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1.  Validation of a Georgian language headache questionnaire in a population-based sample 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2007;8(6):321-324.
In a pilot phase of a survey of the prevalence of primary headache disorders in the Republic of Georgia, we validated a Georgian language questionnaire for migraine (MIG), tension-type headache (TTH), MIG+TTH and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TAC). A population-based sample of 186 people with headache completed the questionnaire and were blindly examined by one of two headache experts. The questionnaire diagnoses were: MIG 49, TTH 76, MIG+TTH 45 and TAC 16. The physicians’diagnoses were: MIG 59, TTH 77, MIG+TTH 34, TAC 2 and “symptomatic headache” in 14 subjects. Sensitivity and specificity for MIG were 0.75 and 0.96, for TTH 0.79 and 0.86, and for MIG+TTH 0.61 and 0.84 respectively. Of 16 TAC diagnoses, the physicians confirmed cluster headache in two patients only. The questionnaire can be utilised to investigate the prevalence of MIG and of TTH. It offers preliminary screening only for TAC, which should be confirmed during a face to face examination.
doi:10.1007/s10194-007-0423-6
PMCID: PMC2779392  PMID: 18074104
Headache; Questionnaire; Migraine; Tensiontype headache; Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias; Validity
2.  Validation of a Georgian language headache questionnaire in a population-based sample 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2007;8(6):321-324.
In a pilot phase of a survey of the prevalence of primary headache disorders in the Republic of Georgia, we validated a Georgian language questionnaire for migraine (MIG), tension-type headache (TTH), MIG+TTH and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TAC). A population-based sample of 186 people with headache completed the questionnaire and were blindly examined by one of two headache experts. The questionnaire diagnoses were: MIG 49, TTH 76, MIG+TTH 45 and TAC 16. The physicians’diagnoses were: MIG 59, TTH 77, MIG+TTH 34, TAC 2 and “symptomatic headache” in 14 subjects. Sensitivity and specificity for MIG were 0.75 and 0.96, for TTH 0.79 and 0.86, and for MIG+TTH 0.61 and 0.84 respectively. Of 16 TAC diagnoses, the physicians confirmed cluster headache in two patients only. The questionnaire can be utilised to investigate the prevalence of MIG and of TTH. It offers preliminary screening only for TAC, which should be confirmed during a face to face examination.
doi:10.1007/s10194-007-0423-6
PMCID: PMC2779392  PMID: 18074104
Headache; Questionnaire; Migraine; Tensiontype headache; Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias; Validity
3.  The burden of headache disorders in India: methodology and questionnaire validation for a community-based survey in Karnataka State 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(7):543-550.
Primary headache disorders are a major public-health problem globally and, possibly more so, in low- and middle-income countries. No methodologically sound studies of prevalence and burden of headache in the adult Indian population have been published previously. The present study was a door-to-door cold-calling survey in urban and rural areas in and around Bangalore, Karnataka State. From 2,714 households contacted, 2,514 biologically unrelated individuals were eligible for the survey and 2,329 (92.9 %) participated (1,103 [48 %] rural; 1,226 [52 %] urban; 1,141 [49 %] male; 1,188 [51 %] female; mean age 38.0 years). The focus was on primary headache (migraine and tension-type headache [TTH]) and medication-overuse headache. A structured questionnaire administered by trained lay interviewers was the instrument both for diagnosis (algorithmically determined from responses) and burden estimation. The screening question enquired into headache in the last year. The validation study compared questionnaire-based diagnoses with those obtained soon after through personal interview by a neurologist in a random sub-sample of participants (n = 381; 16 %). It showed high values (>80 %) for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for any headache, and for specificity and negative predictive value for migraine and TTH. Kappa values for diagnostic agreement were good for any headache (0.69 [95 % CI 0.61–0.76]), moderate (0.46 [0.35–0.56]) for migraine and fair (0.39 [0.29–0.49]) for TTH.The survey methodology, including identification of and access to participants, proved feasible. The questionnaire proved effective in the survey population. The study will give reliable estimates of the prevalence and burden of headache, and of migraine and TTH specifically, in urban and rural Karnataka.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0474-1
PMCID: PMC3444540  PMID: 22911168
Primary headache disorders; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Epidemiology; Burden of disease; Methodology; Survey; Validation; Global Campaign against Headache; India
4.  Patent foramen ovale in patients with tension headache: is it as common as in migraineurs? An age- and sex-matched comparative study 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2009;10(6):431-434.
The association of patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) with migraine headache attack (MHA) has been clearly shown. The same findings have been recently demonstrated also in cluster headache. Although tension-type headaches (TTH) are the most common kind of headache, their association with these atrial septal abnormalities has never been studied before. The study was conducted to clarify whether there was a significant association between the presence of such atrial septal abnormalities and tension headache, when compared with migraineurs. One hundred consecutive patients with migraine and 100 age- and sex-matched subjects with TTH and 50 healthy volunteers with no headache were enrolled in the study and underwent a complete transesophageal echocardiographic study with contrast injections at rest and with the Valsalva maneuver. There was no significant difference between the age and the sex of the participants of the three groups. The overall prevalence of PFO was 23% in patients with TTH and that of large PFOs was only 11%. The 23% prevalence of PFO in patients with TTH was not statistically different from 16% found in our normal control group. Furthermore, we found a significantly higher prevalence of PFO in migraineurs (50%) when compared with patients with tension headache (p < 0.001). This was also true for the collective presence of large PFOs and ASAs (35%) (p < 0.001). Although atrial septal anomalies have an association with MHA, they do not have a significant association with TTH.
doi:10.1007/s10194-009-0154-y
PMCID: PMC3476217  PMID: 19756944
Tension-type headache; Migraine headache; Patent foramen ovale; Atrial septal aneurysm
5.  Physical and psychological correlates of primary headache in young adulthood: A 26 year longitudinal study 
Objectives: To determine if physical and/or psychological risk factors could differentiate between subtypes of primary headache (migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and coexisting migraine and TTH (combined)) among members of a longitudinal birth cohort study.
Methods: At age 26, the headache status of members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) was determined using International Headache Society criteria. Headache history and potential physical and psychological correlates of headache were assessed. These factors included perinatal problems and injuries sustained to age 26; and behavioural, personality, and psychiatric disorders assessed between ages 5 to 21.
Results: The 1 year prevalences for migraine, TTH, and combined headache at the age of 26 were 7.2%, 11.1%, and 4.3%, respectively. Migraine was related to maternal headache, anxiety symptoms in childhood, anxiety disorders during adolescence and young adulthood, and the stress reactivity personality trait at the age of 18. TTH was significantly associated with neck or back injury in childhood (before the age of 13). Combined headache was related to maternal headache and anxiety disorder at 18 and 21 only among women with a childhood history of headache. Headache status at the age of 26 was unrelated to a history of perinatal complication, neurological disorder, or mild traumatic head injury.
Conclusions: Migraine and TTH seem to be distinct disorders with different developmental characteristics. Combined headache may also have a distinct aetiology.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.72.1.86
PMCID: PMC1737678  PMID: 11784831
6.  One-year prevalence and the impact of migraine and tension-type headache in Turkey: a nationwide home-based study in adults 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(2):147-157.
Several studies have shown that the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) varied between different geographical regions. Therefore, there is a need of a nationwide prevalence study for headache in our country, located between Asia and Europe. This nationwide study was designed to estimate the 1-year prevalence of migraine and TTH and analyse the clinical features, the impact as well as the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the participant households in Turkey. We planned to investigate 6,000 representative households in 21 cities of Turkey; and a total of 5,323 households (response rate of 89%) aged between 18 and 65 years were examined for headache by 33 trained physicians at home on the basis of the diagnostic criteria of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II). The electronically registered questionnaire was based on the headache features, the associated symptoms, demographic and socio-economic situation and history. Of 5,323 participants (48.8% women; mean age 35.9 ± 12 years) 44.6% reported recurrent headaches during the last 1 year and 871 were diagnosed with migraine at a prevalence rate of 16.4% (8.5% in men and 24.6% in women), whereas only 270 were diagnosed with TTH at a prevalence rate of 5.1% (5.7% in men and 4.5% in women). The 1-year prevalence of probable migraine was 12.4% and probable TTH was 9.5% additionally. The rate of migraine with aura among migraineurs was 21.5%. The prevalence of migraine was highest among 35–40-year-old women while there were no differences in age groups among men and in TTH overall. More than 2/3 of migraineurs had ever consulted a physician whereas only 1/3 of patients with TTH had ever consulted a physician. For women, the migraine prevalence was higher among the ones with a lower income, while among men, it did not show any change by income. Migraine prevalence was lower in those with a lower educational status compared to those with a high educational status. Chronic daily headache was present in 3.3% and the prevalence of medication overuse headache was 2.1% in our population. There was an important impact of migraine with a monthly frequency of 5.9 ± 6, and an attack duration of 35.1 ± 72 h, but only 4.9% were on prophylactic treatment. The one-year prevalence of migraine estimated as 16.4% was similar or even higher than world-wide reported migraine prevalence figures and identical to a previous nation-wide study conducted in 1998, whereas the TTH prevalence was much lower using the same methodology with the ICHD-II criteria.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0414-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0414-5
PMCID: PMC3274583  PMID: 22246025
Prevalence of migraine; Prevalence of tension-type headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Headache
7.  One-year prevalence and the impact of migraine and tension-type headache in Turkey: a nationwide home-based study in adults 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(2):147-157.
Several studies have shown that the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) varied between different geographical regions. Therefore, there is a need of a nationwide prevalence study for headache in our country, located between Asia and Europe. This nationwide study was designed to estimate the 1-year prevalence of migraine and TTH and analyse the clinical features, the impact as well as the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the participant households in Turkey. We planned to investigate 6,000 representative households in 21 cities of Turkey; and a total of 5,323 households (response rate of 89%) aged between 18 and 65 years were examined for headache by 33 trained physicians at home on the basis of the diagnostic criteria of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II). The electronically registered questionnaire was based on the headache features, the associated symptoms, demographic and socio-economic situation and history. Of 5,323 participants (48.8% women; mean age 35.9 ± 12 years) 44.6% reported recurrent headaches during the last 1 year and 871 were diagnosed with migraine at a prevalence rate of 16.4% (8.5% in men and 24.6% in women), whereas only 270 were diagnosed with TTH at a prevalence rate of 5.1% (5.7% in men and 4.5% in women). The 1-year prevalence of probable migraine was 12.4% and probable TTH was 9.5% additionally. The rate of migraine with aura among migraineurs was 21.5%. The prevalence of migraine was highest among 35–40-year-old women while there were no differences in age groups among men and in TTH overall. More than 2/3 of migraineurs had ever consulted a physician whereas only 1/3 of patients with TTH had ever consulted a physician. For women, the migraine prevalence was higher among the ones with a lower income, while among men, it did not show any change by income. Migraine prevalence was lower in those with a lower educational status compared to those with a high educational status. Chronic daily headache was present in 3.3% and the prevalence of medication overuse headache was 2.1% in our population. There was an important impact of migraine with a monthly frequency of 5.9 ± 6, and an attack duration of 35.1 ± 72 h, but only 4.9% were on prophylactic treatment. The one-year prevalence of migraine estimated as 16.4% was similar or even higher than world-wide reported migraine prevalence figures and identical to a previous nation-wide study conducted in 1998, whereas the TTH prevalence was much lower using the same methodology with the ICHD-II criteria.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0414-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0414-5
PMCID: PMC3274583  PMID: 22246025
Prevalence of migraine; Prevalence of tension-type headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Headache
8.  Association between lifestyle factors and headache 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(2):147-155.
Modification of lifestyle habits is a key preventive strategy for many diseases. The role of lifestyle for the onset of headache in general and for specific headache types, such as migraine and tension-type headache (TTH), has been discussed for many years. Most results, however, were inconsistent and data on the association between lifestyle factors and probable headache forms are completely lacking. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between different lifestyle factors and headache subtypes using data from three different German cohorts. Information was assessed by standardized face-to-face interviews. Lifestyle factors included alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity and body mass index. According to the 2004 diagnostic criteria, we distinguished the following headache types: migraine, TTH and their probable forms. Regional variations of lifestyle factors were observed. In the age- and gender-adjusted logistic regression models, none of the lifestyle factors was statistically significant associated with migraine, TTH, and their probable headache forms. In addition, we found no association between headache subtypes and the health index representing the sum of individual lifestyle factors. The lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and overweight seem to be unrelated to migraine and TTH prevalence. For a judgement on their role in the onset of new or first attacks of migraine or TTH (incident cases), prospective cohort studies are required.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0286-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0286-0
PMCID: PMC3072498  PMID: 21222138
Migraine; Tension-type headache; Alcohol consumption; Body mass index; Physical activity; Smoking
9.  Association between lifestyle factors and headache 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(2):147-155.
Modification of lifestyle habits is a key preventive strategy for many diseases. The role of lifestyle for the onset of headache in general and for specific headache types, such as migraine and tension-type headache (TTH), has been discussed for many years. Most results, however, were inconsistent and data on the association between lifestyle factors and probable headache forms are completely lacking. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between different lifestyle factors and headache subtypes using data from three different German cohorts. Information was assessed by standardized face-to-face interviews. Lifestyle factors included alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity and body mass index. According to the 2004 diagnostic criteria, we distinguished the following headache types: migraine, TTH and their probable forms. Regional variations of lifestyle factors were observed. In the age- and gender-adjusted logistic regression models, none of the lifestyle factors was statistically significant associated with migraine, TTH, and their probable headache forms. In addition, we found no association between headache subtypes and the health index representing the sum of individual lifestyle factors. The lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and overweight seem to be unrelated to migraine and TTH prevalence. For a judgement on their role in the onset of new or first attacks of migraine or TTH (incident cases), prospective cohort studies are required.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0286-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0286-0
PMCID: PMC3072498  PMID: 21222138
Migraine; Tension-type headache; Alcohol consumption; Body mass index; Physical activity; Smoking
10.  Comparison of oxidative stress among migraineurs, tension-type headache subjects, and a control group 
Background:
A primary headache, particularly migraine, is associated with oxidative stress during the attack. However, data regarding the interictal state in migraineurs and in those with tension-type headache (TTH) is limited.
Objectives:
(1) To assess the oxidative stress in migraineurs and TTH subjects in between the episodes and (2) to see if there is a difference in the degree of oxidative stress in the different subtypes of migraine and TTH.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty migraineurs, 50 patients with TTH, and 50 control subjects were included in this study after screening for the exclusion criteria. Diagnosis of headache was made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2 criteria. A venous blood sample was collected from the antecubital vein at least 3 days after the last attack of headache. The sample was centrifuged immediately and the plasma was stored at –70°C. The ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS for Windows, v 11.0. One way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test, independent sample t test, univariate regression, and multivariate regression analysis were done as indicated.
Results:
Migraineurs had higher values of MDA and FRAP than the subjects in the other two groups (P<0.001). No difference was observed between the TTH group and the control group. FRAP levels were significantly higher in subjects who had mixed migraine (migraine with aura and without aura) as compared to those with only migraine without aura (mean difference 196.1; 95% CI = 27.3 to 364.9; P = 0.01). Similarly, oxidative stress was significantly higher in patients with episodic TTH as compared to those with chronic TTH (FRAP t = 3.16; P = 0.003 and MDA t = 2.75; P = 0.008).
Conclusions:
This study suggests that oxidative stress continues even between headache episodes in migraineurs but not in those with TTH. This could probably be consequent to the different pathophysiological mechanisms of TTH and migraine.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.56316
PMCID: PMC2824933  PMID: 20174497
Migraine; tension type headache; oxidative stress; ferric reducing activity of plasma; malondialdehyde
11.  Treatment of migraine and tension-type headache in Croatia 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2010;11(3):227-234.
The aim of this study was to assess the treatment patterns of migraine and tension-type headache in the Croatian population. Analysis included the proportion of patients who were taking specific antimigraine therapy and the number of tablets per attack per month, the proportion of patients who were taking prophylactic therapy or using alternative treatment methods and their satisfaction with the treatment. The design of the study was a cross-sectional survey. Self-completed questionnaires were randomly distributed to adults >18 years of age in the Croatian population. A total of 616 questionnaires were analyzed: 115 patients with migraine (M), 327 patients with tension-type headache (TTH), and 174 patients with probable migraine (PM) and TTH. Specific antimigraine therapy was taken by half of patients with migraine: 35.7% of patients used triptans and 21.7% ergotamines. Prophylactic treatment had been used by 13.9% of M, 1.2% of TTH, and 6.9% of PM patients. Alternative methods of treatment were tried by 27% of M and TTH patients. Only 16.8% of patients with M pay regular visits to physicians, while 36.3% never visited a physician. More than half of TTH patients have never visited a physician. The majority of patients are only partially satisfied with their current treatment, and almost one-third are not satisfied. Results of this study indicate that the treatment of primary headaches in Croatia should be improved.
doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0200-9
PMCID: PMC3451912  PMID: 20213485
Migraine; Tension-type headache; Probable migraine; Acute treatment; Prophylactic treatment
12.  Relationship between insomnia and headache in community-based middle-aged Hong Kong Chinese women 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2010;11(3):187-195.
Limited studies have investigated the prevalence of insomnia symptoms among individuals with different headache diagnoses and the association between insomnia and headache in subjects with comorbid anxiety and depression. A total of 310 community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40–60 years completed a self-administered questionnaire on headache, sleep difficulties, mood disturbances, and functional impairment. About 31% of the sample complained of recurrent headache unrelated to influenza and the common cold in the past 12 months. The percentages of women diagnosed to have migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and headache unspecified were 8.4, 15.5 and 7.1%, respectively. The most frequent insomnia complaint was “problem waking up too early” (29.4%), followed by “difficulty staying asleep” (28.0%) and “difficulty falling asleep” (24.4%). Women with headaches were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms than those without headaches. There were no significant differences among women with migraine, TTH, and headache unspecified in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that women with insomnia disorder as defined by an insomnia severity index total score ≥8 had 2.2-fold increased risk of reporting recurrent headache, 3.2-fold increased risk of migraine, and 2.3-fold increased risk of TTH, after adjusting for anxiety and depression. Individual insomnia symptoms were not independent predictors. The association between insomnia and headache was stronger in subjects with more frequent headaches. Our findings suggest that insomnia and the associated distress, but not insomnia symptoms alone, is an independent risk factor for recurrent headache in middle-aged women with mixed anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances.
doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0199-y
PMCID: PMC3451911  PMID: 20186559
Anxiety; Depression; Headache; Insomnia; Migraine; Tension-type headache
13.  Headache in the elderly: a clinical study 
Although the prevalence of headache in the elderly is relevant, until now few studies have been conducted in patients over the age of 65 years. We analyzed the clinical charts of 4,417 consecutive patients referred to our Headache Centre from 1995 to 2002. There were 282 patients over 65 years of age at the first visit, corresponding to 6.4% of the study population. Primary headaches were diagnosed in 81.6% of the cases, while secondary headaches and non-classifiable headaches represented, respectively, 14.9% and 3.5% of the cases. Among primary headaches, the prevalence was almost the same for migraine without aura (27.8%), transformed migraine (26.1%) and chronic tension- type headache (25.7%). The most frequent secondary headaches were trigeminal neuralgia and headache associated with cervical spine disorder.
doi:10.1007/s10194-004-0066-9
PMCID: PMC3452143
Elderly; Primary headache; Secondary headache; Prevalence
14.  Impact of sex hormonal changes on tension-type headache and migraine: a cross-sectional population-based survey in 2,600 women 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(7):557-565.
Sex hormones have some implications on headaches. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of hormonal changes comparatively on tension-type headache (TTH) and migraine, in a population-based sample. A nationwide face-to-face prevalence study was conducted using a structured electronic questionnaire. 54.3 % of the migraineurs reported that the probability of experiencing headache during menstruation was high, whereas 3.9 % had headache only during menstruation. Forward logistic regression analysis revealed that menstruation was a significant trigger for migraine in comparison to TTH. On the other hand, nearly double the number of TTH sufferers reported “pure menstrual headache” compared to migraineurs (p = 0.02). Menstrual headaches caused significantly higher MIDAS grades. One-third of the definite migraineurs reported improvement during pregnancy and oral contraceptives significantly worsened migraine. Menopause had a slight improving effect on migraine compared to TTH. Sex hormonal changes have major impacts particularly on migraine; however, the effects of hormonal fluctuations on TTH should not be underestimated.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0475-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0475-0
PMCID: PMC3444543  PMID: 22935969
Sex hormones; Headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Menstruation; Menopause
15.  Prevalence and Impact of Migraine and Tension-Type Headache in Korea 
Background and Purpose
The epidemiology and impact of headache disorders are only partially documented for Asian countries. We investigated the prevalence and impact of migraine and tension-type headache - which are the two most common primary headache disorders - in a Korean population.
Methods
A stratified random population sample of Koreans older than 19 years was selected and evaluated using a 29-item, semistructured interview. The questionnaire was designed to classify headache types according to the criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition, including migraine and tension-type headache. The questionnaire also included items on basic demographics such as age, gender, geographical region, education level, and income, and the impact of headache on the participant.
Results
Among the 1507 participants, the 1-year prevalence of all types of headaches was 61.4% (69.9% in women and 52.8% in men). The overall prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headaches were 6.1% (9.2% in women and 2.9% in men) and 30.8% (29.3% in women and 32.2% in men), respectively. The prevalence of migraine peaked at the age of 40-49 years in women and 19-29 years in men. In contrast to migraine, the prevalence of tension-type headache was not influenced by either age or gender. Among individuals with migraine and tension-type headache, 31.5% and 7% reported being substantially or severely impacted by headache, respectively (Headache Impact Test score ≥56). Overall, 13.4% of all headache sufferers reported being either substantially or severely impacted by headache.
Conclusions
The 1-year prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache in the studied Korean population were 6.1% and 30.8%, respectively. One-third of migraineurs and some individuals with tension-type headache reported being either substantially or severely impacted by headache.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2012.8.3.204
PMCID: PMC3469801  PMID: 23091530
epidemiology; headache; impact; migraine; tension-type headache; prevalence
16.  Evaluating integrated headache care: a one-year follow-up observational study in patients treated at the Essen headache centre 
BMC Neurology  2011;11:124.
Background
Outpatient integrated headache care was established in 2005 at the Essen Headache Centre in Germany. This paper reports outcome data for this approach.
Methods
Patients were seen by a neurologist for headache diagnosis and recommendation for drug treatment. Depending on clinical needs, patients were seen by a psychologist and/or physical therapist. A 5-day headache-specific multidisciplinary treatment programme (MTP) was provided for patients with frequent or chronic migraine, tension type headache (TTH) and medication overuse headache (MOH). Subsequent outpatient treatment was provided by neurologists in private practice.
Results
Follow-up data on headache frequency and burden of disease were prospectively obtained in 841 patients (mean age 41.5 years) after 3, 6 and 12 months. At baseline mean headache frequency was 18.1 (SD = 1.6) days per month, compared to measurement at 1 year follow-up a mean reduction of 5.8 (SD = 11.9) headache days per month was observed in 486 patients (57.8%) after one year (TTH patients mean: -8.5 days per month; migraine mean: -3.2 days per month, patients with migraine and TTH mean: -5.9 days per month). A reduction in headache days ≥ 50% was observed in 306 patients (36.4%) independent of diagnosis, while headache frequency remains unchanged in 20.9% and increase in 21.3% of the patient.
Conclusion
Multidisciplinary outpatient headache centres offer an effective way to establish a three-tier treatment offer for difficult headache patients depending on clinical needs.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-11-124
PMCID: PMC3203041  PMID: 21985562
17.  The differential diagnosis of chronic daily headaches: an algorithm-based approach 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2007;8(5):263-272.
Chronic daily headaches (CDHs) refers to primary headaches that happen on at least 15 days per month, for 4 or more hours per day, for at least three consecutive months. The differential diagnosis of CDHs is challenging and should proceed in an orderly fashion. The approach begins with a search for “red flags” that suggest the possibility of a secondary headache. If secondary headaches that mimic CDHs are excluded, either on clinical grounds or through investigation, the next step is to classify the headaches based on the duration of attacks. If the attacks last less than 4 hours per day, a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TAC) is likely. TACs include episodic and chronic cluster headache, episodic and chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. If the duration is ≥4 h, a CDH is likely and the differential diagnosis encompasses chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and hemicrania continua. The clinical approach to diagnosing CDH is the scope of this review.
doi:10.1007/s10194-007-0418-3
PMCID: PMC2793374  PMID: 17955166
Chronic daily headache; Differential diagnosis; Strategy
18.  The differential diagnosis of chronic daily headaches: an algorithm-based approach 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2007;8(5):263-272.
Chronic daily headaches (CDHs) refers to primary headaches that happen on at least 15 days per month, for 4 or more hours per day, for at least three consecutive months. The differential diagnosis of CDHs is challenging and should proceed in an orderly fashion. The approach begins with a search for “red flags” that suggest the possibility of a secondary headache. If secondary headaches that mimic CDHs are excluded, either on clinical grounds or through investigation, the next step is to classify the headaches based on the duration of attacks. If the attacks last less than 4 hours per day, a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TAC) is likely. TACs include episodic and chronic cluster headache, episodic and chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. If the duration is ≥4 h, a CDH is likely and the differential diagnosis encompasses chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and hemicrania continua. The clinical approach to diagnosing CDH is the scope of this review.
doi:10.1007/s10194-007-0418-3
PMCID: PMC2793374  PMID: 17955166
Chronic daily headache; Differential diagnosis; Strategy
19.  Headache in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(2):227-233.
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for primary headaches in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Headache was classified in 75 patients with JME using a questionnaire, and its prevalence was correlated with the literature on the general population and clinical data. Headache was present in 47 patients. Thirty-one had migraine [20 migraine without aura (MO), 11 migraine with aura (MA)]. Fourteen patients with migraine had tension-type headache (TTH) in addition. Sixteen had only TTH. Comparison with the general population revealed a significantly higher prevalence of migraine (RR 4.4), MO (3.6), MA (7.3) and TTH (3.4) in JME. Risk factors for migraine and MO were female gender and for MA family history of migraine in first-degree relatives. Migraine and MA were associated with fairly controlled generalized tonic clonic seizures, MO with absences. Together with its strong genetic background, JME appears to be an attractive homogenous subtype of epilepsy for genetic research on migraine.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0332-6
PMCID: PMC3072490  PMID: 21437711
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; Headache; Migraine; Prevalence
20.  Headache in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(2):227-233.
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for primary headaches in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Headache was classified in 75 patients with JME using a questionnaire, and its prevalence was correlated with the literature on the general population and clinical data. Headache was present in 47 patients. Thirty-one had migraine [20 migraine without aura (MO), 11 migraine with aura (MA)]. Fourteen patients with migraine had tension-type headache (TTH) in addition. Sixteen had only TTH. Comparison with the general population revealed a significantly higher prevalence of migraine (RR 4.4), MO (3.6), MA (7.3) and TTH (3.4) in JME. Risk factors for migraine and MO were female gender and for MA family history of migraine in first-degree relatives. Migraine and MA were associated with fairly controlled generalized tonic clonic seizures, MO with absences. Together with its strong genetic background, JME appears to be an attractive homogenous subtype of epilepsy for genetic research on migraine.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0332-6
PMCID: PMC3072490  PMID: 21437711
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; Headache; Migraine; Prevalence
21.  Health-care utilization for primary headache disorders in China: a population-based door-to-door survey 
Background
In order to know the status quo of health care for primary headache disorders in China, questions about headache consultation and diagnosis were included in a nationwide population-based survey initiated by Lifting The Burden: the Global Campaign against Headache.
Methods
Throughout China, 5,041 unrelated respondents aged 18–65 years were randomly sampled from the general population and visited unannounced at their homes. After basic sociodemographic and headache diagnostic questions, respondents with headache answered further questions about health-care utilization in the previous year.
Results
Significantly higher proportions of respondents with migraine (239/452; 52.9%) or headache on ≥15 days per month (23/48; 47.9%) had consulted a physician for headache than of those with tension-type headache (TTH) (218/531; 41.1%; P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed associations between disability and probability of consultation in those with migraine (mild vs. minimal: AOR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.4; moderate vs. minimal: 2.5, 1.2–5.4; severe vs. minimal: 3.9, 1.9–8.1) and between rural habitation and probability of consulting in those with TTH (AOR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.9–6.3, P < 0.001). Married respondents with TTH were less likely than unmarried to have consulted (AOR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.07–0.93; P = 0.038). About half of consultations (47.8–56.5%) for each of the headache disorders were at clinic level in the health system. Consultations in level-3 hospitals were relatively few for migraine (5.9%) but more likely for headache on ≥15 days/month (8.7%) and, surprisingly, for TTH (13.3%). Under-diagnosis and misdiagnosis were common in consulters. More than half with migraine (52.7%) or headache on ≥15 days/month (51.2%), and almost two thirds (63.7%) with TTH, reported no previous diagnosis. Consulters with migraine were as likely (13.8%) to have been diagnosed with “nervous headache” as with migraine. “Nervous headache” (9.8%) and “vascular headache” (7.6%) were the most likely diagnoses in those with TTH, of whom only 5.6% had previously been correctly diagnosed. These were also the most likely diagnoses (14.0% each) in consulters with headache on ≥15 days/month.
Conclusions
This picture of the status quo shows limited reach of headache services in China, and high rates of under-diagnosis and misdiagnosis in those who achieve access to them. This is not a picture of an efficient or cost-effective response to major causes of public ill-health and disability.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-14-47
PMCID: PMC3673891  PMID: 23731663
China; Headache disorders; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Health-care utilization; Global campaign against headache
22.  Headache-related work disability in young men 
Based on the knowledge that migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) are associated with reduced effectiveness at work and impairment of function in social roles, we studied the different influences that these primary headaches have on work in a specialized and homogeneous population. We studied 140 consecutive male patients, aged 18–35 years, attending an outpatient headache clinic at the Neurology Department of an Army General Hospital. Using International Headache Society (IHS) criteria, 60 patients were diagnosed with migraine and 80 patients with TTH. The impact of headache on work during the preceding 2 months was assessed using a selfadministered questionnaire, based on MIDAS. Two parameters of work disability were derived: the lost work days (LWD) and the days with reduced effectiveness while being at work (REWD). Of 142 LWD due to headaches, 95 (66.9%) were attributable to migraine and 47 (33.1%) to TTH (plt;0.001). Of 490 REWD, 120 (24.4%) were reported by migraineurs and 370 (75.5%) by TTH patients (p<0.001). The number of LWD in migraine was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in TTH group; the number of REWD in TTH group was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in migraine group. Pain intensity was the main factor contributing to disability at work in migraine group (plt;0.001), in contrast with TTH group in which there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between pain intensity and duration of pain. Patients with migraine were much more likely to report actual lost workdays because of headache whereas TTH was responsible for the largest proportion of decreased work effectiveness. Assessing headache severity with an objective method (i.e. questionnaire) may improve headache care and lead to proper treatment decisions. Special attention must be given to particular populations.
doi:10.1007/s101940200023
PMCID: PMC3613233
Key words Migraine; Tension-type headache; Worn effectiveness
23.  A face-to-face interview of participants in HUNT 3: the impact of the screening question on headache prevalence 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2008;9(5):289-294.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the screening question phrasing on the 1-year prevalence figures of headache disorders, including migraine. Of a random sample of 563 invited participants in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey 2006–2008 in Norway, 297 (53%) met to a face-to-face interview. There were 74.1% that reported having had headache during the last year, whereas only 31.0% stated that they had suffered from headache in the same period. The 1-year prevalence of migraine was 17.2% and of tension-type headache (TTH) 51.9%. Migraine was ten times more likely (OR = 9.96, 95% CI 4.75–20.91) among those who stated that they were headache sufferers than among those who were not. Only headache sufferers had chronic TTH or medication-overuse headache. Thus “Have you suffered from headache?” can be a useful screening question in population-based questionnaire studies if the goal is to identify most migraineurs and almost all individuals with chronic headache.
doi:10.1007/s10194-008-0062-6
PMCID: PMC3452193  PMID: 18690490
Screening; Question; Headache; Migraine; Prevalence
24.  Prevalence of headache in Australian footballers 
Methods: A prospective questionnaire based survey was performed on elite Australian footballers participating in a national competition. The survey was designed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for headache using standardised International Headache Society (HIS) criteria. Headache prevalence was compared with that of an age and sex matched community control population.
Results: A total of 160 questionnaires were analysed. Headaches were reported by 80% of subjects, with 49% of respondents reporting headaches during competitive match play and 60% during training. There was no significant difference between the footballers and the community sample in the number of headaches ever; however, they did report more headaches in the three months before the survey —that is, during the competitive playing season. In the footballers, 22% of headaches conformed to the strict IHS definition of migraine headaches. When the relaxed definition of "footballer's migraine" was used, 34% of headaches met these criteria. Footballers were at significantly increased risk of footballer's migraine than community controls.
Conclusions: Headaches are common in Australian footballers, and the prevalence of migraine is increased in relation to community prevalence studies. Furthermore, the strict IHS criteria may not adequately identify the specific subtype of football related headache. This finding has important implications in the management of headache in this setting.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.014860
PMCID: PMC1725119  PMID: 15665188
25.  Clinical outcome of a headache-specific multidisciplinary treatment program and adherence to treatment recommendations in a tertiary headache center: an observational study 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(4):475-483.
This study investigated the outcome of a 5-day headache-specific multidisciplinary treatment program (MTP) and the adherence to treatment recommendations in 295 prospectively recruited consecutive headache patients [210 migraine, 17 tension-type headache (TTH), 68 combination headache, including 56 medication-overuse headache (MOH)]. Headache frequency decreased from 13.4 (±8.8) to 8.8 (±8.0) days per month after 12–18 months. Forty-three percent of the participants fulfilled the primary outcome (reduction of headache frequency of ≥50%), which was less likely in patients with combination of migraine and TTH compared to migraine (OR = 3.136, p = 0.002) or TTH (OR = 1.029, n.s.). Increasing number of headache days per month (OR = 1.092, p ≤ 0.0001) and adherence to lifestyle modifications (OR = 1.269, p = 0.004) predicted primary outcome. 51 of 56 MOH patients were treated successfully. Thirty-five percent of the patients were adherent to pharmacological prophylaxis, 61% to relaxation therapy, and 72% to aerobic endurance sports. MTP is effective in headache treatment. Adherence to therapy was associated with better outcome.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0348-y
PMCID: PMC3139052  PMID: 21544647
Migraine; Headache; Multidisciplinary treatment program; Adherence

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