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1.  Extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty for bile duct stones associated with a periampullary diverticulum. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1992;68(799):346-349.
Extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty has been suggested as an alternative to choledochoduodenostomy for the surgical management of bile duct stones associated with a periampullary diverticulum but its value has not previously been investigated. Over a 3 year period, nine patients underwent extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty for common bile duct calculi associated with a periampullary diverticulum with no operative or post-operative mortality and minimal morbidity. Follow-up ranging from 20 to 60 months has shown remission of pain in all but one patient, who has had a normal endoscopic cholangiogram and no further episodes of jaundice or cholangitis. Extended transduodenal sphincteroplasty is a safe and effective alternative to choledochoduodenostomy for the surgical management of choledocholithiasis associated with a periampullary diverticulum.
PMCID: PMC2399419  PMID: 1630978
2.  Common bile duct obstruction secondary to infection with Candida. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1978;7(5):490-492.
A patient is reported who had biliary tract obstruction secondary to infection of the common bile duct with Candida albicans, with the formation of a fungus ball. Treatment consisted of surgical removal of the fungus ball and drainage. Chemotherapy was not necessary. Ureteral obstruction through fungus ball formation, and even pulmonary fungus ball formation, has been attributed to candida, but this is the first case reported, to our knowledge, of bile duct obstruction.
PMCID: PMC275030  PMID: 350898
3.  Laproscopic Management of Wandering Biliary Ascariasis 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:561563.
Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic diseases in humans, occurring mostly in countries with low standards of public health and hygiene, thereby making ascariasis highly endemic in developing countries. In endemic areas, 30% of adults and 60–70% of children harbour the adult worm. Biliary ascariasis is a rare cause of obstructive jaundice. Conventional management involves endoscopic extraction of worm. We are reporting a rare case of ascaris which induced extrahepatic biliary obstruction in a young male who presented with acute cholangitis. The ascaris was removed by laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct. Postoperative period was uneventful.
PMCID: PMC3437613  PMID: 22973531
4.  Charcot's triad 
Biliary stones are usually found in the gallbladder, but about 10-20% may spontaneously migrate into the common bile duct where they either remain trapped or migrate subsequently via the papilla of Vater into the duodenal lumen. In some cases, biliary stones may form de novo in the common bile duct because of local precipitating factors. We here present a spectacular case of huge gallstones impacted in the common bile duct (empierrement of the common bile duct) that led to the development of acute cholangitis with septic shock. Urgent nocturnal percutaneous cholangiography permitted biliary drainage and resolution of the cholangitis while the stones were secondarily removed surgically because of the large size of the stones.
Acute suppurative cholangitis may be fatal unless adequate biliary drainage is obtained in a timely manner. The association of fever and rapid onset of jaundice in elderly patients should always make physicians think of cholangitis.
PMCID: PMC3094361  PMID: 21584209
5.  Candida tropicalis in a case of cholangiocarcinoma with cholangitis at a tertiary care hospital in Manipal 
Biliary candidiasis is increasing in the hospitalized immunosuppressed individuals. Placement of biliary stents in the cancer patients with obstructive jaundice has been found to be an important factor associated with infectious complications. Positive fungal cultures from bile should not be ignored as mere contamination but should be considered when prescribing treatment for the immunosuppressed with recurrent cholangitis or receiving long-term antibiotic therapy. Here,we report a case of cholangiocarcinoma with cholangitis where Candida tropicalis was the sole pathogen isolated from bile. This is probably the first case of its kind to be reported from Manipal, Karnataka, South India.
PMCID: PMC3885929  PMID: 24432227
Candida tropicalis; Biliary candidiasis; Cholangiocarcinoma; Cholangitis; Biliary stents
6.  Intraluminal biliary obstruction. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1991;66(12):1395-1398.
Jaundice caused by intraluminal bile duct obstruction in infancy is rare but may occur in association with biliary sludge, inspissated bile plugs, or gall stones. Nine boys (aged 2 weeks-6 months) with obstruction caused by inspissated bile (n = 7) or gall stones (n = 2) are presented. Haemolysis was not a factor in the patients' histories but an abnormal entry of the common bile duct into the third part of the duodenum was demonstrated in two and one had an asymptomatic haemangioma. Ultrasonography was the most useful investigation. Surgical removal of the bile duct obstruction was necessary in eight cases and included biliary tract drainage in six and cholecystectomy for changes of cholecystitis in four. Obstruction resolved spontaneously in one infant after percutaneous cholangiography. There were no postoperative complications.
PMCID: PMC1793378  PMID: 1776884
7.  Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after endoscopic biliary stenting for bile duct cancer 
World Journal of Radiology  2012;4(3):115-120.
We report a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery observed 9 mo after the endoscopic placement of a Wallstent, for bile duct stenosis, which was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. The patient presented with obstructive jaundice and was diagnosed with inoperable common bile duct cancer. A plastic stent was inserted endoscopically to drain the bile, and chemotherapy was initiated. Abdominal pain and jaundice appeared approximately 6 mo after the beginning of chemotherapy. A diagnosis of stent occlusion and cholangitis was made, and the plastic stent was removed and substituted with a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) endoscopically. Nine months after SEMS insertion, contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery protruding into the common bile duct lumen and in contact with the SEMS. The shape and size of the pseudoaneurysm and diameter of its neck was determined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using Sonazoid. A micro-catheter was led into the pseudoaneurysm in the right hepatic artery, GDC™ Detachable Coils were placed, and IDC™ Detachable Coils were then placed in the right hepatic artery on the distal and proximal sides of the pseudoaneurysm using the isolation method. There have been a few reports on pseudoaneurysm associated with stent placement in the biliary tract employing percutaneous transhepatic procedures, however, reports of pseudoaneurysms associated with endoscopic SEMS placement are very rare.
PMCID: PMC3314928  PMID: 22468193
Pseudoaneurysm; Self-expandable metallic stents; Sonazoid; Transcatheter arterial embolization; Wallstent
8.  Hepatobiliary complications in chronic pancreatitis. 
Gut  1989;30(4):520-527.
Thirty nine patients undergoing surgery for chronic pancreatitis were investigated for evidence of hepatobiliary disease. In addition to pre-operative assessment by liver function tests, ultrasound, ERCP (in 33) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (in five), all had peroperative liver biopsy. Common bile duct stenosis was diagnosed in 16 (62%) of the 26 patients with successful cholangiography. Features of extrahepatic biliary obstruction were found on biopsy in 11 patients, three of whom showed features of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. No patients had secondary biliary cirrhosis. Three had parenchymal liver disease (cirrhosis, resolving hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis respectively) and two others had features suggestive of previous alcohol-induced injury. Five (83%) of the patients with clinical jaundice had biopsy features of extrahepatic biliary obstruction, as did eight (67%) with alkaline phosphatase above twice normal and seven (44%) with radiological common bile duct stenosis. Neither alkaline phosphatase rise, nor common bile duct stenosis alone or in combination, were a reliable indication of the need for biliary enteric bypass surgery. Pre-operative liver biopsy may be a valuable adjunct in the assessment of such patients.
PMCID: PMC1434033  PMID: 2714685
9.  Toll-Like Receptors in Secondary Obstructive Cholangiopathy 
Secondary obstructive cholangiopathy is characterized by intra- or extrahepatic bile tract obstruction. Liver inflammation and structural alterations develop due to progressive bile stagnation. Most frequent etiologies are biliary atresia in children, and hepatolithiasis, postcholecystectomy bile duct injury, and biliary primary cirrhosis in adults, which causes chronic biliary cholangitis. Bile ectasia predisposes to multiple pathogens: viral infections in biliary atresia; Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria cholangitis found in hepatolithiasis and postcholecystectomy bile duct injury. Transmembrane toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated by virus, bacteria, fungi, and parasite stimuli. Even though TLR-2 and TLR-4 are the most studied receptors related to liver infectious diseases, other TLRs play an important role in response to microorganism damage. Acquired immune response is not vertically transmitted and reflects the infectious diseases history of individuals; in contrast, innate immunity is based on antigen recognition by specific receptors designated as pattern recognition receptors and is transmitted vertically through the germ cells. Understanding the mechanisms for bile duct inflammation is essential for the future development of therapeutic alternatives in order to avoid immune-mediated destruction on secondary obstructive cholangiopathy. The role of TLRs in biliary atresia, hepatolithiasis, bile duct injury, and primary biliary cirrhosis is described in this paper.
PMCID: PMC3205723  PMID: 22114589
10.  Long term follow-up of patients with side to side choledochoduodenostomy and transduodenal sphincteroplasty. 
From a consecutive series of 190 patients with choledochoduodenostomy (CDD) and 56 patients with transduodenal sphincteroplasty (TDS), there were 10 and 3 hospital deaths respectively. A long term follow-up study was performed on the remainder. Late deaths occurred in 35 CDD and 5 TDS patients. Serious long term complications occurred in 3.3% of CDD cases, comprising 5 cases of 'sump syndrome' and a further case of cholangitis in the presence of a clear biliary tree. Cholangitis occurred in 2 of the TDS patients (3.8%). Recurrent common duct stones were found in 3 of the 'sump syndrome' cases (1.6%) and one of the TDS patients with cholangitis (1.9%). Eighty-eight per cent of the CDD patients and 90.2% of the TDS patients, who were reviewed, were subjectively well. Serum alkaline phosphatase was raised in 21.6% of the CDD patients and only 3.4% of the TDS group (P less than 0.05). Radiological studies showed that the CDD stoma admitted air and barium more often than the TDS stoma (P less than 0.001). Neither the biochemical nor the radiological findings correlated with the long term symptomatic results of the two procedures. Dynamic HIDA scans showed a shorter time to peak activity in the common hepatic duct for both CDD (P less than 0.01) and TDS (P less than 0.05) as compared with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES). These long-term clinical, biochemical and radiological results are similar to those reported following ES.
PMCID: PMC2498515  PMID: 2892457
11.  A case of branch duct type intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct treated by open surgery after 11 years of follow-up 
Molecular and Clinical Oncology  2013;1(6):965-969.
The intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a novel disease concept that was recently classified as a biliary cystic tumor by the revised World Health Organization classification. This is the case report of a 70-year-old female patient who experienced repeated episodes of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis since 2000, attributed to a mucus-producing hepatic tumor. Surgery was advised due to the repeated episodes; however, the patient refused. In May, 2011, the patient developed jaundice and fever and was treated with antibiotics. Since there was no improvement, the patient was admitted to the Tokyo Rosai Hospital. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a 50-mm cystic mass with an internal septum in the left hepatic lobe. Although the tumor size had remained almost unchanged compared to the initial CT scan performed in 2000, intra- and extra-hepatic bile duct dilation was more prominent on the second CT scan. Following admission, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed and revealed an expanded papilla of Vater due to a mucous plug. A balloon catheter was inserted into the bile duct to remove the mucous plug, resulting in the drainage of copious amounts of mucus and infected bile. The patient finally consented to surgery and left hepatic lobectomy was performed. Consequently, the diagnosis of low-grade IPNB was made. Branch duct type IPNB, which is characterized by imaging appearance of a cystic mass and slow progression, is attracting increasing attention. In the present case, a cystic mass was identified in the left hepatic lobe, with no significant change in size after 11 years of follow-up, leading to the diagnosis of branch duct type IPNB. Considering the fact that IPNB is usually treated surgically at the time of diagnosis, the present case, due to the long-term follow-up, provides valuable insight into the natural history of the tumor.
PMCID: PMC3916194  PMID: 24649278
intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct; branch type; intestinal type; low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia
12.  Clinical Feasibility and Usefulness of CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in Emergency Patients with Acute Obstructive Cholangitis 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2009;10(2):144-149.
To evaluate the feasibility of CT fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in emergency patients with acute obstructive cholangitis.
Materials and Methods
The study included 28 patients admitted to the emergency center due to obstructive jaundice and found to require urgent biliary drainage, as well as judged to have a suitable peripheral bile duct for a CTF-guided puncture (at least 4 mm in width). Prior to the CTF-guided puncture, a CT scan was performed to evaluate bile duct dilatation and the underlying causes of biliary obstruction. If the patient was judged to be a suitable candidate, a CTF-guided PTBD was performed in the same CT unit without additional fluoroscopic guidance. Technical feasibility of the procedure was investigated with the evaluation of overall success rate and causes of failure.
A hepatic puncture was attempted at the left lobe in 23 patients and right lobe in five patients. The procedure was successful in 24 of 28 patients (86%) Successful biliary puncture was achieved on the first attempt in 16 patients, the second attempt in five patients, and the third attempt in three patients. The causes of failure included guide wire twisting in one patient, biliary puncture failure in two patients, and poor visualization of the guide wire in one patient. There were no significant procedure-related complication.
The CTF-guided PTBD is technically feasible and highly successful in patients judged to have a suitable indication. Moreover, although the procedure is unfamiliar and inconvenient to interventionalists, it has economical advantages in that it saves time and manpower. We believe this method can be used in the emergency patients requiring urgent biliary drainage as an alternative for the fluoroscopy-guided PTBD.
PMCID: PMC2651435  PMID: 19270860
Bile ducts, percutaneous drainage; Computed tomography (CT); Fluoroscopy; Computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy
13.  Controversy in the Management of Cholangitis Secondary to Hydatid Daughter Cysts 
HPB Surgery  1991;4(4):321-329.
A 36 year old Cypriot woman, resident in the U.K. since the age of three years, presented with pyrexia, jaundice and upper abdominal pain. On ultrasound examination the biliary tree was dilated, contained sludge and a cystic lesion was present in the liver. An endoscopic cholangiogram showed multiple filling defects in the bile duct which were not felt to be removable endoscopically and a nasobiliary drain was therefore inserted. On resolution of the cholangitis with drainage and antibiotics a laparotomy was performed. The right lobe of the liver was largely replaced by a multiloculated cyst and the bile duct contained multiple hydatid daughter cysts. A right hepatectomy was performed with t-tube drainage of the evacuated bile duct. She made an uneventful recovery and has had no problems on subsequent follow up. Histology confirmed an intrabiliary rupture of a hydatid liver cyst.
Cholangitis secondary to daughter cysts is a rare but recognised complication of hydatid liver cysts. Management of hydatid liver cysts by formal resection is controversial but may be preferable in this situation.
PMCID: PMC2423643  PMID: 1810374
14.  Delayed biliary duct obstruction after orthotopic liver transplantation 
Surgery  1972;72(4):604-610.
After orthotopic liver transplantation and biliary reconstruction by cholecystoduodenostomy, four of 40 patients developed delayed obstruction of the cystic duct. The recipients had the clinical syndrome of fulminating cholangitis with jaundice, fever, leukocytosis, toxemia, and bacteremia. All four patients died; of the four, two patients died despite late reoperation and re-establishment of bile drainage by choledochoenterostomy. In all four cases, a factor contributing to the biliary obstruction may have been infection of the extrahepatic biliary ducts with or without ulceration, and in three of the livers, there was evidence of infection of the ducts with CMV. If cholecystoduodenostomy is used in future cases, prompt re-exploration and conversion to choledochoenterostomy should be considered if the diagnosis of duct obstruction, cholangitis, and persistent bacteremia are made.
PMCID: PMC2954760  PMID: 4341571
15.  Resected case of eosinophilic cholangiopathy presenting with secondary sclerosing cholangitis 
Eosinophilic cholangiopathy is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tract and causes sclerosing cholangitis. We report a patient with secondary sclerosing cholangitis with eosinophilic cholecystitis. A 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Computed tomography revealed dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, diffuse thickening of the wall of the extrahepatic bile duct, and thickening of the gallbladder wall. Under the diagnosis of lower bile duct carcinoma, he underwent pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy and liver biopsy. On histopathological examination, conspicuous fibrosis was seen in the lower bile duct wall. In the gallbladder wall, marked eosinophilic infiltration was seen. Liver biopsy revealed mild portal fibrosis. He was diagnosed as definite eosinophilic cholecystitis with sclerosing cholangitis with unknown etiology. The possible etiology of sclerosing cholangitis was consequent fibrosis from previous eosinophilic infiltration in the bile duct. The clinicopathological findings of our case and a literature review indicated that eosinophilic cholangiopathy could cause a condition mimicking primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients with eosinophilic cholangitis might be due to fibrosis of the bile duct wall. Eosinophilic cholangiopathy might be confused as PSC with eosinophilia.
PMCID: PMC2658845  PMID: 19294772
Eosinophilc cholangiopathy; Primary sclerosing cholangitis; Secondary sclerosing cholangitis; Obstructive jaundice
16.  Surgical management of non-parasitic hepatic cyst with biliary communication: a case report 
Cancer Biology & Medicine  2013;10(2):110-113.
Non-parasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication are rare. The clinical symptoms involved are not specific to this condition, thereby making diagnosis difficult and treatment controversial. Here, we report a case of 70-year-old woman complaining of abdominal satiety, combined with non-specific pain in the right upper quadrant. The abdominal contrast-enhanced MRI-scan revealed a large and thick-walled septus cystic lesion in the liver. During operation, the biliary fistula was confirmed in the cyst cavity. A silica gel tube was inserted via the cystic duct for cholangiography, which demonstrated communication between the cyst and biliary tract. We performed wide-scale cyst wall resection; the biliary fistula was completely repaired by the closure of communicated bile ducts. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged with no sign of cholangitis or any other symptoms. The novel surgical management via wide resection of the cyst wall and closure of biliary communication proved to be an adequate and effective procedure for treating nonparasitic hepatic cysts with biliary communication.
PMCID: PMC3719188  PMID: 23882427
Hepatic cyst; biliary communication; surgical management
17.  Pseudosclerosing cholangitis in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. 
Gut  1992;33(2):272-276.
Biliary changes secondary to portal hypertension have rarely been described in published reports. Twenty consecutive patients with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction, all of whom showed a variable degree of abnormalities in the biliary tract suggestive of sclerosing cholangitis, are described. These biliary abnormalities were: focal narrowing, dilatations, and cholangitic changes affecting the main bile ducts and hepatic ducts. The left hepatic duct and its branches were affected in all patients. Only one patient had clinical or biochemical evidence of cholestasis. The mechanism of these abnormalities in the biliary tract of these patients is perhaps the development of portal collaterals.
PMCID: PMC1373944  PMID: 1541425
18.  Biliary fascioliasis – an uncommon cause of recurrent biliary colics: Report of a case and brief review 
GMS German Medical Science  2012;10:Doc10.
Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report.
PMCID: PMC3342511  PMID: 22566787
19.  Diagnostic and Therapeutic Value of ERCP in Acute Cholangitis 
ISRN Gastroenterology  2013;2013:191729.
Cholangitis, with a clinical spectrum between acute ascending cholangitis and acute fulminant cholangitis, the mildest and the most severe forms, respectively, is the infection of bile ducts with a potential of serious mortality and morbidity. Obstruction of the bile ducts followed by infection, with E. coli being the most commonly isolated agent, is common to all forms of cholangitis. Biliary obstruction is caused by choledocholithiasis mostly. “Choledochal pressure” is the most important factor, determining morbidity. If the pressure exceeds 25 cm H2O, which is the critical value, immune dysfunction ensues. Sepsis is common if the infection of biliary ducts is suppurative. Mortality and morbidity are inevitable if left untreated or drained late. The objective of this study is, in the stand point of the current literature, to analyse the diagnostic, therapeutic success and complication rates of ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) in patients with a diagnosis of acute purulent cholangitis with no response to medical treatment.
PMCID: PMC3753744  PMID: 23997958
20.  Hepatolithiasis Associated With Anomalous Biliary Anatomy and a Vascular Compression Hepatolithiasis and Anomalous Anatomy 
HPB Surgery  1991;3(2):129-137.
Biliary tract abnormalities occur in about one of every three people, usually being minor and of no clinical significance.Major abnormalities, however, may present in an unusual manner and provide a major hazard to the unsuspecting surgeon.
A patient presenting with cholangitis without jaundice or abnormal liver function tests is reported. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography failed to demonstrate any bile ducts in the right postero-lateral segments of the liver, the “naked segment sign”. A percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram demonstrated a stricture obstructing the right posterior segmental hepatic duct with hepatolithiasis above the stricture. At operation an anomalous vessel was found at the site of the stricture.
This case highlights the unusual way in which biliary tract anomalies may present and the importance of adequate pre-operative investigation.
PMCID: PMC2423603  PMID: 2043509
21.  Infection by Gram-Negative Organisms via the Biliary Route Results in Greater Mortality than Portal Venous Infection 
Cholangitis requires bile duct obstruction and infection. Patients with cholangitis are often more affected than those with infections that reach the liver through the portal vein. We will attempt to study the influences of (i) route of entry and (ii) presence of bile duct obstruction on hepatic infection. C57BL/6 mice received injections of Escherichia coli or lipopolysaccharide into the obstructed bile duct or portal vein and were monitored for survival. Livers were assayed for bacteria, and cytokine mRNA was measured. In order to examine the effect of biliary obstruction on hepatic infection, animals were subjected to bile duct ligation 1 day prior to portal vein injection and were monitored for survival. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) for E. coli injected into the bile duct was 50 CFU/animal; the LD50 for E. coli injected into the portal vein was 5 × 107 CFU/animal. Initial hepatic delivery of bacteria was equivalent 1 h after injection into the bile duct or portal vein. However, by 24 h, a significantly greater amount of bacteria was recovered from the livers of the bile duct-injected group. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-1RA mRNA was expressed at greater levels in the bile duct-injected group. Prior bile duct ligation followed by portal vein injection resulted in a higher incidence of death than when sham operation was performed prior to portal vein injection. Our data suggest that the increased mortality from cholangitis, compared with that from other hepatic infections, is related to the different route of delivery of pathogen and the maladaptive response (possibly involving IL-10 and IL-1RA) to biliary obstruction itself.
PMCID: PMC164261  PMID: 12853402
22.  Early Bile Duct Cancer Detected by Direct Peroral Cholangioscopy with Narrow-Band Imaging after Bile Duct Stone Removal 
Gut and Liver  2011;5(3):377-379.
Cholangioscopy not only enables the direct visualization of the biliary tree, but also allows for forceps biopsy to diagnosis early cholangiocarcinoma. Recently, some reports have suggested the clinical usefulness of direct peroral cholangioscopy (POC) using an ultra-slim endoscope with a standard endoscopic unit by a single operator. Enhanced endoscopy, such as narrow band imaging (NBI), can be helpful for detecting early neoplasia in the gastrointestinal tract and is easily applicable during direct POC. A 63-year-old woman with acute cholangitis had persistent bile duct dilation on the left hepatic duct after common bile duct stone removal and clinical improvement. We performed direct POC with NBI using an ultra-slim upper endoscope to examine the strictured segment. NBI examination showed an irregular surface and polypoid structure with tumor vessels. Target biopsy under direct endoscopic visualization was performed, and adenocarcinoma was documented. The patient underwent an extended left hepatectomy, and the resected specimen showed early bile duct cancer confined to the ductal mucosa.
PMCID: PMC3166681  PMID: 21927669
Early bile duct cancer; Direct peroral cholangioscopy; Narrow band imaging
23.  Additional endoscopic procedures instead of urgent surgery for retained common bile duct stones. 
Gut  1989;30(4):535-540.
One hundred and twenty seven patients were treated by nasobiliary drainage, or stenting, to prevent biliary obstruction after endoscopic failure to clear stones from the common bile duct. At presentation, 91 (72%) patients were jaundiced and 39 (31%) had cholangitis. Placement of either a nasobiliary drain or stent was successful in 124 (98%) patients. One hundred and twenty one (95%) patients were followed up. Clearance was ultimately achieved endoscopically in 52 and surgically in 25 patients after (mean) 2.4 months. Thirty day mortality was 3%. There were no complications of nasobiliary drainage, but two of 39 patients treated by temporary stents developed cholangitis, both successfully managed by endoscopic duct clearance. Forty two patients unfit for surgery or further endoscopic attempts at duct clearance were followed with stents in situ for a mean 15.9 months (range 2.5-37.5). Cholangitis developed in four patients and was successfully managed by stent change. These results indicate that longterm stenting can be useful for poor risk surgical patients and that nasobiliary drainage or temporary stenting permits further elective rather than urgent endoscopic or surgical treatment.
PMCID: PMC1434048  PMID: 2714686
24.  Successful Surgical Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invading Into Biliary Tree 
HPB Surgery  1991;4(3):237-244.
A 41-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography showed a large mass in the right hepatic lobe and marked dilatation of the biliary tree in the left lateral segment of the liver. Angiography showed evidence of neovascularity. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography revealed complete obstruction of the common bile duct just below the bifurcation. The serum level of alpha-fetoprotein on admission was 1,080,000 ng/ml. These findings suggested to us a primary hepatocellular carcinoma invading the intrahepatic bile duct. Extended right lobectomy and hepaticojejunostomy for bile drainage was carried out. The patient is doing well 3 years after surgery.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading to the portal vein is not so rare, but invasion into the bile duct is much less common. In 1947, Mallory1 described a single case of HCC invading the gallbladder and obstructing extrahepatic bile ducts. In 1975, Lin2 termed this HCC “Icteric type hepatoma”. The incidence of such HCC in Japan was reported to be 1.9-9%2,3.
Obstructive jaundice is a clinical manifestation of the terminal stage in HCC. We describe here our treatment of a woman with HCC invading the common bile duct. Right extended lobectomy and reconstruction of hepaticojejunostomy were effective.
PMCID: PMC2423632  PMID: 1657119
25.  Schwannoma of common bile duct causing obstructive jaundice 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2010;72(Suppl 1):333-335.
Benign schwannomas arise from neural crest-derived Schwann cells. Schwannomas occurring in the biliary tract become clinically symptomatic due to their compression on the extra hepatic biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice. Their preoperative diagnosis is extremely difficult. We report a 38-year-old male who presented with pain abdomen and jaundice. Computed tomography of abdomen showed extra luminal compression of common bile duct (CBD) possibly by a lymph nodal mass. Resection of the CBD, gall bladder and the mass compressing the CBD with Rouxen-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. The final histopathology was reported as a schwannoma.
PMCID: PMC3451857  PMID: 23133289
Schwannoma; Extrahepatic; Common bile duct; Obstructive jaundice

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