Extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty has been suggested as an alternative to choledochoduodenostomy for the surgical management of bile duct stones associated with a periampullary diverticulum but its value has not previously been investigated. Over a 3 year period, nine patients underwent extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty for common bile duct calculi associated with a periampullary diverticulum with no operative or post-operative mortality and minimal morbidity. Follow-up ranging from 20 to 60 months has shown remission of pain in all but one patient, who has had a normal endoscopic cholangiogram and no further episodes of jaundice or cholangitis. Extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty is a safe and effective alternative to choledochoduodenostomy for the surgical management of choledocholithiasis associated with a periampullary diverticulum.
A patient is reported who had biliary tract obstruction secondary to infection of the common bile duct with Candida albicans, with the formation of a fungus ball. Treatment consisted of surgical removal of the fungus ball and drainage. Chemotherapy was not necessary. Ureteral obstruction through fungus ball formation, and even pulmonary fungus ball formation, has been attributed to candida, but this is the first case reported, to our knowledge, of bile duct obstruction.
Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic diseases in humans, occurring mostly in countries with low standards of public health and hygiene, thereby making ascariasis highly endemic in developing countries. In endemic areas, 30% of adults and 60–70% of children harbour the adult worm. Biliary ascariasis is a rare cause of obstructive jaundice. Conventional management involves endoscopic extraction of worm. We are reporting a rare case of ascaris which induced extrahepatic biliary obstruction in a young male who presented with acute cholangitis. The ascaris was removed by laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct. Postoperative period was uneventful.
Biliary stones are usually found in the gallbladder, but about 10-20% may spontaneously migrate into the common bile duct where they either remain trapped or migrate subsequently via the papilla of Vater into the duodenal lumen. In some cases, biliary stones may form de novo in the common bile duct because of local precipitating factors. We here present a spectacular case of huge gallstones impacted in the common bile duct (empierrement of the common bile duct) that led to the development of acute cholangitis with septic shock. Urgent nocturnal percutaneous cholangiography permitted biliary drainage and resolution of the cholangitis while the stones were secondarily removed surgically because of the large size of the stones.
Acute suppurative cholangitis may be fatal unless adequate biliary drainage is obtained in a timely manner. The association of fever and rapid onset of jaundice in elderly patients should always make physicians think of cholangitis.
We report a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery observed 9 mo after the endoscopic placement of a Wallstent, for bile duct stenosis, which was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. The patient presented with obstructive jaundice and was diagnosed with inoperable common bile duct cancer. A plastic stent was inserted endoscopically to drain the bile, and chemotherapy was initiated. Abdominal pain and jaundice appeared approximately 6 mo after the beginning of chemotherapy. A diagnosis of stent occlusion and cholangitis was made, and the plastic stent was removed and substituted with a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) endoscopically. Nine months after SEMS insertion, contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery protruding into the common bile duct lumen and in contact with the SEMS. The shape and size of the pseudoaneurysm and diameter of its neck was determined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using Sonazoid. A micro-catheter was led into the pseudoaneurysm in the right hepatic artery, GDC™ Detachable Coils were placed, and IDC™ Detachable Coils were then placed in the right hepatic artery on the distal and proximal sides of the pseudoaneurysm using the isolation method. There have been a few reports on pseudoaneurysm associated with stent placement in the biliary tract employing percutaneous transhepatic procedures, however, reports of pseudoaneurysms associated with endoscopic SEMS placement are very rare.
Pseudoaneurysm; Self-expandable metallic stents; Sonazoid; Transcatheter arterial embolization; Wallstent
Jaundice caused by intraluminal bile duct obstruction in infancy is rare but may occur in association with biliary sludge, inspissated bile plugs, or gall stones. Nine boys (aged 2 weeks-6 months) with obstruction caused by inspissated bile (n = 7) or gall stones (n = 2) are presented. Haemolysis was not a factor in the patients' histories but an abnormal entry of the common bile duct into the third part of the duodenum was demonstrated in two and one had an asymptomatic haemangioma. Ultrasonography was the most useful investigation. Surgical removal of the bile duct obstruction was necessary in eight cases and included biliary tract drainage in six and cholecystectomy for changes of cholecystitis in four. Obstruction resolved spontaneously in one infant after percutaneous cholangiography. There were no postoperative complications.
From a consecutive series of 190 patients with choledochoduodenostomy (CDD) and 56 patients with transduodenal sphincteroplasty (TDS), there were 10 and 3 hospital deaths respectively. A long term follow-up study was performed on the remainder. Late deaths occurred in 35 CDD and 5 TDS patients. Serious long term complications occurred in 3.3% of CDD cases, comprising 5 cases of 'sump syndrome' and a further case of cholangitis in the presence of a clear biliary tree. Cholangitis occurred in 2 of the TDS patients (3.8%). Recurrent common duct stones were found in 3 of the 'sump syndrome' cases (1.6%) and one of the TDS patients with cholangitis (1.9%). Eighty-eight per cent of the CDD patients and 90.2% of the TDS patients, who were reviewed, were subjectively well. Serum alkaline phosphatase was raised in 21.6% of the CDD patients and only 3.4% of the TDS group (P less than 0.05). Radiological studies showed that the CDD stoma admitted air and barium more often than the TDS stoma (P less than 0.001). Neither the biochemical nor the radiological findings correlated with the long term symptomatic results of the two procedures. Dynamic HIDA scans showed a shorter time to peak activity in the common hepatic duct for both CDD (P less than 0.01) and TDS (P less than 0.05) as compared with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES). These long-term clinical, biochemical and radiological results are similar to those reported following ES.
Thirty nine patients undergoing surgery for chronic pancreatitis were investigated for evidence of hepatobiliary disease. In addition to pre-operative assessment by liver function tests, ultrasound, ERCP (in 33) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (in five), all had peroperative liver biopsy. Common bile duct stenosis was diagnosed in 16 (62%) of the 26 patients with successful cholangiography. Features of extrahepatic biliary obstruction were found on biopsy in 11 patients, three of whom showed features of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. No patients had secondary biliary cirrhosis. Three had parenchymal liver disease (cirrhosis, resolving hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis respectively) and two others had features suggestive of previous alcohol-induced injury. Five (83%) of the patients with clinical jaundice had biopsy features of extrahepatic biliary obstruction, as did eight (67%) with alkaline phosphatase above twice normal and seven (44%) with radiological common bile duct stenosis. Neither alkaline phosphatase rise, nor common bile duct stenosis alone or in combination, were a reliable indication of the need for biliary enteric bypass surgery. Pre-operative liver biopsy may be a valuable adjunct in the assessment of such patients.
Secondary obstructive cholangiopathy is characterized by intra- or extrahepatic bile tract obstruction. Liver inflammation and structural alterations develop due to progressive bile stagnation. Most frequent etiologies are biliary atresia in children, and hepatolithiasis, postcholecystectomy bile duct injury, and biliary primary cirrhosis in adults, which causes chronic biliary cholangitis. Bile ectasia predisposes to multiple pathogens: viral infections in biliary atresia; Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria cholangitis found in hepatolithiasis and postcholecystectomy bile duct injury. Transmembrane toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated by virus, bacteria, fungi, and parasite stimuli. Even though TLR-2 and TLR-4 are the most studied receptors related to liver infectious diseases, other TLRs play an important role in response to microorganism damage. Acquired immune response is not vertically transmitted and reflects the infectious diseases history of individuals; in contrast, innate immunity is based on antigen recognition by specific receptors designated as pattern recognition receptors and is transmitted vertically through the germ cells. Understanding the mechanisms for bile duct inflammation is essential for the future development of therapeutic alternatives in order to avoid immune-mediated destruction on secondary obstructive cholangiopathy. The role of TLRs in biliary atresia, hepatolithiasis, bile duct injury, and primary biliary cirrhosis is described in this paper.
To evaluate the feasibility of CT fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in emergency patients with acute obstructive cholangitis.
Materials and Methods
The study included 28 patients admitted to the emergency center due to obstructive jaundice and found to require urgent biliary drainage, as well as judged to have a suitable peripheral bile duct for a CTF-guided puncture (at least 4 mm in width). Prior to the CTF-guided puncture, a CT scan was performed to evaluate bile duct dilatation and the underlying causes of biliary obstruction. If the patient was judged to be a suitable candidate, a CTF-guided PTBD was performed in the same CT unit without additional fluoroscopic guidance. Technical feasibility of the procedure was investigated with the evaluation of overall success rate and causes of failure.
A hepatic puncture was attempted at the left lobe in 23 patients and right lobe in five patients. The procedure was successful in 24 of 28 patients (86%) Successful biliary puncture was achieved on the first attempt in 16 patients, the second attempt in five patients, and the third attempt in three patients. The causes of failure included guide wire twisting in one patient, biliary puncture failure in two patients, and poor visualization of the guide wire in one patient. There were no significant procedure-related complication.
The CTF-guided PTBD is technically feasible and highly successful in patients judged to have a suitable indication. Moreover, although the procedure is unfamiliar and inconvenient to interventionalists, it has economical advantages in that it saves time and manpower. We believe this method can be used in the emergency patients requiring urgent biliary drainage as an alternative for the fluoroscopy-guided PTBD.
Bile ducts, percutaneous drainage; Computed tomography (CT); Fluoroscopy; Computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy
A 36 year old Cypriot woman, resident in the U.K. since the age of three years, presented with pyrexia,
jaundice and upper abdominal pain. On ultrasound examination the biliary tree was dilated, contained
sludge and a cystic lesion was present in the liver. An endoscopic cholangiogram showed multiple filling
defects in the bile duct which were not felt to be removable endoscopically and a nasobiliary drain was
therefore inserted. On resolution of the cholangitis with drainage and antibiotics a laparotomy was
performed. The right lobe of the liver was largely replaced by a multiloculated cyst and the bile duct
contained multiple hydatid daughter cysts. A right hepatectomy was performed with t-tube drainage of
the evacuated bile duct. She made an uneventful recovery and has had no problems on subsequent
follow up. Histology confirmed an intrabiliary rupture of a hydatid liver cyst.
Cholangitis secondary to daughter cysts is a rare but recognised complication of hydatid liver cysts.
Management of hydatid liver cysts by formal resection is controversial but may be preferable in this
After orthotopic liver transplantation and biliary reconstruction by cholecystoduodenostomy, four of 40 patients developed delayed obstruction of the cystic duct. The recipients had the clinical syndrome of fulminating cholangitis with jaundice, fever, leukocytosis, toxemia, and bacteremia. All four patients died; of the four, two patients died despite late reoperation and re-establishment of bile drainage by choledochoenterostomy. In all four cases, a factor contributing to the biliary obstruction may have been infection of the extrahepatic biliary ducts with or without ulceration, and in three of the livers, there was evidence of infection of the ducts with CMV. If cholecystoduodenostomy is used in future cases, prompt re-exploration and conversion to choledochoenterostomy should be considered if the diagnosis of duct obstruction, cholangitis, and persistent bacteremia are made.
Eosinophilic cholangiopathy is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tract and causes sclerosing cholangitis. We report a patient with secondary sclerosing cholangitis with eosinophilic cholecystitis. A 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Computed tomography revealed dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, diffuse thickening of the wall of the extrahepatic bile duct, and thickening of the gallbladder wall. Under the diagnosis of lower bile duct carcinoma, he underwent pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy and liver biopsy. On histopathological examination, conspicuous fibrosis was seen in the lower bile duct wall. In the gallbladder wall, marked eosinophilic infiltration was seen. Liver biopsy revealed mild portal fibrosis. He was diagnosed as definite eosinophilic cholecystitis with sclerosing cholangitis with unknown etiology. The possible etiology of sclerosing cholangitis was consequent fibrosis from previous eosinophilic infiltration in the bile duct. The clinicopathological findings of our case and a literature review indicated that eosinophilic cholangiopathy could cause a condition mimicking primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients with eosinophilic cholangitis might be due to fibrosis of the bile duct wall. Eosinophilic cholangiopathy might be confused as PSC with eosinophilia.
Eosinophilc cholangiopathy; Primary sclerosing cholangitis; Secondary sclerosing cholangitis; Obstructive jaundice
Non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication are rare. The clinical symptoms involved are not specific to this condition, thereby making diagnosis difficult and treatment controversial. Here, we report a case of 70-year-old woman complaining of abdominal satiety, combined with non-specific pain in the right upper quadrant. The abdominal contrast-enhanced MRI-scan revealed a large and thick-walled septus cystic lesion in the liver. During operation, the biliary fistula was confirmed in the cyst cavity. A silica gel tube was inserted via the cystic duct for cholangiography, which demonstrated communication between the cyst and biliary tract. We performed wide-scale cyst wall resection; the biliary fistula was completely repaired by the closure of communicated bile ducts. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged with no sign of cholangitis or any other symptoms. The novel surgical management via wide resection of the cyst wall and closure of biliary communication proved to be an adequate and effective procedure for treating nonparasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication.
Hepatic cyst; biliary communication; surgical management
Biliary changes secondary to portal hypertension have rarely been described in published reports. Twenty consecutive patients with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction, all of whom showed a variable degree of abnormalities in the biliary tract suggestive of sclerosing cholangitis, are described. These biliary abnormalities were: focal narrowing, dilatations, and cholangitic changes affecting the main bile ducts and hepatic ducts. The left hepatic duct and its branches were affected in all patients. Only one patient had clinical or biochemical evidence of cholestasis. The mechanism of these abnormalities in the biliary tract of these patients is perhaps the development of portal collaterals.
Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report.
Cholangitis, with a clinical spectrum between acute ascending cholangitis and acute fulminant cholangitis, the mildest and the most severe forms, respectively, is the infection of bile ducts with a potential of serious mortality and morbidity. Obstruction of the bile ducts followed by infection, with E. coli being the most commonly isolated agent, is common to all forms of cholangitis.
Biliary obstruction is caused by choledocholithiasis mostly. “Choledochal pressure” is the most important factor, determining morbidity. If the pressure exceeds 25 cm H2O, which is the critical value, immune dysfunction ensues. Sepsis is common if the infection of biliary ducts is suppurative. Mortality and morbidity are inevitable if left untreated or drained late. The objective of this study is, in the stand point of the current literature, to analyse the diagnostic, therapeutic success and complication rates of ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) in patients with a diagnosis of acute purulent cholangitis with no response to medical treatment.
Biliary tract abnormalities occur in about one of every three people, usually being minor and of no
clinical significance.Major abnormalities, however, may present in an unusual manner and provide a
major hazard to the unsuspecting surgeon.
A patient presenting with cholangitis without jaundice or abnormal liver function tests is reported.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography failed to demonstrate any bile ducts in the right postero-lateral
segments of the liver, the “naked segment sign”. A percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram demonstrated
a stricture obstructing the right posterior segmental hepatic duct with hepatolithiasis above the
stricture. At operation an anomalous vessel was found at the site of the stricture.
This case highlights the unusual way in which biliary tract anomalies may present and the importance
of adequate pre-operative investigation.
Cholangitis requires bile duct obstruction and infection. Patients with cholangitis are often more affected than those with infections that reach the liver through the portal vein. We will attempt to study the influences of (i) route of entry and (ii) presence of bile duct obstruction on hepatic infection. C57BL/6 mice received injections of Escherichia coli or lipopolysaccharide into the obstructed bile duct or portal vein and were monitored for survival. Livers were assayed for bacteria, and cytokine mRNA was measured. In order to examine the effect of biliary obstruction on hepatic infection, animals were subjected to bile duct ligation 1 day prior to portal vein injection and were monitored for survival. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) for E. coli injected into the bile duct was 50 CFU/animal; the LD50 for E. coli injected into the portal vein was 5 × 107 CFU/animal. Initial hepatic delivery of bacteria was equivalent 1 h after injection into the bile duct or portal vein. However, by 24 h, a significantly greater amount of bacteria was recovered from the livers of the bile duct-injected group. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-1RA mRNA was expressed at greater levels in the bile duct-injected group. Prior bile duct ligation followed by portal vein injection resulted in a higher incidence of death than when sham operation was performed prior to portal vein injection. Our data suggest that the increased mortality from cholangitis, compared with that from other hepatic infections, is related to the different route of delivery of pathogen and the maladaptive response (possibly involving IL-10 and IL-1RA) to biliary obstruction itself.
Cholangioscopy not only enables the direct visualization of the biliary tree, but also allows for forceps biopsy to diagnosis early cholangiocarcinoma. Recently, some reports have suggested the clinical usefulness of direct peroral cholangioscopy (POC) using an ultra-slim endoscope with a standard endoscopic unit by a single operator. Enhanced endoscopy, such as narrow band imaging (NBI), can be helpful for detecting early neoplasia in the gastrointestinal tract and is easily applicable during direct POC. A 63-year-old woman with acute cholangitis had persistent bile duct dilation on the left hepatic duct after common bile duct stone removal and clinical improvement. We performed direct POC with NBI using an ultra-slim upper endoscope to examine the strictured segment. NBI examination showed an irregular surface and polypoid structure with tumor vessels. Target biopsy under direct endoscopic visualization was performed, and adenocarcinoma was documented. The patient underwent an extended left hepatectomy, and the resected specimen showed early bile duct cancer confined to the ductal mucosa.
Early bile duct cancer; Direct peroral cholangioscopy; Narrow band imaging
One hundred and twenty seven patients were treated by nasobiliary drainage, or stenting, to prevent biliary obstruction after endoscopic failure to clear stones from the common bile duct. At presentation, 91 (72%) patients were jaundiced and 39 (31%) had cholangitis. Placement of either a nasobiliary drain or stent was successful in 124 (98%) patients. One hundred and twenty one (95%) patients were followed up. Clearance was ultimately achieved endoscopically in 52 and surgically in 25 patients after (mean) 2.4 months. Thirty day mortality was 3%. There were no complications of nasobiliary drainage, but two of 39 patients treated by temporary stents developed cholangitis, both successfully managed by endoscopic duct clearance. Forty two patients unfit for surgery or further endoscopic attempts at duct clearance were followed with stents in situ for a mean 15.9 months (range 2.5-37.5). Cholangitis developed in four patients and was successfully managed by stent change. These results indicate that longterm stenting can be useful for poor risk surgical patients and that nasobiliary drainage or temporary stenting permits further elective rather than urgent endoscopic or surgical treatment.
Exploration of the common bile duct via transduodenal sphincteroplasty is thorough and provides an opportunity for the natural passage of retained calculi. However, this procedure destroys both the sphincter ampulla and sphincter choledochus, the sequelae of which are unknown. Fifty patients who had a transduodenal sphincteroplasty performed between 1970 and 1980 were randomly selected and compared with 50 patients who only had cholecystectomy. They were all seen in the outpatient department, assessed on a modified Visick scale and had liver function tests performed. There was no statistical difference in the subjective quality of result or in the liver function of the sphincteroplasty group when compared with the cholecystectomy patients, which suggests that destruction of the sphincters does not appear to be harmful to the patient.
Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may rupture into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with rupture of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the rupture into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may rupture by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms.
Hydatid Disease; Cholelithiasis; Echinococcal Cyst Rupture; Cystobiliary Fistula
To report the results of surgical treatment of biliary atresia with patent distal extra hepatic bile ducts (BA with PDEBD) with special reference to hepatic portocholecystostomy (HPC) operation.
Materials and Methods:
The study reviews records of children operated for BA with PDEBD. The type of operation, results of surgery, postoperative course and complications during follow-up are noted.
Five children (mean age 83 days) underwent surgery for biliary atresia with patent extra hepatic bile ducts. The diagnosis was confirmed by intraoperative cholangiography in each case. Three children underwent HPC and two had standard hepatic portoenterostomy (HPE) as HPC was not technically feasible. The operation was considered successful in three of five children (60%, two HPC and one HPE), partially successful in one. The mean follow-up was 22 months. None of the children with HPC had cholangitis at follow-up; one child with HPE had recurrent cholangitis.
Biliary atresia (BA) with PDEBD may be a variant with a fair chance for surgical success. When feasible, HPC may be a good treatment option in this group with acceptable results and practically no risk of postoperative cholangitis.
Biliary atresia; cholangitis; jaundice; Kasai
Benign schwannomas arise from neural crest-derived Schwann cells. Schwannomas occurring in the biliary tract become clinically symptomatic due to their compression on the extra hepatic biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice. Their preoperative diagnosis is extremely difficult. We report a 38-year-old male who presented with pain abdomen and jaundice. Computed tomography of abdomen showed extra luminal compression of common bile duct (CBD) possibly by a lymph nodal mass. Resection of the CBD, gall bladder and the mass compressing the CBD with Rouxen-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. The final histopathology was reported as a schwannoma.
Schwannoma; Extrahepatic; Common bile duct; Obstructive jaundice