Recently, we have discovered site-specific endonucleases, which recognize and cleave only DNA sequences with 5-methylcytosine. Two specificities of such endonucleases have been described. Enzymes BisI, BlsI, and GluI are isoschizomers and hydrolyze the DNA sequence 5'-GCNGC-3'/3'-CGNCG-5', which is methylated in different ways. The enzyme GlaI cleaves the DNA sequence 5'-GCGC-3'/3'-CGCG-5' if there are two, three or four 5-methylcytosines. The goal of the present work is to study in detail the composition of recognition sequence and effect of the methylated cytosines on the efficiency of DNA cleavage by the methyl-directed DNA endonuclease GlaI
In a recent work we have studied the dependence of GlaI activity on the quantity and location of 5-methylcytosines in the enzyme recognition sequence 5'-GCGC-3'/3'-CGCG-5'. A significant DNA cleavage has been observed for oligonucleotide duplexes, which include either three or four 5-methylcytosines. In this work we have studied dependence of the GlaI activity on quantity and location of methylated cytosines, as well as on composition of the recognition sequence.
The list of good substrates for GlaI includes a fully methylated site 5'-CGCG-3'/3'-GCGC-5', sites with three cytosines of a general structure 5'-PuMGM-3'/3'-PyGMG-5', and one recognition sequence with two methylated cytosines 5'-AMGT-3'/3'-TGMA-5', where M is 5-methylcytosine.
GlaI intermediate substrates include sites with three methylated cytosines of a general structure 5'-GMPuM-3'/3'-MGPyG-5', as well as a site with two methylcytosines 5'-GMGT-3'/3'-CGMA-5'.
The site 5'-GMGC-3'/3'-CGMG-5' may be considered a low activity substrate.