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1.  Role of gastro-oesophageal reflux in infant irritability. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1995;73(2):121-125.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) disease may cause excessive crying in infants. The role of GOR was evaluated in infant irritability and an attempt was made to define clinical predictors of pathological reflux. Seventy consecutively admitted infants with irritability and presumptive GOR were retrospectively reviewed. All had undergone prolonged oesophageal pH monitoring. Pathological GOR was defined as a fractional reflux time of > or = 10% and was significantly less common in infants under 3 months (one of 24; 4.2%) than in older infants (10 of 46; 21.7%). All infants with pathological GOR presented with frequent vomiting, and 'silent' pathological reflux did not occur. Poor weight gain, feeding refusal, backarching, and sleep disturbance were not significantly associated with pathological GOR. The results suggest that pathological GOR is an unlikely cause of infant irritability under the age of 3 months.
PMCID: PMC1511226  PMID: 7574854
2.  What is distinct about infants' "colic" cries? 
AIMS—To investigate (1) whether colic cries are acoustically distinct from pre-feed "hunger" cries; (2) the role of the acoustic properties of these cries versus their other properties in accounting for parents' concerns about colic.
DESIGN—From a community sample, infants were selected who met Wessel colic criteria for amounts of crying and whose mothers identified colic bouts. Using acoustic analyses, the most intense segments of nine colic bouts were compared with matched segments from pre-feed cries presumed to reflect hunger.
RESULTS—The colic cries did not have a higher pitch or proportion of dysphonation than the pre-feed cries. They did contain more frequent shorter utterances, but these resembled normal cries investigated in other studies. There is no evidence that colic cries have distinct acoustic features that are reproducible across samples and studies, which identify a discrete clinical condition, and which are identified accurately by parents.
CONCLUSIONS—The most reliable finding is that colic cries convey diffuse acoustic and audible information that a baby is highly aroused or distressed. Non-acoustic features, including the prolonged, hard to soothe, and unexplained nature of the cries may be specific to colic cries and more important for parents. These properties might reflect temperament-like dispositions.


PMCID: PMC1717780  PMID: 10325760
3.  Prognostic significance of subgroup classification for infant patients with crying disorders: A prospective cohort study 
Introduction:
Few convincing treatment options have been identified for the excessively crying infant. One explanation may be a lack of identification of patient subgroups. This study used a clinically plausible categorization protocol to subgroup infants and compared changes in symptoms between these subgroups during treatment.
Methods:
An observational cohort design was employed. All infants presenting with excessive infant crying between July 2007 and March 2008 were categorized into three subgroups, (A) infant colic, (B) irritable infant syndrome of musculoskeletal origin (IISMO) and (C) inefficient feeding crying infants with disordered sleep (IFCIDS) based on history and physical findings. Mothers completed questionnaires which rated their own and their child’s characteristics prior to and at the end, of a course of manual therapy. Independent associations between infant subgroups and changes in continuous outcomes (crying, stress, sleep, and consolability) were assessed. Multivariable analysis of covariance was used to identify and control for potential confounders.
Results:
A total of 158 infants were enrolled. There was no significant difference in demographic profile between groups or any significant difference in infant crying or level of maternal stress at the start. Only the putative subgroups were significantly associated with differences in outcomes. In general, colic babies improved the most in consolability and crying.
Conclusion:
Babies with excessive crying should not be viewed as a homogenous group. Treatment outcomes may be improved by targeting appropriate subgroups prior to treatment.
PMCID: PMC3280117  PMID: 22457540
Subgroups; infant colic; excessive crying of infancy; Sous-groupes; colique du nourrisson; pleurs excessifs du nourrisson
4.  Bases for maternal perceptions of infant crying and colic behaviour. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1996;75(5):375-384.
According to the commonest definition, infant colic is distinguished by crying which is 'paroxysmal'-that is, intense and different in type from normal fussing and crying. To test this, maternal reports of the distress type of 67 infants whose fuss/crying usually exceeded three hours a day ('persistent criers') were scrutinised using 24 hour audiorecordings of the infants' distressed vocalisation. 'Moderate criers' (n = 55) and 'evening criers' (n = 38) were also assessed. Most of the distress in all three groups was fussing. In the audiorecordings the persistent criers showed a higher crying: fussing ratio than the moderate criers, but intense crying was rare. A third of the persistent criers were reported by their mothers to have occasional, distinct colic bouts of 'intense, unsoothable crying and other behaviour, perhaps due to stomach or bowel pain.' In the audiorecordings these periods were longer, but not paroxysmal in onset or more intense than the crying of persistent criers not judged to have colic. The audible features of the crying may be less important than its unpredictable, prolonged, hard to soothe, and unexplained nature.
PMCID: PMC1511785  PMID: 8957949
5.  Breath hydrogen excretion in infants with colic. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1989;64(5):725-729.
Breath hydrogen excretion as an index of incomplete lactose absorption was measured in 118 healthy infants who were either breast fed or given a formula feed containing lactose, some of whom had colic. Infants with colic (n = 65) were selected on the basis of the mother's report of a history of inconsolable crying lasting several hours each day. Infants in the control group (n = 53) were not reported to cry excessively by their mothers. Breath samples were collected using a face mask sampling device preprandially, and 90 and 150 minutes after the start of a feed. Normalised breath hydrogen concentrations were higher in the group with colic than in the control group at each time point. The median maximum breath hydrogen concentration in the colic group was 29 ppm, and in the control group 11 ppm. The percentage of infants with incomplete lactose absorption (breath hydrogen concentration more than 20 ppm) in the colic group was 62% compared with 32% in the control group. The clinical importance of the observed association between increased breath hydrogen excretion and infantile colic remains to be determined. Increased breath hydrogen excretion indicative of incomplete lactose absorption may be either a cause or an effect of colic in infants.
PMCID: PMC1792036  PMID: 2730128
6.  Treating infants’ colic 
Canadian Family Physician  2005;51(9):1209-1211.
QUESTION
Young parents often visit my office because their infants are crying inconsolably. Results of physical examination are unremarkable, so colic is the most likely cause. Colic has been known for many years, but I am unaware of any good remedy for it. Are there any modern, effective, safe methods of managing colic?
ANSWER
In most cases, colic is a “noisy phenomenon” for which there is no good explanation or treatment. Changing babies’ feedings rarely helps, and effective pharmacologic remedies are as yet unavailable. Several behavioural and complementary therapies have been suggested, but they have not been found effective. Addressing parental concerns and explaining about colic is the best solution until the colic goes away.
PMCID: PMC1479474  PMID: 16190173
7.  Probiotics to improve outcomes of colic in the community: Protocol for the Baby Biotics randomised controlled trial 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:135.
Background
Infant colic, characterised by excessive crying/fussing for no apparent cause, affects up to 20% of infants under three months of age and is a great burden to families, health professionals and the health system. One promising approach to improving its management is the use of oral probiotics. The Baby Biotics trial aims to determine whether the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 is effective in reducing crying in infants less than three months old (<13.0 weeks) with infant colic when compared to placebo.
Methods/Design
Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial in Melbourne, Australia. Participants: 160 breast and formula fed infants less than three months old who present either to clinical or community services and meet Wessel’s criteria of crying and/or fussing. Intervention: Oral once-daily Lactobacillus reuteri (1x108 cfu) versus placebo for one month. Primary outcome: Infant crying/fussing time per 24 hours at one month. Secondary outcomes: i) number of episodes of infant crying/fussing per 24 hours and ii) infant sleep duration per 24 hours (at 7, 14, 21, 28 days and 6 months); iii) maternal mental health scores, iv) family functioning scores, v) parent quality adjusted life years scores, and vi) intervention cost-effectiveness (at one and six months); and vii) infant faecal microbiota diversity, viii) infant faecal calprotectin levels and ix) Eschericia coli load (at one month only). Analysis: Primary and secondary outcomes for the intervention versus control groups will be compared with t tests and non-parametric tests for continuous data and chi squared tests for dichotomous data. Regression models will be used to adjust for potential confounding factors. Intention-to-treat analysis will be applied.
Discussion
An effective, practical and acceptable intervention for infant colic would represent a major clinical advance. Because our trial includes breast and formula-fed babies, our results should generalise to most babies with colic. If cost-effective, the intervention’s simplicity is such that it could be widely taken up as a new standard of care in the primary and secondary care sectors.
Trial Registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN95287767
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-135
PMCID: PMC3508922  PMID: 22928654
Colic; Crying; Infant; Probiotics; Randomised controlled trial; Health care costs; Postpartum depression; Mental health; Quality of life; Biota
8.  Gastrointestinal symptoms of infantile colic and their change after light needling of acupuncture: a case series study of 913 infants 
Chinese Medicine  2011;6:28.
Background
Infantile colic is a common painful clinical condition associated with signs of distended intestines and an increase in colon peristalsis. However, clinical documentation of observed gastrointestinal functions in the condition is still lacking. Even though the ailment is common, no clear treatment guidelines exist. While acupuncture with minimal stimulation has been shown to be effective in reducing crying behaviour of infants suffering from colic, the documented effect of acupuncture on gastrointestinal function in children with infantile colic is scarce. This case series study aims to document the symptoms of routinely rated gastrointestinal function and the changes in these symptoms after minimal acupuncture in a larger group of children with infantile colic.
Methods
This study included 913 infants with normal weights, and lengths at birth. The infants' mean age was 5.4 weeks when the observations started, and had colic symptoms since two weeks after birth. Light needling stimulation of the acupuncture point LI4 was performed for 10-20 seconds bilaterally on a daily basis for a mean of 6.2 consecutive days. A questionnaire with verbal rating scales for the parents' evaluation was used before and after the treatment period.
Results
Before treatment the infants were assessed by the parents in terms of 'often have inflated stomachs' (99%) and 'seldom drool' (76%), 'regurgitate' (53%) and 'belch' (62%). Moreover, the reported frequency of defecation was 5-8 times per day (64%), with a yellowish-green colour (61%) and with a water-thin consistency (74%). After treatment, the variables of inflated stomachs, drooling and regurgitating were systematically changed, and rated by the parents as occurring 'sometimes' while belching was rated as occurring 'often' and the frequency of defecation was reduced to 1-4 times/day with a mustard yellow colour and a gruel-like consistency. The parents also rated their impression of the infants' general colic symptoms including crying behaviour as much ameliorated in 76% of the cases.
Conclusion
The results of the present study show that minimal acupuncture at LI4 in infantile colic is an effective and easy treatment procedure that, furthermore, is reported to be without serious side effects.
doi:10.1186/1749-8546-6-28
PMCID: PMC3162946  PMID: 21835014
9.  Mothers' postpartum psychological adjustment and infantile colic 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2006;91(5):417-419.
Background
Infantile colic is a common problem of early infancy. There is limited data on the relation between postpartum maternal psychological problems and colic.
Aim:
To investigate whether infantile colic is associated with postpartum mood disorders or insecure adult attachment style of the mother.
Methods
Seventy eight mothers and newborns were enrolled in this prospective, longitudinal study. Maternal depressive symptoms were screened with Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Score (EPDS) and maternal anxiety was assessed with State‐Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The Adult Attachment Scale was used to determine the attachment style of the mother. Infantile colic was defined according to Wessel criteria.
Results
Infantile colic was present in 17 infants (21.7%); 12.9% of the mothers had an EPDS ⩾13. The mean EPDS of the mothers whose infants had infantile colic (10.2±6.0) was significantly higher than that of the mothers of infants without colic (6.3±4.0). Among infants with infantile colic, 62.5% had mothers who had insecure attachment style, whereas only 31.1% of mothers had insecure attachment when the infant did not have infantile colic.
Conclusion
Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms and insecure attachment style are associated with infantile colic. Screening and early intervention of postpartum depression might promote the health of both the mother and infant.
doi:10.1136/adc.2005.083790
PMCID: PMC2082735  PMID: 16452109
infantile colic; postpartum depression; attachment style
10.  Excessive crying: behavioral and emotional regulation disorder in infancy 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(6):229-233.
In the pediatric literature, excessive crying has been reported solely in association with 3-month colic and is described, if at all, as unexplained crying and fussing during the first 3 months of life. The bouts of crying are generally thought to be triggered by abdominal colic (over-inflation of the still immature gastrointestinal tract), and treatment is prescribed accordingly. According to this line of reasoning, excessive crying is harmless and resolves by the end of the third month without long-term consequences. However, there is evidence that it may cause tremendous distress in the mother-infant relationship, and can lead to disorders of behavioral and emotional regulation at the toddler stage (such as sleep and feeding disorders, chronic fussiness, excessive clinginess, and temper tantrums). Early treatment of excessive crying focuses on parent-infant communication, and parent-infant interaction in the context of soothing and settling the infant to sleep is a promising approach that may prevent later behavioral and emotional disorders in infancy.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.6.229
PMCID: PMC3174357  PMID: 21949516
Excessive crying; Behavioral and emotional regulation disorder; Infant
11.  Fetal growth and infantile colic 
AIM—To describe how fetal growth and gestational age affect infantile colic, while considering other potential risk factors.
STUDY DESIGN—A population based follow up study of 2035 healthy singleton infants without any disability born to Danish mothers. Information was collected by self administered questionnaires at 16 and 30weeks of gestation, at delivery, and 8 months post partum. Infantile colic is defined according to Wessel's criteria, but symptoms are restricted to crying for more than three hours a day, for more than three days a week, and for more than three weeks.
RESULTS—The cumulated incidence of infantile colic was 10.9%. Low birth weight babies (< 2500 g) had more than twice the risk (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 6.1) of infantile colic when controlled for gestational age, maternal height, and smoking.
CONCLUSION—Low birth weight may be associated with infantile colic, and further research will be aimed to focus on fetal growth and infantile colic.


doi:10.1136/fn.83.1.F44
PMCID: PMC1721113  PMID: 10873171
12.  Mechanisms of gastro-oesophageal reflux in preterm and term infants with reflux disease 
Gut  2002;51(4):475-479.
Background: Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR) is the predominant mechanism of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in healthy infants but the mechanisms of GOR in infants with GOR disease (GORD) are poorly understood.
Aims: To measure the occurrence of TLOSR, GOR, and gastric emptying (GE) rate in preterm and term infants with GORD.
Patients: Thirty six infants were studied and grouped as normals or GORD based on a routine clinical assessment and confirmation of an assessment of GORD by reflux symptom charts and oesophageal pH monitoring.
Methods: A micromanometric assembly incorporating a micro pH electrode recorded oesophageal motility and pH. GE rate was determined using the 13C-octanoic acid breath test.
Results: TLOSR was the predominant mechanism of GOR, triggering 50–100% of GOR episodes (median 91.5%). Abdominothoracic straining significantly increased the occurrence of GOR in association with TLOSR. In infants with GORD, the number of TLOSRs overall was similar to normals but the proportion of TLOSRs accompanied by acid GOR was significantly higher than in normals (16.5% v 5.7%, respectively; p<0.001). Infants with GORD had a similar GE rate to normals.
Conclusions: In infant GORD, acid reflux associated TLOSRs are abnormally common and likely to be a major contributing factor to the pathophysiology of GORD. Infants with GORD do not have delayed GE.
PMCID: PMC1773397  PMID: 12235066
preterm neonate; term neonate; gastro-oesophageal reflux; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; oesophageal motility; transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation, gastric emptying
13.  Feeding, stooling and sleeping patterns in infants with colic - a randomized controlled trial of minimal acupuncture 
Background
The aim was to describe the feeding- and stooling patterns of infants with colic and evaluate the influence of minimal acupuncture.
Methods
A prospective, randomized, controlled, blind clinical study was conducted at a private acupuncture clinic in Sweden. 90 otherwise healthy 2-8 weeks old infants, born after gestational week 36, fulfilling the criteria for infantile colic and not medicated with dicyclomine, were included. 81 infants went through a structured program consisting of six visits to the clinic, twice weekly. Infants randomized to receive acupuncture were given minimal, standardized acupuncture for two seconds in LI4. Frequency and size of stooling, as well as duration of, and intervals between, feeding sessions were reported by parents in a diary. Parental assessment of sleep and comments on stooling and side effects were collected in a questionnaire.
Results
At baseline when the mean age was five weeks, infants in both groups were fed a median of eight times/day, 148 min/day, with considerable variations. No differences were found between groups in the frequency and duration of feeding during the intervention weeks. Furthermore there were no significant differences between the groups regarding the frequency of stooling, neither at baseline, at which point the infants of both groups had bowel movements 4.2 times/day, nor during the intervention weeks. There was an expected decrease in frequency of stooling in both groups, reaching 2.1 (p = 0,001) in the acupuncture group and 3.1 (p < 0,001) in the control group. The groups differed regarding large bowel movements which decreased linearly in the control group (p = 0,011) but not in the acupuncture group (p = 0,787). More parents in the acupuncture group than in the control group (28% and 15% respectively, p = 0.006) experienced the infant's sleep to be "better" or "much better." No other significant differences were found. However, parents described a normalized stooling and experienced an improvement in colic in their infants more frequently in the acupuncture group than in the control group.
Conclusions
Infants with colic in the present study had a higher frequency of stooling than reported internationally in healthy infants. Minimal acupuncture had no major effect on feeding, stooling and sleep, although a minor effect of minimal acupuncture on stooling and sleep cannot be ruled out.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.govID NCT00860301
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-93
PMCID: PMC3212902  PMID: 21989212
14.  Self-medication for infants with colic in Lagos, Nigeria 
BMC Pediatrics  2009;9:9.
Background
Infantile colic is a self-limiting condition that is distributed worldwide. It is often misdiagnosed as an organic disease for which an infant is admitted to the hospital. Many studies have described the aetiopathogenesis, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management of colic but none has evaluated self-medication for infants with colic. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the knowledge of Nigerian mothers about colic, their home-based management, extent of self-medication for the infants with colic and the types of medicines involved.
Methods
It is a prospective study conducted at the vaccination clinics of 20 primary health care centres, each from different Local Government Areas in Lagos, Nigeria. Eight hundred mothers that brought their infants for vaccination between April and September, 2006 were interviewed with open-and close-ended questionnaire.
Results
Six hundred and eighty three (85.4%) mothers claimed they had a good knowledge of colic. Incessant and excessive cry was the main clinical feature of colic identified by 430(62.9%) mothers. Three hundred and seventy eight (67.7%) infants were treated by self-medication, 157 (28.1%) sought medical intervention and 17 (3.1%) were treated at a traditional birth attendant home. Herbal medicines constituted 51.8% of the self-medicated medicines, of which 48 (26.2%) were "Ororo Ogiri". Nospamin® (49.5%) and Gripe water® (43.0%) were the two frequently prescribed and self-medicated medicines for infants with colic.
Conclusion
Nigerian mothers are deficient in their knowledge of colic. Self-medication was the most frequently used home-based intervention. Health education would appear necessary to improve parental management of this self-limiting condition.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-9-9
PMCID: PMC2645392  PMID: 19193235
15.  Infant Difficulty and Early Weight Gain: Does Fussing Promote Overfeeding? 
Maternal & child nutrition  2012;10.1111/j.1740-8709.2012.00410.x.
Objective
Authors have recently suggested that difficult temperament in infancy may be associated with rapid weight gain, but none of the previous studies actually report associations between temperament and feeding as a response to infant distress. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether greater infant difficulty elicits more feeding, which in turn leads to more rapid weight gain in early infancy.
Methods
Mother-infant pairs (N=154) were visited at 3- and 6-months in their homes. Besides anthropometric measures, mothers kept a 24-hour diary of their infants’ sleep, cry, and feed patterns, and answered questions regarding feeding and infant difficultness.
Results
Feeding occurred as a response to nearly half (48%) of the crying intervals recorded, though it more often occurred in the absence of crying (83%). Mothers were most likely to report holding or rocking their infant as the first strategy they would employ if their baby fussed or cried. A regression analysis that included crying, feeding, weaning, sleep and infant weight revealed maternal reports of numbers of feeds per day as the only variable that predicted weight gain from 3-6 months.
Conclusion
Infant crying is often followed by feeding, and more frequent feeding may promote more rapid weight gain. However, feeding frequency in the first few months appears to be more a matter of maternal discretion than a yoked response to temperamental difficulty. This does not preclude the possibility that overfeeding in later infancy could be tied to temperamental difficulty and subsequently related to overweight in early childhood.
doi:10.1111/j.1740-8709.2012.00410.x
PMCID: PMC3424391  PMID: 22591002
16.  Infantile colic: Is there a role for dietary interventions? 
Paediatrics & Child Health  2011;16(1):47-49.
Infantile colic is a behavioural syndrome of early childhood that is associated with irritability and crying. It self-resolves, but may lead to significant parental strife. The etiology is unknown; however, several investigators have examined the effect of nutrition on infantile colic. For the majority of infants, nutritional interventions appear to have no benefit on infantile colic. However, a minority of infants may display symptoms of infantile colic secondary to a cow’s milk protein allergy. In these cases, a maternal hypoallergenic diet for breastfed infants and an extensively hydrolyzed formula for bottle-fed infants may result in resolution of colic. There is no proven role for the use of soy-based formulas or of lactase therapy in the management of infantile colic, and these interventions are not recommended. Currently, there are insufficient data to make a recommendation on the effect of probiotics for infantile colic. In all cases of infantile colic, it is important to ensure that there is sufficient parental support available.
PMCID: PMC3043028  PMID: 22211076
Infantile colic; Nutrition
17.  Infantile colic: maternal smoking as potential risk factor 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2000;83(4):302-303.
The association of maternal smoking and type of feeding with colic was assessed in 3345 children aged 1-6 months (96% response). The prevalence of colic was twofold higher among infants of smoking mothers, but less among breastfed infants. Maternal smoking as a potential risk factor for infantile crying needs further study.


doi:10.1136/adc.83.4.302
PMCID: PMC1718510  PMID: 10999861
18.  Incidence and risk factors for infantile colic in Iranian infants 
AIM: To assess the incidence of infantile colic and its association with variable predictors in infants born in a community maternity hospital, Tehran, Iran.
METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, mothers who gave birth to live newborns between February 21 and March 20, 2003 at the hospital were invited to join to the study. For every infant-mother dyad data were collected on infant gender, type of delivery, gestational age at birth, birth weight, birth order, and mother’s reproductive history. Then mothers were given a diary to document the duration of crying/fussiness behaviors of their infants for the next 12 wk. We scheduled home visits at the time the infants were 3 mo of age to collect the completed diaries and obtain additional information on infants’ nutritional sources and identify if medications were used for colic relief. Cases of colic were identified by applying Wessel criteria to recorded data. Chi-square and Mann-whitney U tests were used to compare proportions for non-parametric and parametric variables, respectively.
RESULTS: From 413 infants, follow-up was completed for 321 infants. In total, 65 infants (20.24%) satisfied the Wessel criteria for infantile colic. No statistical significance was found between colicky and non-colicky infants according to gender, gestational age at birth, birth weight, type of delivery, and, infant’s feeding pattern. However, firstborn infants had higher rate for developing colic (P = 0.03).
CONCLUSION: Colic incidence was 20% in this population of Iranian infants. Except for birth order status, no other variable was significantly associated with infantile colic.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.4662
PMCID: PMC2738790  PMID: 18698680
Infantile colic; Incidence; Iran; Risk factors
19.  Effectiveness of treatments for infantile colic: systematic review 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1998;316(7144):1563-1569.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of diets, drug treatment, and behavioural interventions on infantile colic in trials with crying or the presence of colic as the primary outcome measure.
Data sources: Controlled clinical trials identified by a highly sensitive search strategy in Medline (1966-96), Embase (1986-95), and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, in combination with reference checking for further relevant publications. Keywords were crying and colic.
Study selection: Two independent assessors selected controlled trials with interventions lasting at least 3 days that included infants younger than 6 months who cried excessively.
Data synthesis: Methodological quality was assessed by two assessors independently with a quality assessment scale (range 0-5). Effect sizes were calculated as percentage success. Effect sizes of trials using identical interventions were pooled using a random effects model.
Results: 27 controlled trials were identified. Elimination of cows’ milk protein was effective when substituted by hypoallergenic formula milks (effect size 0.22 (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.34)). The effectiveness of substitution by soy formula milks was unclear when only trials of good methodological quality were considered. The benefit of eliminating cows’ milk protein was not restricted to highly selected populations. Dicyclomine was effective (effect size 0.46 ( 0.33 to 0.60)), but serious side effects have been reported. The advice to reduce stimulation was beneficial (effect size 0.48 (0.23 to 0.74)), whereas the advice to increase carrying and holding seemed not to reduce crying. No benefit was shown for simethicone. Uncertainty remained about the effectiveness of low lactose formula milks.
Conclusions: Infantile colic should preferably be treated by advising carers to reduce stimulation and with a one week trial of a hypoallergenic formula milk.
Key messages Infantile colic is common during the first months of life, but its cause is unknown A definite diagnosis of infantile colic should be followed by a one week trial of substituting cows’ milk with hypoallergenic formula milk Dietary intervention should be combined with behavioural interventions: general advice, reassurance, reduction in stimuli, and sensitive differential responding (teaching parents to be more appropriately responsive to their infants with less overstimulation and more effective soothing) Anticholinergic drugs are not recommended because of their serious side effects
PMCID: PMC28556  PMID: 9596593
20.  Predictive value of the cow’s milk skin prick test in infantile colic 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2010;30(6):468-470.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Infantile colic is a common problem among young infants. Cow’s milk allergy has been suggested as one of the causes. We aimed to investigate the value of the cow’s milk skin test for the diagnosis of cow’s milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants with infantile colic.
METHODS:
Exclusively breast-fed infants with infantile colic were enrolled in this study. On the first visit, the average hours of crying of the infant in a 24-h period were recorded and the cow’s milk skin test was performed. If the infant had a positive skin test, elimination of cow’s milk from the mothers’ diet was advised. Infants with negative skin tests were divided into case and control groups. Cow’s milk was eliminated from the diet of mothers in the case group. After 2 weeks, the number of hours of crying were recorded again. The reduction in the crying hours was compared between the two groups using the chi-square test.
RESULTS:
Skin tests were positive in 3 of 114 cases (2.6%) of infantile colic. All three cases recovered completely following elimination of cow’s milk from the mother’s diet. Among the 111 patients with negative skin tests, 77 patients completed the study: 35 in the case group and 42 in the control group. The reduction in crying hours in infants in the case group was not significantly different from that in the control group.
CONCLUSION:
Elimination of cow’s milk from the mothers’ diet is not beneficial for infants with a negative skin test. Infants with a positive skin test may benefit from this management.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.72269
PMCID: PMC2994164  PMID: 21060160
21.  Long term cognitive development in children with prolonged crying 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2004;89(11):989-992.
Background: Long term studies of cognitive development and colic have not differentiated between typical colic and prolonged crying.
Objective: To evaluate whether colic and excessive crying that persists beyond 3 months is associated with adverse cognitive development.
Design: Prospective cohort study. A sample of 561 women was enrolled in the second trimester of pregnancy. Colic and prolonged crying were based on crying behaviour assessed at 6 and 13 weeks. Children's intelligence, motor abilities, and behaviour were measured at 5 years (n = 327). Known risk factors for cognitive impairment were ascertained prenatally, after birth, at 6 and 13 weeks, at 6, 9, and 13 months, and at 5 years of age.
Results: Children with prolonged crying (but not those with colic only) had an adjusted mean IQ that was 9 points lower than the control group. Their performance and verbal IQ scores were 9.2 and 6.7 points lower than the control group, respectively. The prolonged crying group also had significantly poorer fine motor abilities compared with the control group. Colic had no effect on cognitive development.
Conclusions: Excessive, uncontrolled crying that persists beyond 3 months of age in infants without other signs of neurological damage may be a marker for cognitive deficits during childhood. Such infants need to be examined and followed up more intensively.
doi:10.1136/adc.2003.039198
PMCID: PMC1719720  PMID: 15499048
22.  Acupuncture reduces crying in infants with infantile colic: a randomised, controlled, blind clinical study 
Acupuncture in Medicine  2010;24(4):174-179.
Objective
To investigate whether acupuncture reduces the duration and intensity of crying in infants with colic.
Patients and methods
90 otherwise healthy infants, 2–8 weeks old, with infantile colic were randomised in this controlled blind study. 81 completed a structured programme consisting of six visits during 3 weeks to an acupuncture clinic in Sweden. Parents blinded to the allocation of their children met a blinded nurse. The infant was subsequently given to another nurse in a separate room, who handled all infants similarly except that infants allocated to receive acupuncture were given minimal, standardised acupuncture for 2 s in LI4.
Results
There was a difference (p=0.034) favouring the acupuncture group in the time which passed from inclusion until the infant no longer met the criteria for colic. The duration of fussing was lower in the acupuncture group the first (74 vs 129 min; p=0.029) and second week (71 vs 102 min; p=0.047) as well as the duration of colicky crying in the second intervention week (9 vs 13 min; p=0.046) was lower in the acupuncture group. The total duration of fussing, crying and colicky crying (TC) was lower in the acupuncture group during the first (193 vs 225 min; p=0.025) and the second intervention week (164 vs 188 min; p=0.016). The relative difference from baseline throughout the intervention weeks showed differences between groups for fussing in the first week (22 vs 6 min; p=0.028), for colicky crying in the second week (92 vs 73 min; p=0.041) and for TC in the second week (44 vs 29 min; p=0.024), demonstrating favour towards the acupuncture group.
Conclusions
Minimal acupuncture shortened the duration and reduced the intensity of crying in infants with colic. Further research using different acupuncture points, needle techniques and intervals between treatments is required.
doi:10.1136/aim.2010.002394
PMCID: PMC3002757  PMID: 20959312
23.  Prone and left lateral positioning reduce gastro-oesophageal reflux in preterm infants 
AIM—To examine the effect of body position on clinically significant gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in preterm infants.
METHODS—Eighteen preterm infants with clinically significant GOR were studied prospectively using 24 hour lower oesophageal pH monitoring. Infants were nursed in three positions (prone, left, and right lateral) for 8 hours in each position, with the order randomly assigned. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance.
RESULTS—The median (range) reflux index (RI) for the group was 13.8% (5.8-40.4).
 There was no significant difference in the mean time spent in each position. RI (mean % (SEM)) was significantly less in prone (6.3 (1.7)) and left lateral positions (11.0 (2.2)), when compared with the right lateral position (29.4 (3.2)); p<0.001. The mean (SEM) longest episodes (mins) of GOR were reduced by prone and left positions (8.6 (2.2) and 10.0 (2.4), respectively) compared with the right position (26.0 (3.9)); p<0.001. The mean (SE) number of episodes was reduced by prone (15.4 (2.8)) and left (24.6 (3.5)) positions when compared with right (41.6 (4.6)) (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—Prone and left lateral positions significantly reduce the severity of GOR, by reducing the number of episodes and the duration of the longest episodes. Such positioning offers a useful adjunct to the treatment in hospital of preterm infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux.


PMCID: PMC1721012  PMID: 10525024
24.  Preventing sleeping problems in infants who are at risk of developing them 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2003;88(2):108-111.
Aims: (1) To identify factors at 1 week of age which put infants at risk of failing to sleep through the night at 12 weeks of age. (2) To assess whether a behavioural programme increases the likelihood that these infants will sleep through the night at 12 weeks of age.
Methods: A community sample of 316 newborn infants was employed to identify the risk factors at 1 week of age which increased the likelihood of failing to sleep through the night at 12 weeks of age. Infants who met these risk criteria and were randomly assigned to a behavioural programme were compared with at risk infants in the control group on measures of sleeping, crying, and feeding at 12 weeks of age.
Results: Infants who had a high number (>11) of feeds in 24 hours at 1 week were 2.7 times (95% CI 1.5 to 4.8) more likely than other control group infants to fail to sleep through the night at 12 weeks of age. At 12 weeks, 82% of these at risk infants assigned to the behavioural programme, compared to 61% in the control group, slept through the night. The findings were similar in breast and bottle feeders.
Conclusions: Preventing infant sleeping problems should be more cost effective than treating them after they have arisen. This study provides evidence that it is possible to identify infants who are at risk of failing to sleep through the night at an early age, and that a simple, three step, preventive behavioural programme increases the number who sleep through the night by 21%.
doi:10.1136/adc.88.2.108
PMCID: PMC1719431  PMID: 12538307
25.  Nutrition for healthy term infants 
Paediatrics & Child Health  1998;3(2):109-112.
Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is the new national statement on nutrition for infants from birth to 24 months, developed collaboratively by the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada.
The document summarizes the existing scientific literature on infant nutrition and presents principles and recommendations to help health care professionals promote optimal, evidence-based nutritional care for infants in Canada. Collaboration between the three key organizations involved in infant nutrition has produced unified messages for health professionals to deliver to the public.
For the first year of life four major topics are discussed: Breastfeeding, Alternate Milks, Other Fluids in Infant Feeding and Transition to Solid Foods. Safety Issues Around Feeding is presented next, followed by Nutrition in the Second Year of Life. The final section covers Other Issues in Infant Nutrition, and includes topics such as food allergies, colic, constipation, dietary fat, dental caries, gastroenteritis, diabetes, iron deficiency anemia and vegetarian diets. An extensive reference list of more than 200 citations is provided.
The Summary of Principles and Recommendations will be published in the official journals of the Canadian Paediatric Society (Paediatrics & Child Health, March/April 1998) and Dietitians of Canada (Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, June 1998). The complete document can be downloaded from all three of the collaborating organizations’ web sites or a hard copy of the Statement, in either official language, can be obtained from the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada or Health Canada.
Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants offers multidisciplinary health professionals the most current scientific tool for advising parents and positively influencing the nutritional environment provided to infants in Canada.
PMCID: PMC2851281  PMID: 20401210
Guidelines; Infants; Nutrition

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