The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of balloon-expandable metallic stents in the treatment of children with congenital tracheal stenosis in whom conventional therapy has failed. From 2010 to 2011, balloon-expandable metallic stents were implanted into the trachea of eight infants aged 2–20 months in the paediatric intensive care unit. The infants had severe airway obstruction caused by congenital tracheal stenosis. Tracheal stents were placed after intraluminal balloon dilatation of the tracheal stenosis, inserted with balloon catheters and implanted into the desired position bronchoscopically. The stents were 12 to 29 mm long and 4 mm in diameter. Seven children were relieved of airway obstruction after this procedure. However, a child died due to severe sepsis after the placement of bronchial stents. No granulation tissue developed over the stents in any of the children. Stents have been in place for 1–6 months after insertion without any other complication. Balloon-expandable metallic stents are effective in relieving airway obstruction by congenital tracheal stenosis in children. This technique may provide an important remedy for congenital tracheal stenosis in children.
Congenital tracheal stenosis; Balloon-expandable metallic stents; Paediatric intensive care unit
BACKGROUND--Obstruction of a major airway by tumour causes serious morbidity. There is still scope for a widely applicable, simple and effective treatment to provide rapid palliation. METHODS--A fibreoptic bronchoscope prototype with an insulated inner sheath was used under local anaesthesia in 17 patients with locally advanced tracheobronchial malignancies. An insulated flexible electro-surgery probe was used to coagulate intraluminal tumour mass using standard electrosurgery equipment. RESULTS--Immediate reopening of the airway was obtained in 15 of the 17 patients. Two appeared to have extraluminal disease. Eleven patients had an obvious bronchoscopic response in whom a > 75% reopening of the normal airway diameter was achieved. Eight patients had subjective improvement of their dyspnoea, but only in four cases was there an objective improvement in physiological parameters. Haemoptysis resolved in four. There were no deaths resulting from treatment. Minor bleeding occurred in one patient and an aspiration pneumonia occurred in one. Three patients received additional treatment. CONCLUSIONS--Fibreoptic bronchoscopic electrosurgery is a simple technique for rapid palliation and immediate tumour debulking in patients with central tracheobronchial tumours. Further work is needed to compare its efficacy with other techniques.
Covered self expandable metallic airway stents (SEMS) have been used for benign tracheal stenosis, post intubation tracheal stenosis, tracheal burn or trauma, tracheo-broncho-malacia, and extrinsic compression of trachea. Their placement is considered to be permanent, with open surgery the only way to remove the stent, though there are few cases reports of their removal with the bronchoscope, but the complications after their removal are very high. In our patient, one and a half years after placement of SEMS, she developed cough with dyspnoea, video bronchoscopy showed stenosis above the level of stent with granulation tissue inside the stent, stent fracture in lower part and stent migration to right main bronchus, thus she had all conceivable complications of stent placement. The stent was removed with the help of rigid bronchoscope under general anaesthesia. She was discharged the following day. The case is being reported because it was unique in having all the possible complications of stent placement, and rare as we could take out the stent in Toto. Thirdly, the stent could be removed without any complication.
Granulation tissue inside the stent; stenosis above the stent; stent fracture; stent migration
Objective. To demonstrate the risk associated with blocked proximal tracheal stents when a patient presents with acute respiratory distress, with blockage of stent and what is the best management we can offer without damage to the stent and its associated complications. Case Report. A 22-yr-old, male patient, presented in severe respiratory distress. He had history of corrosive poisoning for which he was tracheotomised. A stainless steel wire mesh stent was placed in the trachea, from the subglottis, to just above the carina. One month later, he presented with a critically compromised airway with severe respiratory distress. Emergency tracheostomy was done and the metallic stent had to be cut open, in order to provide an airway. Conclusion. Management of blocked proximal stents with patient in respiratory distress remains a challenge. Formation of granulation tissue is common and fibreoptic bronchoscopic assisted intubation may not always be possible. A regular follow up of all patients with stents is essential. Placement of stents within a few centimetres of cricotracheal junction should not be encouraged for long term indications.
The use of endobronchial stents in the treatment of tumour related tracheobronchial stenosis has been well described. While many forms of stent exist, their use has invariably been described in the context of rigid bronchoscopy and general anaesthesia. Few reports exist on the use of endobronchial stents for the treatment of thyroid goitre related stenosis.Our objective was to retrospectively analyse the use of self expanding metal stent (SEMS) insertion for thyroid related tracheobronchial stenosis under sedation with flexible bronchoscopy in the treatment of this condition. Patient charts were reviewed on all patients who had stent insertion in our unit since 1999-2005.
We analysed the indication for stenting, pathology, stent size and location and detail any complications of therapy. Particular attention was paid to those with benign disease to evaluate the recommendation made by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2005 on the use of metal stents in benign airways disease. A total of five patients (4 female, 1 male) who were too unfit for surgery had stent insertion for thyroid related tracheobronchial stenosis over this period. All patients experienced complications which became prolonged and recurrent in those with benign disease who survived longer. We conclude that SEMS insertion via flexible bronchoscopy is not appropriate for the treatment of benign thyroid goitre related tracheobronchial stenosis until all other interventions have been exhaustively explored.
Tracheobronchial stenosis; multinodular goitre; interventional pulmonology; flexible bronchoscopy; Ultraflex stent; stridor
Self expanding metal stents (SEMS) play an important role in the management of malignant obstructing lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Traditionally, they have been used for palliation in malignant gastric outlet and colonic obstruction and esophageal malignancy. The development of the polyflex stent, which is a removable self expanding plastic stent, allows temporary stent insertion for benign esophageal disease and possibly for patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to esophagectomy. Potential complications of SEMS insertion include perforation, tumour overgrowth or ingrowth, and stent migration. Newer stents are being developed with the aim of increasing technical and clinical success rates, while reducing complication rates. Other areas of development include biodegradable stents for benign disease and radioactive or drug-eluting stents for malignant disease. It is hoped that, in the future, newer stents will improve our management of these difficult conditions and, possibly, provide prognostic as well as symptomatic benefit in the setting of malignant obstruction.
Endoscopy; Stent; Palliation; Bowel obstruction; Malignancy
Background and Aims
Palliation therapy is the only available therapeutic method for most patients with tumor-induced obstructive jaundice. Metallic stents are now performed percutaneously as an alternative route to the endoscopic approach. It is widely accepted because of its safety, good patency rate, and minimal invasiveness. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term results of metallic self-expandable stent insertion in patients with malignant stenosis of the biliary tree.
It is a longitudinal study of patients with percutaneously biliary stenting from September 2005 to March 2009. The patients had unresectable malignant biliary obstruction with unsuccessful endoscopic stenting and access. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram performed after adequate local anesthesia, under sonographic or fluoroscopic guidance. Stenting or balloon dilation was performed through the hydrophilic guide wire. Among 50 patients, 45 stents were placed in biliary tree stenosis sites. Patients’ follow-up was during the first, second, third, and then the sixth month after insertion of biliary stents. Stent patency was considered successful in our patients, when there were no lab results or sonographic appearance of biliary tree obstruction.
10(20%) patients’ stent placement treatment failed because of unsuccessful technical procedure. The stenosis of biliary tract was complete and passage of guide wire was not possible through the tumor growth. 6 (15 %) patients with successful stent placements died within one month (mean, 22 days). Total serum bilirubin resolved to below 1.5 mg/dl within 30 days for 36 (90%) patients with successful stent placements. Early complications not leading to death occurred in 28% of cases. The mean survival time for all patients who underwent stent placement was 140 days (16-420days). The mean patency rate for all stents was 147 days.
Percutaneous biliary stenting is a safe procedure with few technical complications and a high success rate of palliation for patients with malignant biliary jaundice. Early complications are mostly managed conservatively and death is mainly due to systemic effects of the malignant disease.
Malignant Jaundice; Biliary Metal Stents; Percutaneous Biliary Stenting
One hundred and sixteen patients with suspected lung malignancy who were referred for bronchoscopy were examined using both the flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope and the rigid bronchoscope. Both instruments were used sequentially under the same general anaesthetic. Brush biopsies were obtained through the fibreoptic bronchoscope and conventional biopsies, for histological examination, through the rigid bronchoscope. Both specimens were taken from the same area. Eighty-two per cent of those in whom there was a final clinical diagnosis of malignancy were found to have abnormal cytology via the fibreoptic bronchoscope, while abnormal histology was found in 50% by means of the rigid bronchoscope. For those in whom malignancy was confirmed, 16.9% showed disagreement between the two methods in cell typing. Brush biopsy through the flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope under general anaesthesia is confirmed as a sensitive method for diagnosing lung malignancy.
We assessed the efficacy and safety of insertion of a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane-covered self-expandable metallic stent (UVENTA stent) for palliation of malignant ureteral obstruction on the basis of our early results.
Materials and Methods
Eighteen patients underwent UVENTA stent insertion for extrinsic malignant ureteral obstructions of 20 ureters. The UVENTA stents were deployed retrogradely under cystoscopy and fluoroscopy. Candidates for the procedure had preexisting double-J stents that were nonfunctional or caused excessive bladder irritation. We recorded the success and patency rate in addition to any complications associated with the procedure.
The mean length of obstruction was 10.6 cm (range, 2 to 20 cm). Two ureters were obstructed in the upper ureter, 9 in the lower ureter, and 9 in multiple levels of ureter. Simultaneous balloon dilation was performed in 12 ureters. UVENTA stents were successfully inserted in all patients. No obstruction of the UVENTA stents occurred during the mean follow-up period of 7.3 months (patency rate 100%), but de novo ureteral obstruction developed in 4 ureters. There were no instances of stone formation, hyperplastic reaction, encrustation, or migration. Abnormally elevated serum creatinine decreased to normal levels and hydronephrosis gradually resolved during the 4 weeks after UVENTA insertion. No significant complications developed except for transient and self-limiting hematuria and mild lower abdominal pain.
UVENTA stents may relieve malignant ureteral obstruction safely and easily. Long-term follow-up is necessary to assess the role of this stent in the treatment of malignant ureteral obstruction.
Palliative care; Stents; Ureteral obstruction
Bronchoscopic intervention can provide immediate relief from suffocation and an opportunity for additional treatment in patients with malignant airway obstruction. However, few studies have specifically identified prognostic factors affecting the survival of advanced lung or esophageal cancer patients receiving bronchoscopic intervention.
We aimed to investigate prognostic factors influencing survival in these patients.
We conducted retrospective study.
The clinical parameters were retrospectively reviewed in 51 patients (lung cancer: n = 35; esophageal cancer: n = 16) who underwent palliative bronchoscopic interventions due to malignant airway.
Bronchoscopic interventions, such as mechanical removal (n = 26), stenting (n = 31), laser cauterization (n = 19), and ballooning (n = 16), were performed on intraluminal (n = 21, 41%), extrinsic (n = 8, 16%), and combined lesions (n = 22, 43%). Tracheal invasion was found in 24 patients (47%). Successful palliation was achieved in 49 patients (96%). After the intervention, additional anti-cancer treatment was followed in 24 patients (47%). The median survival time and overall survival rate were 3.4 months and 4%. Survival was increased with selected conditions, including a treatment-naïve status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.359; confidence interval [CI], 0.158-0.815; P = 0.01), an intact proximal airway (HR, 0.265; CI, 0.095-0.738; P = 0.01), and post-procedural additional treatment (HR, 0.330; CI, 0.166-0.657; P < 0.01).
Brochoscopic intervention could provide immediate relief and survival improvement in advanced lung or esophageal cancer patients with selected conditions such as a treatment-naïve status, an intact proximal airway, and available post-procedural additional treatment.
Airway obstruction; bronchoscopy; esophageal cancer; lung cancer; survival
Airway complications are among the most challenging problems after lung transplantation, and Self-Expandable Metallic Stents (SEMS) are used to treat airway complications such as stenosis or malacia at the bronchial anastomosis sites. Several transplantation centers are reluctant to use SEMS since their removal is sometimes needed and usually requires the use of rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. The objective of the current report is to describe our experience in SEMS retrieval by flexible bronchoscopy under conscious sedation.
A retrospective review was done of patients requiring tracheobronchial stent placement after lung transplantation in which the SEMS had to be removed. The retrieval procedure was done by flexible bronchoscopy on a day-care ambulatory basis.
Between January 2004 and January 2010, out of 305 lung transplantation patients, 24 (7.8%) underwent SEMS placement. Indications included bronchial stenosis in 20 and bronchomalacia in 4. In six patients (25%) the SEMS had to be removed due to excessive granulation tissue formation and stent obstruction. The average time from SEMS placement to retrieval was 30 months (range 16-48 months). The stent was completely removed in five patients and partially removed in one patient; no major complications were encountered, and all patients were discharged within 3 hours of the procedure. In all procedures, new SEMS was successfully re-inserted thereafter.
The retrieval of SEMS in patients that underwent lung transplantation can be effectively and safely done under conscious sedation using flexible bronchoscopy on a day-care basis, this observation should encourage increasing usage of SEMS in highly selected patients.
Until recently, intubation for the palliation of malignant dysphagia has relied upon the insertion of a variety of plastic tubes. Self-expanding metal stents are reported to have a lower complication rate. We have compared the results of Atkinson tube insertion with self-expanding metal stents in patients with inoperable oesophageal carcinoma. From 1990 to 1994 Atkinson tubes were inserted for the palliation of dysphagia from oesophageal cancer, from 1994 onwards self-expanding metal stents were used. Complications, mortality and hospital stay were compared in both groups of patients. In all, 87 patients with inoperable oesophageal carcinoma were treated, 46 with an Atkinson tube and 41 with metal stents. Complications occurred at similar rates in both groups (56% Atkinson tubes, 44% metal stents). There was a significantly higher perforation rate associated with Atkinson tube insertion (8 patients, 17%) compared with metal stents (1 patient, 2.4%, P = 0.02, chi 2). The length of stay was also significantly higher in the Atkinson tube group (median 10 days) compared with the metal stent group (3 days, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). Mortality rates were similar in both groups. The use of metal stents for the palliation of dysphagia in inoperable oesophageal carcinoma results in a lower perforation rate and a reduced length of stay and they represent a significant advantage over Atkinson tubes.
Endobronchial sonography, a new ultrasound technique, has been evaluated for the assessment of normal lungs and bronchial carcinomas. The procedure was performed with ultrasound catheters, which were introduced into central and peripheral bronchi through the operating channel of fibreoptic bronchoscopes. The bronchial wall is highly echogenic and laminated. The lung parenchyma appears echo rich and patchy. Pulmonary arteries can be identified by the pulsatile changes and floating echoes within the echo free lumen. Echo poor bronchial carcinomas were detected in 69 out of 74 patients with endoscopically visible tumours and in 19 out of 26 patients with peripheral carcinomas. The correct implantation of metallic stents was facilitated by endobronchial sonography in nine patients. The sonographic examination carried no particular risk and caused little discomfort.
In patients with occlusive colorectal cancers, a complete preoperative evaluation of the colon proximal to the obstruction is often impossible. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of preoperative colonoscopy after stent placement and to determine whether the success rate of colonoscopy differs between covered and uncovered stents.
Seventy-three patients with malignant colorectal obstruction were enrolled prospectively. In patients with a resectable cancer, a preoperative colonoscopy was performed after insertion of a self-expandable metal stent (SEMS). The success rate of complete preoperative colonoscopy was compared between covered and uncovered stents.
Forty-five of 73 patients who underwent stent placement had a resectable cancer (61.6%). A complete preoperative colonoscopy was possible in 40 of 45 patients (88.9%). The success rate of complete preoperative colonoscopy was significantly lower in the covered-stent group when the obstructing mass lesion was located in the sigmoid colon (p=0.024). Synchronous cancer was detected in one patient (2.2%). Stent migration was observed in four patients with a covered stent.
A preoperative complete colonoscopy after SEMS placement was feasible and safe in most patients with malignant colorectal obstruction. Uncovered stents seem to have more advantages than covered stents in preoperative colonoscopy proximal to the obstruction.
Colorectal neoplasms; Stents; Colonoscopy; Neoplasms, multiple primary
Duodenal obstruction may be caused by inoperable malignant disease. Symptoms of nausea and vomiting have been traditionally palliated by surgery. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of the endoscopic placement of metal self expanding duodenal stents for the palliation of malignant duodenal obstruction. Four patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction are described. One patient had a history of oesophagectomy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma and presented with further dysphagia. At endoscopy the recurrent oesophageal tumour and an adenocarcinoma involving the pylorus were both stented. In the other three patients there was a previous history of colonic carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma respectively. All four patients were successfully stented with good palliation of their symptoms. Duodenal Wallstents are a useful alternative to surgery in patients with inoperable malignant duodenal obstruction or those who are unfit for surgery.
Several studies have shown that after fibreoptic bronchoscopy there may be a deterioration in lung function but it is not known whether this is due to the premedication, the topical anaesthetic, or the obstruction produced by the bronchoscope. The effects of each part of the procedure on spirometric measurements were studied in patients with lung disease and in normal non-smokers. Measurements were made after premedication (papaveretum and atropine) in seven patients and after topical anaesthesia of the bronchial tree (340 mg lignocaine) with and without the bronchoscope in the trachea in 21 patients and 10 control subjects. Premedication had no effect. In the normal subjects lignocaine produced significant falls in FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and peak inspiratory flow (PIF), and insertion of the bronchoscope caused further falls that were also significant. In the patients, however, although anaesthesia produced significant falls in FEV1, FVC, PEF, and PIF of similar magnitude to those found in the normal subjects, there was no further important decrease when the bronchoscope was inserted. It is concluded that the major effect of bronchoscopy on lung function is due to topical lignocaine in the airways, and in patients with lung disease (excluding asthma or a central obstructing carcinoma) the insertion of the bronchoscope causes little additional obstruction.
Malignant airway obstruction and hemoptysis are common in lung cancer patients. Recently, airway stent is commonly used to preserve airway in malignant airway obstruction. Hemoptysis can be managed through various methods including conservative treatment, endobronchial tamponade, bronchoscopic intervention, embolization and surgery. In our case studies, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of airway stents for re-opening the airway as well as tamponade effects in four patients with malignant airway obstruction and bleeding caused by tumors or lymph node invasions.
Bronchial stent; Malignant airway obstruction; Hemoptysis; Lung cancer
Effective palliation of malignant biliary obstruction with conventional 10 or 12 French gauge straight polyethylene endoprostheses is limited by stent occlusion, which typically occurs four to five months after insertion. Short term follow up studies of self expanding metal stents (Wallstent, Schneider, UK) in the treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction have shown that their use is associated with fewer episodes of stent occlusion compared with plastic stents. There are few data, however, on the longterm patency and durability of metal stents in malignant disease. Between May 1989 and May 1992, metal stents were inserted in 28 patients with malignant bile duct strictures secondary to ampullary tumour (n = 10), pancreatic carcinoma (n = 10), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 7), and porta hepatis nodes from colorectal carcinoma (n = 1). The follow up of these patients until May 1993 is reported with a median follow up of 14.6 months. Twenty two of 28 (78.6%) patients remained free of jaundice or cholangitis. The median period of stent patency was 8.2 months (range 1.0-32.5). Thirteen patients represented with jaundice or cholangitis and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed evidence of stent occlusion due to tumour ingrowth. Successful clearance of metal stents was achieved by balloon trawling, or insertion of a polyethylene stent. In conclusion, metal stents provide improved longterm palliation for patients with malignant biliary strictures with fewer episodes of occlusion compared with conventional stents.
Background and Objectives:
Obstructive non-small cell lung cancer and obstructive esophageal cancer are US FDA approved indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The usefulness of PDT for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma is currently under clinical investigation. Endoscopic stenting for lumen restoration is a common palliative intervention for those indications. It is important to assess whether self-expandable metal stents are compatible with trans-stent PDT light delivery.
Study Design/Materials and Methods:
Direct effects of various components of metal biliary (n = 2), esophageal (n = 2), and bronchial (n = 1) stents on PDT light transmittance and distribution were examined using a point or linear light source (630 or 652 nm diode laser). Resected pig biliary duct and esophageal wall tissues were used to examine the feasibility of PDT light delivery through the fully expanded metal stents.
While using a point light source, the metal components (thread and joint) of the stent could cause a significant shadow effect. The liner material (polytetrafluoroethylene or polyurethane) could cause various degrees of light absorption. When the stent was covered with a thin layer of biliary duct and esophageal tissues containing all wall layers, the shadow effect could be mitigated due to tissue scattering.
This study clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to combine stenting and PDT for the treatment of luminal lesions. PDT light dose should be adjusted to counteract the reduction of light transmittance caused by the metal and liner materials of stent.
stent; laser; light transmittance; photodynamic therapy
Specific cell typing in lung cancer has important implications for assessment of prognosis and the planning of treatment. Cell typing is, however, often difficult and the problem has been compounded by the universal use of the flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope, which yields specimens only 2 mm in diameter. We have reviewed the records of 107 patients who had a diagnosis of lung cancer established by fibreoptic bronchoscopy and who subsequently underwent staging biopsy or surgical resection. Examination of tissue obtained by surgical resection yielded a different cell type from that identified in specimens obtained at fibreoptic bronchoscopy in 11 of 32 patients with a bronchial biopsy specimen diagnostic of squamous cell, three of 44 patients with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, six of seven thought to have a poorly differentiated carcinoma, and 21 of 24 patients with a diagnosis of large cell carcinoma. In all, 41 of the 107 surgically removed specimens (38%) differed in cell type from their corresponding bronchoscopic specimens. Accurate cell typing by specimens obtained at fibreoptic bronchoscopy may be extremely difficult. If clearcut morphological criteria cannot be satisfied, the diagnosis of "lung cancer, non-small cell type" should be made.
A prospective study was carried out to assess the value of bronchoscopic cryotherapy for palliation of inoperable bronchial carcinoma with bronchial obstruction. Symptoms, lung function, and chest radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were recorded serially before and after 81 cryotherapy sessions in 33 consecutive patients. Most patients improved in terms of overall symptoms, stridor, and haemoptysis and they had an overall improvement in dyspnoea. Objective improvement in lung function was seen in 58% of patients and the changes in lung function correlated with symptoms. Bronchoscopic evidence of relief of bronchial obstruction was seen in 77% of patients and 24% showed improvement in degree of collapse on the radiograph. There were no important complications. These results compare favourably with the results in published series of patients having laser therapy. It is concluded that bronchoscopic cryotherapy is valuable for the palliation of inoperable bronchial carcinoma.
High dose rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy is a
palliative treatment for symptomatic airway obstruction by malignant tumours. We report a novel use of HDR brachytherapy for treating non-malignant bronchial obstruction. The patient had a metal stent placed in a reconstructed airway after a bronchial tear to ensure patency. Granulation tissue formation in and around the stent caused
symptomatic occlusion of the airway, necessitating multiple laser
applications. A single treatment of HDR brachytherapy (1000 cGy) was
delivered following laser therapy. The patient remains well 15 months
after treatment with no evidence of recurrent granulation tissue
formation on bronchoscopy. HDR brachytherapy is an effective treatment
for non-malignant airway obstruction.
Biliary stenting is the most effective decompressive method for treating malignant biliary obstructive jaundice. Although the main cause of stent occlusion is tumor growth, few studies have investigated whether stent patency is affected by the combination of cancer-treatment modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local radiotherapy on metal-stent patency in patients with malignant biliary obstruction.
Patients who underwent self-expandable biliary metallic stenting for malignant biliary obstruction from 1999 to 2007 were included. Forty patients received chemotherapy and radiation therapy (radiation group, RG), and 31 patients received only chemotherapy (nonradiation group, NRG).
The cumulative median stent patency was significantly longer in the RG than in the NRG (17.7 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 33.6 months vs 8.7 months; 95% CI, 4.9 to 12.5 months; p=0.025). Stent occlusion caused by tumor growth or stent migration occurred in two (5%) and three (7.5%) cases in the RG and in six (19.3%) and two (6.5%) cases in the NRG, respectively.
The patency of biliary metal stents in pancreatobiliary cancer patients who receive chemoradiation therapy is significantly longer than that in patients who do not receive radiotherapy, which suggests that local cancer control significantly affects stent patency.
Biliary metal stent; Malignant biliary obstruction; Radiotherapy; Stent patency
Self expandable metal stent can be used both as palliative treatment for malignant colorectal obstruction and as a bridge to surgery in patients with potentially resectable colorectal cancer. Here, we report a case of successful relief of malignant stomal obstruction using a metal stent. A 56-year-old man underwent loop ileostomy and was given palliative chemotherapy for ascending colon cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Eight months after the surgery, he complained of abdominal pain and decreased fecal output. Computed tomography and endoscopy revealed malignant stomal obstruction. Due to his poor clinical condition, we inserted the stent at the stomal orifice, instead of additional surgery, and his obstructive symptoms were successfully relieved. Stent insertion is thought to be a good alternative treatment for malignant stomal obstruction, instead of surgery.
Stents; Neoplasms; Stoma
Endoscopic stents have evolved dramatically over the past 20 years. With the introduction of uncovered self-expanding metal stents in the early 1990s, they are primarily used to palliate symptoms of malignant obstruction in patients with inoperable gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. At present, stents have emerged as an effective, safe, and less invasive alternative for the treatment of malignant GI obstruction. Clinical decisions about stent placement should be made based on the exact understanding of the patient's condition. These recommendations based on a critical review of the available data and expert consensus are made for the purpose of providing endoscopists with information about stent placement. These can be helpful for management of patients with inoperable cancer or various nonmalignant conditions in the upper GI tract.
Stents; Upper gastrointestinal tract; Malignancy; Obstruction