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1.  Manual blood exchange transfusion does not significantly contribute to parasite clearance in artesunate-treated individuals with imported severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:115.
Background
Exchange transfusion (ET) has remained a controversial adjunct therapy for the treatment of severe malaria. In order to assess the relative contribution of ET to parasite clearance in severe malaria, all patients receiving ET as an adjunct treatment to parenteral quinine or to artesunate were compared with patients treated with parenteral treatment with quinine or artesunate but who did not receive ET. ET was executed using a standardized manual isovolumetric exchange protocol.
Methods
All patients in the Rotterdam Malaria Cohort treated for severe P. falciparum malaria at the Institute for Tropical Diseases of the Harbour Hospital between 1999 and 2011 were included in this retrospective follow-up study. Both a two-stage approach and a log-linear mixed model approach were used to estimate parasite clearance times (PCTs) in patients with imported malaria. Severe malaria was defined according to WHO criteria.
Results
A total of 87 patients with severe malaria was included; 61 received intravenous quinine, whereas 26 patients received intravenous artesunate. Thirty-nine patients received ET as an adjunct treatment to either quinine (n = 23) or artesunate (n = 16). Data from 84 of 87 patients were suitable for estimation of parasite clearance rates. PCTs were significantly shorter after administration of artesunate as compared with quinine. In both models, ET did not contribute significantly to overall parasite clearance.
Conclusion
Manual exchange transfusion does not significantly contribute to parasite clearance in artesunate-treated individuals. There may be a small effect of ET on parasite clearance under quinine treatment. Institution of ET to promote parasite clearance in settings where artesunate is available is not recommended, at least not with manually executed exchange procedures.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-115
PMCID: PMC3616886  PMID: 23537187
2.  Malaria: severe, life-threatening 
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:0913.
Introduction
Severe malaria mainly affects children under 5 years old, non-immune travellers, migrants to malarial areas, and people living in areas with unstable or seasonal malaria. Cerebral malaria, causing encephalopathy and coma, is fatal in around 20% of children and adults, and neurological sequelae may occur in some survivors. Severe malarial anaemia may have a mortality rate of over 13%.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of antimalarial treatments and adjunctive treatment for complicated falciparum malaria in non-pregnant people? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 33 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: dexamethasone, exchange blood transfusion, initial blood transfusion, intramuscular artemether, intravenous and intramuscular artesunate, intravenous and intramuscular dihydroartemisinin, quinine, and rectal/intravenous/intramuscular artemisinin and its derivatives.
Key Points
Severe malaria mainly affects children under 5 years old, non-immune travellers, migrants to malarial areas, and people living in areas with unstable or seasonal malaria. Cerebral malaria, causing encephalopathy and coma, is fatal in around 20% of children and adults, and neurological sequelae may occur in some survivors.Severe malarial anaemia may have a mortality rate of over 13%.
International consensus has historically regarded quinine as standard treatment for severe falciparum malaria. RCTs will generally compare new treatments against this standard. We found no clear evidence on the best quinine treatment regimen or route of administration to use, although high initial dose quinine clears parasites more rapidly compared with lower-dose quinine. However, higher doses increase the risk of adverse effects. Intravenous artesunate is more effective than quinine in reducing mortality from severe malaria. Intramuscular artemether and rectal artemisinin, artemether, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin may be as effective as quinine in reducing mortality from severe malaria.Routine use of phenobarbitone in cerebral malaria may reduce convulsions compared with placebo, but may be associated with higher mortality. Dexamethasone has not been shown to reduce mortality from severe malaria, and it increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and seizures.
We don't know whether initial blood transfusion or exchange blood transfusion reduce mortality from severe malaria as no adequate-quality trials have been found. Blood transfusion is associated with adverse effects, but is clinically essential in some circumstances.
We don't know how intravenous or intramuscular dihydroartemisinin compare with quinine, how dihydroartemisinin and artesunate compare with each other when given either intravenously or intramuscularly, or how rectal administration of artemisinin derivatives compares with administering them intramuscularly or intravenously as we found insufficient evidence.
PMCID: PMC3217801  PMID: 21375787
3.  Malaria: severe, life-threatening 
Clinical Evidence  2007;2007:0913.
Introduction
Severe malaria mainly affects children under 5 years old, non-immune travellers, migrants to malarial areas, and people living in areas with unstable or seasonal malaria. Cerebral malaria, causing encephalopathy and coma, is fatal in around 20% of children and adults, and neurological sequelae may occur in some survivors. Severe malarial anaemia may have a mortality rate of over 13%.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of antimalarial treatments; and adjunctive treatment for complicated falciparum malaria in non-pregnant people? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to December 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 31 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: dexamethasone, exchange blood transfusion, initial blood transfusion, intramuscular artemether, intravenous artesunate,
Key Points
Severe malaria mainly affects children under 5 years old, non-immune travellers, migrants to malarial areas, and people living in areas with unstable or seasonal malaria. Cerebral malaria, causing encephalopathy and coma, is fatal in around 20% of children and adults, and neurological sequelae may occur in some survivors.Severe malarial anaemia may have a mortality rate of over 13%.
International consensus has historically regarded quinine as standard treatment for severe falciparum malaria. Controlled trials will generally compare new treatments against this standard. We found no clear evidence on the best quinine treatment regimen or route of administration to use, although high initial dose quinine clears parasites more rapidly compared with lower-dose quinine, but increases the risk of adverse effects. Intravenous artesunate is probably more effective than quinine in reducing mortality from severe malaria. Intramuscular artemether and rectal artemisinin, artemether, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin may be as effective as quinine in reducing mortality from severe malaria.We don't know how intramuscular arteether compares with quinine.Routine use of phenobarbitone in cerebral malaria may reduce convulsions compared with placebo, but can increase mortality. Dexamethasone has not been shown to reduce mortality from severe malaria, and it increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and seizures.
We don't know whether initial blood transfusion or exchange blood transfusion reduce mortality from severe malaria as no adequate-quality studies have been found. Blood transfusion is associated with adverse effects, but is clinically essential in some circumstances.
PMCID: PMC2943816  PMID: 19454095
4.  Limited Ability of Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfnhe1 Polymorphisms To Predict Quinine In Vitro Sensitivity or Clinical Effectiveness in Uganda▿  
Quinine is a standard drug for treating severe malaria in Africa, and it is also increasingly used to treat uncomplicated disease. However, failures of quinine therapy are common, and it is unknown if failures in Africa are due to drug resistance. Recent studies have identified associations between in vitro quinine sensitivity and polymorphisms in genes encoding putative transporters, including well-described polymorphisms in pfcrt and pfmdr1 and varied numbers of DNNND or DDNHNDNHNND repeats in microsatellite 4760 (ms4760) of the predicted sodium-hydrogen exchanger, pfnhe1. To better characterize mediators of quinine response, we assessed associations between genetic polymorphisms, in vitro quinine sensitivity, and quinine treatment responses in Kampala, Uganda. Among 172 fresh clinical isolates tested in vitro, decreasing sensitivity to quinine was associated with accumulation of pfmdr1 mutations at codons 86, 184, and 1246. Nearly all parasites had pfcrt 76T, preventing analysis of associations with this mutation. pfnhe1 ms4760 was highly polymorphic. Parasites with 2 copies of either ms4760 repeat showed modest decreases in quinine sensitivity compared to those with 1 or ≥3 repeats, but the differences were not statistically significant. None of the above polymorphisms predicted treatment failure among 66 subjects treated with quinine for uncomplicated malaria. Our data suggest that quinine sensitivity is a complex trait and that known polymorphisms in pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfnhe1, while associated with quinine sensitivity, are not robust markers for quinine resistance.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00954-10
PMCID: PMC3028814  PMID: 21078941
5.  Quinine localizes to a non-acidic compartment within the food vacuole of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum 
Malaria Journal  2012;11:350.
Background
The naturally fluorescent compound quinine has long been used to treat malaria infections. Although some evidence suggests that quinine acts in the parasite food vacuole, the mechanism of action of quinine has not yet been resolved. The Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance (pfmdr1) gene encodes a food vacuolar membrane transporter and has been linked with parasite resistance to quinine. The effect of multiple pfmdr1 copies on the subcellular localization of quinine was explored.
Methods
Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the subcellular localization of quinine in parasites containing different pfmdr1 copy numbers to determine if copy number of the gene affects drug localization. The acidotropic dye LysoTracker Red was used to label the parasite food vacuole. Time-lapse images were taken to determine quinine localization over time following quinine exposure.
Results
Regardless of pfmdr1 copy number, quinine overlapped with haemozoin but did not colocalize with LysoTracker Red, which labeled the acidic parasite food vacuole.
Conclusions
Quinine localizes to a non-acidic compartment within the food vacuole possibly haemozoin. Pfmdr1 copy number does not affect quinine subcellular localization.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-350
PMCID: PMC3520729  PMID: 23088166
Quinine; Plasmodium falciparum; Pfmdr1; Copy number
6.  Quinine Treatment Selects the pfnhe–1 ms4760–1 Polymorphism in Malian Patients with Falciparum Malaria 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2012;207(3):520-527.
Background. The mechanism of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to quinine is not known. In vitro quantitative trait loci mapping suggests involvement of a predicted P. falciparum sodium–hydrogen exchanger (pfnhe–1) on chromosome 13.
Methods. We conducted prospective quinine efficacy studies in 2 villages, Kollé and Faladié, Mali. Cases of clinical malaria requiring intravenous therapy were treated with standard doses of quinine and followed for 28 days. Treatment outcomes were classified using modified World Health Organization protocols. Molecular markers of parasite polymorphisms were used to distinguish recrudescent parasites from new infections. The prevalence of pfnhe–1 ms4760–1 among parasites before versus after quinine treatment was determined by direct sequencing.
Results. Overall, 163 patients were enrolled and successfully followed. Without molecular correction, the mean adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) was 50.3% (n = 163). After polymerase chain reaction correction to account for new infections, the corrected ACPR was 100%. The prevalence of ms4760–1 increased significantly, from 26.2% (n = 107) before quinine treatment to 46.3% (n = 54) after therapy (P = .01). In a control sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine study, the prevalence of ms4760–1 was similar before and after treatment.
Conclusions. This study supports a role for pfnhe–1 in decreased susceptibility of P. falciparum to quinine in the field.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jis691
PMCID: PMC3537444  PMID: 23162138
Malaria; recurrence; antimalarials; Plasmodium falciparum; drug resistance; sodium–hydrogen antiporter; microsatellite; Mali
7.  Peritoneal dialysis and exchange transfusion in a neonate with argininosuccinic aciduria. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1976;51(3):228-231.
Peritoneal dialysis rapidly reduced blood ammonia concentration in this child with arginino-succinic acid-lyase deficiency, whereas exchange transfusion did not. Yet this reduction in plasma ammonia level did not produce clinical improvement. We speculate that the effects of ammonia intoxication on the highly susceptible neonatal metabolism are due to an accumulation of toxic products and to an altered energy metabolism. Both aspects must be considered in any attempt to treat congenital hyperammonaemia.
PMCID: PMC1545925  PMID: 952557
8.  Exchange Transfusion in a Case of Severe Plasmodium Falciparum Infection: A Case Report 
Canadian Family Physician  1989;35:2129-2173.
A 45-year-old Canadian man, who had recently returned from Cameroon, complained of fever lasting eight days. He had 40% parasitemia with Plasmodium falciparum. In spite of oral therapy with chloroquine, quinine, and tetracycline, the patient's condition deteriorated. Although his clinical condition improved more slowly, the patient's parasitemia improved considerably after exchange transfusion and the institution of parenteral quinidine therapy. Exchange transfusion may be life-saving in falciparum malaria and should be instituted early in severe cases.
Images
PMCID: PMC2280921  PMID: 21249094
hematology; infectious diseases; malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; tropical diseases
9.  The treatment of malaria. 
British Medical Journal  1976;1(6005):323-328.
At least four doses of quinine followed by a single dose of mefloquine or by a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine are two highly effective regimens for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. Mefloquine alone is valuable in ambulant patients. Chloroquine-sensitive falciparum malaria can be treated with a course of chloroquine. Vivax and all other types of malaria should be treated with sequential chloroquine and primaquine. Quinine, by intravenous infusion, is the most effective drug for severe falciparum malaria. The optimum intravenous dose varies between 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg administered over four hours. Intravenous or oral quinine should be administered about every 12 hours and the total daily dose of quinine should rarely exceed 20 mg/kg. Intravenous fluid input should be controlled in falciparum malaria to prevent pulmonary oedema. Established renal failure is best treated by dialysis. The value of adrenocortical steroids for falciparum coma has not been established. Fresh blood transfusion may be helpful in small doses for severe anaemia and to replace clotting factors. Anticoagulants, such as heparin, should not be used in falciparum malaria.
PMCID: PMC1638678  PMID: 764937
10.  Protective efficacy of malaria case management for preventing malaria mortality in children: a systematic review for the Lives Saved Tool 
BMC Public Health  2011;11(Suppl 3):S14.
Background
The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model was developed to estimate the impact of the scale-up of child survival interventions on child mortality. New advances in antimalarials have improved their efficacy of treating uncomplicated and severe malaria. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and parenteral or rectal artemisinin or quinine for severe malaria syndromes have been shown to be very effective for the treatment of malaria in children. These interventions are now being considered for inclusion in the LiST model. However, for obvious ethical reasons, their protective efficacy (PE) compared to placebo is unknown and their impact on reducing malaria-attributable mortality has not been quantified.
Methods
We performed systematic literature reviews of published studies in P. falciparum endemic settings to determine the protective efficacy (PE) of ACT treatment against malaria deaths among children with uncomplicated malaria, as well as the PE of effective case management including parenteral quinine against malaria deaths among all hospitalized children. As no randomized placebo-controlled trials of malaria treatment have been conducted, we used multiple data sources to ascertain estimates of PE, including a previously performed Delphi estimate for treatment of uncomplicated malaria.
Results
Based on multiple data sources, we estimate the PE of ACT treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria on reducing malaria mortality in children 1–23 months to be 99% (range: 94-100%), and in children 24-59 months to be 97% (range: 86-99%). We estimate the PE of treatment of severe P. falciparum malaria with effective case management including intravenous quinine on reducing malaria mortality in children 1-59 months to be 82% (range: 63-94%) compared to no treatment.
Conclusions
This systematic review quantifies the PE of ACT used for treating uncomplicated malaria and effective case management including parenteral quinine for treating severe P. falciparum malaria for preventing malaria mortality in children <5. These data will be used in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model for estimating the impact of scaling-up these interventions against malaria. However, in order to estimate the reduction in child mortality due to scale-up of these interventions, it is imperative to develop standardized indicators to measure population coverage of these interventions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-S3-S14
PMCID: PMC3231887  PMID: 21501431
11.  Diagnosing Severe Falciparum Malaria in Parasitaemic African Children: A Prospective Evaluation of Plasma PfHRP2 Measurement 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(8):e1001297.
Arjen Dondorp and colleagues investigate whether the plasma level of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 can be used to distinguish between severe malaria and other severe febrile illness in African children with malaria.
Background
In African children, distinguishing severe falciparum malaria from other severe febrile illnesses with coincidental Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia is a major challenge. P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) is released by mature sequestered parasites and can be used to estimate the total parasite burden. We investigated the prognostic significance of plasma PfHRP2 and used it to estimate the malaria-attributable fraction in African children diagnosed with severe malaria.
Methods and Findings
Admission plasma PfHRP2 was measured prospectively in African children (from Mozambique, The Gambia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) aged 1 month to 15 years with severe febrile illness and a positive P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based rapid test in a clinical trial comparing parenteral artesunate versus quinine (the AQUAMAT trial, ISRCTN 50258054). In 3,826 severely ill children, Plasmadium falciparum PfHRP2 was higher in patients with coma (p = 0.0209), acidosis (p<0.0001), and severe anaemia (p<0.0001). Admission geometric mean (95%CI) plasma PfHRP2 was 1,611 (1,350–1,922) ng/mL in fatal cases (n = 381) versus 1,046 (991–1,104) ng/mL in survivors (n = 3,445, p<0.0001), without differences in parasitaemia as assessed by microscopy. There was a U-shaped association between log10 plasma PfHRP2 and risk of death. Mortality increased 20% per log10 increase in PfHRP2 above 174 ng/mL (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.21, 95%CI 1.05–1.39, p = 0.009). A mechanistic model assuming a PfHRP2-independent risk of death in non-malaria illness closely fitted the observed data and showed malaria-attributable mortality less than 50% with plasma PfHRP2≤174 ng/mL. The odds ratio (OR) for death in artesunate versus quinine-treated patients was 0.61 (95%CI 0.44–0.83, p = 0.0018) in the highest PfHRP2 tertile, whereas there was no difference in the lowest tertile (OR 1.05; 95%CI 0.69–1.61; p = 0.82). A limitation of the study is that some conclusions are drawn from a mechanistic model, which is inherently dependent on certain assumptions. However, a sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that the results were robust to a plausible range of parameter estimates. Further studies are needed to validate our findings.
Conclusions
Plasma PfHRP2 has prognostic significance in African children with severe falciparum malaria and provides a tool to stratify the risk of “true” severe malaria-attributable disease as opposed to other severe illnesses in parasitaemic African children.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Editors' Summary
Background
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected mosquitoes. In 2010, malaria caused an estimated 655,000 deaths worldwide, mostly in Africa, where according to the World Health Organization, one African child dies every minute from the disease. There are four Plasmodium parasite species that cause malaria in humans, with one species, Plasmodium falciparum, causing the most severe disease. However, diagnosing severe falciparum malaria in children living in endemic areas is problematic, as many semi-immune children may have the malaria parasites in their blood (described as being parasitaemic) but do not have clinical disease. Therefore, a positive malaria blood smear may be coincidental and not be diagnostic of severe malaria, and unfortunately, neither are the clinical symptoms of severe malaria, such as shock, acidosis, or coma, which can also be caused by other childhood infections. For these reasons, the misdiagnosis of falciparum malaria in severely ill children is an important problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and may result in unnecessary child deaths.
Why Was This Study Done?
Previous studies have suggested that a parasite protein—P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2)—is a measure of the total number of parasites in the patient. Unlike the circulating parasites detected on a blood film, which do not represent the parasites that get stuck in vital organs, PfHRP2 is distributed equally through the total blood plasma volume, and so can be considered a measure of the total parasite burden in the previous 48 hours. So in this study, the researchers assessed the prognostic value of plasma PfHRP2 in African children with severe malaria and whether this protein could distinguish children who really do have severe malaria from those who have severe febrile illness but coincidental parasitaemia, who may have another infection.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers assessed levels of plasma PfHRP2 in 3,826 out of a possible 5,425 African children who participated in a large multinational trial (in Mozambique, The Gambia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo) that compared the anti-malarial drugs quinine and artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria. All children had a clinical diagnosis of severe malaria confirmed by a rapid diagnostic test, and the researchers used clinical signs to define the severity of malaria. The researchers assessed the relationship between plasma PfHRP2 concentrations and risk of death taking other well established predictors of death, such as coma, convulsions, hypoglycaemia, respiratory distress, and shock, into account.
The researchers found that PfHRP2 was detectable in 3,800/3,826 (99%) children with severe malaria and that the average plasma PfHRP2 levels was significantly higher in the 381 children who died from malaria than in children who survived (1,611 ng/mL versus 1,046 ng/mL). Plasma PfHRP2 was also significantly higher in children with severe malaria signs and symptoms such as coma, acidosis, and severe anaemia. Importantly, the researchers found that high death rates were associated with either very low or very high values of plasma PfHRP2: the odds (chance) of death were 20% higher per unit increase in PfHRP2 above a specific threshold (174 ng/ml), but below this concentration, the risk of death increased with decreasing levels, probably because at lower levels disease was caused by a severe febrile disease other than malaria, like septicemia. Finally, the researchers found that in children within the highest PfHRP2 tertile, the chance of death when treated with the antimalarial drug artesunate versus quinine was 0.61 but that there was no difference in death rates in the lowest tertile, which supports that patients with very low plasma PfHRP2 have a different severe febrile illness than malaria. The researchers use mathematical modeling to provide cut-off values for plasma PfHRP2 denoting the proportion of patients with a diagnosis other than severe malaria.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that in areas of moderate or high malaria transmission where a high proportion of children are parasitaemic, plasma PfHRP2 levels taken on admission to hospital can differentiate children at highest risk of death from severe falciparum malaria from those likely to have alternative causes of severe febrile illness. Therefore, plasma PfHRP2 could be considered a valuable additional diagnostic tool and prognostic indicator in African children with severe falciparum malaria. This finding is important for clinicians treating children with severe febrile illnesses in malaria-endemic countries: while high levels of plasma PfHRP2 is indicative of severe malaria which needs urgent antimalarial treatment, low levels suggest that another severe infective disease should be considered, warranting additional investigations and urgent treatment with antibiotics.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001297.
A previous small study in PLOS ONE explores the relationship between plasma PfHRP2 and severe malaria in Tanzanian children
The WHO website and the website of Malaria No More have comprehensive information about malaria
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001297
PMCID: PMC3424256  PMID: 22927801
12.  Potential usefulness of quinine to circumvent the anthracycline resistance in clinical practice. 
British Journal of Cancer  1990;62(3):395-397.
Quinine, the widely used antimalaria agent, was found to increase the cytotoxicity of epideoxorubicin (epiDXR) in resistant DHD/K12 rat colon cancer cells in vitro. Quinine appeared as slightly less effective than quinidine or verapamil for anthracycline potentiation but its weaker cardiotoxicity could counterbalance this disadvantage in vivo. Serum from six patients treated by conventional doses of quinine (25-30 mg kg-1 day-1) was demonstrated to enhance the accumulation of epiDXR in DHD/K12 cells as judged by fluorescence microscopy and HPLC assay (1.6 to 6-fold compared with control serum). In this patients quinine concentrations in serum ranged from 4.4 to 10.1 micrograms ml-1. Our results suggest that quinine could be safely used as anthracycline resistance modifier in clinical practice.
Images
PMCID: PMC1971452  PMID: 2206948
13.  Congenital haemolytic anaemia resulting from glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency: genetics, clinical picture, and prenatal diagnosis. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1979;16(3):189-196.
Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency with severe haemolysis and hydrops fetalis was found in the first child of unrelated, healthy Caucasian parents. The child died at 3 hours. Both parents were found to have 50% of normal red cell GPI activity and qualitative tests on their red cells and white cells showed that each was heterozygous for a different GPI variant allele associated with enzyme deficiency. Tests on the placenta showed that the propositus was a 'compound' heterozygote. Examination of amniotic cells obtained by amniocentesis on the mother at 28 weeks in her second pregnancy led to the prenatal diagnosis of GPI deficiency. This second child, a 'compound' heterozygote at the GPI locus indistinguishable from the first, was successfully treated by immediate exchange transfusion and subsequent blood transfusions.
Images
PMCID: PMC1012689  PMID: 469896
14.  Intravenous Artesunate for Severe Malaria in Travelers, Europe 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2011;17(5):771-777.
Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. Five patients required a blood transfusion. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had received higher doses of IV artesunate than patients without hemolysis. IV artesunate was an effective alternative to quinine for treatment of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure.
doi:10.3201/eid1705.101229
PMCID: PMC3321768  PMID: 21529383
artesunate; Plasmodium falciparum; parasites; malaria; hemolysis; critical care; travelers; Europe; synopsis
15.  Hypoglycaemia in severe malaria, clinical associations and relationship to quinine dosage 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2010;10:334.
Background
Hypoglycaemia is an independent risk factor for death in severe malaria and a recognized adverse treatment effect of parenteral quinine. In 2006 our hospital changed quinine treatment policy from 15 mg/kg loading (plus 10 mg/kg 12-hourly) to 20 mg/kg loading (plus 10 mg/kg 8-hourly) to comply with new WHO guidelines. This presented us with the opportunity to examine whether there was any dose relationship of quinine and hypoglycaemia occurrence.
Methods
Retrospective case notes review of all children admitted to hospital with severe falciparum malaria between April 2002 - July 2009, before and after the introduction of the new WHO quinine regimen. Four-hourly bedside glucose levels were measured until intravenous quinine was discontinued. Clinical events immediately preceding or concurrent with each episode of hypoglycaemia (glucose < = 3.0 mmol/l) were recorded.
Results
954 children received the old quinine regime and 283 received the new regime. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of hypoglycaemia (< = 3.0 mmol/L) on the new regime compared to former (15% vs. 15%); similar findings were noted for profound hypoglycaemia (< 2.2 mmols/L) 8% v 5%, P = 0.07. Episodes were co-incident with disease severity markers: coma (57%), circulatory failure (38%) and respiratory distress (21%) but less commonly with seizures (10%). Disruption of maintenance fluids and/or blood transfusion concurred with 42% of the hypoglycaemia episodes. Post admission hypoglycaemia increased odds of fatal outcome (24%) compared to euglycaemic counterparts (8%), odds ratio = 3.45 (95% confidence interval = 2.30-5.16) P < 0.01.
Conclusion
There was no evidence to indicate a dose relationship between quinine and occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia concurred with severity features, disruption of glucose infusion and transfusion. Careful glucose monitoring should be targeted to these complications where resources are limited.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-334
PMCID: PMC2995467  PMID: 21092224
16.  Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children (AQUAMAT): an open-label, randomised trial 
Lancet  2010;376(9753):1647-1657.
Summary
Background
Severe malaria is a major cause of childhood death and often the main reason for paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. Quinine is still the established treatment of choice, although evidence from Asia suggests that artesunate is associated with a lower mortality. We compared parenteral treatment with either artesunate or quinine in African children with severe malaria.
Methods
This open-label, randomised trial was undertaken in 11 centres in nine African countries. Children (<15 years) with severe falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to parenteral artesunate or parenteral quinine. Randomisation was in blocks of 20, with study numbers corresponding to treatment allocations kept inside opaque sealed paper envelopes. The trial was open label at each site, and none of the investigators or trialists, apart from for the trial statistician, had access to the summaries of treatment allocations. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN50258054.
Findings
5425 children were enrolled; 2712 were assigned to artesunate and 2713 to quinine. All patients were analysed for the primary outcome. 230 (8·5%) patients assigned to artesunate treatment died compared with 297 (10·9%) assigned to quinine treatment (odds ratio [OR] stratified for study site 0·75, 95% CI 0·63–0·90; relative reduction 22·5%, 95% CI 8·1–36·9; p=0·0022). Incidence of neurological sequelae did not differ significantly between groups, but the development of coma (65/1832 [3·5%] with artesunate vs 91/1768 [5·1%] with quinine; OR 0·69 95% CI 0·49–0·95; p=0·0231), convulsions (224/2712 [8·3%] vs 273/2713 [10·1%]; OR 0·80, 0·66–0·97; p=0·0199), and deterioration of the coma score (166/2712 [6·1%] vs 208/2713 [7·7%]; OR 0·78, 0·64–0·97; p=0·0245) were all significantly less frequent in artesunate recipients than in quinine recipients. Post-treatment hypoglycaemia was also less frequent in patients assigned to artesunate than in those assigned to quinine (48/2712 [1·8%] vs 75/2713 [2·8%]; OR 0·63, 0·43–0·91; p=0·0134). Artesunate was well tolerated, with no serious drug-related adverse effects.
Interpretation
Artesunate substantially reduces mortality in African children with severe malaria. These data, together with a meta-analysis of all trials comparing artesunate and quinine, strongly suggest that parenteral artesunate should replace quinine as the treatment of choice for severe falciparum malaria worldwide.
Funding
The Wellcome Trust.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61924-1
PMCID: PMC3033534  PMID: 21062666
17.  Clindamycin plus quinine for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Malaria Journal  2012;11:2.
Background
Artemisinin-based combinations are recommended for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, but are costly and in limited supply. Clindamycin plus quinine is an alternative non-artemisinin-based combination recommended by World Health Organization. The efficacy and safety of clindamycin plus quinine is not known. This systematic review aims to assess the efficacy of clindamycin plus quinine versus other anti-malarial drugs in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
Methods
All randomized controlled trials comparing clindamycin plus quinine with other anti-malarial drugs in treating uncomplicated malaria were included in this systematic review. Databases searched included: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. The primary outcome measure was treatment failure by day 28. Dichotomous data was compared using risk ratio (RR), in a fixed effects model.
Results
Seven trials with 929 participants were included. Clindamycin plus quinine significantly reduced the risk of day 28 treatment failure compared with quinine (RR 0.14 [95% CI 0.07 to 0.29]), quinine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (RR 0.17 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.44]), amodiaquine (RR 0.11 [95% CI 0.04 to 0.27]), or chloroquine (RR 0.11 [95% CI 0.04 to 0.29]), but had similar efficacy compared with quinine plus tetracycline (RR 0.33 [95% CI 0.01 to 8.04]), quinine plus doxycycline (RR 1.00 [95% CI 0.21 to 4.66]), artesunate plus clindamycin (RR 0.57 [95% CI 0.26 to 1.24]), or chloroquine plus clindamycin (RR 0.38 [95% CI 0.13 to 1.10]). Adverse events were similar across treatment groups but were poorly reported.
Conclusion
The evidence on the efficacy of clindamycin plus quinine as an alternative treatment for uncomplicated malaria is inconclusive. Adequately powered trials are urgently required to compare this combination with artemisinin-based combinations.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-2
PMCID: PMC3280165  PMID: 22217214
18.  Clinical review: Severe malaria 
Critical Care  2003;7(4):315-323.
Malaria represents a medical emergency because it may rapidly progress to complications and death without prompt and appropriate treatment. Severe malaria is almost exclusively caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The incidence of imported malaria is increasing and the case fatality rate remains high despite progress in intensive care and antimalarial treatment. Clinical deterioration usually appears 3–7 days after onset of fever. Complications involve the nervous, respiratory, renal, and/or hematopoietic systems. Metabolic acidosis and hypoglycemia are common systemic complications. Intravenous quinine and quinidine are the most widely used drugs in the initial treatment of severe falciparum malaria, whereas artemisinin derivatives are currently recommended for quinine-resistant cases. As soon as the patient is clinically stable and able to swallow, oral treatment should be given. The intravascular volume should be maintained at the lowest level sufficient for adequate systemic perfusion to prevent development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Renal replacement therapy should be initiated early. Exchange blood transfusion has been suggested for the treatment of patients with severe malaria and high parasitemia. For early diagnosis, it is paramount to consider malaria in every febrile patient with a history of travel in an area endemic for malaria.
PMCID: PMC270697  PMID: 12930555
Plasmodium falciparum; severe malaria; treatment
19.  Artemisinin derivatives versus quinine in treating severe malaria in children: a systematic review 
Malaria Journal  2008;7:210.
Background
The efficacy of intravenous quinine, which is the mainstay for treating severe malaria in children, is decreasing in South East Asia and Africa. Artemisinin derivatives are a potential alternative to quinine. However, their efficacy compared to quinine in treating severe malaria in children is not clearly understood. The objective of this review was to assess the efficacy of parenteral artemisinin derivatives versus parenteral quinine in treating severe malaria in children.
Methods
All randomized controlled studies comparing parenteral artemisinin derivatives with parenteral quinine in treating severe malaria in children were included in the review. Data bases searched were: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2008), EMBASE (1980 to February 2008), and LILACS (1982 to February 2008). Dichotomous variables were compared using risk ratios (RR) and the continuous data using weighted mean difference (WMD).
Results
Twelve trials were included (1,524 subjects). There was no difference in mortality between artemisinin derivatives and quinine (RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.12). The artemisinin derivatives resolved coma faster than quinine (WMD = -4.61, 95% CI: -7.21 to -2.00, fixed effect model), but when trials with adequate concealment only were considered this differences disappeared. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in parasite clearance time, fever clearance time, incidence of neurological sequelae and 28th day cure rate. One trial reported significantly more local reactions at the injection site with intramuscular quinine compared to artemether. None of the trials was adequately powered to demonstrate equivalence.
Conclusion
There was no evidence that treatment of children with severe malaria with parenteral artemisinin derivatives was associated with lower mortality or long-term morbidity compared to parenteral quinine. Future studies require adequately powered equivalence trial design to decide whether both drugs are equally effective.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-7-210
PMCID: PMC2576341  PMID: 18928535
20.  Differential Association of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ Exchanger Polymorphism and Quinine Responses in Field- and Culture-Adapted Isolates of Plasmodium falciparum ▿ † 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(12):5834-5841.
Plasmodium falciparum isolates with decreased susceptibility to quinine are increasingly being found in malaria patients. Mechanisms involved in this resistance are not yet understood. Several studies claim that alongside mutations in the Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes, the Pfnhe-1 Na+/H+ exchanger polymorphism plays a role in decreasing susceptibility. However, conflicting results on the link between the Pfnhe-1 gene and quinine resistance arise from field- and culture-adapted isolates. We tested the association between Pfnhe-1, Pfcrt, and Pfmdr1 polymorphisms in field- and culture-adapted isolates from various countries with their in vitro susceptibility to quinine. Field isolates presented a higher diversity of the Pfnhe-1 microsatellite sequence than culture-adapted isolates. In culture-adapted isolates but not in field isolates, mutations in the Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes, as well as a higher number of DNNND repeats in the Pfnhe-1 gene, were associated with a higher 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of quinine. Furthermore, most of the culture-adapted isolates with more than one DNNND repeat in the Pfnhe-1 gene also harbored mutated Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes with an apparent cumulative effect on quinine susceptibility. This study supports the involvement of the Pfnhe-1 gene in the modulation of the in vitro quinine response when associated with mutated Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes. Culture adaptation could be responsible for selection of specific haplotypes of these three genes. Methods used for drug testing might thus influence the association between Pfnhe-1 polymorphism and quinine susceptibility. However, we do not exclude the possibility that in particular settings, Pfnhe-1 polymorphism can be used as a molecular marker for surveillance of quinine resistance.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00477-11
PMCID: PMC3232819  PMID: 21947391
21.  Adverse Effect of Rifampin on Quinine Efficacy in Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria 
The effects of adding rifampin to quinine were assessed in adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Patients were randomized to receive oral quinine either alone (n = 30) or in combination with rifampin (n = 29). Although parasite clearance times were shorter in the quinine-rifampin-treated patients (mean ± standard deviation, 70 ± 21 versus 82 ± 18 h; P = 0.023), recrudescence rates were five times higher (n = 15 of 23; 65%) than those obtained with quinine alone (n = 3 of 25; 12%), P < 0.001. Patients receiving rifampin had significantly greater conversion of quinine to 3-hydroxyquinine and consequently considerably lower concentrations of quinine in their plasma after the second day of treatment (median area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve from day zero to day 7 = 11.7 versus 47.5 μg/ml · day, P < 0.001). Rifampin significantly increases the metabolic clearance of quinine and thereby reduces cure rates. Rifampin should not be combined with quinine for the treatment of malaria, and the doses of quinine should probably be increased in patients who are already receiving rifampin treatment.
doi:10.1128/AAC.47.5.1509-1513.2003
PMCID: PMC153304  PMID: 12709315
22.  Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe imported malaria: comparative analysis of adverse events focussing on delayed haemolysis 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:241.
Background
Severe malaria is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease. It has been conclusively shown that artesunate compared to quinine is superior in antiparasitic efficacy and in lowering mortality showing a better short-term safety profile. Regarding longer-term effects, reports of delayed haemolysis after parenteral artesunate for severe malaria in returning travellers have been published recently. So far, delayed haemolysis has not been described after the use of parenteral quinine.
Methods
In this retrospective study, all patients treated for severe malaria at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf were included between 2006 and 2012. The primary endpoint was the proportion of delayed haemolysis in patients treated with quinine versus those who received artesunate. As secondary endpoint, the proportion of any adverse event was assessed.
Results
A total of 36 patients with severe malaria were included in the analysis. Of these, 16 patients contributed sufficient data to assess the endpoint delayed haemolysis. Twelve were treated primarily with intravenous quinine – with four patients having received intrarectal artesunate as an adjunct treatment – and five patients were treated primarily with artesunate. Five cases of delayed haemolysis could be detected – two in patients treated with quinine and intrarectal artesunate and three in patients treated with artesunate. No case of delayed haemolysis was detected in patients treated with quinine alone.
While adverse events observed in patients treated with artesunate were limited to delayed haemolysis (three patients, 60%) and temporary deterioration in renal function (three patients, 60%), patients treated with quinine showed a more diverse picture of side effects with 22 patients (71%) experiencing at least one adverse event. The most common adverse events after quinine were hearing disturbances (12 patients, 37%), hypoglycaemia (10 patients, 32%) and cardiotoxicity (three patients, 14%).
Conclusions
This study provides further evidence on delayed haemolysis after artesunate and underlines the importance of a standardized follow-up of patients treated with artesunate for severe malaria.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-241
PMCID: PMC3718719  PMID: 23855745
Severe malaria; Imported malaria; Artesunate; Quinine; Haemolysis; Adverse events
23.  Pilot feasibility study of an emergency paediatric kit for intra-rectal quinine administration used by the personnel of community-based health care units in Senegal 
Malaria Journal  2007;6:152.
Background
Quinine injection is the reference treatment for malaria when oral administration is impossible. Quinine can also be administered by the intra-rectal route and, over the last ten years, a series of studies have been conducted in children to determine the ideal dose and dilution in the African situation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of a kit for an immediate administration of quinine alkaloids (Quinimax®) by community health workers, prior to transfer of the child to a more sophisticated health care establishment.
Methods
A prospective, open, descriptive community intervention study conducted in northern Senegal at six village Health Units in children fewer than ten years of age with non-per-os malaria. Controls were given the routine care prior to transfer to a Health Center, and cases were in addition administered Quinimax® (20 mg/ml) via the intra-rectal route before transfer. Patients were followed through complete cure and parasitological tests were carried out on Days 0, 3 and 7.
Results
134 patients (79 cases/55 controls) were recruited between November 2003 and May 2004 or October and November 2004. The two groups were comparable at inclusion. In the case group, oral drugs could be administered after a mean of 16.8 hours versus 33.6 hours in the control group. Time-to cure was shorter in cases than in controls. Complete parasite clearance was obtained in all patients by Day 7. The kit was well accepted by all concerned and more than 80% of community health workers judged the kit easy to use.
Conclusion
The emergency paediatric kit is a useful tool in the management of malaria in children who cannot be treated orally. It is feasible and easy to use for health workers in community-based Health Units where, according to the WHO, nearly 80% of malarial morbidity and mortality occurs.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-6-152
PMCID: PMC2211493  PMID: 18005442
24.  Case of fatal sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis despite use of exchange transfusion in an African-American patient. 
Sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis (SCIC) is a rare complication of sickle cell anemia, characterized by marked hyperbilirubinemia and acute hepatic failure with an often fatal course. However, the few reported adult cases that were treated with exchange transfusion had a favorable outcome. We herein describe a 48-year-old African-American man with hemoglobin S/B thalassemia and previously treated hepatitis C with compensated cirrhosis, who presented with a total bilirubin of 59.7 mg/dL and direct bilirubin of 43.6 mg/dL in the absence of choledocholithiasis. Despite an exchange transfusion and aggressive packed red blood cell transfusions, which successfully decreased the hemoglobin S levels to <15%, he perished from progressive hepatic and renal failure. Autopsy demonstrated extensive intrahepatocellular and intracanalicular cholestasis in a background of cirrhosis. Our case suggests that poor prognostic factors for adult SCIC patients treated with exchange transfusion may include older age and underlying hepatic disease.
Images
PMCID: PMC2569475  PMID: 16895293
25.  In Vitro Activities of Quinine and Other Antimalarials and pfnhe Polymorphisms in Plasmodium Isolates from Kenya▿  
Resistance to the amino alcohol quinine has been associated with polymorphisms in pfnhe, a sodium hydrogen exchanger. We investigated the role of this gene in quinine resistance in vitro in isolates from Kenya. We analyzed pfnhe whole-gene polymorphisms, using capillary sequencing, and pfcrt at codon 76 (pfcrt-76) and pfmdr1 at codon 86 (pfmdr1-86), using PCR-enzyme restriction methodology, in 29 isolates from Kilifi, Kenya, for association with the in vitro activities of quinine and 2 amino alcohols, mefloquine and halofantrine. In vitro activity was assessed as the drug concentration that inhibits 50% of parasite growth (IC50). The median IC50s of quinine, halofantrine, and mefloquine were 92, 22, and 18 nM, respectively. The presence of 2 DNNND repeats in microsatellite ms4760 of pfnhe was associated with reduced susceptibility to quinine (60 versus 227 nM for 1 and 2 repeats, respectively; P < 0.05), while 3 repeats were associated with restoration of susceptibility. The decrease in susceptibility conferred by the 2 DNNND repeats was more pronounced in parasites harboring the pfmdr1-86 mutation. No association was found between susceptibility to quinine and the pfcrt-76 mutation or between susceptibility to mefloquine or halofantrine and the pfnhe gene and the pfcrt-76 and pfmdr1-86 mutations. Using previously published data on the in vitro activities of chloroquine, lumefantrine, piperaquine, and dihydroartemisinin, we investigated the association of their activities with pfnhe polymorphism. With the exception of a modulation of the activity of lumefantrine by a mutation at position 1437, pfnhe did not modulate their activities. Two DNNND repeats combined with the pfmdr1-86 mutation could be used as an indicator of reduced susceptibility to quinine.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00325-10
PMCID: PMC2916339  PMID: 20516285

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