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1.  French-language version of the World Health Organization quality of life spirituality, religiousness and personal beliefs instrument 
A valid assessment of spirituality and religiousness is necessary for clinical and research purposes. We developed and assessed the validity of a French-language version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs Instrument (WHOQOL-SRPB).
The SRPB was translated into French according to the methods recommended by the WHOQOL group. An Internet survey was conducted in 561 people in 2010, with follow-up 2 weeks later (n = 231, 41%), to assess reliability, factor structure, social desirability bias and construct validity of this scale. Tests were performed based on item-response theory.
A modal score of 1 (all answers=”not at all”) was observed for Faith (in 34% of participants), Connectedness (27%), and Spiritual Strength (14%). All scales had test-retest reliability coefficients ≥0.7. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were high for all subscales (0.74 to 0.98) and very high (>0.9) for three subscales (Connectedness, Spiritual Strength and Faith). Scores of Faith, Connectedness, Spiritual Strength and Meaning of Life were higher for respondents with religious practice than for those who had no religious practice. No association was found between SRPB and age or sex. The Awe subscale had a low information function for all levels of the Awe latent trait and may benefit from inclusion of an additional item.
The French language version of the SRPB retained many properties of the original version. However, the SRPB could be improved by trimming redundant items. The strength of SRPB relies on its multinational development and validation, allowing for cross-cultural comparisons.
PMCID: PMC3462699  PMID: 22515747
Spirituality; Religiousness; Quality of life; Internet surveys; Validity
2.  Validation of Hindi Translation of SRPB Facets of WHOQOL-SRPB Scale 
World Health Organization's Quality of Life – Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs Scale (WHOQOL SRPB) is a valuable instrument for assessing spirituality and religiousness. The absence of this self-administered instrument in Hindi, which is a major language in India, is an important limitation in using this scale.
To translate the English version of the SRPB facets of WHOQOL-SRPB scale to Hindi and evaluate its psychometric properties.
Materials and Methods:
The SRPB facets were translated into Hindi using the World Health Organisation's translation methodology. The translated Hindi version was evaluated for cross-language equivalence, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and split half reliability.
Hindi version was found to have good cross-language equivalence and test-retest reliability at the level of facets. Twenty-six of the 32 items and 30 of the 32 items had a significant correlation (ρ<0.001) in cross language concordance and test-retest reliability data, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.93, and the Spearman-Brown Sphericity value was 0.91 for the Hindi version of SRPB.
The present study shows that cross-language equivalence, internal consistency, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability of the Hindi version of SRPB (of WHOQOL-SRPB) are excellent. Thus, the Hindi version of WHOQOL-SRPB as translated in this study is a valid instrument.
PMCID: PMC3868086  PMID: 24379495
Hindi translation; religiousness; spirituality; WHOQOL-SRPB
3.  Reliability and Validity of the Perspectives of Support From God Scale 
Nursing research  2010;59(2):102-109.
Existing spiritual support scales for use with cancer survivors focus on the support believed to come from a religious community, clergy, or health care providers.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a new measure of spiritual support believed to come from God in older Christian African American cancer survivors.
The Perceived Support From God Scale was administered to 317 African American cancer survivors aged 55–89 years. Psychometric evaluation involved identifying underlying factors, conducting item analysis and estimating reliability, and obtaining evidence on the relationship to other variables or the extent to which the Perceived Support From God Scale correlates with religious involvement and depression.
The Perceived Support From God Scale consists of 15 items in two subscales (Support From God and God’s Purpose for Me). The two subscales explained 59% of the variance. Cronbach’s α coefficients were .94 and .86 for the Support From God and God’s Purpose for Me subscales, respectively. Test–retest correlations were strong, supporting the temporal stability of the instrument. Pearson’s correlations to an existing religious involvement and beliefs scale were moderate to strong. Subscale scores on Support From God were negatively correlated to depression.
Initial support for reliability and validity was demonstrated for the Perceived Support From God Scale. The scale captures a facet of spirituality not emphasized in other measures. Further research is needed to evaluate the scale with persons of other racial/ethnic groups and to explore the relationship of spirituality to other outcome measures.
PMCID: PMC2867661  PMID: 20216012
African Americans; cancer; spiritual support
4.  The Self-Perception and Relationships Tool (S-PRT): A novel approach to the measurement of subjective health-related quality of life 
The Self-Perception and Relationships Tool (S-PRT) is intended to be a clinically responsive and holistic assessment of patients' experience of illness and subjective Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL).
A diversity of patients were involved in two phases of this study. Patient samples included individuals involved with renal, cardiology, psychiatric, cancer, chronic pelvic pain, and sleep services. In Phase I, five patient focus groups generated 128 perceptual rating scales. These scales described important characteristics of illness-related experience within six life domains (i.e., Physical, Mental-Emotional, Interpersonal Receptiveness, Interpersonal Contribution, Transpersonal Receptiveness and Transpersonal Orientation). Item reduction was accomplished using Importance Q-sort and Importance Checklist methodologies with 150 patients across the participating services. In Phase II, a refined item pool (88 items) was administered along with measures of health status (SF-36) and spiritual beliefs (Spiritual Involvements and Beliefs Scale – SIBS) to 160 patients, of these 136 patients returned complete response sets.
Factor analysis of S-PRT results produced a surprisingly clean five-factor solution (Eigen values> 2.0 explaining 73.5% of the pooled variance). Items with weaker or split loadings were removed leaving 36 items to form the final S-PRT rating scales; Intrapersonal Well-being (physical, mental & emotional items), Interpersonal Receptivity, Interpersonal Contribution, Transpersonal Receptivity and Transpersonal Orientation (Eigen values> 5.4 explaining 83.5% of the pooled variance). The internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) of these scales was very high (0.82–0.97). Good convergent correlations (0.40 to 0.67) were observed between the S-PRT scales and the Mental Health scales of the SF-36. Correlations between the S-PRT Intrapersonal Well-being scale and three of SF-36 Physical Health scales were moderate (0.30 to 0.46). The criterion-related validity of the S-PRT spiritual scales was supported by moderate convergence (0.40–0.49) with three SIBS scales.
Evidence supports the validity of the S-PRT as a generally applicable measure of perceived health status and HRQL. The test-retest reliability was found to be adequate for most scales, and there is some preliminary evidence that the S-PRT is responsive to patient-reported changes in determinants of their HRQL. Clinical uses and directions for future research are discussed.
PMCID: PMC497051  PMID: 15257754
5.  Engagement of patients in religious and spiritual practices: Confirmatory results with the SpREUK-P 1.1 questionnaire as a tool of quality of life research 
Quality of life is a multidimensional construct composed of functional, physical, emotional, social and spiritual well-being. In order to examine how patients with severe diseases view the impact of spirituality and religiosity on their health and how they cope with illness, we have developed the SpREUK questionnaire. We deliberately avoided the intermingling of attitudes, convictions and practices, and thus addressed the distinct forms and frequencies of spiritual/religious practices in an additional manual, the SpREUK-P questionnaire.
The SpREUK-P was designed to differentiate spiritual, religious, existentialistic and philosophical practices. It was tested in a sample of 354 German subjects (71% women; 49.0 ± 12.5 years). Half of them were healthy controls, while among the patients cancer was diagnosed in 54%, multiple sclerosis in 22%, and other chronic diseases in 23%. Reliability and factor analysis of the inventory were performed according to the standard procedures.
We confirmed the structure and consistency of the previously described 18-item SpREUK-P manual and improved the quality of the current construct by adding several new items. The new 25-item SpREUK-P 1.1 (Cronbach's alpha = 0.8517) has the following scales: (1) conventional religious practice (CRP), (2) existentialistic practice (ExP), (3) unconventional spiritual practice (USP), (4) nature/environment-oriented practice (NoP), and (5) humanistic practice (HuP). Among the tested individuals, the highest engagement scores were found for HuP and NoP, while the lowest were found for the USP. Women had significantly higher scores for ExP than male patients. With respect to age, the engagement in CRP increases with increasing age, while the engagement in a HuP decreased. Individuals with a Christian orientation and with a religious and spiritual attitude had the highest engagement scores for CRP, while the engagement in an USP was high with respect to a spiritual attitude. Variance analyses confirmed that the SpR attitude and religious affiliation are the main relevant covariates for CRP and ExP, while for the USP the SpR attitude and the educational level are of significance, but not religious affiliation. Patients with multiple sclerosis overall had the lowest engagement scores for all five forms of SpR practice, while it is remarkable that cancer patients had lower scores for HuP and USP than healthy subjects.
The current re-evaluation of the SpREUK-P questionnaire (Version 1.1) indicates that it is a reliable, valid measure of five distinct forms of spiritual, religious and philosophical practice that may be especially useful for assessing the role of spirituality and religiosity in health related research. An advantage of our instruments is the clear-cut differentiation between convictions and attitudes on the one hand, and the expression of these attitudes in a concrete engagement on the other hand.
PMCID: PMC1253527  PMID: 16144546
Questionnaires; Religion and Medicine; Spirituality and Religion; religious practices; coping; chronic disease, cancer; multiple sclerosis
6.  Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Chinese version of the 5-item Duke University Religion Index 
Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry  2014;26(5):300-309.
The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) is a widely-used 5-item scale assessing religiosity.
Assess the internal consistency, reliability, and factor structure of the revised Chinese version of DUREL.
Using probability proportionate to size (PPS) methods we randomly identified 3981 households with eligible occupants in 20 primary sampling sites in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, a province in northwest China in which 34% of the population are Muslims of the Hui ethnic group. In 3054 households a screening interview was completed and an adult family member was randomly selected; 2425 respondents completed the survey (including the DUREL) and 188 randomly selected individuals repeated the survey an average of 2.5 days later.
The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) of the 5 items in the full sample was 0.90; it ranged from 0.70 to 0.90 in various subgroups of subjects stratified by ethnicity, urban versus rural residence, and above versus below median education. The test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) for the total score in the full sample was 0.87; it ranged from 0.63 to 0.90 in the different subgroups of subjects. Exploratory factor analysis in a random half of the sample identified a single factor (eigen value=4.21) that explained 84% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis in the second half of the sample confirmed the unidimensional model; the model fit measures of the one-factor model using the 5 item scores as observed variables were acceptable (comparative fit index [CFI] and Tucker-Lewis index [TLI]>0.99; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.105; χ2 =70.49, df=5), but the model fit improved after adding the correlation between items 1 and 2 (that assess organized and personal religious activities, respectively) as a sixth observed variable(CFI and TLI>0.99; RMSEA=0.046; χ2 =14.32, df=4).
The Chinese version of the DUREL is a reliable and valid measure of religiosity that can be used to assess the relationship of religiosity/spirituality to physical and psychological wellbeing in Chinese respondents. As suggested by other authors, our factor analysis results indicate that the overall score is the best measure derived from the scale, not the three dimensional scores recommended by the original authors.
PMCID: PMC4248264  PMID: 25477725
religiosity; reliability; validity; explanatory factor analysis; confirmatory factor analysis; Hui ethnic group; China
7.  Role of religion and spirituality in medical patients: Confirmatory results with the SpREUK questionnaire 
Spirituality has become a subject of interest in health care as it is was recognized to have the potential to prevent, heal or cope with illness. There is less doubt that values and goals are important contributors to life satisfaction, physical and psychological health, and that goals are what gives meaning and purpose to people's lives. However, there is as yet but limited understanding of how patients themselves view the impact of spirituality on their health and well-being, and whether they are convinced that their illness may have "meaning" to them. To raise these questions and to more precisely survey the basic attitudes of patients with severe diseases towards spirituality/religiosity (SpR) and their adjustment to their illness, we developed the SpREUK questionnaire.
In order to re-validate our previously described SpREUK instrument, reliability and factor analysis of the new inventory (Version 1.1) were performed according to the standard procedures. The test sample contained 257 German subjects (53.3 ± 13.4 years) with cancer (51%), multiple sclerosis (24%), other chronic diseases (16%) and patients with acute diseases (7%).
As some items of the SpREUK construct require a positive attitude towards SpR, these items (item pool 2) were separated from the others (item pool 1). The reliability of the 15-item the construct derived from the item pool 1 respectively the 14-item construct which refers to the item pool 2 both had a good quality (Cronbach's alpha = 0.9065 resp. 0.9525). Factor analysis of item pool 1 resulted in a 3-factor solution (i.e. the 6-item sub-scale 1: "Search for meaningful support"; the 6-item sub-scale 2: "Positive interpretation of disease"; and the 3-item sub-scale 3: "Trust in external guidance") which explains 53.8% of variance. Factor analysis of item pool 2 pointed to a 2-factor solution (i.e. the 10-item sub-scale 4: "Support in relations with the External life through SpR" and the 4-item sub-scale 5: "Support of the Internality through SpR") which explains 58.8% of variance. Generally, women had significantly higher SpREUK scores than male patients. Univariate variance analyses revealed significant associations between the sub-scales and SpR attitude and the educational level.
The current re-evaluation of the SpREUK 1.1 questionnaire indicates that it is a reliable, valid measure of distinct topics of SpR that may be especially useful of assessing the role of SpR in health related research. The instrument appears to be a good choice for assessing a patients interest in spiritual concerns which is not biased for or against a particular religious commitment. Moreover it addresses the topic of "positive reinterpretation of disease" which seems to be of outstanding importance for patients with life-changing diseases.
PMCID: PMC550666  PMID: 15705195
Questionnaires; Religion and Medicine; Spirituality and Religion; coping; chronic disease, cancer
8.  Validation of the spiritual distress assessment tool in older hospitalized patients 
BMC Geriatrics  2012;12:13.
The Spiritual Distress Assessment Tool (SDAT) is a 5-item instrument developed to assess unmet spiritual needs in hospitalized elderly patients and to determine the presence of spiritual distress. The objective of this study was to investigate the SDAT psychometric properties.
This cross-sectional study was performed in a Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit. Patients (N = 203), aged 65 years and over with Mini Mental State Exam score ≥ 20, were consecutively enrolled over a 6-month period. Data on health, functional, cognitive, affective and spiritual status were collected upon admission. Interviews using the SDAT (score from 0 to 15, higher scores indicating higher distress) were conducted by a trained chaplain. Factor analysis, measures of internal consistency (inter-item and item-to-total correlations, Cronbach α), and reliability (intra-rater and inter-rater) were performed. Criterion-related validity was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp) and the question "Are you at peace?" as criterion-standard. Concurrent and predictive validity were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), occurrence of a family meeting, hospital length of stay (LOS) and destination at discharge.
SDAT scores ranged from 1 to 11 (mean 5.6 ± 2.4). Overall, 65.0% (132/203) of the patients reported some spiritual distress on SDAT total score and 22.2% (45/203) reported at least one severe unmet spiritual need. A two-factor solution explained 60% of the variance. Inter-item correlations ranged from 0.11 to 0.41 (eight out of ten with P < 0.05). Item-to-total correlations ranged from 0.57 to 0.66 (all P < 0.001). Cronbach α was acceptable (0.60). Intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities were high (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.96). SDAT correlated significantly with the FACIT-Sp, "Are you at peace?", GDS (Rho -0.45, -0.33, and 0.43, respectively, all P < .001), and LOS (Rho 0.15, P = .03). Compared with patients showing no severely unmet spiritual need, patients with at least one severe unmet spiritual need had higher odds of occurrence of a family meeting (adjOR 4.7, 95%CI 1.4-16.3, P = .02) and were more often discharged to a nursing home (13.3% vs 3.8%; P = .027).
SDAT has acceptable psychometrics properties and appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess spiritual distress in elderly hospitalized patients.
PMCID: PMC3368768  PMID: 22455520
9.  Spiritual beliefs may affect outcome of bereavement: prospective study 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2002;324(7353):1551.
To explore the relation between spiritual beliefs and resolution of bereavement.
Prospective cohort study of people about to be bereaved with follow up continuing for 14 months after the death.
A Marie Curie centre for specialist palliative care in London.
135 relatives and close friends of patients admitted to the centre with terminal illness.
Main outcome measure
Core bereavement items, a standardised measure of grief, measured 1, 9, and 14 months after the patients' death.
People reporting no spiritual belief had not resolved their grief by 14 months after the death. Participants with strong spiritual beliefs resolved their grief progressively over the same period. People with low levels of belief showed little change in the first nine months but thereafter resolved their grief. These differences approached significance in a repeated measures analysis of variance (F=2.42, P=0.058). Strength of spiritual belief remained an important predictor after the explanatory power of relevant confounding variables was controlled for. At 14 months the difference between the group with no beliefs and the combined low and high belief groups was 7.30 (95% confidence interval 0.86 to 13.73) points on the core bereavement items scale. Adjusting for confounders in the final model reduced this difference to 4.64 (1.04 to 10.32) points.
People who profess stronger spiritual beliefs seem to resolve their grief more rapidly and completely after the death of a close person than do people with no spiritual beliefs.
What is already known on this topicReligious belief affects outcome of bereavement in families coping with the death of a child and in older people who are bereaved of a spouseResearch is often retrospective, and causal connections are difficult to establishWhat this study addsPeople who profess stronger spiritual beliefs seem to resolve their grief more rapidly and completely after the death of a person close to them than do people with no spiritual beliefsMost palliative care units involve the family members and friends of the person dying; attention to spiritual matters may be an important component of this work
PMCID: PMC116607  PMID: 12089091
10.  Alcohol Use and Religiousness/Spirituality Among Adolescents 
Southern medical journal  2007;100(4):349-355.
Previous studies indicate that religiousness is associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents, but less is known about the relationship between spirituality and substance use. The objective of this study was to determine the association between adolescents’ use of alcohol and specific aspects of religiousness and spirituality.
Twelve- to 18-year-old patients coming for routine medical care at three primary care sites completed a modified Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality; the Spiritual Connectedness Scale; and a past-90-days alcohol use Timeline Followback calendar. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between each religiousness/spirituality measure and odds of any past-90-days alcohol use, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and clinic site. Timeline Followback data were dichotomized to indicate any past-90-days alcohol use and religiousness/spirituality scale scores were z-transformed for analysis.
Participants (n = 305) were 67% female, 74% Hispanic or black, and 45% from two-parent families. Mean ± SD age was 16.0 ± 1.8 years. Approximately 1/3 (34%) reported past-90-day alcohol use. After controlling for demographics and clinic site, Religiousness/Spirituality scales that were not significantly associated with alcohol use included: Commitment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.36, 1.79), Organizational Religiousness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.64, 1.07), Private Religious Practices (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.10), and Religious and Spiritual Coping – Negative (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.91, 1.23). All of these are measures of religiousness, except for Religious and Spiritual Coping – Negative. Scales that were significantly and negatively associated with alcohol use included: Forgiveness (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42–0.73), Religious and Spiritual Coping –Positive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51–0.84), Daily Spiritual Experiences (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54–0.84), and Belief (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.68–0.83), which are all measures of spirituality. In a multivariable model that included all significant measures, however, only Forgiveness remained as a significant negative correlate of alcohol use (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41, 0.74).
Forgiveness is associated with a lowered risk of drinking during adolescence.
PMCID: PMC4143181  PMID: 17458392
spirituality; religion; substance-related disorders; alcoholism; adolescence
11.  Nursing students’ spiritual well-being, spirituality and spiritual care 
Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students.
Materials and Methods:
This is a descriptive–comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann–Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups.
Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives.
The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year nursing course. Including spiritual care in the curriculum of nursing students’ courses will add to their understanding and provision of spiritual care. This will fill the present gap evident in the system in Iran. At present, the educational system here does not make use of spiritual care as part of its comprehensive curriculum.
PMCID: PMC4061623  PMID: 24949061
Iran; nursing student; spiritual care; spiritual well-being; spirituality
12.  The reliability of the Arabic version of osteoporosis knowledge assessment tool (OKAT) and the osteoporosis health belief scale (OHBS) 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:138.
Knowledge and awareness about osteoporosis and its related risk factors are important contributors to osteoporosis preventive behavior. There is a need to assess the reliability of international osteoporosis-related knowledge and belief measurement tools in Arabic community. This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Arabic version of Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT) and the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) among Syrian women.
The study included two phases. The first phase included a forward and backward translation of the osteoporosis-related tools (OKAT and OHBS) followed by a pilot testing. The second phase was an assessment of the test-retest reliability of the tools among a convenience sample of one hundred working women at Damascus Faculty of Medicine and its teaching hospitals. For this purpose each instrument was administered twice to all women at an interval of two weeks. Data collection took place in the fall of 2011, and was facilitated by a trained interviewer whose task was to administer the tools and collect some background data from the women who consented to participate in the study.
A total of one hundred women were recruited in this study for the reliability test-retest of the Arabic version of the tools. The mean age of studied women was 37.1 (SD = 8.4) years. Most of the women were married and nearly one-half of them had a university education. The internal consistency values for OHBS (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.806) as well as the OKAT (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.824) met the 0.7 Cronbach’s alpha value requirement. Item analysis did not necessitate any omissions in either tool. McNemar’s test identified only three items on the OKAT questionnaire that significantly differed from the test to the retest. The OKAT mean score (SD) for the test was 9.4 (2.6) and that for the re-test was 10.1 (2.9). Paired t test did not show significant difference (P = 0.068).
The Arabic version of both the Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT) and the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) was found to be reliable as well as acceptable. Further research is needed as to complete the validation of those tools and to use them at larger scale whether in knowledge assessment or in assessing interventions.
PMCID: PMC3630064  PMID: 23566522
13.  Psychometric Evaluation of the Spanish and English Versions of the Spiritual Coping Strategies Scale 
Journal of nursing measurement  2011;19(1):46-54.
The Spiritual Coping Strategies (SCS) Scale measures how frequently religious and nonreligious (spiritual) coping strategies are used to cope with a stressful experience. This study’s purpose is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly translated Spanish version of the SCS. A total of 51 bilingual adults completed the SCS in Spanish and English, with 25 completing them again 2–3 weeks later. Internal consistency reliability for the Spanish (r = 0.83) and English (r = 0.82) versions of the SCS in the total sample were good. Test–retest reliability was .84 for the Spanish and .80 for the English version. Spanish and English responses to the SCS items and the resulting score for the subscales and the total scale were not significantly different. Scores on the English and Spanish versions were correlated as expected with time since the stressful event and happiness with family and with spouse or partner, supporting the validity of the Spanish SCS. Study findings support the reliability and validity of the newly translated Spanish SCS.
PMCID: PMC3124707  PMID: 21560900
spirituality; Spanish; stressful events; coping strategies
14.  Development and validation of a core outcome measure for palliative care: the palliative care outcome scale 
Quality in Health Care : QHC  1999;8(4):219-227.
Objectives - To develop an outcome measure for patients with advanced cancer and their families which would cover more than either physical symptoms or quality of life related questions. To validate the measure in various specialist and non-specialist palliative care settings throughout the UK. Design - A systematic literature review of measures appropriate for use in palliative care settings was conducted. In conjunction with a multidisciplinary project advisory group, questions were chosen for inclusion into the scale based on whether they measured aspects of physical, psychological, or spiritual domains pertinent to palliative care, and whether similar items had shown to be valid as part of another measure. A staff completed version was developed to facilitate data collection on all patients throughout their care, and a patient completed version was designed to enable the patient to contribute to the assessment of their outcomes when possible. A full validation study was conducted to evaluate construct validity, internal consistency, responsiveness to change over time, and test-retest reliability. Assessments were timed. Setting - Eight centres in England and Scotland providing palliative care, including inpatient care, outpatient care, day care, home care, and primary care. Patients - A total of 450 patients entered care during the study period. Staff collected data routinely on patients in care long enough to be assessed (n=337). Of these, 262 were eligible for patient participation; 148 (33%) went on to complete a questionnaire. Main measures - The Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS), the European Organisation for Research on Cancer Treatment, and the Support Team Assessment Schedule. Results - The POS consists of two almost identical measures, one of which is completed by staff, the other by patients. Agreement between staff and patient ratings was found to be acceptable for eight out of 10 items at the first assessment. The measure demonstrated construct validity (Spearman rho = 0.43 to 0.80). Test/re-test reliability was acceptable for seven items. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.65 (patients), 0.70 (staff)). Change over time was shown, but did not reach statistical significance. The questionnaire did not take more than 10 minutes to complete by staff or patients. Conclusion - The POS has acceptable validity and reliability. It can be used to assess prospectively palliative care for patients with advanced cancer.
PMCID: PMC2483665  PMID: 10847883
15.  Which Domains of Spirituality are Associated with Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Advanced Illness? 
Anxiety and depression are common in seriously ill patients and may be associated with spiritual concerns. Little research has examined how concerns in different domains of spirituality are related to anxiety and depression.
To examine the association of spiritual history and current spiritual well-being with symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with advanced illness.
Cross-sectional cohort study
Two hundred and ten patients with advanced illness, of whom 1/3 were diagnosed with cancer, 1/3 COPD, and 1/3 CHF. The mean age of the sample was 66 years, and 91% were Christian.
Outcome measures were the Profile of Mood States’ Anxiety Subscale (POMS) and 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). Predictors were three subscales of the Spiritual History Scale measuring past religious help-seeking and support, past religious participation, and past negative religious experiences and two subscales of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-Being Scale measuring the role of faith in illness and meaning, peace, and purpose in life. We conducted multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographics, disease type and severity, self-rated religiousness/spirituality, and frequency of religious attendance and devotion.
In adjusted analyses, greater spiritual well-being, including both beliefs about the role of faith in illness and meaning, peace, and purpose in life were associated with fewer symptoms of anxiety (P ≤ 0.001) and depression (P < 0.001). Greater past negative religious experiences were associated with more symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.04) and depression (P = 0.004). No other measures of spiritual history were associated with the outcomes.
In this diverse sample of seriously ill patients, current spiritual well-being and past negative religious experiences were associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Healthcare providers should consider asking about current spiritual well-being and past negative religious experiences in their assessment of seriously ill patients with symptoms of anxiety and depression.
PMCID: PMC3138578  PMID: 21336669
spirituality; anxiety; depression; end-of-life care; terminal illness
16.  A Comparison of Two Spirituality Instruments and Their Relationship to Depression and Quality of Life in Chronic Heart Failure 
Spirituality is a multifaceted construct related to health outcomes that remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. Spirituality in patients with advanced chronic illnesses such as chronic heart failure has received limited attention. We compared two widely-used spirituality instruments, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) and the Ironson-Woods Spirituality/Religiousness Index (IW), to better understand what they measure in 60 outpatients with chronic heart failure. We examined how these instruments related to each other and to measures of depression and quality of life using correlations and principal components analyses. The FACIT-Sp measured aspects of spirituality related to feelings of peace and coping whereas the IW measured beliefs, coping, and relational aspects of spirituality. Only the FACIT-Sp Meaning/Peace subscale consistently correlated with depression (r = −0.50, P<.0001) and quality of life (r = 0.41, P=0.001). Three items from the depression measure loaded onto the same factor as the FACIT-Sp Meaning/Peace subscale (r= 0.43, −0.43, and 0.71), while the remaining 12 items formed a separate factor (Cronbach’s alpha=0.82) when combined with the spirituality instruments in a principal components analysis. The results demonstrate several clinically-useful constructs of spirituality in patients with heart failure and suggest that psychological well-being and spiritual well-being, despite some overlap, remain distinct phenomena.
PMCID: PMC2862901  PMID: 20303028
Spirituality; quality of life; depression; questionnaires; measurement; heart failure
17.  Does spiritual care program affect levels of depression in patients with Leukemia? A randomized clinical trial 
Although 25-33% of patients with non-hematological malignancies suffer from depression disorder, some studies have reported the rate among patients with leukemia as high as 50%. Furthermore, based on studies chronic disease such as leukemia increases the patients’ spiritual needs and may accelerate the patient problems. Therefore, spirituality has a significant role in adapting to leukemia and coping with its consequent mental disorders such as depression. Owing to the spirituality aspect importance and contradictory results of previous research, this study was hence performed to determine the effects of a spiritual care program on depression of patients with leukemia.
Materials and Methods:
This randomized clinical trial was conducted in specialized cancer treatment center affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). A total of 64 adult patients with leukemia were randomly divided into experiment and control groups. The spiritual care program including supportive presence and support for religious rituals was implemented for 3 days. Depression sub-scale of 42-item depression, anxiety and stress scale-42 was completed before and after the intervention for both groups. Data was analyzed using ANCOVA, Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square, in SPSS statistical software (version 18, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL).
After the intervention, mean score of depression was significantly lower in the experiment group than in the control group (P < 0.01). Comparison the mean score of depression in two groups, revealed the decrees in mean score of depression 11.09 (8.47) after spiritual care program that it was significant (P < 0.001).
Our spiritual care program could successfully decrease depression level in patients with leukemia and nurses have to apply a holistic care approach with emphasis on spiritual care to decrease depression, so paid attention to spiritual aspect of patients accompanying with physical aspects in therapy process is recommended.
PMCID: PMC4165101  PMID: 25250362
Depression; leukemia; nursing; spirituality
18.  Predictors of spirituality at the end of life 
Canadian Family Physician  2008;54(12):1720-1721.e5.
To assess the relationship between spirituality and hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and clinical and disease-related characteristics among patients with advanced cancer, and to investigate predictors of spirituality. Spiritual well-being is thought to have a beneficial effect on patients’ response to illness.
Patients were asked to complete 4 questionnaires: the Greek version of the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, the Greek version of the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and a questionnaire on demographics.
A palliative care unit in Athens, Greece.
A total of 91 patients with advanced cancer.
Associations between scores on the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs scale and scores on the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death scale and the Beck Hopelessness scale, and demographic characteristics.
Statistically significant associations were found between spirituality and sex of patients (P = .001) and spirituality and stronger hopelessness (r = 0.252, P = .016). In multivariate analyses, stronger hopelessness, male sex, younger age, and receiving chemotherapy were found to be the strongest predictors of being spiritual.
Demographic and clinical characteristics and stronger hopelessness appeared to have statistically significant relationships with spirituality. Interventions to improve patients’ spiritual well-being should take these relationships into account.
PMCID: PMC2602627  PMID: 19074719
19.  Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults 
Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes.
The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity.
Eight steps of scale development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability.
Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed.
The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a screening tool to assess active aging levels among older Thai adults in both community and clinical practice settings.
PMCID: PMC4116362  PMID: 25092971
active aging; scale development; psychometric evaluation; culturally sensitive measure; Thai elderly
20.  Considering the Balance: Development of a Scale to Assess Patient Views on Tradeoffs in Competing Health Outcomes 
Tradeoffs among competing health outcomes complicate the treatment of older, multimorbid adults, but little is known about patient attitudes towards these tradeoffs. This study describes the development of a scale assessing participants’ attitudes regarding two commonly encountered tradeoffs: quality versus quantity of life, and present versus future health.
Observational cohort study.
Three hundred and fifty seven community-dwelling adults age ≥ 65.
An initial set of 20 items rated on a 5-point Likert scale of agreement was reduced using principal components analysis. Construct validity was evaluated through comparison of the scale with other tools addressing the same tradeoffs and analysis of participant characteristics associated with attitudes favoring quality over quantity of life and present over future health. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).
The scale consists of two subscales, each addressing one tradeoff, with a total of 10 items. All factor loadings were ≥ .5 and subscale scores were significantly different (p≤.05) in the expected directions when comparing with other tools and with participant race, education, and religious identity. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach’s α .85 and .84), and test-retest reliability was fair (ICC .63 and .47). Subscale scoremedians fell near the middle of each scale with narrow interquartile ranges, butover 15% of the sample scored at an extreme of each subscale.
This new scale captures patient views on two common tradeoffs in healthcare. While test-retest reliability was modest, its high validity suggests this tool can be used to familiarize patients with common tradeoffs and further explore influences on patient attitudes.
PMCID: PMC3743932  PMID: 23869795
Health priorities; decision-making; geriatric assessment/methods; quality of life; comorbidity
21.  The Short Anxiety Screening Test in Greek: translation and validation 
The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Greek translation of the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST), for use in primary care settings. The scale consists of 10 items and is a brief clinician rating scale for the detection of anxiety disorder in older people, particularly, in the presence of depression.
The study was performed in two rural primary care settings in Crete. The sample consisted of 99 older (76 ± 6.3 years old) people, who fulfilled the participating criteria. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was performed according to international standards. Internal consistency using the Cronbach α coefficient and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability of the tool. An exploratory factor analysis using Varimax with Kaiser normalisation (rotation method) was used to examine the structure of the instrument, and for the correlation of the items interitem correlation matrix was applied and assessed with Cronbach α.
Translation and backtranslation did not reveal any specific problems. The psychometric properties of the Greek version of the SAST scale in primary care were good. Internal consistency of the instrument was good, the Cronbach α was found to be 0.763 (P < 0.001) and ICC (95% CI) for reproducibility was found to be 0.763 (0.686 to 0.827). Factor analysis revealed three factors with eigenvalues >1.0 accounting for 60% of variance, while the Cronbach α was >0.7 for every item.
The Greek translation of the SAST questionnaire is comparable with that of the original version in terms of reliability, and can be used in primary healthcare research. Its use in clinical practice should be primarily as a screening tool only at this stage, with a follow-up consisting of a detailed interview with the patient, in order to confirm the diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC2819236  PMID: 20051118
22.  Changes in Religiousness and Spirituality Attributed to HIV/AIDS: Are There Sex and Race Differences? 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2006;21(Suppl 5):S14-S20.
Having a serious illness such as HIV/AIDS raises existential issues, which are potentially manifested as changes in religiousness and spirituality. The objective of this study was (1) to describe changes in religiousness and spirituality of people with HIV/AIDS, and (2) to determine if these changes differed by sex and race.
Three-hundred and forty-seven adults with HIV/AIDS from 4 sites were asked demographic, clinical, and religious/spiritual questions. Six religious/spiritual questions assessed personal and social domains of religiousness and spirituality.
Eighty-eight participants (25%) reported being “more religious” and 142 (41%) reported being “more spiritual” since being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Approximately 1 in 4 participants also reported that they felt more alienated by a religious group since their HIV/AIDS diagnosis and approximately 1 in 10 reported changing their place of religious worship because of HIV/AIDS. A total of 174 participants (50%) believed that their religiousness/spirituality helped them live longer. Fewer Caucasians than African Americans reported becoming more spiritual since their HIV/AIDS diagnosis (37% vs 52%, respectively; P<.015), more Caucasians than African Americans felt alienated from religious communities (44% vs 21%, respectively; P<.001), and fewer Caucasians than African Americans believed that their religiousness/spirituality helped them live longer (41% vs 68% respectively; P<.001). There were no significantly different reported changes in religious and spiritual experiences by sex.
Many participants report having become more spiritual or religious since contracting HIV/AIDS, though many have felt alienated by a religious group—some to the point of changing their place of worship. Clinicians conducting spiritual assessments should be aware that changes in religious and spiritual experiences attributed to HIV/AIDS might differ between Caucasian and African Americans.
PMCID: PMC1924779  PMID: 17083495
HIV/AIDS; religion; spirituality; coping; chronic illness
23.  Development and Validation of a Questionnaire Assessing Fears and Beliefs of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: The Knee Osteoarthritis Fears and Beliefs Questionnaire (KOFBeQ) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53886.
We aimed to develop a questionnaire assessing fears and beliefs of patients with knee OA.
We sent a detailed document reporting on a qualitative analysis of interviews of patients with knee OA to experts, and a Delphi procedure was adopted for item generation. Then, 80 physicians recruited 566 patients with knee OA to test the provisional questionnaire. Items were reduced according to their metric properties and exploratory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by the Cronbach α coefficient. Construct validity was tested by divergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis. Test–retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland and Altman technique.
137 items were extracted from analysis of the interview data. Three Delphi rounds were needed to obtain consensus on a 25-item provisional questionnaire. The item-reduction process resulted in an 11-item questionnaire. Selected items represented fears and beliefs about daily living activities (3 items), fears and beliefs about physicians (4 items), fears and beliefs about the disease (2 items), and fears and beliefs about sports and leisure activities (2 items). The Cronbach α coefficient of global score was 0.85. We observed expected divergent validity. Confirmation factor analyses confirmed higher intra-factor than inter-factor correlations. Test–retest reliability was good, with an ICC of 0.81, and Bland and Altman analysis did not reveal a systematic trend.
We propose an 11-item questionnaire assessing patients' fears and beliefs concerning knee OA with good content and construct validity.
PMCID: PMC3549996  PMID: 23349757
24.  Spiritual well-being of patients with multiple sclerosis 
Spiritual well-being is one of the fundamental concepts in chronic diseases which create meaning and purpose in life and is an important approach in promoting general health and quality of life. This study performed to determine the level of spiritual health and its dimensions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
236 members of Iranian MS Society were volunteered to participate in a descriptive co-relational study. Spiritual well-being was evaluated by The Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) questionnaires in two religious and Existential dimensions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyse the data.
The majority of patients (% 97.9) showed moderate spiritual well-being (mean score = 74.3, SD= 8.90). Although Existential well-being (mean score = 40.3, SD= 5.51) was higher than religious well- being (mean score = 33.9, SD= 4.88). A significant relationship was seen between economic status and the spiritual well-being.
The results emphasize on the necessity of spiritual well-being as an effective factor on different aspects of these patients’ life. This key point is useful and even necessary to be considered to design programs of care and cure for these patients in a country (like Iran) with cultural and religious beliefs. On the other hand, patients’ economic status should be considered.
PMCID: PMC3249799  PMID: 22224107
Multiple Sclerosis; quality of life; spiritual well-being; religious well being; existential well- being
25.  The positive mental health instrument: development and validation of a culturally relevant scale in a multi-ethnic asian population 
Instruments to measure mental health and well-being are largely developed and often used within Western populations and this compromises their validity in other cultures. A previous qualitative study in Singapore demonstrated the relevance of spiritual and religious practices to mental health, a dimension currently not included in exiting multi-dimensional measures. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered measure that covers all key and culturally appropriate domains of mental health, which can be applied to compare levels of mental health across different age, gender and ethnic groups. We present the item reduction and validation of the Positive Mental Health (PMH) instrument in a community-based adult sample in Singapore.
Surveys were conducted among adult (21-65 years) residents belonging to Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA) were conducted and items were reduced using item response theory tests (IRT). The final version of the PMH instrument was tested for internal consistency and criterion validity. Items were tested for differential item functioning (DIF) to check if items functioned in the same way across all subgroups. Results: EFA and CFA identified six first-order factor structure (General coping, Personal growth and autonomy, Spirituality, Interpersonal skills, Emotional support, and Global affect) under one higher-order dimension of Positive Mental Health (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.96). A 47-item self-administered multi-dimensional instrument with a six-point Likert response scale was constructed. The slope estimates and strength of the relation to the theta for all items in each six PMH subscales were high (range:1.39 to 5.69), suggesting good discrimination properties. The threshold estimates for the instrument ranged from -3.45 to 1.61 indicating that the instrument covers entire spectrums for the six dimensions. The instrument demonstrated high internal consistency and had significant and expected correlations with other well-being measures. Results confirmed absence of DIF.
The PMH instrument is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to measure and compare level of mental health across different age, gender and ethnic groups in Singapore.
PMCID: PMC3229450  PMID: 22040157
Positive mental health; multi-dimensional; instrument development; item reduction; factor analysis; item response theory

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