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1.  Reliability and validity of the Infant and Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL) in a general population and respiratory disease sample 
Quality of Life Research  2006;16(3):445-460.
Objective
To evaluate feasibility, internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and concurrent and discriminative validity of the Infant and Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL) for parents of pre-school children with 12 scales (103-items) covering physical and psychosocial domains and impact of child health on parents, in comparison with the TNO-AZL Pre-school Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (TAPQOL).
Methods
Parents of children from a random general population sample (2 months–4 years old; n = 500) and of an outpatient clinic sample of children with respiratory disease (5 months–5 1/2 years old; n = 217) were mailed ITQOL and TAPQOL questionnaires; a retest was sent after two weeks.
Results
Feasibility: The response was ≥80% with few missing and non-unique ITQOL-answers (<2%) in both study populations. Some ITQOL-scales (3–4 scales) showed a ceiling effect (>25% at maximum score). Internal consistency: All Cronbach’s α >0.70. Test–retest Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were moderate or adequate (≥0.50; p lt; 0.01) for 10 ITQOL-scales. Validity: ITQOL-scales, with a few exceptions, correlated better with predefined parallel TAPQOL scales than with non-parallel scales. Five to eight ITQOL-scales discriminated clearly between children with few and with many parent-reported chronic conditions, between children with and without doctor-diagnosed respiratory disease and with a low and a high parent-reported medical consumption (p <0.05).
Conclusions
This study supported the evidence that the ITQOL is a feasible instrument with adequate psychometric properties. The study provided reference ITQOL scores for gender/age subgroups. We recommend repeated evaluations of the ITQOL in varied populations, especially among very young children, including repeated assessments of test–retest characteristics and evaluations of responsiveness to change. We recommend developing and evaluating a shortened ITQOL version.
doi:10.1007/s11136-006-9134-8
PMCID: PMC2792359  PMID: 17111231
Asthma; General population; Health-related quality of life; Infant and Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL); Pre-school children; Reference/norm scores; Reliability; TNO-AZL Pre-school Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (TAPQOL); Validity
2.  Quality of life in children three and nine months after discharge from a paediatric intensive care unit: a prospective cohort study 
Background
Improved survival in children with critical illnesses has led to new disease patterns. As a consequence evaluation of the well being of survivors of Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) has become important. Outcome assessment should therefore consist of evaluation of morbidity, functional health and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Awareness of HRQoL consequences and physical sequelae could lead to changes in support during the acute phase and thereafter. The aim of this study was to evaluate HRQoL in PICU survivors.
Methods
Prospective follow-up study three and nine months after discharge from a 14-bed tertiary PICU. Eighty-one of 142 eligible, previously healthy children were included from December 2002 through October 2005. HRQoL was assessed with the TNO-AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (TAPQOL-PF) for children aged 1 to 6 years of age, the TNO-AZL Children's Quality of Life Questionnaire Parent Form (TACQOL-PF) for children aged 6 to 12 years of age, and the TNO-AZL Children's Quality of Life Questionnaire Child Form (TACQOL-CF) for children aged 8 to 15 years of age. The studied patients were compared with age appropriate normative data using non-parametric tests and effect sizes.
Results
Thirty-one and 27 children, and 55 and 50 parents completed questionnaires respectively three and nine months after discharge. In 1–6 year old children parents reported more lung problems (3 and 9 months), worse liveliness (9 months) and better appetite and problem behaviour (3 months); in 6–12 year old children parents reported worse motor functioning (3 months); and 12–15 year old adolescents reported worse motor functioning (3 months). Large effect sizes indicating clinical significant differences in HRQoL with healthy control subjects were found on more domains.
Conclusion
In this small group of PICU survivors differences in HRQoL with the normative population exist three and nine months after discharge. Calculated effect sizes were smaller nine months after discharge. These changes suggest that HRQoL improves over time. More research is necessary but we believe that HRQoL assessment should be incorporated in follow-up programs of PICU survivors.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-6-21
PMCID: PMC2292170  PMID: 18331652
3.  Is the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Valid for Use in Preschool Children with Refractive Errors? 
Purpose
To determine the psychometric validity of the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL 4.0) in assessing the impact of refractive errors on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in preschool children in Singapore.
Methods
Parents of toddlers (aged 25 to 48 months) and young children (49 to 72 months) completed the PedsQL 4.0, an HRQoL scale as part of population-based trial in Singapore. The outcome measures were the overall score, and the “physical”; “emotional”; “social”; and “school” functioning subscales. Rasch analysis was used to validate the PedsQL 4.0.
Results
Parents of 939 (48.9%) toddlers and 982 (51.1%) young children completed the PedsQL 4.0 survey. The overall mean (±standard deviation) spherical equivalence for the right eye was 0.47 ± 1.13 diopter (D) for toddlers and 0.74 ± 1.22 D for young children. One hundred forty-nine (15.9%) toddlers and 90 (9.2%) young children were considered myopic (≥−0.50 D). Most participants (n = 1286, 89.6%) had presenting visual acuity 6/9 or better. Rasch analysis showed evidence of disordered category thresholds and poor person-item targeting for both groups. The separation reliability was 0.00 for toddlers and 0.03 for young children, indicating there was no variance in both samples. The PedsQL 4.0 overall and subscale scores displayed substantial multidimensionality as the variance values explained by the measures was <25% in both groups. A minimum value of 60% is usually considering acceptable.
Conclusions
The PedsQL 4.0 in its current state is not a valid psychometric scale to effectively evaluate the impact of refractive errors on HRQoL in preschool children in Singapore.
doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e3181f6fb84
PMCID: PMC4041332  PMID: 20852452
refractive errors; preschool children; Rasch analysis; health-related quality of life
4.  Reliability, construct and criterion validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 score: a short measure for children and adolescents’ well-being and health-related quality of life 
Quality of Life Research  2010;19(10):1487-1500.
Background
To assess the criterion and construct validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score, a short version of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 instruments.
Methods
The child self-report and parent report versions of the KIDSCREEN-10 were tested in a sample of 22,830 European children and adolescents aged 8–18 and their parents (n = 16,237). Correlation with the KIDSCREEN-52 and associations with other generic HRQoL measures, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status were examined. Score differences by age, gender, and country were investigated.
Results
Correlations between the 10-item KIDSCREEN score and KIDSCREEN-52 scales ranged from r = 0.24 to 0.72 (r = 0.27–0.72) for the self-report version (proxy-report version). Coefficients below r = 0.5 were observed for the KIDSCREEN-52 dimensions Financial Resources and Being Bullied only. Cronbach alpha was 0.82 (0.78), test–retest reliability was ICC = 0.70 (0.67) for the self- (proxy-)report version. Correlations between other children self-completed HRQoL questionnaires and KIDSCREEN-10 ranged from r = 0.43 to r = 0.63 for the KIDSCREEN children self-report and r = 0.22–0.40 for the KIDSCREEN parent proxy report. Known group differences in HRQoL between physically/mentally healthy and ill children were observed in the KIDSCREEN-10 self and proxy scores. Associations with self-reported psychosomatic complaints were r = −0.52 (−0.36) for the KIDSCREEN-10 self-report (proxy-report). Statistically significant differences in KIDSCREEN-10 self and proxy scores were found by socioeconomic status, age, and gender.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that the KIDSCREEN-10 provides a valid measure of a general HRQoL factor in children and adolescents, but the instrument does not represent well most of the single dimensions of the original KIDSCREEN-52. Test–retest reliability was slightly below a priori defined thresholds.
doi:10.1007/s11136-010-9706-5
PMCID: PMC2977059  PMID: 20668950
Children’s and adolescent’s mental health and well-being; Cultural sensitivity; Measurement; Quality of life; Research methodology
5.  Health related quality of life in disorders of defecation: the Defecation Disorder List 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2004;89(12):1124-1127.
Background: Constipation and encopresis frequently cause problems with respect to emotional wellbeing, and social and family life. Instruments to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in these disorders are not available.
Methods: A disease specific HRQoL instrument, the "Defecation Disorder List" (DDL) for children with constipation or functional non-retentive faecal soiling (FNRFS) was developed using accepted guidelines. For each phase of the process, different samples of patients were used. The final phase of development included 27 children. Reliability was assessed in two ways: internal consistency of domains with Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest reliability with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). To assess validity, comparable items and domains were correlated with Tacqol, a generic HRQoL instrument for children (TNO-AZL).
Results: In the final phase of the development, 27 children completed the instrument. It consisted of 37 items in four domains. The response rate was 96%. Reliability was good for all domains, with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.61 to 0.76. Measures of test-retest stability were good for all four domains with ICCs ranging from 0.82 to 0.92. Validity based on comparison with the Tacqol instrument was moderate.
Conclusion: The DDL is promising as a measure of HRQoL in childhood defecation disorders.
doi:10.1136/adc.2003.037465
PMCID: PMC1719773  PMID: 15557046
6.  Measuring adolescents' HRQoL via self reports and parent proxy reports: an evaluation of the psychometric properties of both versions of the KINDL-R instrument 
Background
Several instruments are available to assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) based on self reports as well as proxy reports from parents. Previous studies have found only low-to-moderate agreement between self and proxy reports, but few studies have explicitly compared the psychometric qualities of both. This study compares the reliability, factorial validity and convergent and known group validity of the self-report and parent-report versions of the HRQoL KINDL-R questionnaire for children and adolescents.
Methods
Within the nationally representative cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), 6,813 children and adolescents aged 11 to 17 years completed the KINDL-R generic HRQoL instrument while their parents answered the KINDL proxy version (both in paper-and-pencil versions). Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor-analysis models (linear structural equation model) were obtained. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Known-groups differences were examined (ANOVA) for obese children and children with a lower familial socio-economic status.
Results
The parent reports achieved slightly higher Cronbach's alpha values for the total score (0.86 vs. 0.83) and most sub-scores. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable fit of the six-dimensional measurement model of the KINDL for the parent (RMSEA = 0.07) and child reports (RMSEA = 0.06). Factorial invariance across the two versions did not hold with regards to the pattern of loadings, the item errors and the covariation between latent concepts. However the magnitude of the differences was rather small. The parent report version achieved slightly higher convergent validity (r = 0.44 – 0.63 vs. r = 0.33 – 0.59) in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. No clear differences were observed for known-groups validity.
Conclusion
Our study showed that parent proxy reports and child self reports on the child's HRQoL slightly differ with regards to how the perceptions, evaluations and possibly the affective resonance of each group are structured and internally consistent. Overall, the parent reports achieved slightly higher reliability and thus are favoured for the examination of small samples. No version was universally superior with regards to the validity of the measurements. Whenever possible, children's HRQoL should be measured via both sources of information.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-7-77
PMCID: PMC2749015  PMID: 19709410
7.  Validation of the Japanese version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Cancer Module 
Background
The PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module is a widely used instrument to measure pediatric cancer specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for children aged 2 to 18 years. We developed the Japanese version of the PedsQL Cancer Module and investigated its reliability and validity among Japanese children and their parents.
Methods
Participants were 212 children with cancer and 253 of their parents. Reliability was determined by internal consistency using Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Validity was assessed through factor validity, convergent and discriminant validity, concurrent validity, and clinical validity. Factor validity was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined by multitrait scaling analysis. Concurrent validity was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients between the Cancer Module and Generic Core Scales, and the comparison of the scores of child self-reports with those of other self-rating depression scales for children. Clinical validity was assessed by comparing the on- and off- treatment scores using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests.
Results
Cronbach's coefficient alpha was over 0.70 for the total scale and over 0.60 for each subscale by age except for the 'pain and hurt' subscale for children aged 5 to 7 years. For test-retest reliability, the ICC exceeded 0.70 for the total scale for each age. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated sufficient factorial validity. Multitrait scaling analysis showed high success rates. Strong correlations were found between the reports by children and their parents, and the scores of the Cancer Module and the Generic Core Scales except for 'treatment anxiety' subscales for child reports. The Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children (DSRS-C) scores were significantly correlated with emotional domains and the total score of the cancer module. Children who had been off treatment over 12 months demonstrated significantly higher scores than those on treatment.
Conclusions
The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the PedsQL Cancer Module among Japanese children.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-22
PMCID: PMC3096891  PMID: 21477361
8.  Feasibility, reliability and validity of health-related quality of life questionnaire among adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients in urban Uganda: cross-sectional study 
Background
Despite the availability of standard instruments for evaluating health-related quality life (HRQoL), the feasibility, reliability, and validity of such instruments among tuberculosis (TB) patients in different populations of sub-Saharan Africa where TB burden is of concern, is still lacking.
Objective
We established the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Medical Outcomes Survey (MOS) in assessing HRQoL among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda.
Methods
In a cross-sectional study, 133 patients with known HIV status and confirmed pulmonary TB disease were recruited from one public and one private hospital. Participants were enrolled based on duration of TB treatment according to the following categories: starting therapy, two months of therapy, and eight completed months of therapy. A translated and culturally adapted standardized 35-item MOS instrument was administered by trained interviewers. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to cross-validate the MOS.
Results
The MOS instrument was highly acceptable and easily administered. All subscales of the MOS demonstrated acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha above 0.70 except for role function that had 0.65. Each dimension of the MOS was highly correlated with the dimension measured concurrently using the VAS providing evidence of validity. Construct validity demonstrated remarkable differences in the functioning status and well-being among TB patients at different stages of treatment, between patients attending public and private hospitals, and between men and women of older age. Patients who were enrolled from public hospital had significantly lower HRQoL scores (0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI); 0.64-0.95)) for perceived health but significantly higher HRQoL scores (1.15 (95% CI; 1.06-1.26)) for health distress relative to patients from private hospital. Patients who completed an 8 months course of TB therapy had significantly higher HRQoL scores for perceived health (1.93 (95% CI; 1.19-3.13)), health distress subscales (1.29 (95% CI; 1.04-1.59)) and mental health summary scores (1.27 (95% CI; 1.09-1.48)) relative to patients that were starting therapy in multivariable analysis. Completion of 8 months TB therapy among patients who were recruited from the public hospital was associated with a significant increase in HRQoL scores for quality of life subscale (1.26 (95% CI; 1.08-1.49)), physical health summary score (1.22 995% CI; 1.04-1.43)), and VAS (1.08 (95% CI; 1.01-1.15)) relative to patients who were recruited from the private hospital. Older men were significantly associated with lower HRQoL scores for physical health summary score (0.68 (95% CI; 0.49-0.95)) and VAS (0.87 (95% CI; 0.75-0.99)) relative to women of the same age group. No differences were seen between HIV positive and HIV negative patients.
Conclusion
The study provides evidence that the MOS instrument is valid, and reliably measures HRQoL among TB patients, and can be used in a wide variety of study populations. The HRQoL differed by hospital settings, by duration of TB therapy, and by gender in older age groups.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-8-93
PMCID: PMC2944342  PMID: 20813062
9.  Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the VSP-A (Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent), a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument for adolescents, in a healthy Brazilian population 
BMC Pediatrics  2011;11:8.
Background
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment, encompassing the adolescents' perceptions of their mental, physical, and social health and well-being is increasingly considered an important outcome to be used to identify population health needs and to provide targeted medical care. Although validated instruments are essential for accurately assessing HRQoL outcomes, there are few cross-culturally adapted tools for use in Brazil, and none designed exclusively for use among adolescents. The Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent (VSP-A) is a generic, multidimensional self-reported instrument originally developed and validated in France that evaluates HRQoL of ill and healthy adolescents.
Purpose
To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the VSP-A, a generic HRQoL measure for adolescents originally developed in France.
Methods
The VSP-A was translated following a well-validated forward-backward process leading to the Brazilian version. The psychometric evaluation was conducted in a sample of 446 adolescents (14-18 years) attending 2 public high schools of São Gonçalo City. The adolescents self-reported the Brazilian VSP-A, the validated Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and socio-demographic information. A retest evaluation was carried out on a sub-sample (n = 195) at a two-week interval.
The internal construct validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multi-trait scaling analyses, Rasch analysis evaluating unidimensionality of each scale and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Zumbo's ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) between the Brazilian and the French items. External construct validity was investigated testing expected differences between groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann-Whitney tests and the univariate general regression linear model.
Results
CFA showed an acceptable fit (RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.93); 94% of scaling success was found for item-internal consistency and 98% for item discriminant validity. The items showed good fit to the Rasch model except 3 items with an INFIT at the upper threshold. Cronbach's Alpha ranged from 0.60 to 0.85. Test-retest reliability was moderate to good (ICC=0.55-0.82). DIF was evidenced in 4 out of 36 items. Expected patterns of differences were confirmed with significantly lower physical, psychological well being and vitality reported by symptomatic adolescents.
Conclusions
Although DIF in few items and responsiveness must be further explored, the Brazilian version of VSP-A demonstrated an acceptable validity and reliability in adolescents attending school and might serve as a starting point for more specific clinical investigations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-8
PMCID: PMC3042386  PMID: 21272317
10.  Reliability and Validity of the Dutch Version of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38762.
Background
The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) is a relatively new and short (42-item) questionnaire that measures psychosocial problems in toddlers and consists of a Problem and a Competence scale. In this study the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the BITSEA were examined for the whole group and for gender and ethnicity subgroups.
Methods
Parents of 7140 two-year-old children were invited in the study, of which 3170 (44.4%) parents completed the BITSEA. For evaluation of the score distribution, the presence of floor/ceiling effects was determined. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was evaluated and in subsamples the test-retest, parent-childcare provider interrater reliability and concurrent validity with regard to the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Discriminative validity was evaluated by comparing scores of parents that worry and parents that do not worry about their child's development.
Results
The BITSEA showed no floor or ceiling effects. Psychometric properties of the BITSEA Problem and Competence scale were respectively: Cronbach's alphas were 0.76 and 0.63. Test-retest correlations were 0.75 and 0.61. Interrater reliability correlations were 0.30 and 0.17. Concurrent validity was as hypothesised. The BITSEA was able to discriminate between parents that worry about their child and parents that do not worry. The psychometric properties of the BITSEA were comparable across gender and ethnic background.
Conclusion
The results in this large-scale study of a diverse sample support the reliability and validity of the BITSEA Problem scale. The BITSEA Competence scale needs further study. The performance of the BITSEA appears to be similar in subgroups by gender and ethnic background.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038762
PMCID: PMC3371000  PMID: 22715411
11.  Reliability and validity of PedsQL for Portuguese children aged 5–7 and 8–12 years 
Background
Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) is a measure to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents. It is formed by 23 items adapted to children age and includes a parent proxy report version. With four multidimensional subscales and three summary scores, it measures health as defined by WHO. The concepts measured by this instrument are ‘physical functioning’ (8 items), ‘emotional functioning’ (5 items), ‘social functioning’ (5 items) and ‘school functioning’ (5 items). It also measures a ‘total scale score’ (23 items), a ‘physical health summary score’ (8 items) and a ‘psychosocial health summary score’ (15 items). The aim of this paper is to present the main results of the cultural adaptation and validation of the PedsQL into European Portuguese.
Methods
The Portuguese version was the result of a forward-backward translation process, with a cognitive debriefing analysis, guaranteeing face validity and semantic equivalence. Children aged 5–7 and 8–12 were randomly selected and were asked to fill a socio-demographic data survey and the Portuguese versions of PedsQL and KINDL, another HRQoL measure for children and adolescents. They were divided into three groups, healthy children, children with type I diabetes and children with spina bifida.
The reliability was tested for reproducibility (ICC) and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha). The construct validity (known-groups discriminant validity) was supported by differences between self-reports from healthy children and children with chronic conditions, and from children with chronic diseases and their parents. The criterion validity was tested after the correlations of the scores obtained by both children and adolescents HRQoL assessment instruments.
Results
A total of 179 children and 97 parents were recruited. PedsQL demonstrated good levels of reproducibility (r > 0.95 in all versions) and acceptable levels of internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha at 0.70 on most scales. Concordance values between children’s and parents’ perceptions ranged between 0.36 and 0.78 and the correlations with KINDL questionnaire were excellent, supporting concurrent validity.
Conclusions
The Portuguese version of the PedsQL demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties for future research and clinical practice for children aged 5–12.
doi:10.1186/s12955-014-0122-3
PMCID: PMC4172820  PMID: 25208919
PedsQL; Children; Chronic illness; Health-related quality of life; Pediatrics
12.  Short term and long term health related quality of life after congenital anorectal malformations and congenital diaphragmatic hernia 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2004;89(9):836-841.
Aims: To examine short term and long term health related quality of life (HRQoL) of survivors of congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and to compare these patients' HRQoL with that of the general population.
Methods: HRQoL was measured in 286 ARM patients and 111 CDH patients. All patients were administered a symptom checklist and a generic HRQoL measure. For the youngest children (aged 1–4) the TAIQOL (a preliminary version of the TAPQOL) was used, for the other children (aged 5–15) the TACQOL questionnaire, and for adults (aged >16) the SF-36.
Results: As appeared from the symptom checklists, many patients remained symptomatic into adulthood. In the youngest ARM patients (aged 1–4 years), generic HRQoL was severely affected, but the older ARM patients showed better HRQoL. In the CDH patients, the influence of symptoms on HRQoL seemed less profound. The instruments we used revealed little difference between adults treated for ARM or CDH and the general population.
Conclusions: These results show that for two neonatal surgical procedures, improved survival does not come at the expense of poor HRQoL in adults. Even though there is considerable suffering in terms of both morbidity and mortality in the youngest group, the ultimate prognosis of survivors of the two studied congenital malformations is favourable. This finding can be used to reassure parents of patients in need of neonatal surgery for one of these conditions about the prospects for their child.
doi:10.1136/adc.2002.016543
PMCID: PMC1763217  PMID: 15321860
13.  The pediatric rheumatology quality of life scale: validation of the English version in a US cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis 
Background
This study aims to validate the English version of the Pediatric Rheumatology Quality of Life Scale (PRQL), a concise Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) measure, in a US cohort of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
Methods
The PRQL is a 10-item HRQoL measure with two subscales: physical health and psychological health. The original version of this measure was validated using an Italian-speaking cohort of 472 JIA patients and 796 healthy controls and found to have acceptable psychometric properties. The English language version has not been validated in a US pediatric population. The English PRQL was administered to 161 JIA subjects from a US Rheumatology clinic. We assessed the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and validity (convergent, discriminative, and criterion) of the PRQL.
Results
The English PRQL was feasible to administer and demonstrated good psychometric properties. Cronbach alpha (reliability) coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.81. Factor analysis yielded the existing subscales. The PRQL total and subscales were found to have moderate correlations with other HRQoL instruments, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) generic core scale and the PedsQL rheumatology. The PRQL discriminated between subjects with active versus inactive disease and was responsive to an improvement or worsening in disease activity over time.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the English version of the instrument is suitable for use in JIA patients in the US. This tool provides a relatively easy method to integrate at least one patient-reported outcome into routine clinical or research assessment.
doi:10.1186/1546-0096-11-43
PMCID: PMC3830514  PMID: 24206654
Quality of life; Patient-reported outcomes; Pediatric; Juvenile arthritis
14.  Parental perceptions of children's oral health: The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) 
Background
Dental disease and treatment experience can negatively affect the oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) of preschool aged children and their caregivers. Currently no valid and reliable instrument is available to measure these negative influences in very young children. The objective of this research was to develop the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) to measure the OHRQL of preschool children and their families.
Methods
Twenty-two health professionals evaluated a pool of 45 items that assess the impact of oral health problems on 6-14-year-old children and their families. The health professionals identified 36 items as relevant to preschool children. Thirty parents rated the importance of these 36 items to preschool children; 13 (9 child and 4 family) items were considered important. The 13-item ECOHIS was administered to 295 parents of 5-year-old children to assess construct validity and internal consistency reliability (using Cronbach's alpha). Test-retest reliability was evaluated among another sample of parents (N = 46) using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
Results
ECOHIS scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with fair or poor parental ratings of their child's general and oral health, and the presence of dental disease in the child. Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.91 and 0.95 respectively, and the ICC for test-retest reliability was 0.84.
Conclusion
The ECOHIS performed well in assessing OHRQL among children and their families. Studies in other populations are needed to further establish the instrument's technical properties.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-5-6
PMCID: PMC1802739  PMID: 17263880
15.  Measuring health-related quality of life in children with cancer living in mainland China: feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese mandarin version of PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module 
Background
The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) is widely used instrument to measure pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for children aged 2 to 18 years. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese mandarin version of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module in a group of Chinese children with cancer.
Methods
The PedsQL 4.0 Genetic Core Scales and the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module were administered to children with cancer (aged 5-18 years) and parents of such children (aged 2-18 years). For comparison, a survey on a demographically group-matched sample of the general population with children (aged 5-18) and parents of children (aged 2-18 years) was conducted with the PedsQL 4.0 Genetic Core Scales.
Result
The minimal mean percentage of missing item responses (except the School Functioning scale) supported the feasibility of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module for Chinese children with cancer. Most of the scales showed satisfactory reliability with Cronbach's α of exceeding 0.70, and all scales demonstrated sufficient test-retest reliability. Assessing the clinical validity of the questionnaires, statistically significant difference was found between healthy children and children with cancer, and between children on-treatment versus off-treatment ≥12 months. Positive significant correlations were observed between the scores of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale and the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated sufficient factorial validity. Moderate to good agreement was found between child self- and parent proxy-reports.
Conclusion
The findings support the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese Mandarin version of PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module in children with cancer living in mainland China.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-103
PMCID: PMC3294248  PMID: 22111968
16.  Health-related quality of life instruments and individual diagnosis - a new area of application 
Objectives: Various health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments for children and adolescents have been developed and are applied in clinical and health economic studies with the research focus on the HRQoL of specific groups of responders, comparing these groups respectively. However, if HRQoL assessment aims to contribute on deciding upon a suitable individual treatment and the evaluation thereof, as well as to identify hidden morbidities, an individual diagnostic perspective is required.
To date, the majority of HRQoL questionnaires for children and adolescents are not designed for individual diagnostic assessment and comparison. This paper aims to demonstrate that should a particular measurement tool meet specific psychometric requirements – an individual diagnostic assessment on mental health related problems is possible. We investigated whether or not the KIDSCREEN-27 HRQoL instrument for children and adolescents is able to detect mental health problems in general, provided we apply a principal component analysis (PCA) for summative scaling.
Methods: The cross-sectional survey of the KIDSCREEN project was carried out in 13 European countries (AT, CH, CZ, DE, EL, ES, FR, HU, IE, NL, PL, SE, UK). The Rasch-scaled KIDSCREEN-27 test-data of 22,830 children and adolescents were analysed. To achieve a summative scaling PCA was performed on the correlation between the KIDSCREEN-27 scores. The principal component (PC) values were estimated and used to score the respondents. The reliability and diagnostic quality of this scoring was examined.
Results: The first PC accounted for 58.28% of the entire variance within the KIDSCREEN-27 scores. All KIDSCREEN scales loaded high on the first PC. The reliability of the linear combination of KIDSCREEN-27 scores with the PC-values was rr=.94 and thus above the threshold for individual comparison. This value was higher than the values for the original single KIDSCREEN-27 scores (rr=.78-.84). The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was calculated whilst screening for respondents with a mental health problem in general (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The area under the ROC (AuC) was .80 and statistically significant lower than the AuC issued after a logistic regression analysis employing the 5 original KIDSCREEN-27 scores (AuC=.83). However, according to international conventions, both AuCs denote a ”good” discrimination.
Conclusion: Specifically for the KIDSCREEN-27 the results show that the application of a specific scoring algorithm leads to fulfil pre-specified demands of high reliability. The applied scoring approach leads to a good discrimination of the measurement, thus enabling to detect a mental health problem in general using the HRQoL test-data. The presented approach can enhance the usability and range of application of HRQoL measurement.
PMCID: PMC2736504  PMID: 19742074
mental health; child & adolescent; questionnaires; diagnostic techniques and procedures; Rasch-measurement analysis
17.  Development of the Japanese version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Brain Tumor Module 
Background
The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) is a widely-used modular instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in children aged 2 to 18 years. The PedsQL™ Brain Tumor Module is comprised of six scales: Cognitive Problems, Pain and Hurt, Movement and Balance, Procedural Anxiety, Nausea, and Worry. In the present study, we developed the Japanese version of the PedsQL™ Brain Tumor Module and investigated its feasibility, reliability, and validity among Japanese children and their parents.
Methods
Translation equivalence and content validity were verified using the standard back-translation method and cognitive debriefing tests. Participants were recruited from 6 hospitals in Japan and the Children's Cancer Association of Japan, and questionnaires were completed by 137 children with brain tumors and 166 parents. Feasibility of the questionnaire was determined based on the amount of time required to complete the form and the percentage of missing values. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed by retesting 22 children and 27 parents. Factorial validity was verified by exploratory factor analyses. Known-groups validity was described with regard to whole brain irradiation, developmental impairment, infratentorial tumors, paresis, and concurrent chemotherapy. Convergent and discriminant validity were determined using Generic Core Scales and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for children.
Results
Internal consistency was relatively high for all scales (Cronbach's coefficient alpha > 0.70) except the Pain and Hurt scale for the child-report, and sufficient test-retest reliability was demonstrated for all scales (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.45-0.95). Factorial validity was supported through exploratory factor analysis (factor-item correlation = 0.33-0.96 for children, 0.55-1.00 for parents). Evaluation of known-groups validity confirmed that the Cognitive Problems scale was sensitive for developmental impairment, the Movement and Balance scale for infratentorial tumors or paresis, and the Nausea scale for a patient currently undergoing chemotherapy. Convergent and discriminant validity with the PedsQL™ Generic Core Scales and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for children were acceptable.
Conclusions
The Japanese version of the PedsQL™ Brain Tumor Module is suitable for assessing health-related quality of life in children with brain tumors in clinical trials and research studies.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-8-38
PMCID: PMC2873593  PMID: 20398254
18.  Reliability and validity of functional health status and health-related quality of life questionnaires in children with recurrent acute otitis media 
Quality of Life Research  2007;16(8):1357-1373.
In this study the reliability and validity of generic and disease-specific questionnaires has been assessed focusing on responsiveness. This is part of a study on the effects of recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) on functional health status (FHS) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in 383 children with rAOM participating in a randomized clinical trial. The following generic questionnaires were studied: 1. RAND general health rating index, 2. Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ Generic and FSQ Specific), 3. TNO-AZL Infant Quality of Life (TAIQOL), and the following disease-specific questionnaires: 1. Otitis Media-6 (OM-6), 2. Numerical rating scales (NRS) for child and caregiver (NRS Child and NRS Caregiver), and 3. a new Family Functioning Questionnaire (FFQ). Reliability was good to excellent (Cronbach’s α range 0.80–0.90, intraclass correlation coefficient range 0.76–0.93). Moderate to strong correlations were found between the questionnaires as well as between questionnaires and relevant clinical indicators (r = 0.29–0.49), demonstrating construct validity. Discriminant validity for children with few versus frequent episodes of acute otitis media per year was good for most questionnaires (P < 0.004) but poor for the otitis media-related subscales of the TAIQOL (P = 0.10–0.97) and both NRS (P = 0.22 and 0.48). Except for the TAIQOL subscales, change scores were significant (P < 0.003) for generic and disease-specific questionnaires. Effect sizes were somewhat higher for disease-specific compared to generic questionnaires (0.55–0.95 versus 0.32–0.60) except for the TAIQOL subscales, which showed very poor sensitivity to change. Anchor-based methods resulted in a somewhat larger range of estimates of MCID than distribution-based methods. Combining distribution-based and anchor-based methods resulted in similar ranges for the minimally clinical important differences for generic and disease-specific questionnaires: 2–15 points on a 0–100 scale. Apart from the generic TAIQOL subscales, both generic and disease-specific questionnaires used in this study showed good psychometric qualities and responsiveness for use in clinical studies on children with rAOM.
doi:10.1007/s11136-007-9242-0
PMCID: PMC2039822  PMID: 17668290
Childhood infection; Acute otitis media; Functional health status; Quality of life; Reliability; Validity; Responsiveness
19.  Health-related quality of life in preschool children in five health conditions 
Quality of Life Research  2010;20(5):779-786.
Objective
To test the responsiveness of the Infant/Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL) to five health conditions. In addition, to evaluate the impact of the child’s age and gender on the ITQOL domain scores.
Methods
Observational study of 494 Dutch preschool-aged children with five clinical conditions and 410 healthy preschool children randomly sampled from the general population. The clinical conditions included neurofibromatosis type 1, wheezing illness, bronchiolitis, functional abdominal complaints, and burns. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed by a mailed parent-completed ITQOL. Mean ITQOL scale scores for all conditions were compared with scores obtained from the reference sample. The effect of patient’s age and gender on ITQOL scores was assessed using multi-variable regression analysis.
Results
In all health conditions, substantially lower scores were found for several ITQOL scales. The conditions had a variable effect on the type of ITQOL domains and a different magnitude of effect. Scores for ‘physical functioning’, ‘bodily pain’, and ‘general health perceptions’ showed the greatest range. Parental impact scales were equally affected by all conditions. In addition to disease type, the child’s age and gender had an impact on HRQoL.
Conclusions
The five health conditions (each with a distinct clinical profile) affected the ITQOL scales differently. These results indicate that the ITQOL is sensitive to specific characteristics and symptom expression of the childhood health conditions investigated. This insight into the sensitivity of the ITQOL to health conditions with different symptom expression may help in the interpretation of HRQoL results in future applications.
doi:10.1007/s11136-010-9806-2
PMCID: PMC3102208  PMID: 21153564
Health-related quality of life; Preschool children; ITQOL; Variety of diseases
20.  The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale: feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version 
Background
Oral and orofacial problems may cause a profound impact on children’s oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) because of symptoms associated with these conditions that may influence the physical, psychological and social aspects of their daily life. The OHRQoL questionnaires found in the literature are very specific and are not able to measure the impact of oral health on general health domains. Consequently, the objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version for Brazilian translation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Oral Health Scale in combination with the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales.
Methods
The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale was forward-backward translated and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian Portuguese language. In order to assess the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the instrument, a study was carried out in Belo Horizonte with 208 children and adolescents between 2 and 18 years-of-age and their parents. Clinical evaluation of dental caries, socioeconomic information and the Brazilian versions of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales, Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 and CPQ8-10) and Parental-Caregiver Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) were administered. Statistical analysis included feasibility (missing values), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency reliability, and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale.
Results
There were no missing data for both child self-report and parent proxy-report on the Brazilian version of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale. The CFA showed that the five items of child self-report and parent proxy-report loaded on a single construct. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for child/adolescent and parent oral health instruments were 0.65 and 0.59, respectively. The test-retest reliability (ICC) for child self-report and parent proxy-report were 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.86-0.93] and 0.86 (95%CI = 0.81-0.90), respectively. The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale demonstrated acceptable construct validity, convergent validity and discriminant validity.
Conclusions
These results supported the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale for child self-report for ages 5–18 years-old and parent proxy-report for ages 2–18 years-old children.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-10-42
PMCID: PMC3425333  PMID: 22531004
Oral health; PedsQL; Quality of life; Validation; Child; Adolescent
21.  Cross - cultural adaptation and preliminary validation of the Turkish version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale among 5-6-year-old children 
Background
In Turkey, formal pre-primary education for children 5- 6 years old provides the ideal setting for school-based oral health promotion programs and oral health care services. To develop effective oral health promotion programs, there is a need to assess this target group's subjective oral health needs as well as clinical needs. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is a well-known instrument for assessing oral health quality of life in children aged 0-5 years old and their families. This study aimed to adapt the ECOHIS for children 5-6 years old in a Turkish-speaking community and to undertake a preliminary investigation of its psychometric properties.
Methods
The Turkish version of the ECOHIS was obtained with forward/backward translations, expert panels and pre-testing and it was tested in a convenience sample of 121 parents of 5- 6 year-old children attending nursery classes of three public schools. Data were collected through clinical examinations and self-completed questionnaires. The main analyses were carried out on the imputed data set. The validity of content, face, construct, discriminant and convergent and as well as the reliability of internal and test-retest of the ECOHIS were evaluated. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effect of the complete case analysis for managing "Don't know" responses on the validity and reliability of the ECOHIS.
Results
The analysis of the imputed data set showed that Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.92 and 0.84 respectively, and for the whole scale was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest was 0.86. The scale scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with poor parental ratings of their child's oral health, high caries experience, higher gingival index scores and problem-orientated dental attendance, supporting its construct, convergent and discriminant validity. Sensitivity analysis showed that the mean imputation method and the complete case analysis did not have differing effects on the validity and reliability of the ECOHIS.
Conclusions
This study provided preliminary evidence concerning validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale among 5-6-year-old children. Future studies should be conducted on the ECOHIS to evaluate fully its psychometric properties in both community- based and clinically-based studies among parents of children younger than five. This study provides initial evidence that the ECOHIS aimed at children aged 0-5 years may be a useful tool for assessing the oral health quality of life in 6 year - old preschool children.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-118
PMCID: PMC3310831  PMID: 22192577
Quality of life; oral health; reliability and validity; child; preschool.
22.  The French Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale: Methodological review 
Background
The AMS is an internationally used health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scale. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence that the French AMS scale measures HRQoL are as valid as other language versions. We also intend to show whether the application of AMS is really limited to aging males only or not. More generally, we like to demonstrate that the AMS scale is a relevant, validated, sensitive instrument to measure HRQoL and change of symptoms in France.
Methods
We performed a representative survey in France to get data AMS scale data. The French data were compared with existing data from other European countries. Only community-based data were used for this comparison.
Results and Discussion
Reliability (here consistency, Cronbach' s alpha) was found to be good and almost identical with other countries. Validity: the internal structure of the AMS (factorial analysis) was sufficiently comparable with the comparison group of other countries in Europe to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon. The sub-scores and total score correlations (Pearson) were high (r = 0.8–0.9) but only somewhat lower among the sub-scales (r = 0.5–0.7). This suggests that the domains are correlated.
The comparison of the French AMS with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-12 showed a good correlation (Pearson r = 0.48 – 0.51) as reported from other countries. We observed also a good correlation between the AMS scale and the depression scale HAD (Pearson r = 0.62).
The analysis of the AMS structure across age groups showed sufficient similarity to suggest that the AMS is also useful for younger age groups.
Conclusion
The French AMS scale is a standardized HRQoL scale with good psychometric characteristics (reliability, validity) as shown for other international versions. We suggest that the AMS scale could be also used in age groups under 40 years to measure and compare HRQoL in males. Since the application of the AMS in younger age was not investigated before, confirmation in future studies is needed.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-3-20
PMCID: PMC1079916  PMID: 15790411
AMS; Aging Males Symptoms; Quality of Life; Questionnaires; Reliability; Validity
23.  Reliability and Validity of the KIPPPI: An Early Detection Tool for Psychosocial Problems in Toddlers 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49633.
Background
The KIPPPI (Brief Instrument Psychological and Pedagogical Problem Inventory) is a Dutch questionnaire that measures psychosocial and pedagogical problems in 2-year olds and consists of a KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale, and Autonomy scale. This study examined the reliability, validity, screening accuracy and clinical application of the KIPPPI.
Methods
Parents of 5959 2-year-old children in the Rotterdam area, the Netherlands, were invited to participate in the study. Parents of 3164 children (53.1% of all invited parents) completed the questionnaire. The internal consistency was evaluated and in subsamples the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with regard to the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Discriminative validity was evaluated by comparing scores of parents who worried about their child’s upbringing and parent’s that did not. Screening accuracy of the KIPPPI was evaluated against the CBCL by calculating the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The clinical application was evaluated by the relation between KIPPPI scores and the clinical decision made by the child health professionals.
Results
Psychometric properties of the KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale and Autonomy scale were respectively: Cronbach’s alphas: 0.88, 0.86, 0.83, 0.58. Test-retest correlations: 0.80, 0.76, 0.73, 0.60. Concurrent validity was as hypothesised. The KIPPPI was able to discriminate between parents that worried about their child and parents that did not. Screening accuracy was high (>0.90) for the KIPPPI Total score and for the Wellbeing scale. The KIPPPI scale scores and clinical decision of the child health professional were related (p<0.05), indicating a good clinical application.
Conclusion
The results in this large-scale study of a diverse general population sample support the reliability, validity and clinical application of the KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale and Competence scale. Also, the screening accuracy of the KIPPPI Total score and Wellbeing scale were supported. The Autonomy scale needs further study.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049633
PMCID: PMC3504118  PMID: 23185388
24.  Validity of Korean Versions of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire 
Background and Purpose
Assessment of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important in clinical evaluations of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients for quantifying the impact of illness and treatment on their daily lives. Although MS-specific HRQoL instruments have been used internationally, there are no data regarding HRQoL instruments specifically designed for patients with MS in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Korean Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) and the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life (MusiQoL) questionnaire.
Methods
Fifty-six patients with MS were recruited from June 2009 to February 2010 at the National Cancer Center in Korea. The original English versions of the MSIS-29 scale and the MusiQoL questionnaire were translated into Korean and evaluated for their acceptability, reliability, and validity.
Results
The patients wereaged 36.5±8.6 years (mean±SD; range, 20-56 years). Their score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.0±1.9 (mean; range, 0-7.5), and their disease duration was 5.2±4.7 years (mean±SD; range, 1-24 years). The Korean versions of the MSIS-29 and MusiQoL questionnaires showed satisfactory psychometric properties, including construct validity (item-internal consistencies of 0.59-0.95 and 0.59-0.92, respectively; item-discriminant validities of 95-100% and 93.8-100%), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.96-0.97 and 0.77-0.96), reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.78-0.90 and 0.50-0.93), unidimensionality (Loevinger scalability coefficients of 0.70-0.78 and 0.63-0.90), and acceptability. External validity testing indicated the presence of significant correlations between similar aspects of the two questionnaires.
Conclusions
The Korean translated versions of the MSIS-29 and MusiQoL questionnaires demonstrated reliability and validity for measuring HRQoL in Korean patients with MS.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2014.10.2.148
PMCID: PMC4017018  PMID: 24829601
multiple sclerosis; health-related quality of life; MSIS-29; MusiQoL
25.  Psychometrics of the preschooler physical activity parenting practices instrument among a Latino sample 
Background
Latino preschoolers (3-5 year old children) have among the highest rates of obesity. Low levels of physical activity (PA) are a risk factor for obesity. Characterizing what Latino parents do to encourage or discourage their preschooler to be physically active can help inform interventions to increase their PA. The objective was therefore to develop and assess the psychometrics of a new instrument: the Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practices (PPAPP) among a Latino sample, to assess parenting practices used to encourage or discourage PA among preschool-aged children.
Methods
Cross-sectional study of 240 Latino parents who reported the frequency of using PA parenting practices. 95% of respondents were mothers; 42% had more than a high school education. Child mean age was 4.5 (±0.9) years (52% male). Test-retest reliability was assessed in 20%, 2 weeks later. We assessed the fit of a priori models using Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). In a separate sub-sample (35%), preschool-aged children wore accelerometers to assess associations with their PA and PPAPP subscales.
Results
The a-priori models showed poor fit to the data. A modified factor structure for encouraging PPAPP had one multiple-item scale: engagement (15 items), and two single-items (have outdoor toys; not enroll in sport-reverse coded). The final factor structure for discouraging PPAPP had 4 subscales: promote inactive transport (3 items), promote screen time (3 items), psychological control (4 items) and restricting for safety (4 items). Test-retest reliability (ICC) for the two scales ranged from 0.56-0.85. Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.5-0.9. Several sub-factors correlated in the expected direction with children’s objectively measured PA.
Conclusion
The final models for encouraging and discouraging PPAPP had moderate to good fit, with moderate to excellent test-retest reliabilities. The PPAPP should be further evaluated to better assess its associations with children’s PA and offers a new tool for measuring PPAPP among Latino families with preschool-aged children.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-3
PMCID: PMC3903032  PMID: 24428935
Physical activity; Parenting practices; Latino; Hispanic; Preschool child; Confirmatory factor analysis

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