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1.  Incidence and correlates of receiving cigarettes as gifts and selecting preferred brand because it was gifted: Findings from the ITC China Survey 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:996.
Background
Giving cigarettes as gifts is a common practice in China, but there have been few systematic studies of this practice. The present study was designed to estimate the incidence of receiving cigarettes as gifts, correlates of this practice, and its impact on brand selection in a representative sample of urban adult smokers in China.
Methods
Data were analyzed from Wave 2 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, where 4843 adult urban smokers were interviewed in six major Chinese cities between October 2007 and January 2008. The incidence of most recent cigarette acquisition due to gifting and the prevalence of preferred brand selection due to having received it as a gift were estimated. Bivariate and adjusted logistic regression models were estimated to identify factors associated with these two outcomes.
Results
The incidence of receiving cigarettes as a gift at most recent cigarette acquisition was 3.5%. Smokers who received these gifted cigarettes were more likely to be female, older, have higher educational attainment, live in Beijing, and smoke fewer cigarettes per day. The prevalence of choosing one’s preferred brand due to having received it as a gift was 7.0%, and this was more likely among smokers who lived in Beijing and Guangzhou, had lower educational attainment, smoked less frequently, and had smoked their preferred brand for less than one year.
Conclusions
The 3.5% incidence of one’s most recent cigarette acquisition due to gifting is consistent with prevalence estimates based on longer reference periods and translates into the average smoker receiving a gift of cigarettes approximately five times a year. Gifting also appears to have a significant influence on brand preference. Tobacco control interventions in China may need to denormalize the practice of giving cigarettes as gifts in order to decrease the social acceptability of smoking.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-996
PMCID: PMC3532818  PMID: 23157697
Tobacco; Cigarette gifting; Preferred cigarette brand
2.  Gift-Giving and Network Structure in Rural China: Utilizing Long-Term Spontaneous Gift Records 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e102104.
The tradition of keeping written records of gift received during household ceremonies in many countries offers researchers an underutilized means of data collection for social network analysis. This paper first summarizes unique features of the gift record data that circumvent five prevailing sampling and measurement issues in the literature, and we discuss their advantages over existing studies at both the individual level and the dyadic link level using previous data sources. We then document our research project in rural China that implements a multiple wave census-type household survey and a long-term gift record collection. The pattern of gift-giving in major household social events and its recent escalation is analyzed. There are significantly positive correlations between gift network centrality and various forms of informal insurance. Finally, economic inequality and competitive marriage market are among the main demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the observed gift network structure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102104
PMCID: PMC4128647  PMID: 25111696
3.  US campaign aims to end industry gifts, speaking fees, and travel for doctors 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2007;334(7590):385.
doi:10.1136/bmj.39132.345174.DB
PMCID: PMC1804155  PMID: 17322228
4.  Drug industry loses bid to block disclosure of doctors' gifts 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2007;335(7609):12-13.
doi:10.1136/bmj.39262.516806.DB
PMCID: PMC1910633  PMID: 17615200
6.  US tackles drug company gifts to doctors 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2002;325(7368):795.
PMCID: PMC1169556  PMID: 12378726
7.  Gifts and Corporate Influence in Doctor of Pharmacy Education 
Objectives
To explore the nature of corporate gifts directed at PharmD programs and pharmacy student activities and the perceptions of administrators about the potential influences of such gifts.
Methods
A verbally administered survey of administrative officials at 11 US colleges and schools of pharmacy was conducted and responses were analyzed.
Results
All respondents indicated accepting corporate gifts or sponsorships for student-related activities in the form of money, grants, scholarships, meals, trinkets, and support for special events, and cited many advantages to corporate partner relationships. Approximately half of the respondents believed that real or potential problems could occur from accepting corporate gifts. Forty-four percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that corporate contributions could influence college or school administration. Sixty-one percent agreed or strongly agreed that donations were likely to influence students.
Conclusions
Corporate gifts do influence college and school of administration and students. Policies should be in place to manage this influence appropriately.
PMCID: PMC1959208  PMID: 17786255
development; gifts; fundraising; corporate influence; corporate partnerships
8.  EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children 
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics.
doi:10.1038/cti.2014.24
PMCID: PMC4237031  PMID: 25505956
9.  Sperm storage mediated by cryptic female choice for nuptial gifts 
Polyandrous females are expected to discriminate among males through postcopulatory cryptic mate choice. Yet, there is surprisingly little unequivocal evidence for female-mediated cryptic sperm choice. In species in which nuptial gifts facilitate mating, females may gain indirect benefits through preferential storage of sperm from gift-giving males if the gift signals male quality. We tested this hypothesis in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by quantifying the number of sperm stored in response to copulation with males with or without a nuptial gift, while experimentally controlling copulation duration. We further assessed the effect of gift presence and copulation duration on egg-hatching success in matings with uninterrupted copulations with gift-giving males. We show that females mated to gift-giving males stored more sperm and experienced 17% higher egg-hatching success, compared with those mated to no-gift males, despite matched copulation durations. Uninterrupted copulations resulted in both increased sperm storage and egg-hatching success. Our study confirms the prediction that the nuptial gift as a male signal is under positive sexual selection by females through cryptic sperm storage. In addition, the gift facilitates longer copulations and increased sperm transfer providing two different types of advantage to gift-giving in males.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1735
PMCID: PMC3813325  PMID: 24266042
sexual selection; postcopulatory choice; Pisaura mirabilis; sperm storage; sperm count
10.  Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider 
Background
In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested male mating success in the following experimental groups: protein enriched fly gift (PG), regular fly gift (FG), worthless gift (WG), or no gift (NG).
Results
Males that offered worthless gifts acquired similar mating success as males offering nutritional gifts, while males with no gift experienced reduced mating success. The results suggest that strong selection on the nuptial gift-giving trait facilitates male deception by donation of worthless gifts. Females terminated matings faster when males offered worthless donations; this demonstrate a cost of deception for the males as shorter matings lead to reduced sperm transfer and thus give the deceiving males a disadvantage in sperm competition.
Conclusion
We propose that the gift wrapping trait allows males to exploit female foraging preference by disguising the gift content thus deceiving females into mating without acquiring direct benefits. Female preference for a genuine prey gift combined with control over mating duration, however, counteracts the male deception.
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-329
PMCID: PMC3228764  PMID: 22082300
11.  Moving as a Gift: Relocation in Older Adulthood 
While discussions of accessibility, mobility and activities of daily living frame relocation studies, in older adulthood, the paper explores the emotional motivation of gift giving as a rationale for moving. This ethnographic study investigates the processes of household disbandment and decision-making of older adults in the Midwestern United States relocating in post-Global Financial Crisis contexts. In this study, relationships are created and sustained through the process of moving, linking older adults (n=81), their kin (n=49), and professionals (n=46) in the Midwestern United States.
Using Marcel Mauss’ The Gift (1925/1990) as a theoretical lens, relocation in older adulthood is conceptualized as a gift in two ways: to one’s partner, and one’s kin. Partners may consider gift-giving in terms of the act of moving to appease and honor their partner. Kin who were not moving themselves were also recipients of the gift of moving. These gifts enchain others in relationships of reciprocity. However these gifts, like all gifts, are not without costs or danger, so this paper examines some of the challenges that emerge along with gift-giving.
doi:10.1016/j.jaging.2014.07.001
PMCID: PMC4254923  PMID: 25456616
Relocation; qualitative; intergenerational exchange; transition; housing; gift; anthropology; aging
12.  Unpredictable environments, nuptial gifts and the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in insects: an experiment 
Many insects have a mating system where males transfer nutrients to females at mating, which are often referred to as 'nuptial gifts'. Among butterflies, some of the characteristic features of these species are polyandry (females mate multiple times), and relatively large male ejaculates. When males produce part of the resources used for offspring, the value of body size might then increase for males and decrease for females. The male/female size ratio is also observed to increase when the degree of polyandry and gift size increase. Butterfly species where gift-giving occurs are generally more variable in body size, suggesting that food quality/quantity fluctuates during juvenile stages. This will cause some males to have much to provide and some females to be in great need, and could be conducive to the evolution of a gift-giving mating system. In such a system, growing male and female juveniles should react differently to food shortage. Females should react by maturing at a smaller size since their own lack of reproductive resources can partly be compensated for by male contributions. Males have to pay the full cost of decreased reproduction if they mature at a small size, making it more important for males to keep on growing, even when growth is costly. An earlier experiment with the polyandrous and gift-giving butterfly, Pieris napi, supported this prediction. The pattern is expected to be absent or reversed for species with small nuptial gifts, where females do not benefit from mating repeatedly, and will thus be dependent on acquiring resources for reproduction on their own. To test this prediction, we report here on an experiment with the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria. We find that growth response correlates with mating system in the two above species, and we conclude that differences in environmental conditions between species may act as an important factor in the evolution of the mating system and sexual size dimorphism.
doi:10.1098/rspb.1997.0068
PMCID: PMC1688396
Mating Systems Size At Maturity Growth Plasticity Spermatophore Butterfly
13.  Consumer Nutrition Environments of Hospitals: An Exploratory Analysis Using the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops, 2012 
Introduction
Hospitals are the primary worksite of over 5 million adults in the United States, and millions of meals are procured and consumed in this setting. Because many worksite nutrition initiatives use an ecological framework to improve the dietary habits of employees, the nutrition values of foods served in hospitals is receiving attention.
Methods
This study used the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops to quantitatively describe the consumer nutrition environments of 39 hospitals in Southern California. Data were collected by visiting each facility once from February 2012 through May 2012.
Results
On average, hospitals achieved only 29%, 33%, and less than 1% of the total possible points for their cafeteria, vending machines, and gift shops sections, respectively; overall, hospitals scored 25% of the total possible points. Large facility size and contracted food service operations were associated with some healthy practices in hospital cafeterias, but we found no association between these variables and the sectional or overall nutrition composite scores.
Conclusion
The average consumer nutrition environment of hospitals in this sample was minimally conducive to healthful eating. Nutrition-related interventions are warranted in hospital settings.
doi:10.5888/pcd10.120335
PMCID: PMC3702231  PMID: 23823699
14.  GOOD GIFTS FOR THE COMMON GOOD: Blood and Bioethics in the Market of Genetic Research 
This article is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted with the Indian community in Houston, as part of a NIH–NHGRI-sponsored ethics study and sample collection initiative entitled “Indian and Hindu Perspectives on Genetic Variation Research.” At the heart of this research is one central exchange—blood samples donated for genetic research—that draws both the Indian community and a community of researchers into an encounter with bioethics. I consider the meanings that come to be associated with blood donation as it passes through various hands, agendas, and associated ethical filters on its way to the lab bench: how and why blood is solicited, how the giving and taking of blood is rationalized, how blood as material substance is alienated, processed, documented, and made available for the promised ends of basic science research. Examining corporeal substances and asking what sorts of gifts and problems these represent, I argue, sheds some light on two imbricated tensions expressed by a community of Indians, on the one hand, and of geneticists and basic science researchers, on the other hand: that gifts ought to be free (but are not), and that science ought to be pure (but is not). In this article, I explore how experiences of bioethics are variously shaped by the histories and habits of Indic giving, prior sample collection controversies, commitments to “good science” and the common “good of humanity,” and negotiations of the sites where research findings circulate.
doi:10.1525/can.2007.22.3.429
PMCID: PMC2367312  PMID: 18458755
blood donation; gift exchange; genetics research; bioethics; community consultation; India; Indian community in Houston; International HapMap Project
15.  Sensory exploitation as an evolutionary origin to nuptial food gifts in insects. 
Nuptial food gifts given by males to females at mating are widespread in insects, but their evolutionary origin remains obscure. Such gifts may arise as a form of sensory trap that exploits the normal gustatory responses of females, favouring the selective retention of sperm of gift-giving males. I tested this hypothesis by offering foreign food gifts, synthesized by males of one cricket species, to females of three non-gift-giving species. Females provisioned with novel food gifts were 'fooled' into accepting more sperm than they otherwise would in the absence of a gift. These results support the hypothesis that nuptial food gifts and post-copulatory female mating preferences coevolve through a unique form of sensory exploitation.
PMCID: PMC1690542  PMID: 10722214
16.  Women Are Better at Selecting Gifts than Men 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81643.
There is a widespread belief that women are better at selecting gifts than men; however, this claim has not been assessed on the basis of objective criteria. The current studies do exactly that and show that women do indeed make better gift selections for others, regardless of the gender of the receiver and the type of relationship between the giver and receiver. We investigate the mediating role of different aspects of interpersonal sensitivity and reveal that differences in interpersonal interest (measured with an autism questionnaire), but not differences in interpersonal reactivity, explain gender differences in gift selection quality. The current studies thus present the first objective evidence for the claim that women are better in selecting gifts for others and also give an indication of why this is the case.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081643
PMCID: PMC3873259  PMID: 24386082
17.  Patients bearing gifts: are there strings attached? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2005;331(7531):1527-1529.
The giving of gifts is an ancient and widespread human activity. But when the gift is given by a patient to their doctor then there may be ethical and clinical questions to consider
PMCID: PMC1322254  PMID: 16373740
18.  Nuptial gifts and the use of body resources for reproduction in the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi. 
Reproduction in butterflies, as in many holometabolous insects, is usually constrained by the amount of nutrients the animals can collect as juveniles. In polyandric species the females can also supplement their larval-derived reserves with protein-rich donations, so-called nuptial gifts, delivered by the males at mating. Recent findings also indicate that females have access to nitrogen from the histolysis of flight muscles in the thorax. This field study examined how butterflies of the polyandric gift-giving species Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) use body resources in their reproduction and how the male donations affect the females use of stored reserves. The results support earlier studies, indicating that females use resources from the breakdown of thorax muscles to increase their reproductive potential and the results also indicate that males also use thorax material in their reproduction. The study also supports recent findings that the male donation increases the breakdown of body resources and thereby boosts the reproductive output of the female.
PMCID: PMC1690601  PMID: 10819151
19.  Alternative Hospital Gift Bags and Breastfeeding Exclusivity 
ISRN Nutrition  2013;2013:560810.
The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01).
doi:10.5402/2013/560810
PMCID: PMC4045267  PMID: 24959548
20.  The United States Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (2006): New challenges to balancing patient rights and physician responsibilities 
Advance health care directives and informed consent remain the cornerstones of patients' right to self-determination regarding medical care and preferences at the end-of-life. However, the effectiveness and clinical applicability of advance health care directives to decision-making on the use of life support systems at the end-of-life is questionable. The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA) has been revised in 2006 to permit the use of life support systems at or near death for the purpose of maximizing procurement opportunities of organs medically suitable for transplantation. Some states have enacted the Revised UAGA (2006) and a few of those have included amendments while attempting to preserve the uniformity of the revised Act. Other states have introduced the Revised UAGA (2006) for legislation and remaining states are likely to follow soon.
The Revised UAGA (2006) poses challenges to the Patient Self Determination Act (PSDA) embodied in advance health care directives and individual expression about the use of life support systems at the end-of-life. The challenges are predicated on the UAGA revising the default choice to presumption of donation intent and the use of life support systems to ensure medical suitability of organs for transplantation. The default choice trumps the expressed intent in an individual's advance health care directive to withhold and/or withdraw life support systems at the end-of-life. The Revised UAGA (2006) overrides advance directives on utilitarian grounds, which is a serious ethical challenge to society. The subtle progression of the Revised UAGA (2006) towards the presumption about how to dispose of one's organs at death can pave the way for an affirmative "duty to donate". There are at least two steps required to resolve these challenges. First, physicians and hospitals must fulfill their responsibilities to educate patients on the new legislations and document their preferences about the use of life support systems for organ donation at the end-of-life. Second, a broad based societal discussion must be initiated to decide if the Revised UAGA (2006) infringes on the PSDA and the individual's right of autonomy. The discussion should also address other ethical concerns raised by the Revised UAGA (2006), including the moral stance on 1) the interpretation of the refusal of life support systems as not applicable to organ donation and 2) the disregarding of the diversity of cultural beliefs about end-of-life in a pluralistic society.
doi:10.1186/1747-5341-2-19
PMCID: PMC2001294  PMID: 17850664
21.  An fMRI study of nonverbally gifted reading disabled adults: has deficit compensation effected gifted potential? 
Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability (RD). Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both non-verbal-giftedness and RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD), non-verbally-gifted (G), non-verbally-gifted-RD (GRD), and control (C) adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of RD and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli.
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00507
PMCID: PMC3756280  PMID: 24009572
giftedness; reading disability; twice-exceptional; neuroimaging; spatial visualization
22.  GIFtS: annotation landscape analysis with GeneCards 
BMC Bioinformatics  2009;10:348.
Background
Gene annotation is a pivotal component in computational genomics, encompassing prediction of gene function, expression analysis, and sequence scrutiny. Hence, quantitative measures of the annotation landscape constitute a pertinent bioinformatics tool. GeneCards® is a gene-centric compendium of rich annotative information for over 50,000 human gene entries, building upon 68 data sources, including Gene Ontology (GO), pathways, interactions, phenotypes, publications and many more.
Results
We present the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score (GIFtS) which allows a quantitative assessment of a gene's annotation status, by exploiting the unique wealth and diversity of GeneCards information. The GIFtS tool, linked from the GeneCards home page, facilitates browsing the human genome by searching for the annotation level of a specified gene, retrieving a list of genes within a specified range of GIFtS value, obtaining random genes with a specific GIFtS value, and experimenting with the GIFtS weighting algorithm for a variety of annotation categories. The bimodal shape of the GIFtS distribution suggests a division of the human gene repertoire into two main groups: the high-GIFtS peak consists almost entirely of protein-coding genes; the low-GIFtS peak consists of genes from all of the categories. Cluster analysis of GIFtS annotation vectors provides the classification of gene groups by detailed positioning in the annotation arena. GIFtS also provide measures which enable the evaluation of the databases that serve as GeneCards sources. An inverse correlation is found (for GIFtS>25) between the number of genes annotated by each source, and the average GIFtS value of genes associated with that source. Three typical source prototypes are revealed by their GIFtS distribution: genome-wide sources, sources comprising mainly highly annotated genes, and sources comprising mainly poorly annotated genes. The degree of accumulated knowledge for a given gene measured by GIFtS was correlated (for GIFtS>30) with the number of publications for a gene, and with the seniority of this entry in the HGNC database.
Conclusion
GIFtS can be a valuable tool for computational procedures which analyze lists of large set of genes resulting from wet-lab or computational research. GIFtS may also assist the scientific community with identification of groups of uncharacterized genes for diverse applications, such as delineation of novel functions and charting unexplored areas of the human genome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-348
PMCID: PMC2774327  PMID: 19852797
23.  Survey of hospital doctors' attitudes and knowledge of oral conditions in older patients 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2001;77(908):392-394.
The study was designed to assess the views and knowledge of hospital doctors in general and geriatric medicine on oral health in older people. Eighty two doctors in general and geriatric medicine at two hospitals were shown 12 colour slides of oral mucosal conditions and asked to give a diagnosis for each slide and complete a questionnaire. Completed questionnaires with the answers to the coloured slides were returned completed by 70 doctors.
The majority of doctors (84%) felt it was important to examine older patients' mouths, however only 19% (χ2 p=0.0001) routinely do so. If asked to prescribe nystatin by the nursing staff, 30% said they would do so without examining the mouth itself. Only 9% of doctors knew that wearing dentures was a specific risk factor for oral candidiasis (χ2 p=0.001). Altogether 56% of doctors did not feel confident in examining the oral cavity and most (77%) did not think they had had sufficient training in this examination. Only two doctors correctly diagnosed all of the slides. An early squamous carcinoma was misdiagnosed by 80% of the doctors (χ2 p=0.0001).
Hospital doctors do not routinely inspect older patients' mouths. Even if shown slides of typical oral mucosal lesions many hospital doctors are unable to diagnose them. Issues on training need to be addressed. From the patients' point of view a public health campaign is required to educate older people on the need for a regular dental review and be aware that doctors may not be able to diagnose serious oral conditions.

doi:10.1136/pmj.77.908.392
PMCID: PMC1742067  PMID: 11375454
24.  The Gift of Observation: An Interview with Mary Lyon 
PLoS Genetics  2010;6(1):e1000813.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000813
PMCID: PMC2809768  PMID: 20107603
25.  Prevalence and meanings of exchange of money or gifts for sex in unmarried adolescent sexual relationships in sub-Saharan Africa 
Using national survey data collected in 2004 in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda with 12–19 year olds, we examine the prevalence of sex in exchange for money or gifts in the 12 months prior to the survey and its association with adolescents’ social and economic vulnerability and condom use. Receiving something in exchange for sex is very common among sexually active, unmarried female adolescents and there are no significant differences by household economic status, orphan status, level of schooling completed or age difference between partners. Condom use at last sex in the 12 months prior to the survey is not associated with receiving gifts or money. Qualitative data based on focus group discussions and in-depth interviews collected in 2003 with adolescents suggest that receiving money or gifts for sex is not necessarily a coercive force, but rather can be a routine aspect of dating.
PMCID: PMC2367111  PMID: 18458736
transactional sex; adolescents; condom use

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