To elucidate the hemodynamics of the uterine artery myomas by use of Doppler ultrasound and biomagnetic measurements.
Twenty-four women were included in the study. Sixteen of them were characterised with large myomas whereas 8 of them with small ones. Biomagnetic signals of uterine arteries myomas were recorded and analyzed with Fourier analysis. The biomagnetic signals were distributed according to spectral amplitudes as high (140–300 ft/√Hz), low (50–110 ft/√Hz) and borderline (111–139 ft/√Hz). Uterine artery waveform measurements were evaluated by use of Pulsatility Index (PI) (normal value PI < 1.45).
There was a statistically significant difference between large and small myomas concerning the waveform amplitudes (P < 0.0005) and the PI index (P < 0.0005). Specifically, we noticed high biomagnetic amplitudes in most large myomas (93.75 %) and low biomagnetic amplitudes in most small ones (87.5 %).
It is suggested that the biomagnetic recordings of uterine artery myomas could be a valuable modality in the estimation of the circulation of blood cells justifying the findings of Doppler velocimetry examination.
Uterine myomas, the most common benign, solid, pelvic tumors in women, occur in 20%–40% of women in their reproductive years and form the most common indication for hysterectomy. Various factors affect the choice of the best treatment modality for a given patient. Asymptomatic myomas may be managed by reassurance and careful follow up. Medical therapy should be tried as a first line of treatment for symptomatic myomas, while surgical treatment should be reserved only for appropriate indications. Hysterectomy has its place in myoma management in its definitiveness. However, myomectomy, rather than hysterectomy, should be performed when subsequent childbearing is a consideration. Preoperative gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment before myomectomy decreases the size and vascularity of the myoma but may render the capsule more fibrous and difficult to resect. Uterine artery embolization is an effective standard alternative for women with large symptomatic myomas who are poor surgical risks or wish to avoid major surgery. Its effects on future fertility need further evaluation in larger studies. Serial follow-up without surgery for growth and/or development of symptoms is advisable for asymptomatic women, particularly those approaching menopause. The present article is incorporated with multiple clear clinical photographs and simplified elaboration of the available management options for these tumors of uterine smooth muscle to facilitate clear understanding.
myomectomy; uterine artery embolization; pelvic tumor; hysterectomy; GnRH; leiomyoma
Laparoscopic myomectomy using pneumoperitoneum for large myomas (≥8 cm) is hindered by several factors, such as the increased operative time, the risk of perioperative bleeding, and the risk of conversion to laparotomy. With the introduction of isobaric laparoscopy using abdominal wall lifting, this procedure can be performed using conventional surgical instruments introduced through small abdominal incisions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility, and safety of isobaric laparoscopic myomectomy for very large myomas ≥10 cm using a subcutaneous abdominal wall-lifting device.
A series of 24 consecutive patients with at least 1 symptomatic myoma ≥10 cm underwent a gasless laparoscopic myomectomy with the Laparotenser device. Conventional long laparotomy instruments were used.
Gasless laparoscopic myomectomy was successful in all 24 consecutive patients. The size of the dominant myoma varied from 10 cm to 20 cm. The median operating time was 93 minutes. The median postoperative drop in hemoglobin was 2.8 g/dL. No surgical complications occurred. The median hospital stay was 2.8 days.
Gasless laparoscopic myomectomy is feasible, reproducible, and safe for removing very large myomas. Therefore, it can represent an excellent option for the minimally invasive removal of very large myomas.
Very large myomas; Isobaric gasless laparoscopy; Myomectomy; Subcutaneous abdominal wall lifting device
Inversion of the uterus is an uncommon complication of the puerperium and it is an even rarer complication of the non-puerperal period. A submucous myoma is mostly the cause of the non-puerperal inversion but diagnosis can be difficult. In young women, non-puerperal uterine inversion is likely associated with a malignancy.
A 19-year-old nulliparous woman presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding, dysmenorrhoea, and a large mass protruding from her cervix. The mass was interpreted as a prolapsed pedunculated submucosal myoma. After extirpation of the mass by clamping and twisting its pedicle, a laparotomy was required under suspicion of a uterine rupture. The diagnosis was confirmed and the patient's uterus could be preserved. Pathological examination revealed a submucous myoma. The uterine inversion happened when the uterus retracted to expel the submucous myoma with fundal attachment. By extirpating the stalk the fundus was also resected, causing a uterine rupture.
We report a case of non-puerperal uterine inversion associated with a benign submucous myoma. Non-puerperal uterine inversion is very uncommon in women of reproductive age and is usually caused by a malignant tumour. However, uterine-sparing surgery should be attempted in young women until the final pathology is known.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety, efficacy or complications of uterine artery embolization (UAE). Patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids (n = 157) were treated by selective bilateral UAE using 350–500 μm sized polyvinyl alcohol particles. Bilateral UAE was successful in 152 (96.8%) cases. Baseline measures of clinical symptoms and MRI taken before the procedure were compared to those taken 3, 6, and 12 months after embolotherapy. Also, complications and outcomes were analyzed after procedure. All patients had an uneventful recovery and were able to return to normal activity within two weeks of embolization. After the procedure, most patients experienced crampy pelvic pain, of variable intensity, which was well managed with the standard analgesia protocol. Five (3%) of participants had persisting amenorrhea after procedure. None reported any new gynecologic or medical problem during the follow-up period. There were no deaths and no major permanent injuries. Reductions in mean uterine volume were 61% (P < 0.01) and in dominant fibroid volume 66% (P≤0.01). The follow-up showed significant improvement of bleeding. In conclusion, uterine artery embolization is a successful, minimal invasive treatment of uterine fibroids that preserves the uterus, had minimal complications, and requires short hospitalization and recovery.
Cavernous haemangioma is a very rare vascular malformation of the uterus. We describe the CT and MRI findings of a cavernous haemangioma in an 81-year-old female with recurrent menorrhagia. CT showed a well-marginated mass with multifocal calcifications and extensive haemorrhage, as well as necrosis in the anterior wall of the uterus. MRI revealed heterogeneous low- to high-signal intensities of the mass on T1 and T2 weighted images as well as portions with poor enhancement of the mass on contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images. Although rare, cavernous haemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a calcified haemorrhagic necrotic uterine mass in post-menopausal women.
To assess the feasibility and outcome of laparoscopic myomectomy and multiple layer closure of the myoma bed, for management of myomas, at a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
From September 2005 to September 2010, 417 patients, with large and moderate size myomas, were managed by laparoscopic myomectomy. Indications were subfertility, menorrhagia, and abdominal mass. Preoperative evaluation included history, clinical examination, and sonographic mapping. The myomas were enucleated and retrieved laparoscopically. Myoma beds were sutured in multiple layers by endoscopic intracorporeal suturing.
Three hundred and fifteen patients presented with subfertility, 45 with menorrhagia, and 57 with abdominal mass. The average maximum diameter of a myoma was 9 cm. The mean duration of surgery was 120 minutes. The mean postoperative stay was 24 hours. No intraoperative complication occurred and the hospital course was uncomplicated. In one case, a minilap incision was performed for retrieval of the myoma with suturing of the bed. Two patients had minor delayed wound healing of the morcellator port site. The patients did not report any complaints during the follow-up, except one patient who developed omental hernia at the morcellator port site. There was no rupture of the scar and very low adhesion scores in the subsequent cesarean sections or second-look scopies.
With proper multilayer closure of the myoma bed, laparoscopic myomectomy was feasible for moderate and even large myomas and had excellent outcomes.
Better reproductive outcome; laparoscopic myomectomy; large myomas; multilayer closure
Both laparoscopic occlusion and superselective embolization of the uterine artery for symptomatic uterine leiomyomata improved clinical symptoms in the majority of patients.
To compare the effectiveness and safety of uterine artery occlusion by laparoscopy versus embolization as a treatment modality for symptomatic uterine fibroids.
Ninety-six premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata were studied. None of them desired further pregnancy. They were randomized to treatment either by laparoscopic occlusion (group 1) or by radiologic embolization of uterine arteries (group 2). The primary outcome measure was patient satisfaction as regards menstrual blood loss compared with pretreatment loss. Secondary outcome measures included postoperative pain, complications, secondary interventions, and failures.
Ninety women were followed for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after both procedures. The primary outcome was comparable between the 2 groups (86.7% after laparoscopic occlusion versus 88.8% after embolization, with no statistically significant difference). After 12 months of follow-up, more patients resumed heavy periods in the uterine artery occlusion group [4/45 patients, 8.8% in occlusion group compared with 3/45 (6.6%) in embolization group, P=0.044].
Both laparoscopic occlusion and superselective embolization of uterine arteries improved clinical symptoms in the majority of patients. At 12-month follow-up, embolization might be more effective.
Uterine myoma; Uterine artery occlusion; Laparoscopy
This study compares results of endometrial ablation alone and in combination with myoma coagulation. Subsequent surgery rates were 38% for ablation alone and 12% for combined therapy.
The purpose of this study was to compare hysterectomy rates following various surgical procedures to treat profuse uterine bleeding as well as myomatous uteri.
This is a descriptive study of women who underwent endometrial ablation alone, endometrial ablation with myoma coagulation, or endometrial resection with myoma coagulation to treat profuse uterine bleeding as well as myomatous uterus. From 1986 to 1995, the author performed 52 endometrial ablation procedures; 88 myoma coagulation and endometrial ablation procedures; and 28 myoma coagulations with resection of submucous myomas in patients who were subsequently available for follow-up. Patients were followed up for up to ten years.
Of the patients undergoing ablation alone, 20 (38%) of 52 required a second surgery for continued symptoms during a mean follow-up of 47 months. Five of these patients (9.6%) underwent hysterectomy. Of the patients who underwent endometrial ablation plus myoma coagulation (myolysis), 11 (12.5%) of 88 required a repeat surgical procedure during a mean follow-up of 25 months. Five of these patients (5.7%) underwent hysterectomy. Volumetric measurements revealed an average reduction in fibroid volume of 54.5% in this patient group following treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and combined myoma coagulation and endometrial ablation surgery. Of the 28 patients who underwent myoma coagulation plus resection, five (18%) required a repeat procedure. Of these five, one (4%) required hysterectomy. Fibroid volume in this group was reduced by a mean of 72.6% following administration of a GnRH agonist and combined laparoscopic and hysteroscopic surgery as described. The rate of reoperation was significantly lower among patients receiving endometrial ablation with myoma lysis with or without resection compared with those undergoing endometrial ablation alone (P<0.01).
Myoma coagulation (myolysis), when combined with endometrial ablation among women with symptomatic fibroids and bleeding, reduces all subsequent surgery rates compared with endometrial ablation alone. Myolysis with endometrial resection also results in a reduced need for hysterectomy.
Fibroids; Uterine bleeding; Endometrial ablation; Myoma coagulation; Endometrial resection; Hysterectomy
Compared to myomas that occur in the uterine corpus, cervical myomas are closer to other organs such as the bladder, ureter, and rectum, and the approach needs to be modified, as the organs that have to be considered differ depending on the location of the myoma. Surgical difficulties associated with these cases are, poor access to the operative field, difficulty in suturing the repairs, increased blood loss, and distortion of the anatomy of the vital neighboring structures in the pelvic cavity.
Cervical fibroid; laproscopic myomectomy; vasopressin
The objective of this article is to review the different techniques that have been adopted for removal of large myomas laparoscopically. We have also quoted literature about the impact of myomas on Pregnancy and obstetrical outcome and the effect of laparoscopic myomectomy on the same. Technical modifications to remove large myomas have been described along with methods to reduce intraoperative bleeding. This comprehensive review describes all possibilities of laparoscopic myomectomy irrespective of size, site and number.
Laparoscopic myomectomy; large myomas; fibroids; uterine artery ligation; pregnancy after myomectomy
We report an interesting case of parasitic fibroid which developed from a morcellation remnant following laparoscopic myomectomy. The patient presented with incidental finding of pelvic mass in 2005. She underwent laparoscopic myomectomy for a myoma extending from the Pouch of Douglas to both sides of broad ligament. She subsequently presented with abdominal pain 3 years later in 2008. She underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy with removal of broad ligament fibroids. During her hysterectomy, a right lumbar mass attached to the omentum was detected, which was excised laparoscopically. Histopathology of the mass confirmed it to be consistent with leiomyoma. This mass could probably be a morcellation remnant that has grown to this size taking blood supply from the omentum. We report this case to emphasize that all tissue pieces that are morcellated should be diligently removed. Even small bits displaced into the upper abdomen can result in parasitic fibroids. Thus, it can be concluded that parasitic myomas can arise from morcellated remnants and grow depending on the blood supply.
Laparoscopic myomectomy; parasitic fibroid; retained fragment after morcellation
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) for large myomas. A subpopulation of 51 patients with myomas 8 cm or larger in diameter was selected from 155 patients who underwent LM at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from July 2003 to November 2006. The mean age of the patients was 34.9±5.6 yr, mean parity was 0.6±0.9, and 8 patients had a previous operative history. The most common operative indication was a palpable abdominal mass (24 patients, 47%). The mean operating time was 85.6±38.9 min, and the mean diameter of the largest myoma was 9.3±1.8 cm. The mean change in hemoglobin concentration was 2.1±1.2 g/dL. Histopathological diagnosis included 49 patients of leiomyoma (96.1%) and 2 patients of leiomyoma with adenomyosis (3.9%). Postoperatively, a transfusion was done in 7 patients, and a case of subcutaneous emphysema was noted. None of the operations was switched to laparotomy. With the newly-developed screw and the port placement system that was modified from the Choi's 4-trocar method to obtain better surgical vision, LM of large myomas proved to be one of the efficient and feasible methods.
Laparoscopic Myomectomy; Myoma Uteri; Laparoscopy
Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been proposed as a potential factors involved in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states, including carcinogenesis. In this study, we explored the lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in women diagnosed with different forms of gynecological diseases in order to evaluate the antioxidant status in endometrium of such patients.
Endometrial tissues of gynecological patients with different diagnoses were collected and subjected to assays for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipid hydroperoxides.
Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased (50% in average) in hyperplastic and adenocarcinoma patients. Activities of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased 60% and 100% on average, in hyperplastic patients, while in adenocarcinoma patients only glutathione reductase activity was elevated 100%. Catalase activity was significantly decreased in adenocarcinoma patients (47%). Lipid hydroperoxides level was negatively correlated to superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and positively correlated to glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities.
This study provided the first comparison of antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in endometrial tissues of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. The results showed that patients with premalignant (hyperplastic) and malignant (adenocarcinoma) lesions had enhanced lipid peroxidation and altered uterine antioxidant enzyme activities than patients with benign uterine diseases, polyps and myoma, although the extent of disturbance varied with the diagnosis. Further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed alterations and whether lipid hydroperoxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in uterus of gynecological patients might be used as additional parameter in clinical evaluation of gynecological disorders.
Laparoscopic minilaparotomy in 6 patients using the Maher abdominal elevator facilitated both quicker enucleation and morcellation of the myoma and suture of the myoma cavity. Myoma reduction in 12 patients by electrosurgery resulted in a 60% reduction in myoma diameter with failure in 2 patients. This technique may avoid myomectomy and be particularly useful in patients with infertility or near menopause.
The world’s first magnetoencephalography (MEG) system specifically designed for fetal and newborn assessment has been installed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. This non-invasive system called SARA (Squid Array for Reproductive Assessment) consists of 151 primary superconducting sensors which detect biomagnetic fields from the human body. Since the installation of SARA, significant progress has been made toward the ultimate goal of developing a clinical neurological assessment tool for the developing fetus. Using appropriate analysis techniques, cardiac and brain signals are recorded and studied to gain new understanding of fetal maturation. It is clear from our investigations that a combination of assessment protocols including both fetal heart and brain activity is necessary for the development of a comprehensive new method of fetal neurological testing. We plan to implement such a test protocol for fetuses at high-risk for neurological impairment due to certain maternal risk factors and/or fetal diagnostic findings.
fetal magnetoenecephalogram; fetal magnetocardiogram; HRV measures
Gastric slow waves propagate in the electrical syncytium of the healthy stomach, being generated at a rate of approximately three times per minute in a pacemaker region along the greater curvature of the antrum and propagating distally towards the pylorus. Disease states are known to alter the normal gastric slow wave. Recent studies have suggested the use of biomagnetic techniques for assessing parameters of the gastric slow wave that have potential diagnostic significance. We present a study in which the gastric syncytium was uncoupled by mechanical division as we recorded serosal electric potentials along with multichannel biomagnetic signals and cutaneous potentials. By computing the surface current density (SCD) from multichannel biomagnetic recordings, we were able to quantify gastric slow wave propagation as well as the frequency and amplitude of the slow wave and to show that these correlate well with similar parameters from serosal electrodes. We found the dominant slow wave frequency to be an unreliable indicator of gastric uncoupling as uncoupling results in the appearance of multiple slow wave sources at various frequencies in external recordings. The percentage of power distributed in specific frequency ranges exhibited significant postdivision changes. Propagation velocity determined from SCD maps was a weak indicator of uncoupling in this work; we believe that the relatively low spatial resolution of our 19-channel biomagnetometer confounds the characterization of spatial variations in slow wave propagation velocities. Nonetheless, the biomagnetic technique represents a non-invasive method for accurate determination of clinically significant parameters of the gastric slow wave.
electrogastrography; gastric slow wave; magnetogastrography; SQUID magnetometer
Biomagnetic techniques were used to measure motility in various parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly a new technique for detecting magnetic markers and tracers. A coil was used to enhance the signal from a magnetic tracer in the GI tract and the signal was detected using a fluxgate magnetometer or a magnetoresistor in an unshielded room. Estimates of esophageal transit time were affected by the position of the subject. The reproducibility of estimates derived using the new biomagnetic technique was greater than 85% and it yielded estimates similar to those obtained using scintigraphy. This technique is suitable for studying the effect of emotional state on GI physiology and for measuring GI transit time. The biomagnetic technique can be used to evaluate digesta transit time in the esophagus, stomach and colon, peristaltic frequency and gastric emptying and is easy to use in the hospital setting.
Biomagnetic techniques; Magnetogastrography; Gastric emptying; Scintigraphy; Peristaltic contractions
Automatic estimation of current dipoles from biomagnetic data is
still a problematic task. This is due not only to the ill-posedness of
the inverse problem but also to two intrinsic difficulties introduced by
the dipolar model: the unknown number of sources and the nonlinear
relationship between the source locations and the data. Recently, we
have developed a new Bayesian approach, particle filtering, based on
dynamical tracking of the dipole constellation. Contrary to many
dipole-based methods, particle filtering does not assume stationarity
of the source configuration: the number of dipoles and their positions
are estimated and updated dynamically during the course of the MEG
sequence. We have now developed a Matlab-based graphical user interface,
which allows nonexpert users to do automatic dipole estimation
from MEG data with particle filtering. In the present paper, we describe
the main features of the software and show the analysis of both
a synthetic data set and an experimental dataset.
Esophageal voice is a method of communication after total laryngectomy. Previous research suggests that perturbation analysis may inaccurately measure aperiodic voices and that nonlinear dynamic methods may be more appropriate for analyzing signals of this type. Therefore, we hypothesized that nonlinear dynamic analysis would be more capable than perturbation parameters for reliable measurement of the aperiodic esophageal voice.
Acoustic comparison of esophageal and normal voice cohorts using nonlinear dynamic and perturbation measures.
Twenty subjects in two age-matched groups participated in the study. Jitter, shimmer, signal-to-noise ratio, correlation dimension, and second-order entropy were measured from audio recordings of subjects’ voices.
Jitter and shimmer values were significantly higher for esophageal voices and signal-to-noise ratio values were significantly lower for esophageal voices than for normal voices. Error count values, which indicate perturbation analysis reliability, were 0 in normal voices and significantly higher in esophageal voices. Error was attributable to signal aperiodicity and demonstrated that perturbation analysis yielded questionable results for esophageal voice. However, nonlinear dynamics measures analyzed both cohorts reliably and indicated that esophageal voice was significantly more chaotic than normal voice.
The results demonstrated the capability of nonlinear dynamic methods to reliably quantify both aperiodic and periodic signals and to differentiate normal from esophageal voices. It is suggested that nonlinear dynamic analysis be used preferentially for acoustic characterization of aperiodic voices such as esophageal voice. Future research should focus on clarification of perturbation analysis reliability and further application of nonlinear dynamic measures to aperiodic voices.