Thus, activation of ASIC3 on FLS by acidic pH from an inflamed joint could limit synovial proliferation resulting in reduced accumulation of inflammatory mediators and subsequent joint damage.
PMCID: PMC4095605  PMID: 24923411
18.  Leukemia inhibitory factor is expressed in cartilage and synovium and can contribute to the pathogenesis of arthritis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;90(3):888-896.
This study reports on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in human articular connective tissues. Biologically active LIF is present in synovial fluids from patients with osteoarthritis and at higher titers in samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cultured human synoviocytes and articular chondrocytes produced biologically active LIF and synthesized and secreted LIF proteins that migrated in SDS PAGE at approximately 43 kD. This was increased after stimulation with IL-1 beta. Chondrocytes in serum-containing cultures expressed the 4.2-kb LIF mRNA. IL-1 beta, LPS, and to a lesser extent tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced LIF gene expression. LIF autoinduced its mRNA and this provides evidence for an effect of this cytokine on function of joint tissue cells. Among a series of growth factors tested, transforming growth factor (TGF beta), including the isoforms TGF-beta1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3, platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor induced this cytokine gene but differed with respect to the duration of their effects. Cultured synoviocytes expressed the LIF gene in response to the same set of peptide regulatory factors. Analysis of signal transduction pathways showed that PMA increased LIF mRNA, whereas calcium ionophore and cAMP had no detectable effects. Cycloheximide was a potent LIF mRNA inducer and dexamethasone inhibited LIF induced by PMA or IL-1 beta. Cartilage organ cultures and synovial tissues stimulated with IL-1 expressed high levels of LIF mRNA as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. These results identify LIF as a new cytokine that is produced by joint tissue cells and is overexpressed in arthritis. The induction of this cytokine by factors that are present during joint inflammation and the effects of LIF on connective tissue cells suggest that LIF is a mediator that can contribute to the pathogenesis of arthritis.
PMCID: PMC329943  PMID: 1522240
19.  Control of Cell Migration and Inflammatory Mediators Production by CORM-2 in Osteoarthritic Synoviocytes 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e24591.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most widespread degenerative joint disease. Inflamed synovial cells contribute to the release of inflammatory and catabolic mediators during OA leading to destruction of articular tissues. We have shown previously that CO-releasing molecules exert anti-inflammatory effects in animal models and OA chondrocytes. We have studied the ability of CORM-2 to modify the migration of human OA synoviocytes and the production of chemokines and other mediators sustaining inflammatory and catabolic processes in the OA joint.
Methodology/Principal Findings
OA synoviocytes were stimulated with interleukin(IL)-1β in the absence or presence of CORM-2. Migration assay was performed using transwell chambers. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative PCR and protein expression by Western Blot and ELISA. CORM-2 reduced the proliferation and migration of OA synoviocytes, the expression of IL-8, CCL2, CCL20, matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-1 and MMP-3, and the production of oxidative stress. We found that CORM-2 reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase1/2 and to a lesser extent p38. Our results also showed that CORM-2 significantly decreased the activation of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 regulating the transcription of chemokines and MMPs in OA synoviocytes.
A number of synoviocyte functions relevant in OA synovitis and articular degradation can be down-regulated by CORM-2. These results support the interest of this class of agents for the development of novel therapeutic strategies in inflammatory and degenerative conditions.
PMCID: PMC3178532  PMID: 21961038
20.  Specificity of T cells in synovial fluid: high frequencies of CD8+ T cells that are specific for certain viral epitopes 
Arthritis Research  2000;2(2):154-164.
CD8+ T cells dominate the lymphocyte population in synovial fluid in chronic inflammatory arthritis. It is known that these CD8+ T cells are often clonally or oligoclonally expanded, but their specificity and their relevance to the pathogenesis of joint disease has remained unclear. We found that as many as 15.5% of synovial CD8+ T cells may be specific for a single epitope from an Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle protein. The virus-specific T cells within the joint showed increased expression of markers of activation and differentiation compared with those in the periphery, and retained their functional capacity to secrete proinflammatory cytokines on stimulation. These activated, virus-specific CD8+ T cells could therefore interact with synoviocytes, either by cell-cell contact or by a cytokine network, and play a 'bystander' role in the maintenance of inflammation in patients with arthritis.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted orally, replicates in the oropharynx and establishes life-long latency in human B lymphocytes. T-cell responses to latent and lytic/replicative cycle proteins are readily detectable in peripheral blood from healthy EBV-seropositive individuals. EBV has also been detected within synovial tissue, and T-cell responses to EBV lytic proteins have been reported in synovial fluid from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This raises the question regarding whether T cells specific for certain viruses might be present at high frequencies within synovial fluid and whether such T cells might be activated or able to secrete cytokines. If so, they might play a 'bystander' role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory joint disease.
To quantify and characterize T cells that are specific for epitopes from EBV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and influenza in peripheral blood and synovial fluid from patients with arthritis.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) were obtained from patients with inflammatory arthritis (including those with RA, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis and reactive arthritis). Samples from human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-positive donors were stained with fluorescent-labelled tetramers of HLA-A2 complexed with the GLCTLVAML peptide epitope from the EBV lytic cycle protein BMLF1, the GILGFVFTL peptide epitope from the influenza A matrix protein, or the NLVPMVATV epitope from the CMV pp65 protein. Samples from HLA-B8-positive donors were stained with fluorescent-labelled tetramers of HLA-B8 complexed with the RAKFKQLL peptide epitope from the EBV lytic protein BZLF1 or the FLRGRAYGL peptide epitope from the EBV latent protein EBNA3A. All samples were costained with an antibody specific for CD8. CD4+ T cells were not analyzed. Selected samples were costained with antibodies specific for cell-surface glycoproteins, in order to determine the phenotype of the T cells within the joint and the periphery. Functional assays to detect release of IFN-γ or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also performed on some samples.
The first group of 15 patients included 10 patients with RA, one patient with reactive arthritis, one patient with psoriatic arthritis and three patients with osteoarthritis. Of these, 11 were HLA-A2 positive and five were HLA-B8 positive. We used HLA-peptide tetrameric complexes to analyze the frequency of EBV-specific T cells in PBMCs and SFMCs (Figs 1 and 2). Clear enrichment of CD8+ T cells specific for epitopes from the EBV lytic cycle proteins was seen within synovial fluid from almost all donors studied, including patients with psoriatic arthritis and osteoarthritis and those with RA. In donor RhA6, 9.5% of CD8+ SFMCs were specific for the HLA-A2 restricted GLCTLVAML epitope, compared with 0.5% of CD8+ PBMCs. Likewise in a donor with osteoarthritis (NR4), 15.5% of CD8+ SFMCs were specific for the HLA-B8-restricted RAKFKQLL epitope, compared with 0.4% of CD8+ PBMCs. In contrast, we did not find enrichment of T cells specific for the HLA-B8-restricted FLRGRAYGL epitope (from the latent protein EBNA3A) within SFMCs compared with PBMCs in any donors. In selected individuals we performed ELISpot assays to detect IFN-γ secreted by SFMCs and PBMCs after a short incubation in vitro with peptide epitopes from EBV lytic proteins. These assays confirmed enrichment of T cells specific for epitopes from EBV lytic proteins within synovial fluid and showed that subpopulations of these cells were able to secrete proinflammatory cytokines after short-term stimulation.
We used a HLA-A2/GILGFVFTL tetramer to stain PBMCs and SFMCs from six HLA-A2-positive patients. The proportion of T cells specific for this influenza epitope was low (<0.2%) in all donors studied, and we did not find any enrichment within SFMCs.
We had access to SFMCs only from a second group of four HLA-A2-positive patients with RA. A tetramer of HLA-A2 complexed to the NLVPMVATV epitope from the CMV pp65 protein reacted with subpopulations of CD8+ SFMCs in all four donors, with frequencies of 0.2, 0.5, 2.3 and 13.9%. SFMCs from all four donors secreted TNF after short-term incubation with COS cells transfected with HLA-A2 and pp65 complementary DNA. We analyzed the phenotype of virus-specific cells within PBMCs and SFMCs in three donors. The SFMC virus-specific T cells were more highly activated than those in PBMCs, as evidenced by expression of high levels of CD69 and HLA-DR. A greater proportion of SFMCs were CD38+, CD62L low, CD45RO bright, CD45RA dim, CD57+ and CD28- when compared with PBMCs.
This work shows that T cells specific for certain epitopes from viral proteins are present at very high frequencies (up to 15.5% of CD8+ T cells) within SFMCs taken from patients with inflammatory joint disease. This enrichment does not reflect a generalized enrichment for the 'memory pool' of T cells; we did not find enrichment of T cells specific for the GILGFVFTL epitope from influenza A or for the FLRGRAYGL epitope from the EBV latent protein EBNA3A, whereas we found clear enrichment of T cells specific for the GLCTLVAML epitope from the EBV lytic protein BMLF1 and for the RAKFKQLL epitope from the EBV lytic protein BZLF1.
The enrichment might reflect preferential recruitment of subpopulations of virus-specific T cells, perhaps based on expression of selectins, chemokine receptors or integrins. Alternatively, T cells specific for certain viral epitopes may be stimulated to proliferate within the joint, by viral antigens themselves or by cross-reactive self-antigens. Finally, it is theoretically possible that subpopulations of T cells within the joint are preferentially protected from apoptotic cell death. Whatever the explanation, the virus-specific T cells are present at high frequency, are activated and are able to secrete proinflammatory cytokines. They could potentially interact with synoviocytes and contribute to the maintenance of inflammation within joints in many different forms of inflammatory arthritis.
PMCID: PMC17809  PMID: 11062606
CD8+ T cell; Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle; human leucocyte antigen peptide tetrameric complex; rheumatoid arthritis; viral immunity
21.  Regulation of synoviocyte activity by resveratrol in rats with adjuvant arthritis 
The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of resveratrol (Res) on rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA) and the mechanism(s) of action. An AA model was established by injection of Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was visualized in joint specimens using immunohistochemistry. IL-1β and TNF-α production in synoviocytes was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The mRNA expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was observed in synoviocytes using the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method. The synoviocytes of the AA model were stimulated by Res or treated with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine prior to stimulation. The expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) was detected by western blotting. Res was able to reduce the elevated levels of IL-1β and TNF-α, and inhibit the mRNA expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the synoviocytes of the AA model rats. VEGF expression in the Res-treated group was significantly lowered. The protein expression levels of p-ERK1/2 were significantly higher in the Res-treated group compared with those of the model group, while p-ERK1/2 was markedly lower in the group pretreated with chelerythrine. Res has a therapeutic effect on AA rats, which may be correlated with its immunoregulatory actions, and may activate p-ERK1/2 in synoviocytes via PKC.
PMCID: PMC3735719  PMID: 23935741
adjuvant arthritis; resveratrol; rat; extracellular signal regulated protein kinase1/2
22.  Hyaluronan secretion by synoviocytes is mechanosensitive 
Hyaluronan (HA) is an essential component of synovial interstitial matrix and synovial fluid, but the link between its production and joint use is unclear. HA secretion is enhanced by joint distension in vivo, but direct proof that synoviocytes exhibit mechanosensitive HA secretion is lacking. We tested this in vitro. Primary rabbit synoviocyte (PRS) cultures from microdissected synovial intima were subjected to 180 min of maintained 10% static stretch, or to 10 min of 10% static stretch followed by 170 min relaxation, in a Flexcell 2000 apparatus. Stretch stimulated HA secretion into the medium over 3 h by 57%. Notably, a short stretch (10 min) was as effective as sustained stretch. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide abolished stretch-stimulated HA secretion and also reduced basal HA secretion rate. RT-PCR showed that HAS2 was the major hyaluronan synthase expressed, but there was no increase in HAS2 mRNA (or other isoforms) in continuously stretched cells, and only a small increase (20%) at 180 min in cells stretched for the first 10-30 min. However HAS2 transcription increased 10-fold in response to TGF-β1 and IL-1β. Thus HA secretion by intimal synoviocytes is regulated by a mechanosensitive pathway which depends on transcription and de novo protein synthesis, possibly of HAS2, but also of other proteins involved in HA secretion.
PMCID: PMC1413575  PMID: 16226884
Synovium; Hyaluronan; Hyaluronan synthase; Stretch; Mechanosensitive
23.  Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Regulates TNF-Induced Production of Joint Destructive Effectors in Synoviocytes 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83555.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease of the joint characterized by chronic synovitis causing pain, swelling and loss of function due to destruction of cartilage and bone. The complex series of pathological events occurring in RA is largely regulated via excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the most prominent being tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The objective of this work was to elucidate possible involvement of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) in TNF-induced regulation of synovitis and joint destructive effectors in RA, to evaluate the potential of cPLA2α as a future therapeutic target.
The involvement of cPLA2α in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced intracellular signaling cascades in synoviocytes (synovial fibroblast-like cells) was analyzed by arachidonic acid (AA) release assay, synoviocyte enzyme activity assay, gene expression analysis by real-time PCR and ELISA immunoassay for the detection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin 8 (IL8) and stromelysin-1 (MMP3), respectively.
Inhibitors of cPLA2α enzyme activity (AVX002, ATK) significantly reduced TNF-induced cellular release of AA, PGE2, IL8 and MMP3. This reduction was evident both at transcriptional, protein or metabolite levels. Interestingly, cPLA2α inhibition affected several key points of the arachidonyl cascade; AA-release, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression and PGE2 production. Furthermore, the results suggest that cPLA2α is subject to transcriptional auto-regulation as inhibition of cPLA2α resulted in reduced PLA2G4A gene expression in TNF-stimulated synoviocytes.
cPLA2α appears to be an important regulator of central effectors of inflammation and joint destruction, namely MMP3, IL8, COX2, and PGE2. Decreased transcription of the PLA2G4A and COX2 genes in response to cPLA2α enzyme inhibition further suggest a self-reinforcing effect of cPLA2α inhibition in response to TNF. Collectively, these results support that cPLA2α is an attractive therapeutic target candidate as its inhibition reduces the production of multiple key pro-inflammatory factors involved in RA pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3861525  PMID: 24349530
24.  Increased AP-1 and NF-κB activation and recruitment with the combination of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-17 in rheumatoid synoviocytes 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2004;6(3):R190-R198.
To determine the contribution of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-17 to AP-1, NF-κB and Egr-1 activation in rheumatoid arthritis, the effect of the cytokines used alone or in combination was measured on TF expression in rheumatoid synoviocytes. Effects on mRNA expression were measured by RT-PCR and effects on nuclear translocation were measured by immunocytochemistry. To assess the functional consequences of cytokine induction, osteoprotegerin levels were measured in synoviocyte supernatants.
IL-1β and TNF-α alone at optimal concentration (100 pg/ml) induced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and almost all AP-1 members, except JunB and Egr-1 for IL-1β and except Fra-2 and Egr-1 for TNF-α. IL-17 was clearly less potent since no nuclear translocation was observed, except for a weak activation of Fra-1 and NF-κB. More importantly, when these cytokines were used at low concentrations, their combination showed a synergistic effect on almost all the TFs, except for Egr-1, with a particular effect on Fra-1 and NF-κB. Increased recruitment of additional factors was induced when the three cytokines were combined. IL-1 and TNF-α induced mRNA expression of c-jun while IL-17 had no effect. A synergistic effect was seen with their combination. A similar synergistic effect was observed for osteoprotegerin production when these three cytokines were combined at low concentrations.
AP-1 and NF-κB pathways were highly sensitive to the combination through synergistic mechanisms. These effects observed in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes may reflect the conditions found in the rheumatoid arthritis joint and may contribute to the mode of action of cytokine inhibitors.
PMCID: PMC416439  PMID: 15142264
proinflammatory cytokines; rheumatoid arthritis; synoviocytes; transcription factors
25.  Production and modulation of interleukin 6 synthesis by synoviocytes derived from patients with arthritic disease. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1992;51(2):198-202.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a potent cytokine, the biological activities of which include the stimulation of immunoglobulin secretion, T cell activation, induction of the acute phase response, activation of megakaryocytes, and pyrogenicity. These biological activities make it a plausible contributor to rheumatoid arthritis. The ability of synoviocytes to synthesise this potential mediator of inflammation was tested. Cultures of fibroblast-like cells were established from joint tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative joint disease, or trauma. Supernatants from synoviocytes from each diagnostic category contained IL-6-like activity as detected in a B9 plasmacytoma cell proliferation assay. Supernatants from IL-1 stimulated synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 5) contained an average of 70,000 U/ml IL-6. Western blot analysis confirmed that these supernatants contained peptides that reacted with a highly specific antibody to IL-6. A cDNA probe specific for IL-6 hybridised with mRNA derived from synoviocytes representative of each disease state. Interleukin 6 mRNA expression increased by culturing synoviocytes in the presence of 10% calf serum, IL-1 (30 U/ml), insulin (166 ng/ml), or basic fibroblast growth factor (16 ng/ml). In contrast, dexamethasone (10(-6) mol/l) suppressed the ability of IL-1 to increase the expression of IL-6 mRNA. Recombinant IL-6 itself did not detectably upregulate its own message. The regulation of production of IL-6 by synoviocytes may be important in the pathogenesis of joint inflammation.
PMCID: PMC1005658  PMID: 1550404

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