The effect of antigen challenge on the airway responses to substance P and on the epithelial neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity was investigated in aerosol sensitized guinea-pigs. In vivo, bronchial responses to aerosolized substance P were similar to the responses observed in antigen-challenged guinea-pigs and in the control groups. In contrast, when the guinea-pigs were pretreated with the NEP inhibitor, phosphoramidon, a significant increase in the airway responses to substance P was observed after antigen challenge in vivo. However, in vitro, the contractile responses of the tracheal smooth muscle to substance P were similar between groups of guinea-pigs, in respect to the presence or absence of the epithelium and/or phosphoramidon. Histological studies showed an accumulation of eosinophils in the tracheal submucosa after antigen challenge and intact epithelial cells. These results show that in vivo bronchial hyperresponsiveness to substance P after antigen challenge in the guinea-pig is not associated with increased responses of the smooth muscle to exogenous SP in vitro. In addition, the results with phosphoramidon suggest that loss of NEP activity cannot account for the in vivo bronchial hyperresponsiveness to substance P presently observed.
Epithelial shedding, even to the point of airway denudation, had already been described as a common and unifying feature of asthma by the latter half of the 19th century. However, the repair processes that specifically follow the shedding-like loss of epithelial cells have only recently been examined in vivo. This paper discusses the exceedingly fast epithelial restitution and the potential pathogenic sequelae to epithelial shedding alone that have been unravelled. Epithelial cytoprotection emerges as an important property of future therapeutic drugs for the treatment of airways inflammatory conditions.
Communication between the airway epithelium and stroma is evident during embryogenesis, and both epithelial shedding and increased smooth muscle proliferation are features of airway remodeling. Hence, we hypothesized that after injury the airway epithelium could modulate airway smooth muscle proliferation. Fully differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells at an air–liquid interface were co-cultured with serum-deprived normal primary human airway smooth muscle cells (HASM) using commercially available Transwells. In some co-cultures, the NHBE were repeatedly (×4) scrape-injured. An in vivo model of tracheal injury consisted of gently denuding the tracheal epithelium (×3) of a rabbit over 5 days and then examining the trachea by histology 3 days after the last injury. Our results show that HASM cell number increases 2.5-fold in the presence of NHBE, and 4.3-fold in the presence of injured NHBE compared with HASM alone after 8 days of in vitro co-culture. In addition, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and, more markedly, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration increased in co-culture correlating with enhanced HASM growth. Inhibiting MMP-9 release significantly attenuated the NHBE-dependent HASM proliferation in co-culture. In vivo, the injured rabbit trachea demonstrated proliferation in the smooth muscle (trachealis) region and significant MMP-9 staining, which was absent in the uninjured control. The airway epithelium modulates smooth muscle cell proliferation via a mechanism that involves secretion of soluble mediators including potential smooth muscle mitogens such as IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, but also through a novel MMP-9–dependent mechanism.
remodeling; NHBE; injury; MMP-9; HASM
BACKGROUND--Topical application of nicotine and stimulation of tachykinin containing sensory nerves have been shown to produce mucosal exudation of plasma and derangement of the epithelial lining in guinea pig and rat airways. If this occurred in man these effects might contribute to the pathogenesis of airway disease. This study, performed in healthy volunteers without atopy, examined whether nicotine affects the plasma exudation response and the mucosal absorption permeability of the human nasal airway. METHODS--The acute effects of increasing topical doses of nicotine (0.08-2.0 mg) were examined (n = 8) on nasal symptoms (pain), mucosal exudation of plasma (albumin), mucosal secretion of mucin (fucose), and mucosal exudative responsiveness (histamine induced mucosal exudation of albumin). A separate placebo controlled study was carried out to determine whether frequent applications of the high dose of nicotine (2.0 mg given eight times daily for nine days) had any deleterious effects on the airway mucosa detectable as altered responses to histamine challenge. Both mucosal exudation of plasma (n = 12) and mucosal absorption of chromium-51 labelled EDTA (n = 8) were thus examined in nasal airways exposed to both nicotine and histamine. RESULTS--Nicotine caused nasal pain and produced dose dependent mucosal secretion of fucose but failed to produce any mucosal exudation of albumin. The exudative responsiveness to histamine was, indeed, decreased when the challenge was performed immediately after administration of acute doses of nicotine, whereas the responsiveness was unaffected when histamine challenges were carried out during prolonged treatment with nicotine. The nasal mucosal absorption of 51Cr-EDTA in the presence of histamine did not differ between subjects receiving either placebo or nicotine treatment for nine days. CONCLUSIONS--The results indicate that nicotine applied to the human airway mucosa produces pain and secretion of mucin, but inflammatory changes such as mucosal exudation of plasma and epithelial disruption may not be produced. Neurogenic inflammatory responses, which are so readily produced in guinea pig and rat airways, may not occur in human airways.
BACKGROUND: Plasma exudation-derived proteins and peptides contribute significantly to inflammation in the airway mucosa in vivo. In the guinea pig trachea both histamine and the neurogenic stimulant capsaicin produce acute mucosal tissue distribution and luminal entry of bulk plasma, whereas cholinergic agonists fail to produce this effect. Of these agents, only histamine induces mucosal exudation of plasma in human nasal airways. The exudative effect of the above agents on human bronchi remains unknown. METHODS: The bronchial exudative responses to inhalation of histamine, methacholine, and capsaicin were examined in two groups of healthy volunteers. Sputum was induced on three occasions in each study group by inhalation of hypertonic saline (4.5%) given as an aerosol for 40 minutes using an ultrasonic nebuliser. The second and third occasions were preceded by histamine and capsaicin challenges in the first study group, and by histamine and methacholine challenges in the second study group. Histamine and methacholine were given in cumulative doses (total doses 3160 micrograms, respectively) or until a 20% reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was achieved. Cumulative doses of capsaicin were inhaled until coughing prevented the subjects from drawing a full breath. Sputum levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin (729 kDa) were measured as an index of mucosal exudation of bulk plasma. RESULTS: Histamine increased mean (SE) sputum levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin from 2.72 (1.01) micrograms/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 4.94) to 18.38 (8.03) micrograms/ml (95% CI 0.49 to 36.27) in the first group, and from 1.66 (0.84) micrograms/ml (95% CI -0.18 to 3.49) to 9.43 (3.63) micrograms/ml (95% CI 1.59 to 17.27) in the second group. In contrast, capsaicin evoked no exudation (sputum levels of alpha 2- macroglobulin 1.21 (0.28) micrograms/ml (95% CI 0.59 to 1.83)) and methacholine produced a minor increase in sputum levels of alpha 2- macroglobulin (2.90 (0.92) micrograms/ml (95% CI 0.90 to 4.89)). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that histamine is a useful agent for studying bronchial exudative responsiveness in man and that exudative effects are only of marginal importance in the cough and bronchoconstriction produced by capsaicin and methacholine.
Respiratory tract viral infections result in asthma exacerbations. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 is a receptor for viral single-stranded RNA and is expressed at high levels in the lungs.
Because TLR7 polymorphisms are associated with asthma, we examined the effects of TLR7 agonists in guinea pig airways.
We induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs in vivo by means of electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve or intravenous administration of acetylcholine and measured the effect of a TLR7 agonist administered intravenously. We induced contraction of airway smooth muscle in segments of isolated guinea pig tracheas in vitro and measured the effect of TLR7 agonists, antagonists, and pharmacologic inhibitors of associated signaling pathways administered directly to the bath.
TLR7 agonists acutely inhibited bronchoconstriction in vivo and relaxed contraction of airway smooth muscle in vitro within minutes of administration. Airway relaxation induced by the TLR7 agonist R837 (imiquimod) was partially blocked with a TLR7 antagonist and was also blocked by inhibitors of large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels; prostaglandin synthesis; and nitric oxide generation. Another TLR7 agonist, 21-mer single-stranded phosphorothioated polyuridylic acid (PolyUs), mediated relaxation that was completely blocked by a TLR7 antagonist.
These data demonstrate a novel protective mechanism to limit bronchoconstriction and maintain airflow during respiratory tract viral infections. The fast time frame is inconsistent with canonical TLR7 signaling. R837 mediates bronchodilation by means of TLR7-dependent and TLR7-independent mechanisms, whereas PolyUs does so through only the TLR7-dependent mechanism. TLR7-independent mechanisms involve prostaglandins and large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels, whereas TLR7-dependent mechanisms involve nitric oxide. TLR7 is an attractive therapeutic target for its ability to reverse bronchoconstriction within minutes.
Toll-like receptor 7; asthma; virus; bronchodilator; large-conductance; calcium-activated potassium channel; prostaglandins; adenosine; nitric oxide; imiquimod; IRS661; guinea pig
Method: Guinea pig tracheobronchial airways where eosinophils are constitutively present in the mucosal tissue were studied. A complex topical stimulus (allergen challenge) was applied and the fate of the eosinophils was determined by selective tracheobronchial lavage and histological examination of the tissue.
Results: Within 10 minutes of the allergen challenge, massive migration of eosinophils into the airway lumen occurred together with a reduction in tissue eosinophil numbers. Cell clearance into the lumen continued at high speed and by 30 and 60 minutes the tissue eosinophilia had been reduced by 63% and 73%, respectively. The marked transepithelial migration (estimated maximal speed 35 000 cells/min x cm2 mucosal surface) took place ubiquitously between epithelial cells without affecting epithelial integrity as assessed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Eosinophil apoptosis was not detected but occasional cytolytic eosinophils occurred.
Conclusion: This study shows that luminal entry has a remarkably high capacity as a granulocyte elimination process. The data also suggest that an appropriate stimulus of transepithelial migration may be used therapeutically to increase the resolution of inflammatory conditions of airway tissues.
Effects of respiratory viral infection on airway epithelium include airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation. Both features may contribute to the development of asthma. Excessive damage and loss of epithelial cells are characteristic in asthma and may result from viral infection.
To investigate apoptosis in Adenoviral-infected Guinea pigs and determine the role of death receptor and ligand expression in the airway epithelial response to limit viral infection.
Animal models included both an Acute and a Chronic Adeno-infection with ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation with/without corticosteroid treatment. Isolated airway epithelial cells were cultured to study viral production after infection under similar conditions. Immunohistochemistry, western blots and viral DNA detection were used to assess apoptosis, death receptor and TRAIL expression and viral release.
In vivo and in vitro Adeno-infection demonstrated different apoptotic and death receptors (DR) 4 and 5 expression in response to corticosteroid exposure. In the Acute Adeno-infection model, apoptosis and DR4/5 expression was coordinated and were time-dependent. However, in vitro Acute viral infection in the presence of corticosteroids demonstrated delayed apoptosis and prolonged viral particle production. This reduction in apoptosis in Adeno-infected epithelial cells by corticosteroids exposure induced a prolonged virus production via both DR4 and TRAIL protein suppression. In the Chronic model where animals were ovalbumin-sensitized/challenged and were treated with corticosteroids, apoptosis was reduced relative to adenovirus-infected or corticosteroid alone.
Our data suggests that apoptosis of infected cells limits viral production and may be mediated by DR4/5 and TRAIL expression. In the Acute model of Adeno-infection, corticosteroid exposure may prolong viral particle production by altering this apoptotic response of the infected cells. This results from decreased DR4 and TRAIL expression. In the Chronic model treated with corticosteroids, a similar decreased apoptosis was observed. This data suggests that DR and TRAIL modulation by corticosteroids may be important in viral infection of airway epithelium. The prolonged virus release in the setting of corticosteroids may result from reduced apoptosis and suppressed DR4/TRAIL expression by the infected cells.
Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process involving high numbers of inflammatory cells and mediators which have multiple inflammatory effects on the airway. Interferon (IFN)-alpha, which is used widely for treating chronic hepatitis C, is reported to have an effect on patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Therefore, it may also be suitable for patients with severe asthma.
We studied the effect of IFN-alpha on airway eosinophilia in a guinea pig model of asthma and the expression of adhesion molecules on human eosinophils and vascular endothelial cells.
After antigen challenge, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway eosinophilia were measured in a guinea pig asthma model with or without airway IFN-alpha administration. Expression of adhesion molecules on eosinophils and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was also evaluated with or without IFN-alpha.
IFN-alpha inhibited eosinophil recruitment into the tracheal wall and improved airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized guinea pigs. IFN-alpha also significantly suppressed IL-1 beta-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression on HUVECs. However, IFN-alpha did not suppress platelet-activating factor-induced macrophage antigen-1 expression on human eosinophils. IFN-alpha significantly inhibited eosinophil adhesion to IL-1 beta-induced HUVECs and migration through IL-1 beta induced HUVECs.
The findings suggest that the modulation of ICAM-1 in lung with pre-existing inflammation following treatment with IFN-alpha may be a novel and selective treatment for control of chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness associated with asthma.
Adhesion molecule; Asthma; Eosinophil; Interferon-alpha; Intercellular adhesion molecule-1; Macrophage antigen-1
Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to restore a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Recently, human tracheal xenografts have been developed in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and nude mice. In this review we recall that human airway cells implanted in such conditioned host grafts can regenerate a well-differentiated and functional human epithelium; we stress the interest in these humanized mice in assaying candidate progenitor and stem cells of the human airway mucosa.
airway cell differentiation; airway cell proliferation; human airway epithelium; nude mouse; regeneration; SCID mouse; stem cell; xenograft
The effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril and the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitors thiorphan and SCH 32615 on the changes in airway opening pressure (PaO) and the recovery of offered peptide were studied after intratracheal administration of substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) in isolated guinea pig lungs superfused through the trachea. Pao changes and the recovery of offered peptide were significantly greater in NEP inhibitor-treated lungs than in control lungs. Captopril did not cause a significant change in the physiological effects or the recovery of SP and NKA. HPLC analysis of [3H]Pro2,4-SP and 125I-Histidyl1-NKA perfused through the airways showed major cleavage products consistent with NEP action. We conclude that there is significant degradation of both SP and NKA after tracheal infusion of peptides by NEP-like but not by ACE activity; this effect significantly influences the physiological effects of these peptides.
The effect of diphtheria toxin on guinea pig trachea in organ culture was examined to measure the susceptibility of respiratory epithelial cells to toxin action. Exposure of individual tracheal rings to toxin resulted in cessation of protein synthesis as well as the development of cytopathology within a few hours. Continued incubation led to further inhibition of protein synthesis and extensive disorganization of the epithelial layer. Other inhibitors of protein synthesis were monitored for their effect on the structural integrity of tracheal cells but were found incapable of eliciting similar histopathology. Early after its addition, toxin at minute concentrations possessed cytotoxic properties as well as the ability to inhibit protein synthesis. Interpretation of these data is correlated with current information on the structure and activity of diphtheria toxin.
The relative contributions of large and small airways to hyperresponsiveness in asthma have yet to be fully assessed. This study used a mouse model of chronic allergic airways disease to induce inflammation and remodelling and determine whether in vivo hyperresponsiveness to methacholine is consistent with in vitro reactivity of trachea and small airways. Balb/C mice were sensitised (days 0, 14) and challenged (3 times/week, 6 weeks) with ovalbumin. Airway reactivity was compared with saline-challenged controls in vivo assessing whole lung resistance, and in vitro measuring the force of tracheal contraction and the magnitude/rate of small airway narrowing within lung slices. Increased airway inflammation, epithelial remodelling and fibrosis were evident following allergen challenge. In vivo hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was maintained in isolated trachea. In contrast, methacholine induced slower narrowing, with reduced potency in small airways compared to controls. In vitro incubation with IL-1/TNFα did not alter reactivity. The hyporesponsiveness to methacholine in small airways within lung slices following chronic ovalbumin challenge was unexpected, given hyperresponsiveness to the same agonist both in vivo and in vitro in tracheal preparations. This finding may reflect the altered interactions of small airways with surrounding parenchymal tissue after allergen challenge to oppose airway narrowing and closure.
Recent epidemiologic studies have identified organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) as environmental factors potentially contributing to the increase in asthma prevalence over the last 25 years. In support of this hypothesis, we have demonstrated that environmentally relevant concentrations of OPs induce airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs.
Sensitization to allergen is a significant contributing factor in asthma, and we have shown that sensitization changes virus-induced airway hyperreactivity from an eosinophil-independent mechanism to one mediated by eosinophils. Here, we determine whether sensitization similarly influences OP-induced airway hyperreactivity.
Nonsensitized and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs were injected subcutaneously with the OP parathion (0.001–1.0 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours later, animals were anesthetized and ventilated, and bronchoconstriction was measured in response to either vagal stimulation or intravenous acetylcholine. Inflammatory cells and acetylcholinesterase activity were assessed in tissues collected immediately after physiologic measurements.
Ovalbumin sensitization decreased the threshold dose for parathion-induced airway hyperreactivity and exacerbated parathion effects on vagally induced bronchoconstriction. Pretreatment with antibody to interleukin (IL)-5 prevented parathion-induced hyperreactivity in sensitized but not in nonsensitized guinea pigs. Parathion did not increase the number of eosinophils in airways or the number of eosinophils associated with airway nerves nor did it alter eosinophil activation as assessed by major basic protein deposition.
Antigen sensitization increases vulnerability to parathion-induced airway hyperreactivity and changes the mechanism to one that is dependent on IL-5. Because sensitization to allergens is characteristic of 50% of the general population and 80% of asthmatics (including children), these findings have significant implications for OP risk assessment, intervention, and treatment strategies.
airway hyperreactivity; asthma; atopy; eosinophils; organophosphorus pesticides; parathion; sensitization
We investigated the spasmolytic activity of herbal drugs isolated from Tephrosia purpurea on guinea pigs for the treatment of asthma in India. For this investigation, the herbal drug was extracted with 70% ethanol in soxhlet apparatus. After purification and isolution, the drug was used in experimental animals to observe prophylactic activity. For anaphylactic activity, horse serum 0.5 ml along with triple antigen (0.5 ml) was induced in guinea pigs. To observe prophylactic activity, male guinea pigs weighing about 250-450 gms were killed by cervical dislocation and the trachea was isolated. Each trachea was cut in to six segments. Each segment consists of three cartilage rings. Each end of tracheal muscles was attached to the bronchospasm transducers for isometric recording of the tension charges on a polygraph. The results of experiments clearly showed the spasmolytic activity of the drug. The preliminary phytochemical investigation, however shows the presence of glycoside saponins.
Tephrosia purpurea; spasmolytic; polygraph; Bronchospasm
Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.
Fibroproliferative airway remodelling, including increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and contractility, contributes to airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. In vitro studies have shown that maturation of ASM cells to a (hyper)contractile phenotype is dependent on laminin, which can be inhibited by the laminin-competing peptide Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR). The role of laminins in ASM remodelling in chronic asthma in vivo, however, has not yet been established.
Using an established guinea pig model of allergic asthma, we investigated the effects of topical treatment of the airways with YIGSR on features of airway remodelling induced by repeated allergen challenge, including ASM hyperplasia and hypercontractility, inflammation and fibrosis. Human ASM cells were used to investigate the direct effects of YIGSR on ASM proliferation in vitro.
Topical administration of YIGSR attenuated allergen-induced ASM hyperplasia and pulmonary expression of the proliferative marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Treatment with YIGSR also increased both the expression of sm-MHC and ASM contractility in saline- and allergen-challenged animals; this suggests that treatment with the laminin-competing peptide YIGSR mimics rather than inhibits laminin function in vivo. In addition, treatment with YIGSR increased allergen-induced fibrosis and submucosal eosinophilia. Immobilized YIGSR concentration-dependently reduced PDGF-induced proliferation of cultured ASM to a similar extent as laminin-coated culture plates. Notably, the effects of both immobilized YIGSR and laminin were antagonized by soluble YIGSR.
These results indicate that the laminin-competing peptide YIGSR promotes a contractile, hypoproliferative ASM phenotype in vivo, an effect that appears to be linked to the microenvironment in which the cells are exposed to the peptide.
The guinea pig (Cavea porcellus) is a mammalian non-rodent species in the Caviidae family. The sensitivity of the respiratory system and the susceptibility to infectious diseases allows the guinea pig to be a useful model for both infectious and non-infectious lung diseases such as asthma and tuberculosis. In this report, we demonstrated for the first time, the major cell types and composition in the guinea pig airway epithelium, using cell type-specific markers by immunohistochemical staining using the commercial available immunological reagents that cross-react with guinea pig. Our results revealed the availability of antibodies cross-reacting with airway epithelial cell types of basal, non-ciliated columnar, ciliated, Clara, goblet and alveolar type II cells, as well as those cells expressing Mucin 5AC, Mucin 2, Aquaporin 4 and Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide. The distribution of these various cell types were quantified in the guinea pig airway by immunohistochemical staining and were comparable with morphometric studies using an electron microscopy assay. Moreover, this study also demonstrated that goblet cells are the main secretory cell type in the guinea pig's airway, distinguishing this species from rats and mice. These results provide useful information for the understanding of airway epithelial cell biology and mechanisms of epithelial–immune integration in guinea pig models.
Guinea pig; Epithelial cells; Airway; Lung; Immunohistochemical staining; Morphometry
Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) is a small molecular weight industrial compound that will cause asthma-like symptoms in humans. Some of these TMA-induced symptoms can be reproduced in the guinea pig. In the guinea pig model of TMA-induced asthma, intratracheal instillation of TMA coupled to guinea pig serum albumin causes an immediate bronchoconstriction and increase in airway microvascular leakage with concomitant decrease in circulating platelets and white blood cells and subsequent cellular infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophils and eosinophils into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, in the lung tissue an increase in eosinophil peroxidase activity (a measure of eosinophil numbers) occurs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether complement system activation was essential for any of these TMA-induced events. Guinea pigs pretreated with cobra venom factor (CVF) had significantly reduced amounts of complement component C3 in the lavage fluid 24 hours after TMA conjugated to guinea pig serum albumin challenge indicating that the CVF treatment was successful in depleting complement proteins. Pretreatment with CVF did not affect the immediate TMA-induced bronchoconstriction nor the TMA-induced microvascular leakage. In animals depleted of the complement system by pretreatment with CVF the TMA-induced increase in mononuclear cells, total white blood cells, red blood cells, and EPO activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage was significantly reduced. Thus, our results suggest that in the guinea pig, the complement system is an important source of mediators for cellular infiltration into the lung after exposure to this acid anhydride and that inhibiting complement activation may be useful in preventing the inflammatory cell infiltration in TMA-induced asthma.
Some studies have suggested that the polyphenolic compounds might reduce the occurrence of asthma symptoms. The aim of our experiments was to evaluate the effects of 21 days of the flavonoid Flavin7 administration on experimentally induced airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. We assessed tracheal smooth muscle reactivity by an in vitro muscle-strip method; changes in airway resistance by an in vivo plethysmographic method; histological picture of tracheal tissue; and the levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interleukin 5 (IL-5) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Histological investigation of tracheal tissue and the concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were used as indices of airway inflammation. Administration of Flavin7 caused a significant decrease of specific airway resistance after histamine nebulization and a decline in tracheal smooth muscle contraction amplitude in response to bronchoconstricting mediators. Flavin7 minimized the degree of inflammation estimated on the basis of eosinophil calculation and IL-4 and IL-5 concentrations. In conclusion, administration of Flavin7 showed bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory effects on allergen-induced airway inflammation.
airways hyperresponsiveness; ovalbumin; Flavin7
BACKGROUND: Epithelial shedding processes in airway inflammation and defence may produce damaged areas where basal cells are the main remaining epithelial cell type. The present study examines the capacity of basal cells to form an epithelial barrier structure after loss of columnar epithelial cells. METHODS: A technique was developed which allows selective removal of columnar epithelial cells from isolated airways. A drop of tissue adhesive glue was applied on the mucosal surface shortly after excision of guinea pig trachea and human bronchus. Gentle removal of the glue, together with attached columnar cells, left a single layer of cobbled, solitary basal cells. The tissue was kept in culture media. Morphological changes of the basal cells were monitored by immuno-histochemistry and scanning and transmission electron microscopy at several time points. RESULTS: After 20 minutes the basal cells had undergone extensive flattening and established contact with each other. The basement membrane thus became covered by a poorly differentiated epithelium in both guinea pig and human airways. Abundant interdigitating cytoplasmic protrusions were observed at cell borders. CONCLUSIONS: Basal cells promptly flatten out to cover the basement membrane at loss of neighbouring columnar cells. These data may explain why the epithelial barrier function may be uncompromised in desquamative airway diseases. Furthermore, they suggest the possibility that sacrificial release of columnar epithelial cells and prompt creation of a barrier structure constitute important roles of basal cells in airway defence against severe insults.
Several different pharmacological effects have been described for Nigella sativa (Siah-Daneh), including an anti-inflammatory effect. In the present study, the effect of the extract of N. sativa on lung pathology and blood interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) of sensitized guinea pigs was examined. Three groups (n=8 for each group) of guinea pigs sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) were given drinking water alone, and drinking water containing low and high concentrations of the plant extract, respectively. The animals of the control group (n=8) were treated with saline instead of OA and were given drinking water. The pathological changes of the lung, including infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes, local epithelial necrosis, the presence of oedema, thickening of the basement membrane, smooth muscle layer hypertrophy, mucosal secretion, and the presence of mucosal plug, and blood IL-4 and IFN-γ of sensitized guinea pigs were evaluated. The lungs of the sensitized group showed significant pathological changes (P<0.001). Blood IL-4 and IFN-γ were increased in sensitized animals compared to the controls (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). Treatment of sensitized animals with the extract led to a significant decrease in pathological changes of the lung (P<0.01 to P<0.001), except for the oedema in the sensitized group treated with low concentration of the extract, but an increased IFN-γ. These results confirm a preventive effect of N. sativa extract on lung inflammation of sensitized guinea pigs.
Nigella sativa; Asthma; Sensitization; Inflammation; Cytokine
Guinea pig red cells exposed to triton WR-1339 either in vitro or in vivo demonstrate an increased sensitivity to hemolysis by thermal shock. Although the sensitivity of guinea pig leucocytes to thermal shock remains unchanged after a single injection of triton, their resistance to disruption by acetone and by sonic vibration is increased significantly. Resistance to sonic vibration appears to be maximum within a few hours after injection and then it gradually wanes. Paraffin oil-induced peritoneal exudate cells (monocytes) and leucocytes from whole blood are rendered more resistant to disruption by sonic vibration when exposed to triton in vitro. These findings are discussed briefly in relation to the therapeutic effect of triton in experimental tuberculosis.
BACKGROUND--The inflammatory response of the airway microcirculation in rhinitis and asthma may be recorded as luminal entry of plasma macromolecules (mucosal exudation). This study examines the exudative responsiveness of the subepithelial microvessels in subjects with and without common cold after inoculation with coronavirus. METHODS--The airway mucosa was exposed to exudative concentrations of histamine (40 and 400 micrograms/ml) before and six days after inoculation. To assess whether mucosal penetration of a topically applied agent was altered, nasal absorption of chromium-51 labelled ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA, MW 372) was also examined. A nasal pool technique kept the challenge and tracer solutes in contact with the same ipsilateral mucosal surface. Concentrations of albumin in lavage fluids were measured as an index of mucosal exudation of plasma. Nasal absorption of 51Cr-EDTA was determined by the cumulated 24 hour urinary excretion of radioactivity. RESULTS--Nine subjects developed common cold after coronavirus inoculation and 10 remained healthy. Histamine produced concentration dependent mucosal exudation of plasma in all subjects before and after coronavirus inoculation. In subjects with common cold, however, the histamine-induced mucosal exudation was significantly augmented compared with the group without common cold. This exudative hyperresponsiveness is not explained by an increased baseline exudation because the lavage regimen used produced comparably low baseline exudation in both groups of subjects, nor is it explained by an increased penetration of topical histamine because the ability of the nasal mucosa to absorb 51Cr-EDTA was not significantly increased in the subjects with common cold. CONCLUSIONS--An increased proclivity of the airway subepithelial microcirculation to respond with plasma exudation develops during coronavirus-induced common cold. This specific exudative hyperresponsiveness may be a feature of inflammatory airway diseases.
Human airway smooth muscle possesses an inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic neural bronchodilator response mediated by nitric oxide (NO). In guinea pig trachea both endogenous NO and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) modulate cholinergic neural contractile responses. To identify whether endogenous NO or VIP can modulate cholinergic contractile responses in human airways in vitro, we studied the effects of specific NO synthase inhibitors and the peptidase alpha-chymotrypsin on contractile responses evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) at three airway levels. Endogenous NO, but not VIP, was shown to inhibit cholinergic contractile responses at all airway levels but this inhibition was predominantly in trachea and main bronchus and less marked in segmental and subsegmental bronchi. To elucidate the mechanism of this modulation we then studied the effects of endogenous NO on acetylcholine (ACh) release evoked by EFS from tracheal smooth muscle strips. We confirmed that release was neural in origin, frequency dependent, and that endogenous NO did not affect ACh release. These findings show that endogenous NO, but not VIP, evoked by EFS can inhibit cholinergic neural responses via functional antagonism of ACh at the airway smooth muscle and that the contribution of this modulation is less marked in lower airways.