Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players.
We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players.
Materials and Methods
Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair at our hospital over a 2-year period. We collected data on these patients from the operative records. The patients were recalled for outcome scoring and ultrasound scans.
There were seven rugby league players and four rugby union players, including six internationals. Their mean age was 25.7 years. All had had a traumatic episode during match play and could not return to the game after the injury. The mean time to surgery was 5 weeks. The mean width of the cuff tear was 1.8 cm. All were full- thickness cuff tears. Associated injuries included two Bankart lesions, one bony Bankart lesion, one posterior labral tear, and two 360° labral tears. The biceps was involved in three cases. Two were debrided and a tenodesis was performed in one. Repair was with suture anchors. Following surgery, all patients underwent a supervised accelerated rehabilitation programme. The final follow-up was at 18 months (range: 6–31 months) post surgery. The Constant scores improved from 44 preoperatively to 99 at the last follow-up. The mean score at 3 months was 95. The Oxford shoulder score improved from 34 to 12, with the mean third month score being 18. The mean time taken to return to full match play at the preinjury level was 4.8 months. There were no complications in any of the patients and postoperative scans in nine patients confirmed that the repairs had healed.
We conclude that full-thickness rotator cuff tears in the contact athlete can be addressed successfully by arthroscopic repair, with a rapid return to preinjury status.
Arthroscopy; contact sports; rotator cuff; rugby
Chest injuries in contact and collision sports are relatively rare, particularly those that are life threatening. However, as with every sports related injury, one must initially consider life threatening situations that may occur as a result of collision with another player, a stationary object, or being struck with some type of object (missile). In other words, as is the case in all acute sports injury assessment, the mechanism of injury must be considered when evaluating the injured athlete on the field as well as on the sidelines. The Sports Physical Therapist (PT) must look for several initial life threatening conditions as well as be aware of and monitor for the development of these symptoms during the subsequent evaluation of the athlete. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the presentation and management of several emergent conditions associated with injuries to the chest and thorax.
Chest injury; commotio cordis; flail chest; pneumothorax
The aims of medicine in sport--treatment and prevention of injury of high-performance athletes, rehabilitation--and its beneficial effects are considered. The types of sporting injuries are described. Collision and contact sports tend to be characterised by injuries caused by direct or indirect trauma, while athletic injuries tend to result from a variety of factors that, instead of producing excellence as intended, produce injury. The physiological changes in a top-class sportsman may also be characteristic of disease, making diagnosis of injury difficult. The importance of the sportsman's mental attitude is stressed.
Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for men's football and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives.
Background: Football is a high-velocity collision sport in which injuries are expected. Football tends to have one of the highest injury rates in sports. Epidemiologic data helps certified athletic trainers and other clinicians identify injury trends and patterns to appropriately design and institute injury prevention protocols and then measure their effects.
Main Results: During the 16-year reporting period, about 19% of the Division I, II, and III NCAA institutions sponsoring football participated in the Injury Surveillance System. The results from the 16-year study period show little variation in the injury rates over time: games averaged 36 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (A-Es); fall practice, approximately 4 injuries per 1000 A-Es; and spring practice, about 10 injuries per 1000 A-Es. The game injury rate was more than 9 times higher than the in-season practice injury rate (35.90 versus 3.80 injuries per 1000 A-Es, rate ratio = 9.1, 95% confidence interval = 9.0, 9.2), and the spring practice injury rate was more than 2 times higher than the fall practice injury rate (9.62 versus 3.80 injuries per 1000 A-Es, rate ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval = 2.5, 2.6). The rate ratio for games versus fall practices was greatest for upper leg contusions (18.1 per 1000 A-Es), acromioclavicular joint sprains (14.0 per 1000 A-Es), knee internal derangements (13.4 per 1000 A-Es), ankle ligament sprains (12.0 per 1000 A-Es), and concussions (11.1 per 1000 A-Es).
Recommendations: Football is a complex sport that requires a range of skills performed by athletes with a wide variety of body shapes and types. Injury risks are greatest during games. Thus, injury prevention measures should focus on position-specific activities to reduce the injury rate. As equipment technology improves for the helmet, shoulder pads, and other protective devices, appropriate injury surveillance procedures should be performed to determine the effect of the new equipment on injury rates. A consistent evaluation of injury trends and patterns will assist decision makers in designing injury prevention techniques in areas that warrant the greatest attention and suggesting rule changes and modifications based on the data.
athletic injuries; injury prevention; concussions; knee injuries; ankle injuries; heat illness
Squash is a popular racquet sport not usually associated with severe head or spinal injury. The incidence of squash-related injury ranges from 35.5 to 80.9 per 100,000 players, with the most common sites being the lower-limbs and eyes. We present a case of extensive traumatic craniomaxillofacial and vertebral injury resulting from collision on a squash court, without use of protective gear. The patient sustained fractures of the frontal bone, orbits, maxillae, zygomas, the first and second cervical vertebrae and the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertrebra. This is the first case of squash-related injury with such extensive craniofacial and vertebral involvement. This unique case required multiple surgical procedures as well as an extensive admission to the intensive care unit and highlights the risk of significant craniomaxillofacial trauma in sports not usually associated with such injuries.
Athletic injuries; bone; craniocerebral trauma; fractures; spinal injuries
Background and Purpose:
Golf is a popular sport played by hundreds of thousands of individuals of all ages and of varying skill levels. An orthopedic or sports-related injury and/or surgery may limit an individual's sport participation, require him/her to complete a course of rehabilitation, and initiate (or resume) a sport-specific training program. Unlike the availability of evidence to guide postsurgical rehabilitation and sport-specific training of athletes from sports other than golf, there have only been two reports describing outcomes after surgery and for golfers. The purpose of this case report is to present a post-rehabilitation return to sport-training program for a recreational golfer 11-months after a rotator cuff repair.
The subject, a 67-year old female, injured her right shoulder requiring a rotator cuff repair 11-months prior to her participation in a golf fitness training program. The subject participated in six training sessions over seven week period consisting of general strengthening exercises (including exercises for the rotator cuff), exercises for the core, plyometrics, and power exercises.
The subject made improvements in power and muscular endurance of the core. She was able to resume golf at the completion of the training program.
The subject was able to make functional improvements and return to golf after participation in a comprehensive strength program. Additional studies are necessary to improve program design for golfers who wish to return to sport after shoulder surgery.
golf; return-to-sport; senior; kettlebells; plyometrics
Ice hockey is a high-speed collision sport with recognized injury potential. Body checking, identified as a primary cause of injury, is allowed in men’s hockey but is not allowed at any level for female players. The injury patterns in collegiate hockey should reflect this fundamental difference in how the game is played. In this study, we reviewed the injuries sustained by National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) hockey players over a 7-year period.
We conducted a retrospective database review of injuries and exposures reported to the Injury Surveillance System to determine rates of injury or differences in the pattern of injury between the sexes.
The rate of injury during games for men (18.69/1000 athlete-exposures [AEs]) and women (12.10/1000 AEs) was significantly higher than the rate of injury during practice. The rate of concussion was 0.72/1000 AEs for men and 0.82/1000 AEs for women, and the rate remained stable over the study period. Player contact was the cause of concussions in game situations for 41% of women and 72% of men.
Both men and women had increased rates of practice-related injuries that resulted in time loss during the study period. In addition, there were high rates of concussions from player contact. The concussion rate in women was higher than expected. A more detailed examination with focused data collection may impact these findings.
To investigate common non-traumatic musculoskeletal complaints of the low back in elite inline-speedskaters of the German national team.
Summary of background data
Traumatic injuries associated with falls or collisions are well documented in speedskaters but so far no studies have investigated non-traumatic low back pain. Previously, the sacroiliac joint was suspected as a frequent origin of complaint, we aimed to investigate this assumption.
Two chiropractors examined elite inline-speedskaters of the German national team during three sports events between summer 2010 and 2011. A test cluster of five provocative tests for the sacroiliac joint was selected based on reliability and validity.
A total of 37 examinations were conducted on 34 athletes with low back pain during the three sport events. The reported pain intensities ranged from mild to moderate pain (VAS 23.4 ± 13.4 to 35.1 ± 19.2). About 90% of cases showed involvement of the SI joint of which again 90% presented with left sided symptoms.
Non-traumatic complaints of the low back originating from the left sacroiliac joint frequently occur in competitive inline speedskaters.
Speedskating; Non-traumatic; Sacro-iliac joint; Sport-specific; Pain
The acute anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint (GHJ) poses a challenge to sports medicine providers at all levels and in all settings. This macrotraumatic injury occurs in athletes who participate in a wide variety of sports, most typically as a result of contact or collision mechanisms. Quick and effective relocation of the GHJ is an important skill for on the sideline or on the field management of this type of dislocation when appropriate and allowable by facility protocol. This clinical suggestion describes one possible technique for athlete self‐reduction that may be appropriate in some circumstances. This is in contrast to forcible reduction by the health professional, which is outside of the scope of this clinical commentary.
Level of Evidence:
Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocation; self‐reduction technique
Anecdotal experience has suggested that there is a higher frequency of maxillofacial injuries among motor vehicle collisions involving moose.
A retrospective cohort study design was used to investigate the incidence of various injuries resulting from moose-motor vehicle collisions versus other high-speed motor vehicle collisions.
A chart review was conducted among patients presenting to a Canadian regional trauma centre during the five-year period from 1996 to 2000.
Fifty-seven moose-motor vehicle collisions were identified; 121 high-speed collisions were randomly selected as a control group. Demographic, collision and injury data were collected from these charts and statistically analyzed. The general demographic features of the two groups were similar. Moose collisions were typically frontal impact resulting in windshield damage. The overall injury severity was similar in both groups. Likewise, the frequency of intracranial, spinal, thoracic and extremity injuries was similar for both groups. The group involved in collisions with moose, however, was 1.8 times more likely then controls to sustain a maxillofacial injury (P=0.004) and four times more likely to sustain a maxillofacial fracture (P=0.006).
Occupants of motor vehicles colliding with moose are more likely to sustain maxillofacial injuries than those involved in other types of motor vehicle collisions. It is speculated that this distribution of injuries relates to the mechanism of collision with these large mammals with a high centre of gravity.
Accidents; Animal; Facial injuries; Human; Traffic; Wounds and injuries
Groin injuries in high-performance athletes are common, occurring in 5% to 28% of athletes. Athletic pubalgia syndrome, or so-called sports hernia, is one such injury that can be debilitating and sport ending in some athletes. It is a clinical diagnosis of chronic, painful musculotendinous injury to the medial inguinal floor occurring with athletic activity. Over the past 12 years, we have operated on >100 patients with this injury at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas. These patients have included professional athletes, collegiate athletes, competitive recreational athletes, and the occasional “weekend warrior.” The repair used is an open technique using a lightweight polypropylene mesh. Patient selection is important, as is collaboration with other experienced and engaged sports health care professionals, including team trainers, physical therapists, team physicians, and sports medicine and orthopedic surgeons. Of the athletes who underwent surgery, 98% have returned to competition. After a minimum of 6 weeks for recovery and rehabilitation, they have usually returned to competition within 3 months.
Brachial plexopathies, where traction or compressive forces disrupt motor and sensory nerve conduction, are the most common nerve injuries in collision sports. Athletes frequently do not report these episodes, however, predisposing the brachial plexus to recurrent trauma. The purpose of this study was to identify how multiple injuries to the brachial plexus affects shoulder strength and proprioception. Ten male intercollegiate football players with at least three unilateral episodes of brachial plexopathies were tested an average of 10 weeks after the most recent episode. The uninvolved shoulder was used as the control. Isometric peak torque was assessed for shoulder abduction, external rotation, and elbow flexion. Proprioception was measured under two conditions: threshold to detection of passive motion and reproduction of passive positioning. Dependent t tests revealed significant mean differences (p < .05) between the involved and uninvolved extremity for abduction peak torque, overall mean peak torque, and one out of four conditions of threshold to detection of passive motion conditions. This was in the neutral position moving into external rotation. In addition, subjects with greater numbers of episodes exhibited larger strength deficits. The results of this study emphasize the need for timely re-evaluation of athletes with chronic brachial plexopathies.
Bicycle use has increased in some of France's major cities, mainly as a means of transport. Bicycle crashes need to be studied, preferably by type of cycling. Here we conduct a descriptive analysis.
A road trauma registry has been in use in France since 1996, in a large county around Lyon (the Rhône, population 1.6 million). It covers outpatients, inpatients and fatalities. All injuries are coded using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Proxies were used to identify three types of cycling: learning = children (0-10 years old); sports cycling = teenagers and adults injured outside towns; cycling as means of transport = teenagers and adults injured in towns. The study is based on 13,684 cyclist casualties (1996-2008).
The percentage of cyclists injured in a collision with a motor vehicle was 8% among children, 17% among teenagers and adults injured outside towns, and 31% among those injured in towns. The percentage of serious casualties (MAIS 3+) was 4.5% among children, 10.9% among adults injured outside towns and 7.2% among those injured in towns. Collisions with motor-vehicles lead to more internal injuries than bicycle-only crashes.
The description indicates that cyclist type is associated with different crash and injury patterns. In particular, cyclists injured in towns (where cycling is increasing) are generally less severely injured than those injured outside towns for both types of crash (bicycle-only crashes and collisions with a motor vehicle). This is probably due to lower speeds in towns, for both cyclists and motor vehicles.
OBJECTIVES: To study the ictal phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome of convulsions occurring within seconds of impact in violent collision sport. DESIGN: Retrospective identification of convulsions associated with concussive brain injury from case records from medical officers of football clubs over a 15 year period. SUBJECTS: Elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuroimaging studies, electroencephalography, neuropsychological test data, and statistics on performance in matches to determine presence of structural or functional brain injury. Clinical follow up and electroencephalography for evidence of epilepsy. RESULTS: Twenty two cases of concussive convulsions were identified with four events documented on television videotape. Convulsions began within 2 seconds of impact and comprised an initial period of tonic stiffening followed by myoclonic jerks of all limbs lasting up to 150 seconds. Some asymmetry in the convulsive manifestations was common, and recovery of consciousness was rapid. No structural or permanent brain injury was present on clinical assessment, neuropsychological testing, or neuroimaging studies. All players returned to elite competition within two weeks of the incident. Epilepsy did not develop in any player over a mean (range) follow up of 3.5 (1-13) years. CONCLUSIONS: These concussive or impact convulsions are probably a non-epileptic phenomenon, somewhat akin to convulsive syncope. The mechanism may be a transient traumatic functional decerebration. In concussive convulsions the outcome is universally good, antiepileptic treatment is not indicated, and prolonged absence from sport is unwarranted.
A retrospective analysis of 48 sportsmen and women from an original series of 76 consecutive patients who had undergone a modified McIntosh repair was carried out to establish whether or not the procedure could provide a satisfactory recovery and return to previous ability. The type and level of sport before injury was compared with that after operation. Symptoms of pain and giving way, and examination findings of pivot shift, and Lachman's test were compared before and after operation. Of the 48 patients assessed, 28 (58%) returned to full sporting capacity; 17 (35%) patients were participating in different sports or lower levels of their previous sports, and three patients did not participate in any sport. The more severely symptomatic knees did not perform so well after operation. The degree of preoperative anterior draw and Lachman's test did not influence the final result and the pivot shift, present in all before operation, was abolished in all but one case, which remained badly symptomatic. Concurrent meniscal injury or medial or lateral laxity did not influence return to sport once a full postoperative recovery was made. No deterioration was noticed in the level of sporting ability achieved thereafter. In this study it has been shown that the modified McIntosh repair is a swift extra-articular reconstruction for the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee, which is less elaborate than previously described Ellison and McIntosh procedures, and which has produced a comparable result.
Cardiac chamber rupture in blunt trauma is uncommon and is associated with a high mortality rate. We report a patient involved in a motor vehicle collision with an isolated right atrial injury resulting in a pericardial effusion associated with hemodynamic compromise.
A 20 year-old intoxicated female was transported after sustaining a collision in her vehicle. The patient remained mildly hypotensive and tachycardic despite volume resuscitation. FAST was negative showing good cardiac motion and no fluid in her abdomen. A CT scan revealed a mediastinal hematoma and free intra-abdominal fluid, and trans-thoracic echocardiogram (TTE) identified a mass within the right atrium associated with a pericardial effusion.
In the operating room, clot was removed from within the pericardium. Hypothermic circulatory arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass were performed and a single laceration involving the right atrium was repaired after removing a large intra-atrial clot. A negative concurrent exploratory laparotomy was performed. The patient was discharged from the hospital postoperative day 6.
This report presents an isolated right atrial tear associated with pericardial tamponade following blunt trauma and we discuss the role of early diagnosis and treatment.
The authors conclude that laparoscopic repair of traumatic intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture is a practical alternative to conventional open repair.
Laparoscopic repair of the traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture is a proven, safe, and effective technique in the appropriate setting. A 23-year-old male with traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture proven by cystogram after a motor vehicle collision was successfully repaired via a laparoscopic approach. We describe the technique in detail including 2-layer closure and follow-up care. A review of the literature using PubMed with the key words [laparoscopic repair bladder injury] AND [bladder trauma] was performed. We recommend the consideration of laparoscopic repair of the intraperitoneal bladder rupture in more trauma patients who meet criteria.
Bladder repair; Blunt trauma; Laparoscopy; Intracorporeal
In the light of medical evidence of the health risks associated with boxing, a watchful agnostic position among sport physicians is no longer justifiable. The normal activity in a boxing match places the athletes at risk of head injury, some of which may be difficult to detect and impossible to repair. This suggests that sport physicians and others expert in the prevention and diagnosis of such injuries should take a public stand against boxing, as other medical associations have. Although there is a need for continuing research into the health risks, doctors can in the interim take steps to increase public awareness of these risks. Sport physicians in particular can make a strong public statement by also ending their professional involvement with boxing. This need not be interpreted as paternalism; doctors are qualified neither to make laws nor to restrict private behaviour. Sport physicians are, however, well equipped to advise those who do make laws and those who choose to engage in boxing. In the end, because this stance against boxing will probably reduce the number of brain injuries in certain athletes, autonomy will be preserved, rather than restricted.
Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids') are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK.
A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment.
This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users.
Objective: To describe the systemic nature of the illness reported after motor vehicle collisions using data from a large, population based cohort of individuals making an injury insurance claim.
Methods: All subjects who submitted a claim or were treated for whiplash injury following a motor vehicle collision in Saskatchewan, Canada during an 18 month period were examined. Demographics of claimants, collision related data, pre-collision health data, symptom prevalence, and scores on the short form 36 item general health survey (SF-36) were obtained on average within one month post-collision.
Results: Of 9006 potentially eligible claimants, 7462 (83%) met criteria for whiplash injury and provided information regarding demographics and injury related symptoms; 45% of these consented to complete the SF-36 at baseline. For most subjects, neck pain was only one of many diffuse and intense symptoms, including, often, low back pain. The range of symptoms, including fatigue, dizziness, paraesthesiae, headache, spinal pain, nausea, and jaw pain, could be interpreted as a systemic disorder. SF-36 scores showed low physical and mental functioning one month post-collision.
Conclusions: What is commonly referred to as whiplash associated disorders (WAD) is best appreciated as a syndrome extending well beyond what can be labelled as a neck injury. More research is needed for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved so that treatment can be directed at the broad spectrum of the illness rather than focusing on finding a focal neck injury.
Surgeons have traditionally treated recurrent shoulder dislocation by open methods. With the advent of arthroscopic repair techniques some surgeons reported higher recurrence rates than with open methods but some of those reports included patients with a variety of problems, including bone loss and those continuing in contact sports. It is unclear whether recurrence rates would be higher in patients without bone loss and those willing to forego contact sports.
We therefore determined recurrence rates and functional scores after arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization in patients without bone loss and those not subsequently participating in contact sports.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients who underwent a revision arthroscopic Bankart repair using suture anchors. An arthroscopic approach was selected in patients with a unilateral traumatic injury and mild to moderate bone loss. Arthroscopic stabilization was contraindicated in patients with (1) multidirectional shoulder instability; (2) greater than 25% glenoid bone loss; (3) a Hill Sachs lesion involving more than one-third of the articular surface of the humeral head; and (4) patients electing to continue pursuing contact sports. At followup, physical examination of both shoulders was conducted. Several functional scores (Rowe, UCLA, and Constant & Murley) were compiled. The minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 31 months; range, 24–46 months).
The UCLA score (22–31), Constant & Murley score (69–80), and Rowe score (33–80) all improved. Shoulder instability recurred in three of the 16 patients, two sustaining dislocations and one a subluxation. One recurrence was the result of new trauma and this patient underwent an open Latarjet procedure; the other two patients refused further surgery.
Revision arthroscopic Bankart repair using suture anchors was associated with a low recurrence rate and restoration of acceptable function in patients without bone loss and not participating in contact sports.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Laryngeal injuries are rare in the athletic setting, but such sports as football, basketball, and hockey often place the athlete in a position to receive blunt trauma to the throat area. Such an injury has the potential of developing into a life-threatening situation. A high school athlete sustained a fractured larynx during a football game. The injury required surgical repair. Unfortunately, because this type of injury is uncommon in sports, many athletic training books do not extensively address soft tissue and cartilaginous injuries to the structures of the anterior neck. Athletic trainers must be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of a laryngeal injury and refer the athlete for immediate medical attention.
To determine whether pedestrian countdown signals (PCS) reduce pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, Canada.
A quasi-experimental study design was used to evaluate the effect of PCS on the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, from January 2000 to December 2009. Each intersection acted as its own control. We compared the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions per intersection-month before and after the intervention. Stratified models were used to evaluate effect modification by pedestrian age, injury severity and location (urban vs inner suburbs). Poisson regression analysis with repeated measures (generalised estimating equations) was used to estimate the RR and 95% CI.
The analysis included 9262 pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions at 1965 intersections. The RR of collisions after PCS installation was 1.014 (95% CI 0.958 to 1.073), indicating no statistically significant effect of PCS on collisions. There was no evidence to suggest effect modification between PCS and collisions by age, injury severity or location.
The installation of PCS at 1965 signalised intersections in Toronto did not reduce the number of pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions at these intersections.
Accidents; bicycle; Canada; child; database; epidemiology; evaluation; MVTC; occupational; pedestrians; playground; public health; restraint; safety; surveillance; traffic/prevention and control; training
Musculoskeletal pain after motor vehicle collision is a substantial public health problem. The number of elderly individuals experiencing motor vehicle collision is increasing. We conducted analyses of data collected as part of a prospective observational study of outcomes after motor vehicle collision to estimates rates of persistent pain, pain interference, and change in physical function in patients 65 or older.
Adults presenting to one of four emergency departments following motor vehicle collision without severe or life-threatening injury were recruited. Outcomes were assessed using one month follow-up surveys.
The frequencies of persistent moderate or severe pain resulting from the motor vehicle collision were similar among elderly and non-elderly participants, both in the neck region (27% vs. 30%) and in any region (60% vs. 56%). For both elderly and non-elderly patients, persistent pain was associated with high levels of interference with physical activity and mood.
Further studies of this vulnerable and rapidly increasing injury population are needed.
Objective: To examine the relationship between the numbers of people walking or bicycling and the frequency of collisions between motorists and walkers or bicyclists. The common wisdom holds that the number of collisions varies directly with the amount of walking and bicycling. However, three published analyses of collision rates at specific intersections found a non-linear relationship, such that collisions rates declined with increases in the numbers of people walking or bicycling.
Data: This paper uses five additional data sets (three population level and two time series) to compare the amount of walking or bicycling and the injuries incurring in collisions with motor vehicles.
Results: The likelihood that a given person walking or bicycling will be struck by a motorist varies inversely with the amount of walking or bicycling. This pattern is consistent across communities of varying size, from specific intersections to cities and countries, and across time periods.
Discussion: This result is unexpected. Since it is unlikely that the people walking and bicycling become more cautious if their numbers are larger, it indicates that the behavior of motorists controls the likelihood of collisions with people walking and bicycling. It appears that motorists adjust their behavior in the presence of people walking and bicycling. There is an urgent need for further exploration of the human factors controlling motorist behavior in the presence of people walking and bicycling.
Conclusion: A motorist is less likely to collide with a person walking and bicycling if more people walk or bicycle. Policies that increase the numbers of people walking and bicycling appear to be an effective route to improving the safety of people walking and bicycling.