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1.  Total Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Cholangiojejunostomy for the Treatment of Biliary Disease 
Total laparoscopic Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy may be a first choice for patients with biliary disease that requires biliary-jejunal anastomosis.
Background and Objectives:
Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy (RCJS) has been widely used in biliary bypass surgeries, but in most reported literature, an assisted mini-incision was needed, and studies reporting total laparoscopic Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy (TLRCJS) are rare. The goal of this study was to investigate how to treat hepatic portal bile duct diseases and perform jejunojejunostomy and cholangiojejunostomy totally laparoscopically. We evaluated the feasibility of TLRCJS in treating biliary tract diseases.
TLRCJS were performed in 103 patients from January 2000 to August 2011. There were 28 cases of recurrent choledocholithiasis combined with stricture of the common bile duct (CBD) after several stone extractions, 3 patients with iatrogenic bile duct injury, 24 patients with choledochal cyst, 36 patients with hepatic portal cholangiocarcinoma, and 12 patients with cancer of the pancreatic head and periampullary cancer. All surgeries were performed through 5 trocars. First, laparoscopic surgery on the CBD was performed according to the original disease. The CBD was opened and stones were extracted in choledocholithiasis patients. In iatrogenic injury patients, strictured CBD was resected and repaired. Dilated CBD or choledochal cyst with tumor was transected. In patients with malignant jaundice, the CBD was opened longitudinally. At the same time, the bile duct was prepared for cholangiojejunostomy. Second, the positions of the laparoscope and surgeons were altered. The jejunal mesentery and jejunum were transected, and side-to-side jejunojejunostomy (JJS) was performed. The laparoscope and surgeon positions were exchanged again; the Roux-en-Y biliary limb was lifted close to the residual bile duct; and side-to-side or end-to-side choledochojejunostomy (CJS) was performed. Finally, an abdominal drainage tube was placed.
All the surgeries were performed successfully. The diameter of the residual bile duct ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 cm (average, 0.9 cm). Three patients had postoperative bile leakage and were treated from 1 week to approximately 1 month with abdominal drainage. Postoperative intraperitoneal hemorrhage and stress ulcer of the stomach occurred in 2 patients with biliary tract injury combined with obstructive jaundice. One with intraperitoneal hemorrhage was cured by another laparoscopic surgery. The other patient was cured after 2 days of abdominal drainage, antacids, and hemostatic drug therapy. The follow-up duration of 95 patients was 4 to 93 months (average, 48.3 months). The follow-up rate was 92.2% (95/103). Patients with cancer died of metastasis or cachexia during 14-month follow-up with no postoperative complication. Reflux cholangitis occurred in 3 patients 2, 3, and 5 years after the operation, respectively. No anastomotic stricture or other complication was found in other patients during the follow-up.
TLRCJS is the best and first choice for patients with biliary tract diseases that need biliary-jejunal anastomosis. But it is essential that the surgeon has proficiency in laparoscopic surgeries.
PMCID: PMC3771782  PMID: 23815976
Laparoscopy; Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy; Common bile duct stone; Bile duct injury; Congenital choledochal cyst; Hepatic portal cholangiocarcinoma; Cancer of pancreatic head; Periampullary cancer
2.  Preoperative biliary drainage for biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas 
We posed six clinical questions (CQ) on preoperative biliary drainage and organized all pertinent evidence regarding these questions. CQ 1. Is preoperative biliary drainage necessary for patients with jaundice? The indications for preoperative drainage for jaundiced patients are changing greatly. Many reports state that, excluding conditions such as cholangitis and liver dysfunction, biliary drainage is not necessary before pancreatoduodenectomy or less invasive surgery. However, the morbidity and mortality of extended hepatectomy for biliary cancer is still high, and the most common cause of death is hepatic failure; therefore, preoperative biliary drainage is desirable in patients who are to undergo extended hepatectomy. CQ 2. What procedures are appropriate for preoperative biliary drainage? There are three methods of biliary drainage: percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD), and surgical drainage. ERBD is an internal drainage method, and PTBD and ENBD are external methods. However, there are no reports of comparisons of preoperative biliary drainage methods using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, at this point, a method should be used that can be safely performed with the equipment and techniques available at each facility. CQ 3. Which is better, unilateral or bilateral biliary drainage, in malignant hilar obstruction? Unilateral biliary drainage of the future remnant hepatic lobe is usually enough even when intrahepatic bile ducts are separated into multiple units due to hilar malignancy. Bilateral biliary drainage should be considered in the following cases: those in which the operative procedure is difficult to determine before biliary drainage; those in which cholangitis has developed after unilateral drainage; and those in which the decrease in serum bilirubin after unilateral drainage is very slow. CQ 4. What is the best treatment for postdrainage fever? The most likely cause of high fever in patients with biliary drainage is cholangitis due to problems with the existing drainage catheter or segmental cholangitis if an undrained segment is left. In the latter case, urgent drainage is required. CQ 5. Is bile culture necessary in patients with biliary drainage who are to undergo surgery? Monitoring of bile cultures is necessary for patients with biliary drainage to determine the appropriate use of antibiotics during the perioperative period. CQ 6. Is bile replacement useful for patients with external biliary drainage? Maintenance of the enterohepatic bile circulation is vitally important. Thus, preoperative bile replacement in patients with external biliary drainage is very likely to be effective when highly invasive surgery (e.g., extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma) is planned.
PMCID: PMC2794354  PMID: 18274841
Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Bile replacement; Guidelines
3.  Extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty for bile duct stones associated with a periampullary diverticulum. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1992;68(799):346-349.
Extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty has been suggested as an alternative to choledochoduodenostomy for the surgical management of bile duct stones associated with a periampullary diverticulum but its value has not previously been investigated. Over a 3 year period, nine patients underwent extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty for common bile duct calculi associated with a periampullary diverticulum with no operative or post-operative mortality and minimal morbidity. Follow-up ranging from 20 to 60 months has shown remission of pain in all but one patient, who has had a normal endoscopic cholangiogram and no further episodes of jaundice or cholangitis. Extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty is a safe and effective alternative to choledochoduodenostomy for the surgical management of choledocholithiasis associated with a periampullary diverticulum.
PMCID: PMC2399419  PMID: 1630978
A variety of evidence is presented, all of which supports the view that in the uninfected animal the intestinal tract is the only place of origin of urobilin, not merely under normal circumstances, but when there is biliary obstruction. Animals rendered urobilin-free by collection of all of the bile from the intubated common duct remain urobilin-free even after severe hepatic injury. In our experiments urobilinuria was never found after liver damage except when bile pigment was present in the intestine. Thus, for example, it appeared during the first days after Ugation of the common duct, but disappeared as the stools became acholic. When this had happened a small amount of urobilin-free bile, given by mouth, precipitated a prompt urobilinuria. After obstruction of the duct from one-third of the liver, mild urobilinuria was found, but no bilirubinuria. In animals intubated for the collection of a part of the bile only, while the rest flowed to the duodenum through the ordinary channels, liver injury caused urobilinuria, unless indeed it was so severe as to lead to bile suppression, when almost at once the urobilinuria ceased, though the organism became jaundiced. The evidence here presented, when taken with that of our previous papers, clearly proves that urobilinuria is an expression of the inability of the liver cells to remove from circulation the urobilin brought by the portal stream, with result that the pigment passes on to kidney and urine. Urobilinuria occurs with a far less degree of liver injury than does bilirubinuria. Our work has, for the most part, been carried out with animals having uninfected livers and bile passages. But the influence of cholangitis with infection has been briefly discussed in the light of some preliminary observations. The influence of infection on the place of formation of urobilin and on the occurrence of urobilinuria will form the subject of another communication.
PMCID: PMC2130985  PMID: 19869039
5.  Prospective observational multicenter study to define a diagnostic algorithm for biliary candidiasis 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(34):12260-12268.
AIM: To develop an algorithm to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with biliary candidiasis.
METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 127 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, for various biliary disorders, at 3 tertiary referral centers in Germany from July 2011 through July 2012 ( NCT01109550). Bile, buccal, and stool samples were collected. When indicated, endoscopic transpapillary bile duct biopsies were performed to clarify the etiology of bile duct strictures and to prove invasive fungal infections.
RESULTS: Candida species were detected in 38 of the 127 bile samples (29.9%). By multivariate analysis patients’ age and previous endoscopic sphincterotomy were independent risk factors for biliary candidiasis (P < 0.05). Patients with immunosuppression (P = 0.058) and recent long-term antibiotic therapy (> 7 d) (P = 0.089) tend to be at risk for biliary candidiasis. One patient was negative in mycological culture of bile fluid but invasive biliary candidiasis was diagnosed histologically. Of Candida subspecies detected, 36.7% were azole-resistant, such as C glabrata. Eight patients received anti-mycotic therapy, based on our algorithm. Of these, 3 had cancer with biliary tract involvement, 2 had secondary sclerosing cholangitis, 1 had retroperitoneal fibrosis, and 5 had septicemia. In all patients contamination was ruled out by smears of the endoscope channel.
CONCLUSION: Gastroenterologists should be aware of frequent candida colonization in patients with cholangitis and biliary disorders. Our suggested algorithm facilitates the further clinical management.
PMCID: PMC4161811  PMID: 25232260
Cholangitis; Biliary candidiasis; Invasive fungal infection; Biliary obstruction
6.  Risk factors and outcome in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with persistent biliary candidiasis 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):562.
Candidiasis is commonly observed in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), but the clinical risk factors associated with its presence have not been fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to analyse the incidence, risk factors, and transplantation-free survival in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients with persistent biliary candidiasis.
We retrospectively analysed patients diagnosed with PSC who were admitted to our department during 2002 to 2012. One-hundred fifty patients whose bile cultures were tested for fungal species were selected, and their clinical and laboratory parameters were investigated. The results of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and bile cultures were analysed using chart reviews. The cases of biliary candidiasis were sub-classified as transient or persistent.
Thirty out of 150 (20.0%) patients had biliary candidiasis. Although all patients demonstrated comparable baseline characteristics, those with biliary candidiasis showed significantly reduced transplantation-free survival (p < 0.0001) along with a markedly elevated frequency of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (p = 0.04). The patients were further sub-classified according to the transient (15/30) or persistent (15/30) nature of their biliary candidiasis. A subgroup analysis showed reduced survival with a greater necessity for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) only in patients with persistence of Candida (p = 0.007). The survival in the patients with transient biliary candidiasis was comparable to that in candidiasis-free patients. In a multivariate regression analysis that included Mayo risk score (MRS), sex, age, dominant stenosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome, and number of times ERC was performed, biliary candidiasis was an independent risk factor for reduced survival (p = 0.008). Risk factors associated with acquisition of biliary candidiasis were age at PSC diagnosis and number of ERCs.
The persistence of biliary candidiasis is associated with markedly reduced transplantation-free survival in PSC patients. By contrast, actuarial survival in patients with transient biliary candidiasis approaches that for patients without any evidence of biliary candidiasis. Further studies on the treatment of persistent biliary candidiasis in patients with PSC are warranted.
PMCID: PMC4209225  PMID: 25338733
Primary sclerosing cholangitis; Candida; Fungobilia; Biliary infection; Dominant stenosis; Liver transplantation; Cholestatic liver disease; Cholangiocarcinoma
7.  Liver changes associated with cholecystitis. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1994;47(5):457-460.
AIMS--To investigate the histopathological changes in the livers of patients undergoing cholecystectomy and to relate these changes to the underlying biliary tract pathology. METHODS--Liver changes in 67 patients undergoing cholecystectomy were investigated. Sixty three had gall stones, one cholesterolosis only, and there were three cases of acute acalculous cholecystitis. RESULTS--Only 34% of the patients had completely normal liver biopsy specimens. The most clinically important pathology was found in 11 of the 14 patients with choledocholithiasis: three of these had cholangitis and eight had features of large bile duct obstruction (four also had chronic cholestasis and portal-portal linking fibrosis). Non-specific reactive hepatitis was the most common abnormality in the remaining 53 patients with cholecystitis alone, and was found in 18. A further four patients had chronic cholestasis without fibrosis and early primary biliary cirrhosis was a coincidental finding in another. Clinical symptoms were poorly correlated with gall bladder and liver pathology apart from an association between jaundice and choledocholithiasis. Liver function tests of obstructive pattern were noted in 23 of 58 patients, most of whom had choledocholithiasis or non-specific reactive hepatitis. Bile cultures were positive in 10 of 42 patients, predominantly in cases of cholangitis and acute cholecystitis. CONCLUSIONS--Cholangitis and extensive fibrosis associated with large bile duct obstruction are common findings in patients with choledocholithiasis. The liver disease may progress to secondary biliary cirrhosis if the obstruction is not relieved, emphasising the need for early surgery. A peroperative liver biopsy may be useful to exclude cirrhosis in these patients, but is unlikely to be informative in those with cholecystitis alone.
PMCID: PMC502026  PMID: 8027400
8.  Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after endoscopic biliary stenting for bile duct cancer 
World Journal of Radiology  2012;4(3):115-120.
We report a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery observed 9 mo after the endoscopic placement of a Wallstent, for bile duct stenosis, which was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. The patient presented with obstructive jaundice and was diagnosed with inoperable common bile duct cancer. A plastic stent was inserted endoscopically to drain the bile, and chemotherapy was initiated. Abdominal pain and jaundice appeared approximately 6 mo after the beginning of chemotherapy. A diagnosis of stent occlusion and cholangitis was made, and the plastic stent was removed and substituted with a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) endoscopically. Nine months after SEMS insertion, contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery protruding into the common bile duct lumen and in contact with the SEMS. The shape and size of the pseudoaneurysm and diameter of its neck was determined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using Sonazoid. A micro-catheter was led into the pseudoaneurysm in the right hepatic artery, GDC™ Detachable Coils were placed, and IDC™ Detachable Coils were then placed in the right hepatic artery on the distal and proximal sides of the pseudoaneurysm using the isolation method. There have been a few reports on pseudoaneurysm associated with stent placement in the biliary tract employing percutaneous transhepatic procedures, however, reports of pseudoaneurysms associated with endoscopic SEMS placement are very rare.
PMCID: PMC3314928  PMID: 22468193
Pseudoaneurysm; Self-expandable metallic stents; Sonazoid; Transcatheter arterial embolization; Wallstent
9.  Spontaneous passage of bile duct stones: frequency of occurrence and relation to clinical presentation. 
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the spontaneous passage of bile duct stones. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of spontaneous stone passage and relate it to the clinical presentation of the bile duct stone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospectively collected data were studied on a total of 1000 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with or without laparoscopic common duct exploration. Comparisons were made between 142 patients with common bile duct stones (CBDS), 468 patients who had no previous or current evidence of duct stones, and 390 patients who had good evidence of previous duct stones but none at the time of cholecystectomy. The evidence used for previous duct stones included a good history of jaundice or pancreatitis. In patients with biliary colic or cholecystitis, abnormal pre-operative liver function tests and/or a dilated common bile duct were taken as evidence of bile duct stones. RESULTS: Of the 1000 patients studied, 532 had evidence of stones in the common bile duct at some time prior to cholecystectomy. At the time of operation, only 142 patients had bile duct stones. By implication, 80%, 84%, 93% and 55% of patients presenting with pancreatitis, colic, cholecystitis and jaundice (73% overall) had passed their bile duct stones spontaneously. All 4 patients with cholangitis had duct stones at the time of operation. CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that most bile duct stones (3 in 4) pass spontaneously, especially after pancreatitis, biliary colic and cholecystitis but less commonly after jaundice. Cholangitis appears to be always associated with the presence of duct stones at the time of operation.
PMCID: PMC1964371  PMID: 12831489
10.  Common bile duct obstruction secondary to infection with Candida. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1978;7(5):490-492.
A patient is reported who had biliary tract obstruction secondary to infection of the common bile duct with Candida albicans, with the formation of a fungus ball. Treatment consisted of surgical removal of the fungus ball and drainage. Chemotherapy was not necessary. Ureteral obstruction through fungus ball formation, and even pulmonary fungus ball formation, has been attributed to candida, but this is the first case reported, to our knowledge, of bile duct obstruction.
PMCID: PMC275030  PMID: 350898
11.  Evaluation of fully covered self-expanding metal stents in benign biliary strictures and bile leaks 
AIM: To investigate the use of fully covered metal stents in benign biliary strictures (BBS) and bile leaks.
METHODS: We studied 17 patients, at Harbor-UCLA Medical center (Los Angeles), with BBS (n = 12) and bile leaks (n = 5) from July 2007 to February 2012 that had received placement of fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMs). Fourteen patients had endoscopic placement of VIABIL® (Conmed, Utica, New York, United States) stents and three had Wallflex® (Boston Scientific, Mass) stents. FCSEMS were 8 mm or 10 mm in diameter and 4 cm to 10 cm in length. Patients were followed at regular intervals to evaluate for symptoms and liver function tests. FCSEMS were removed after 4 or more weeks. Resolution of BBS and leak was documented cholangiographically following stent removal. Stent patency can be defined as adequate bile and contrast flow from the stent and into the ampulla during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) without clinical signs and/or symptoms of biliary obstruction. Criterion for bile leak resolution at ERCP is defined as absence of contrast extravasation from the common bile duct, cystic duct remanent, or gall bladder fossa. Rate of complications such as migration, and in-stent occlusion were recorded. Failure of endoscopic therapy was defined as persistent biliary stenosis or continuous biliary leakage after 12 mo of stent placement.
RESULTS: All 17 patients underwent successful FCSEMS placement and removal. Etiologies of BBS included: cholecystectomies (n = 8), cholelithiasis (n = 2), hepatic artery compression (n = 1), pancreatitis (n = 2), and Whipple procedure (n = 1). All bile leaks occurred following cholecystectomy. The anatomic location of BBS varied: distal common bile duct (n = 7), common hepatic duct (n = 1), hepaticojejunal anastomosis (n = 2), right intrahepatic duct (n = 1), and choledochoduodenal anastomatic junction (n = 1). All bile leaks were found to be at the cystic duct. Twelve of 17 patients had failed prior stent placement or exchange. Resolution of the biliary strictures and bile leaks was achieved in 16 of 17 patients (94%). The overall median stent time was 63 d (range 27-251 d). The median stent time for the BBS group and bile leak group was 62 ± 58 d (range 27-199 d) and 92 ± 81 d (range 48-251 d), respectively. All 17 patients underwent successful FCSEMS removal. Long term follow-up was obtained for a median of 575 d (range 28-1435 d). Complications occurred in 5 of 17 patients (29%) and included: migration (n = 2), stent clogging (n = 1), cholangitis (n = 1), and sepsis with hepatic abscess (n = 1).
CONCLUSION: Placement of fully covered self-expanding metal stents may be used in the management of benign biliary strictures and bile leaks with a low rate of complications.
PMCID: PMC3711064  PMID: 23858377
Bile leaks; Benign biliary stricture; Fully covered metal stents; Biliary disease
12.  A case of branch duct type intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct treated by open surgery after 11 years of follow-up 
Molecular and Clinical Oncology  2013;1(6):965-969.
The intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a novel disease concept that was recently classified as a biliary cystic tumor by the revised World Health Organization classification. This is the case report of a 70-year-old female patient who experienced repeated episodes of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis since 2000, attributed to a mucus-producing hepatic tumor. Surgery was advised due to the repeated episodes; however, the patient refused. In May, 2011, the patient developed jaundice and fever and was treated with antibiotics. Since there was no improvement, the patient was admitted to the Tokyo Rosai Hospital. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a 50-mm cystic mass with an internal septum in the left hepatic lobe. Although the tumor size had remained almost unchanged compared to the initial CT scan performed in 2000, intra- and extra-hepatic bile duct dilation was more prominent on the second CT scan. Following admission, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed and revealed an expanded papilla of Vater due to a mucous plug. A balloon catheter was inserted into the bile duct to remove the mucous plug, resulting in the drainage of copious amounts of mucus and infected bile. The patient finally consented to surgery and left hepatic lobectomy was performed. Consequently, the diagnosis of low-grade IPNB was made. Branch duct type IPNB, which is characterized by imaging appearance of a cystic mass and slow progression, is attracting increasing attention. In the present case, a cystic mass was identified in the left hepatic lobe, with no significant change in size after 11 years of follow-up, leading to the diagnosis of branch duct type IPNB. Considering the fact that IPNB is usually treated surgically at the time of diagnosis, the present case, due to the long-term follow-up, provides valuable insight into the natural history of the tumor.
PMCID: PMC3916194  PMID: 24649278
intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct; branch type; intestinal type; low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia
13.  Obstructive jaundice and cholangitis caused by an arterial ring of the proper hepatic artery around the common bile duct 
Many different benign and malignant diseases can cause obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary duct. One of the more serious complications of biliary obstruction is cholangitis leading to emergency decompression. Anatomic variations are frequent in this region; however, it has rarely been reported that the extrahepatic bile duct is compressed by the arterial vessels.
Case Report
We present the case of a 68-year-old woman who was admitted through the emergency department of our hospital with jaundice, abdominal pain and fever. Biochemical analyses of liver function showed increased value of AST (113 IU/L) and AST (128 IU/L). Total bilirubin was 5.88 mg/dl, conjugated bilirubin was 3.00 mg/dl, and alkaline phosphatase was 393 IU/L. We performed abdominal ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Multislice CT angiography showed that the arterial ring of the common hepatic artery around the common bile duct (CBD) originated from the superior mesenteric artery. Cholecystectomy and intraoperative cholangiography were performed, as well as decompression and lavage of the biliary tree. Escherichia coli was identified from bile. Dissection of the hepatoduodenal ligament confirmed that the proper hepatic artery made a vascular ring around the CBD. Finally, a T tube was placed into the CBD. During 5 years of follow-up the patient has been without recurrent episodes of jaundice. In such cases dissection of the proper hepatic artery from the common hepatic duct is the treatment of choice.
If there are signs of cholangitis decompression and lavage of the biliary tree with “T”, drainage should be performed. Vascular malformations should be considered as a possible cause of extrahepatic biliary obstruction. CT angiography may be helpful in identifying these malformations.
PMCID: PMC3539617  PMID: 21804468
cholangitis; benign obstructive jaundice; vascular malformation
14.  Long term follow-up of patients with side to side choledochoduodenostomy and transduodenal sphincteroplasty. 
From a consecutive series of 190 patients with choledochoduodenostomy (CDD) and 56 patients with transduodenal sphincteroplasty (TDS), there were 10 and 3 hospital deaths respectively. A long term follow-up study was performed on the remainder. Late deaths occurred in 35 CDD and 5 TDS patients. Serious long term complications occurred in 3.3% of CDD cases, comprising 5 cases of 'sump syndrome' and a further case of cholangitis in the presence of a clear biliary tree. Cholangitis occurred in 2 of the TDS patients (3.8%). Recurrent common duct stones were found in 3 of the 'sump syndrome' cases (1.6%) and one of the TDS patients with cholangitis (1.9%). Eighty-eight per cent of the CDD patients and 90.2% of the TDS patients, who were reviewed, were subjectively well. Serum alkaline phosphatase was raised in 21.6% of the CDD patients and only 3.4% of the TDS group (P less than 0.05). Radiological studies showed that the CDD stoma admitted air and barium more often than the TDS stoma (P less than 0.001). Neither the biochemical nor the radiological findings correlated with the long term symptomatic results of the two procedures. Dynamic HIDA scans showed a shorter time to peak activity in the common hepatic duct for both CDD (P less than 0.01) and TDS (P less than 0.05) as compared with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES). These long-term clinical, biochemical and radiological results are similar to those reported following ES.
PMCID: PMC2498515  PMID: 2892457
15.  Hepatobiliary complications in chronic pancreatitis. 
Gut  1989;30(4):520-527.
Thirty nine patients undergoing surgery for chronic pancreatitis were investigated for evidence of hepatobiliary disease. In addition to pre-operative assessment by liver function tests, ultrasound, ERCP (in 33) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (in five), all had peroperative liver biopsy. Common bile duct stenosis was diagnosed in 16 (62%) of the 26 patients with successful cholangiography. Features of extrahepatic biliary obstruction were found on biopsy in 11 patients, three of whom showed features of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. No patients had secondary biliary cirrhosis. Three had parenchymal liver disease (cirrhosis, resolving hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis respectively) and two others had features suggestive of previous alcohol-induced injury. Five (83%) of the patients with clinical jaundice had biopsy features of extrahepatic biliary obstruction, as did eight (67%) with alkaline phosphatase above twice normal and seven (44%) with radiological common bile duct stenosis. Neither alkaline phosphatase rise, nor common bile duct stenosis alone or in combination, were a reliable indication of the need for biliary enteric bypass surgery. Pre-operative liver biopsy may be a valuable adjunct in the assessment of such patients.
PMCID: PMC1434033  PMID: 2714685
16.  Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the management of hepatic hydatid disease 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(41):15253-15261.
Most cases of hepatic hydatid disease exhibit uncomplicated clinical course and management. However, the diagnosis and management of complicated hepatic hydatid disease is a special issue. One of the most common and serious complications of hepatic hydatid disease is the rupture of the cyst into intrahepatic bile ducts. The clinical appearance of intrabiliary rupture can range from asymptomatic to jaundice, cholecystitis, cholangitis, liver abscess, pancreatitis and septicemia. Current treatments for major ruptures can result in high morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, ruptures that cannot be diagnosed preoperatively can induce complications such as biliary fistulae, biloma, cavitary infection and obstructive jaundice. In the past, these complications were diagnosed and treated by surgical methods. Currently, complications in both the pre- and postoperative periods are diagnosed and treated by non-invasive or minimally invasive methods. In clinical practice, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is indicated for patients with preoperative frank intrabiliary rupture in which hydatid elements are clearly seen in the bile ducts, or for biliary adverse events after surgery, including persistent biliary fistulae and jaundice. However, controversy concerning routine preoperative ERCP and prophylactic endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients suspected of having minor cystobiliary communications still remains. In this article, the role of ERCP in the diagnosis and management of hepatic hydatid disease during the pre- and postoperative periods is reviewed.
PMCID: PMC4223258  PMID: 25386073
Hydatid cyst; Complications; Intrabiliary rupture; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
17.  Successful Treatment of Recurrent Cholangitis by Constructing a Hepaticojejunostomy with Long Roux-en-Y Limb in a Long-term Surviving Patient after a Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma 
Patient: Female, 74
Final Diagnosis: Recurrent cholangitis
Symptoms: —
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: —
Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Unusual clinical course
Cholangitis may result from biliary obstruction (e.g., biliary or anastomotic stenosis, or foreign bodies) or occur in the presence of normal biliary drainage. Although reflux of intestinal contents into the biliary tree after hepaticojejunostomy appears to be a rare complication, it is important to emphasize that there are few available surgical therapeutic techniques.
Case Report:
A 74-year-old woman presented to our hospital after 17 years of episodes of cholangitis. The patient had undergone a pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) 18 years earlier due to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The reconstruction was achieved through the sequential placement of pancreatic, biliary, and retrocolic gastric anastomosis into the same jejunal loop. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. Approximately 6 months after the initial operation, the patient started having episodes of cholangitis. Over the next 17 years she experienced several febrile episodes presumed to be secondary to cholangitis. A computing tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed intrahepatic bile ducts partially filled with orally administered contrast material (Gastrografin). Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed dilatation of the left intrahepatic bile ducts. A percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography showed that the bilioenteric anastomosis was normal, without stenosis. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of a short loop between the hepaticojejunostomy and the gastrojejunostomy permitting the reflux of intestinal juice into the biliary tree was made. During the re-operation, a new hepaticojejunal anastomosis in a 100-cm long Roux-en-Y loop was performed to prevent the reflux of the intestinal fluid into the biliary tree. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. One year after the second procedure, the patient enjoys good health and has been free of fever and abdominal pain and has not received any antibiotic therapy.
Lengthening the efferent Roux-en-Y limb should be considered as a therapeutic option when treating a patient with recurrent episodes of cholangitis after hepaticojejunostomy.
PMCID: PMC4152249  PMID: 25150551
Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y – methods; Cholangitis – therapy; Pancreatic Neoplasms – pathology; Pancreatic Neoplasms – surgery
18.  Laproscopic Management of Wandering Biliary Ascariasis 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:561563.
Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic diseases in humans, occurring mostly in countries with low standards of public health and hygiene, thereby making ascariasis highly endemic in developing countries. In endemic areas, 30% of adults and 60–70% of children harbour the adult worm. Biliary ascariasis is a rare cause of obstructive jaundice. Conventional management involves endoscopic extraction of worm. We are reporting a rare case of ascaris which induced extrahepatic biliary obstruction in a young male who presented with acute cholangitis. The ascaris was removed by laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct. Postoperative period was uneventful.
PMCID: PMC3437613  PMID: 22973531
19.  Cholangiocarcinoma developed in a patient with IgG4-related disease 
A 77-year-old man with jaundice and a pancreatic head tumor was referred to our hospital in August 2006. The initial laboratory tests, computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography suggested IgG4-related cholangitis and autoimmune pancreatitis. Oral prednisolone (PSL) was then administered. This treatment reduced the size of the pancreatic parenchyma, and the lower common bile duct (CBD) returned to its normal size. Thus, the oral PSL was gradually tapered to a maintenance dose. In February 2010, a CT scan and MRI showed segmental wall thickening and stenosis of the middle CBD, the progression of which led to extrahepatic obstructive jaundice. We suspected the emergence of a cholangiocarcinoma rather than the exacerbation of the IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis because the stricture of the CBD was short and localized. Then, a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed. The biopsy specimens obtained via the percutaneous transhepatic tract indicated an abnormal glandular formation, suggesting the presence of a moderate, well-differencated adenocarcinoma. The gross examination, microscopic examination and immunohistochemical analysis of the pancreaticoduodenectomy specimen suggested that a cholangiocarcinoma developed from the IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis.
PMCID: PMC3761179  PMID: 24009815
IgG4; Sclerosing cholangitis; Autoimmune pancreatitis; Cholangiocarcinoma
20.  Xanthogranulomatous cholangitis causing obstructive jaundice: A case report 
This article reports the case of a 34-year-old woman with xanthogranulomatous cholangitis who developed obstructive jaundice. Microscopically, the bile duct was surrounded and narrowed by a xanthogranulomatous lesion, but no xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis was seen. Although percutaneous cholangiograms done via the transhepatic biliary drainage showed smooth narrowing of the upper to middle bile duct, the cytology of bile was diagnosed as class V adenocarcinoma. Therefore, right extended hepatectomy and extrahepatic bile duct resection were performed. The differentiation of benign and malignant strictures at the hepatic hilum is often difficult. Xanthogranulomatous cholangitis is one possible diagnosis of a bile duct stricture. Precise review of all the preoperative information is required to make a correct diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4087761  PMID: 16865792
Xanthogranulomatous cholangitis; Obstructive jaundice; Bile cytology; Bile duct stricture
21.  Biliary complications of cystic fibrosis. 
Gut  1992;33(3):387-391.
One hundred and four adult patients with cystic fibrosis were evaluated for the presence of liver disease as defined by abnormal liver function tests of six months' duration, histological evidence of fibrosis or cirrhosis, or the presence of portal hypertension, or both. Twenty patients fulfilled these criteria and were evaluated further for the presence of biliary tract abnormalities with biliary scintigraphy using 99Tc diisopropylphenyl-carboxymethyl iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Clearance of 99Tc DISIDA from the liver and biliary tree was diminished at 45 (E45) and 60 (E60) minutes in the patients with liver disease compared with those without liver disease; E45 = 37.8% and 65.8%, p less than 0.01; E60 = 48.2% and 77.5%, p less than 0.01 respectively. Serial analogue images of the extrahepatic biliary tree were consistent with common bile duct obstruction with retention of DISIDA and tapering of the common bile duct in seven of 18 patients with and two of 10 patients without liver disease. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed changes consistent with sclerosing cholangitis, with beading and stricturing of the intrahepatic ducts in 12 of the 14 patients. In all 14 patients, including those in whom biliary scintigraphy had suggested obstruction, no abnormality of the common bile duct was identified. These results indicate that abnormalities of the bile ducts in patients with cystic fibrosis related liver disease are confined to the intrahepatic biliary tree and that common bile duct strictures do not contribute to either the progression or development of liver disease in these patients.
PMCID: PMC1373834  PMID: 1568661
1. Bile increases the digestion of fat when given by the mouth in pill form. The percentage of fat lost in the stools of our patient with a complete biliary fistula was 63 per cent in the first period and 57 per cent in the third. This closely corresponds to the results that Müller obtained in human beings and dogs with complete obstruction of the common duct. Under bile medication the stools contained 23 per cent less fat than in the first period, and 17 per cent less than in the third. This represents an actual diminution of the amount of fat lost in the stools. Looking at the result in another way, it may be said that the average digestion of fat in the periods without bile was 40 per cent; in the periods with bile, 60 per cent, i. e., bile increased the digestion of fat relatively by 50 per cent. 2. The digestion of nitrogenous food is improved by the use of bile pills when the amount of fat in the stools is large. Instead of an average of 15 per cent being lost in the fæces, but 7 per cent escaped digestion during the four days the patient took bile. The reason for this, perhaps, lies in the better digestion of fat at this time, in consequence of which the proteid elements of the food were more thoroughly exposed to the digestive juices. 3. Ox bile is a cholagogue. The amount of bile-solids secreted in the bile period was 47 per cent greater than in the periods before and after. This confirms the work of Pfaff and Balch, here in Boston, on a human being, and that of Stadelmann and his pupils, in Germany, on dogs. 4. The effect of the bile on the bowels in this case was not remarkable, although they moved more satisfactorily during the bile period. In my experiments with dogs I usually obtained diarrhœa when giving bile. I do not feel sure, however, that this should be attributed wholly to the medication, for the diarrhœas as a rule appeared six or more days after the beginning of the experiment and the animals were then in poor condition. Dr. Pfaff, who has had more experience with the administration of bile than I, tells me that he has found its action variable in patients. In some cases it is a laxative; in others, in which there is diarrhœa, due apparently to large amounts of fat in the food, it has the opposite effect. 5. As to the general effect of bile on body metabolism, it was observed that the urea and nitrogen were excreted in greater amount in the bile period than in either of the others. No definite conclusions can be drawn from this fact, because more nitrogen was ingested during these four days; moreover, it must be borne in mind that in these results the salol may have been a factor. 6. The amount of urine was increased by more than 50 per cent in the bile period. It is interesting to note that the amount was about the same during this bile period as in the second experiment when the bile was again taking its natural course. Von Noorden has recorded a similar increase in the amount of urine following the removal of the obstruction in acute catarrhal jaundice. The salol coating of the bile pills, which amounted to one and a quarter grammes a day, is not sufficient to account for this effect. This is evident from the work of Kumagawa, who gave two grammes of sodium salicylate daily to a dog of 25 kilos without essentially changing the amount of urine secreted. On the other hand, in taking the 30 pills daily the patient drank several extra glasses of water, and in the second experiment her general condition was naturally better than at any other time.
PMCID: PMC2118024  PMID: 19866955
23.  Charcot's triad 
Biliary stones are usually found in the gallbladder, but about 10-20% may spontaneously migrate into the common bile duct where they either remain trapped or migrate subsequently via the papilla of Vater into the duodenal lumen. In some cases, biliary stones may form de novo in the common bile duct because of local precipitating factors. We here present a spectacular case of huge gallstones impacted in the common bile duct (empierrement of the common bile duct) that led to the development of acute cholangitis with septic shock. Urgent nocturnal percutaneous cholangiography permitted biliary drainage and resolution of the cholangitis while the stones were secondarily removed surgically because of the large size of the stones.
Acute suppurative cholangitis may be fatal unless adequate biliary drainage is obtained in a timely manner. The association of fever and rapid onset of jaundice in elderly patients should always make physicians think of cholangitis.
PMCID: PMC3094361  PMID: 21584209
24.  A case of eosinophilic cholangitis: Imaging findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, cholangioscopy, and intraductal ultrasonography 
A 38-year-old woman was referred to our institution due to epigastralgia. She presented with obstructive jaundice and eosinophilia. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse narrowing from the distal common bile duct to the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts. An endoscopic plastic biliary stent was inserted; the specimen obtained from the common bile duct wall revealed dense infiltration by eosinophils. Treatment was started with prednisolone 60 mg daily. The patient’s biliary stenosis and eosinophilia gradually improved. Eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs or stomach is relatively common, but it is rare in the common bile duct. Most of the reported cases of eosinophilic cholangitis presented with eosinophilia; our patient’s eosinophil count was over 1000/mm3. Since our patient had allergies to pollen and house dust, a relationship between the allergies and the eosinophilic cholangitis was suspected, but no cause was identified.
PMCID: PMC4146980  PMID: 17461504
Eosinophilic cholangitis; Sclerosing cholangitis; Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography; Cholangioscopy; Intraductal ultrasonography
25.  Necessity of a repeat cholangiogram during biliary stent removal after postcholecystectomy bile leak 
To assess the need for repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in patients undergoing biliary stent removal after management of postcholecystectomy bile leak.
A retrospective analysis of the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative endoscopy database at PennState Milton S Hershey Medical Center (Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA) identified all patients referred for ERC with an indication of postcholecystectomy bile leak from January 2001 to June 2010. Baseline demographics, location of bile leak, size of biliary stent placed, duration of stenting, bile leak persistence, and the presence of stone, sludge or strictures on repeat ERC were analyzed.
A total of 81 patients underwent ERC for management of bile leaks after cholecystectomy. One patient was excluded due to a complete transection of the common bile duct necessitating immediate surgical intervention. Fourteen (17.5%) patients underwent open cholecystectomy, 46 (57.5%) underwent laparoscopic procedures and 10 (12.5%) procedures were converted from a laparoscopic to an open approach intraoperatively. Of the 80 patients, 47 (58.7 %) had a cystic duct leak, 11 (13.7 %) had a right hepatic duct leak, 11 (13.7%) had a common bile duct leak, five (6.2%) had a gallbladder fossa leak, four (5%) had a common hepatic duct leak and the remaining two (2.5%) had a left hepatic duct leak. All 80 patients underwent biliary stenting as part of management for their bile leak. Fifty-seven of the 80 patients (71.2%) had a 10 Fr stent placed, with the remainder undergoing placement of a 7 Fr stent. Seventy-five (93.7%) patients underwent biliary sphincterotomy during the initial ERC. Sixty-nine patients underwent repeat ERC after a mean duration of 8.2 weeks (range 0.4 to 18.5 weeks). Eleven patients had no reviewable records regarding a repeat procedure performed for stent removal. Three patients required an early repeat ERC due to suspicion of cholangitis and, hence, were excluded from the final analysis. Of the 66 patients included in the final analysis, 61 (92.4%) had resolution of their bile leak on repeat ERC. All patients had resolution of their bile leak by the third ERC. Fifteen patients (22.7%) had an abnormality on repeat cholangiography (persistent leak in four, stones in three, sludge in seven, and a combination of leak and stone in one) that required further endoscopic intervention including balloon sweep or additional stenting.
Although the majority of postcholecystectomy bile leaks resolve after biliary stent placement, a sizeable percentage (22.7%) of patients had abnormalities on subsequent cholangiograms that required further intervention. These findings suggest the need for a repeat ERC at the time of biliary stent removal in the management of postcholecystectomy bile leaks.
PMCID: PMC3472909  PMID: 23061062
Bile leak; Biliary stent; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram; ERCP; Postcholecystectomy

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