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1.  Differentiation of myomas by means of biomagnetic and doppler findings 
Aim
To elucidate the hemodynamics of the uterine artery myomas by use of Doppler ultrasound and biomagnetic measurements.
Method
Twenty-four women were included in the study. Sixteen of them were characterised with large myomas whereas 8 of them with small ones. Biomagnetic signals of uterine arteries myomas were recorded and analyzed with Fourier analysis. The biomagnetic signals were distributed according to spectral amplitudes as high (140–300 ft/√Hz), low (50–110 ft/√Hz) and borderline (111–139 ft/√Hz). Uterine artery waveform measurements were evaluated by use of Pulsatility Index (PI) (normal value PI < 1.45).
Results
There was a statistically significant difference between large and small myomas concerning the waveform amplitudes (P < 0.0005) and the PI index (P < 0.0005). Specifically, we noticed high biomagnetic amplitudes in most large myomas (93.75 %) and low biomagnetic amplitudes in most small ones (87.5 %).
Conclusion
It is suggested that the biomagnetic recordings of uterine artery myomas could be a valuable modality in the estimation of the circulation of blood cells justifying the findings of Doppler velocimetry examination.
doi:10.1186/1477-044X-4-3
PMCID: PMC1450278  PMID: 16584560
2.  Pulmonary embolus arising from sloughed off myoma in late puerperium 
Pulmonary embolus is a rare and serious complication of myoma uteri in the puerperium that resulted in late postpartum hysterectomy A 38-year-old, multiparous woman with a large myoma located on the left lateral wall of the uterus underwent emergency cesarean section due to fetal distres at 28 weeks. During the operation, a 15 cm sized intramural myoma was left without any intervention. On the 40th day postpartum the patient returned to the clinic with sepsis and pulmonary embolus because of obstruction of lochia drainage by the sloughed off myoma. The patient underwent hysterectomy and medical therapy for pulmonary embolus.
We presented an unusual complication of uterine leiomyoma in the late postpartum period after cesarean section. Whatever the mode of sloughing off of the myoma, the results of the obstruction of lochia drainage may be devastating as in our case. To avoid these complications, clinicians must be aware of these symptoms and prompt intervention is essential.
doi:10.5152/jtgga.2010.26
PMCID: PMC3939226  PMID: 24591925
Myoma uteri; pregnancy; puerperium; pulmonary embolus; sepsis
3.  Comparison of the Inhibitory Effect of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonist, Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM), Antiprogesterone on Myoma Cell Proliferation In Vitro 
Uterine myomas are the most common gynecologic tumor in women of reproductive age. Treatment options of uterine myomas consist of surgical, medical and interventional therapy such as uterine artery embolization or myolysis. Given that it is the most common type of tumor in women of reproductive age, the treatment of uterine myomas must prioritize uterine conservation. There are several drugs for medical treatment of uterine myoma such as gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and antiprogesterone. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of GnRH agonist, SERM, and antiprogesterone in the treatment of uterine myomas in vitro. The effect of drugs was evaluated through the cell viability assay in cultured leiomyoma cells, western blot analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and BCL-2 protein expression. As a result, mifepristone single-treated group represents the most significant reduction in myoma cell viability and proliferation. When pretreated with leuprolide acetate, raloxifene shows more significant reduction in myoma cell viability and proliferation than mifepristone. This study suggests one of the possible mechanisms how medications act on uterine myoma, especially at the molecular level.
doi:10.7150/ijms.7627
PMCID: PMC3917117  PMID: 24516352
Leiomyoma; Drug therapy; Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist; Raloxifene; Mifepristone
4.  Current and emerging treatments for uterine myoma – an update 
Uterine myomas, the most common benign, solid, pelvic tumors in women, occur in 20%–40% of women in their reproductive years and form the most common indication for hysterectomy. Various factors affect the choice of the best treatment modality for a given patient. Asymptomatic myomas may be managed by reassurance and careful follow up. Medical therapy should be tried as a first line of treatment for symptomatic myomas, while surgical treatment should be reserved only for appropriate indications. Hysterectomy has its place in myoma management in its definitiveness. However, myomectomy, rather than hysterectomy, should be performed when subsequent childbearing is a consideration. Preoperative gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment before myomectomy decreases the size and vascularity of the myoma but may render the capsule more fibrous and difficult to resect. Uterine artery embolization is an effective standard alternative for women with large symptomatic myomas who are poor surgical risks or wish to avoid major surgery. Its effects on future fertility need further evaluation in larger studies. Serial follow-up without surgery for growth and/or development of symptoms is advisable for asymptomatic women, particularly those approaching menopause. The present article is incorporated with multiple clear clinical photographs and simplified elaboration of the available management options for these tumors of uterine smooth muscle to facilitate clear understanding.
doi:10.2147/IJWH.S15710
PMCID: PMC3163653  PMID: 21892334
myomectomy; uterine artery embolization; pelvic tumor; hysterectomy; GnRH; leiomyoma
5.  Low dose mifepristone in medical management of uterine leiomyoma - An experience from a tertiary care hospital from north India 
The Indian Journal of Medical Research  2013;137(6):1154-1162.
Background & objectives:
Uterine myoma is a common indication for hysterectomy in India. An effective medical treatment option may reduce hysterectomy associated morbidity. This study was undertaken to evaluate efficacy and safety of low dose mifepristone in medical management of myoma and to compare two doses - 10 vs. 25 mg/day.
Methods:
In this randomized clinical trial, women with symptomatic myoma or myoma>5cm were included. Uterine size >20 wk, fibroids >15 cm were excluded. Pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) score was used to assess menstrual-blood-loss and visual analog scale (VAS) for other symptoms. Haemogram, liver function test, ultrasound with doppler and endometrial histology was performed. Patients were randomized and were given oral mifepristone as 25 mg/day in group 1 and 10 mg/day in group 2 for 3 months. Patients were followed at 1, 3 and 6 months.
Results:
Seventy patients in group 1 and 73 in group 2 completed treatment. Mean PBAC score reduced from 253 to 19.8 and from 289.2 to 10.4 at 1 and 3 months in groups 1 and 2, respectively. At 3 months, 67 of 70 (95.7%) patients of group 1 and 66 of 73 (90.4%) of group 2 developed amenorrhoea which reverted after median 34 (range 4-85) days. Mean myoma volume decreased by 35.7 per cent (from 176.8 to 113.7cm3) and 22.5 per cent (from 147.6 to 114.4 cm3) at 3 months in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Side effects seen were leg cramps in 7 of 70 (10%) and 5 of 73 (6.8%) and hot-flushes in 5 of 70 (7.1%) and 5 of 73 (6.8%) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Repeat endometrial-histopathology did not reveal any complex hyperplasia or atypia in either group.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Mifepristone (10 and 25 mg) caused symptomatic relief with more than 90 per cent reduction in menstrual blood. Greater myoma size reduction occured with 25 mg dose. Amenorrhoea was developed in 90-95 per cent patients which was reversible. It can be a reasonable choice for management of uterine leiomyoma as it is administered orally, cost-effective and has mild side effects.
PMCID: PMC3734720  PMID: 23852296
Amenorrhoea; fibroid; leiomyoma; mifepristone; medical management; uterine
6.  Laparoscopic Surgical Management and Clinical Characteristics of Ovarian Fibromas 
Ovarian fibromas may be misdiagnosed as uterine myoma or ovarian malignant tumor. Laparoscopic examination appears to be an effective and safe surgical approach for managing ovarian fibromas.
Objective:
This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics and diagnostic features of ovarian fibromas and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery for ovarian fibromas.
Methods:
We reviewed the records of 47 consecutive women who underwent laparoscopic or laparotomic surgeries and whose final histopathological diagnoses were ovarian fibroma, cellular fibroma, or fibrothecoma from January 1999 to August 2010.
Results:
During the study period, 49 tumors were removed from 47 women including 27 ovarian fibromas, 19 fibrothecomas, and 3 cellular fibromas. The preoperative diagnoses were ovarian fibroma in 25 women (53.2%) and uterine myoma in 16 women (34.0%). A high serum CA 125 level (>35U/mL) was observed in 15 women, and serum CA 125 level was significantly higher in women with ascites (P=<0.001). The tumors were removed surgically in all women, using the laparotomic approach in 16 women (34.0%) and the laparoscopic approach in 31 women (66.0%). The laparoscopic surgery had the advantages of shorter hospital stay and faster return of bowel activities compared to laparotomy.
Conclusions:
Ovarian fibromas are often misdiagnosed as uterine myomas, and sometimes mistaken for a malignant tumor of the ovary preoperatively. Laparoscopic surgery can be an effective and safe surgical approach for managing ovarian fibromas.
doi:10.4293/108680810X12924466009087
PMCID: PMC3134689  PMID: 21902936
Cellular fibroma; Fibroma; Fibrothecoma; Laparoscopy; Ovary
7.  Effect of mifepristone (25 mg) in treatment of uterine myoma in perimenopausal woman 
Journal of Mid-Life Health  2013;4(1):22-26.
Objectives:
To evaluate the effect of Mifepristone (25 mg) on symptomatic myoma in perimenopausal women.
Study Design:
Open label clinical trial.
Materials and Methods:
Ninety three perimenopausal women of age 35-50 years having symptomatic myoma were selected from Gynecology OPD and given 25 mg Mifepristone once daily continuously for three months. Variables as; baseline uterine size, uterine volume, myoma size, volume, their number, position, characteristics, hemoglobin and blood parameters, were taken and followed monthly for six months. Bleeding and pain scores were checked on monthly visits. Changes in above parameters were tabulated during the first three months treatment phase and then next three post-treatment phase for analysis.
Statistical Analysis:
Was done by calculating mean, standard deviation, standard error and percentage distribution of variables.
Results:
Menorrhagia was the most common symptom which led patients to report to hospital. Mean uterine volume reduced to 63.69% of baseline, Mean dominant Myoma volume reduced to 53.62% and hemoglobin level raised to 137% after complete three months of treatment. Changes persisted in next three months post-treatment follow-up, while hysterectomy was required in 10 (12.2%) cases.
Conclusion:
Three months treatment of 25 mg Mifepristone effectively controls bleeding, reduces the uterine and myoma volume and thus can avoid blood transfusion and hysterectomy in a lot of symptomatic myoma cases.
doi:10.4103/0976-7800.109630
PMCID: PMC3702060  PMID: 23833529
Anti-progesterone; medical treatment; mifepristone; myoma
8.  The Indications, Surgical Techniques, and Limitations of Laparoscopic Myomectomy 
Objective:
To assess the indications and limits of laparoscopic myomectomies (LM).
Methods:
We conducted a retrospective analysis of 89 consecutive cases of LM. Our LM procedures were as follows: Diluted vasopressin was injected into the myoma capsule, and a transverse incision was made by fine monopolar electrode. Traction was applied to the myoma with a myoma screw. The uterine wall was sutured with a curved needle. Fibrin glue spray was applied to prevent adhesion formation. Enucleated myomas were removed via trocar by using an electric morcellator.
Results:
We enucleated 195 nodules with diameters > 2 cm; the mean size of the dominant myomas was 5.3 cm. The mean number of myomas removed from each patient was 2. The uterine wall was sutured in all cases with a mean of 9 sutures. The mean blood loss was 102 mL, and the mean operating time was 111 minutes. No patients were converted to laparotomy. The average hospital stay was 2.4 days. When the myomas were larger than 10 cm, the blood loss and operating time were increased. However, the number of myomas did not correlate with blood loss.
Conclusion:
LM appears to offer a number of advantages if the myoma is not larger than 10 cm.
PMCID: PMC3015481  PMID: 12856836
Laparoscopic myomectomy; Surgical technique; Indication; Limitation
9.  Laparoscopic Myomectomy for Very Large Myomas Using an Isobaric (Gasless) Technique 
Objectives:
Laparoscopic myomectomy using pneumoperitoneum for large myomas (≥8 cm) is hindered by several factors, such as the increased operative time, the risk of perioperative bleeding, and the risk of conversion to laparotomy. With the introduction of isobaric laparoscopy using abdominal wall lifting, this procedure can be performed using conventional surgical instruments introduced through small abdominal incisions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility, and safety of isobaric laparoscopic myomectomy for very large myomas ≥10 cm using a subcutaneous abdominal wall-lifting device.
Methods:
A series of 24 consecutive patients with at least 1 symptomatic myoma ≥10 cm underwent a gasless laparoscopic myomectomy with the Laparotenser device. Conventional long laparotomy instruments were used.
Results:
Gasless laparoscopic myomectomy was successful in all 24 consecutive patients. The size of the dominant myoma varied from 10 cm to 20 cm. The median operating time was 93 minutes. The median postoperative drop in hemoglobin was 2.8 g/dL. No surgical complications occurred. The median hospital stay was 2.8 days.
Conclusion:
Gasless laparoscopic myomectomy is feasible, reproducible, and safe for removing very large myomas. Therefore, it can represent an excellent option for the minimally invasive removal of very large myomas.
PMCID: PMC3015631  PMID: 16381362
Very large myomas; Isobaric gasless laparoscopy; Myomectomy; Subcutaneous abdominal wall lifting device
10.  Fertility outcomes following myomectomy in an urban hospital setting. 
OBJECTIVE: Infertility is rarely a consequence of myomas. However, a causal relationship may be suspected when other causes of infertility have been excluded. Uterine myomas have been reported in 27% of infertile women; 50% of women with unexplained infertility become pregnant after myomectomy. The objective of this study was to establish the impact of the surgical removal of myomas on fertility outcomes in women experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss or unexplained infertility. Fallopian tube, anovulatory disorders and male fertility factors had been appropriately excluded. DESIGN: This was a retrospective study in which we compiled data from the medical records of eight patients from 2003-2004 who underwent abdominal myomectomy for infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss. We calculated rates for subsequent spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, malpresentation and postpartum hemorrhage. RESULTS: There were two patients who were nulliparous premyomectomy, and six had recurrent pregnancy losses. There was a cumulative success rate of 75% (six live births in eight patients) following myomectomy. One had two subsequent pregnancies. There were no spontaneous abortions. Three (37.5%) patients failed to conceive postmyomectomy, one of which was found to have bilateral tubal occlusion. Of the six pregnancies achieved, two (33%, 95% CI 2.06, 3.14) were preterm deliveries, six (100%, 95% CI 1.74, 3.50) were delivered by cesarean section and three (50%, 95% CI 3.50, 1.73) were malpresentations (two breech, one transverse lie). One patient (16%, 95% CI 2.06, 3.30) had abruptio placentae and two patients (33%, 95% CI 2.06, 3.14) experienced postpartum hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that there may be a beneficial effect of surgical removal of myomas on enhancing fertility and successful pregnancy outcome. However, the sample was too small to achieve statistical significance.
Images
PMCID: PMC2594713  PMID: 16353656
11.  Non-puerperal uterine inversion due to submucous myoma in a young woman: a case report 
Introduction
Inversion of the uterus is an uncommon complication of the puerperium and it is an even rarer complication of the non-puerperal period. A submucous myoma is mostly the cause of the non-puerperal inversion but diagnosis can be difficult. In young women, non-puerperal uterine inversion is likely associated with a malignancy.
Case presentation
A 19-year-old nulliparous woman presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding, dysmenorrhoea, and a large mass protruding from her cervix. The mass was interpreted as a prolapsed pedunculated submucosal myoma. After extirpation of the mass by clamping and twisting its pedicle, a laparotomy was required under suspicion of a uterine rupture. The diagnosis was confirmed and the patient's uterus could be preserved. Pathological examination revealed a submucous myoma. The uterine inversion happened when the uterus retracted to expel the submucous myoma with fundal attachment. By extirpating the stalk the fundus was also resected, causing a uterine rupture.
Conclusion
We report a case of non-puerperal uterine inversion associated with a benign submucous myoma. Non-puerperal uterine inversion is very uncommon in women of reproductive age and is usually caused by a malignant tumour. However, uterine-sparing surgery should be attempted in young women until the final pathology is known.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-21
PMCID: PMC2822794  PMID: 20205761
12.  Multiple Layer Closure of Myoma Bed in Laparoscopic Myomectomy 
Objective:
To assess the feasibility and outcome of laparoscopic myomectomy and multiple layer closure of the myoma bed, for management of myomas, at a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
From September 2005 to September 2010, 417 patients, with large and moderate size myomas, were managed by laparoscopic myomectomy. Indications were subfertility, menorrhagia, and abdominal mass. Preoperative evaluation included history, clinical examination, and sonographic mapping. The myomas were enucleated and retrieved laparoscopically. Myoma beds were sutured in multiple layers by endoscopic intracorporeal suturing.
Results:
Three hundred and fifteen patients presented with subfertility, 45 with menorrhagia, and 57 with abdominal mass. The average maximum diameter of a myoma was 9 cm. The mean duration of surgery was 120 minutes. The mean postoperative stay was 24 hours. No intraoperative complication occurred and the hospital course was uncomplicated. In one case, a minilap incision was performed for retrieval of the myoma with suturing of the bed. Two patients had minor delayed wound healing of the morcellator port site. The patients did not report any complaints during the follow-up, except one patient who developed omental hernia at the morcellator port site. There was no rupture of the scar and very low adhesion scores in the subsequent cesarean sections or second-look scopies.
Conclusion:
With proper multilayer closure of the myoma bed, laparoscopic myomectomy was feasible for moderate and even large myomas and had excellent outcomes.
doi:10.4103/0974-1216.85281
PMCID: PMC3304293  PMID: 22442535
Better reproductive outcome; laparoscopic myomectomy; large myomas; multilayer closure
13.  Uterine Fibroids: Pathogenesis and Interactions with Endometrium and Endomyometrial Junction 
Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids or myomas) are benign tumors of uterus and clinically apparent in a large part of reproductive aged women. Clinically, they present with a variety of symptoms: excessive menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhoea and intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and pressure symptoms such as a sensation of bloatedness, increased urinary frequency, and bowel disturbance. In addition, they may compromise reproductive functions, possibly contributing to subfertility, early pregnancy loss, and later pregnancy complications. Despite the prevalence of this condition, myoma research is underfunded compared to other nonmalignant diseases. To date, several pathogenetic factors such as genetics, microRNA, steroids, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix components have been implicated in the development and growth of leiomyoma. This paper summarizes the available literature regarding the ultimate relative knowledge on pathogenesis of uterine fibroids and their interactions with endometrium and subendometrial myometrium.
doi:10.1155/2013/173184
PMCID: PMC3791844  PMID: 24163697
14.  ASSESSING CARDIAC AND NEUROLOGICAL MATURATION DURING THE INTRA-UTERINE PERIOD 
Seminars in perinatology  2008;32(4):263-268.
The world’s first magnetoencephalography (MEG) system specifically designed for fetal and newborn assessment has been installed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. This non-invasive system called SARA (Squid Array for Reproductive Assessment) consists of 151 primary superconducting sensors which detect biomagnetic fields from the human body. Since the installation of SARA, significant progress has been made toward the ultimate goal of developing a clinical neurological assessment tool for the developing fetus. Using appropriate analysis techniques, cardiac and brain signals are recorded and studied to gain new understanding of fetal maturation. It is clear from our investigations that a combination of assessment protocols including both fetal heart and brain activity is necessary for the development of a comprehensive new method of fetal neurological testing. We plan to implement such a test protocol for fetuses at high-risk for neurological impairment due to certain maternal risk factors and/or fetal diagnostic findings.
doi:10.1053/j.semperi.2008.04.006
PMCID: PMC3022378  PMID: 18652925
fetal magnetoenecephalogram; fetal magnetocardiogram; HRV measures
15.  Biomagnetic signatures of uncoupled gastric musculature 
Gastric slow waves propagate in the electrical syncytium of the healthy stomach, being generated at a rate of approximately three times per minute in a pacemaker region along the greater curvature of the antrum and propagating distally towards the pylorus. Disease states are known to alter the normal gastric slow wave. Recent studies have suggested the use of biomagnetic techniques for assessing parameters of the gastric slow wave that have potential diagnostic significance. We present a study in which the gastric syncytium was uncoupled by mechanical division as we recorded serosal electric potentials along with multichannel biomagnetic signals and cutaneous potentials. By computing the surface current density (SCD) from multichannel biomagnetic recordings, we were able to quantify gastric slow wave propagation as well as the frequency and amplitude of the slow wave and to show that these correlate well with similar parameters from serosal electrodes. We found the dominant slow wave frequency to be an unreliable indicator of gastric uncoupling as uncoupling results in the appearance of multiple slow wave sources at various frequencies in external recordings. The percentage of power distributed in specific frequency ranges exhibited significant postdivision changes. Propagation velocity determined from SCD maps was a weak indicator of uncoupling in this work; we believe that the relatively low spatial resolution of our 19-channel biomagnetometer confounds the characterization of spatial variations in slow wave propagation velocities. Nonetheless, the biomagnetic technique represents a non-invasive method for accurate determination of clinically significant parameters of the gastric slow wave.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01265.x
PMCID: PMC2855967  PMID: 19222760
electrogastrography; gastric slow wave; magnetogastrography; SQUID magnetometer
16.  Biomagnetic techniques for evaluating gastric emptying, peristaltic contraction and transit time 
Biomagnetic techniques were used to measure motility in various parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly a new technique for detecting magnetic markers and tracers. A coil was used to enhance the signal from a magnetic tracer in the GI tract and the signal was detected using a fluxgate magnetometer or a magnetoresistor in an unshielded room. Estimates of esophageal transit time were affected by the position of the subject. The reproducibility of estimates derived using the new biomagnetic technique was greater than 85% and it yielded estimates similar to those obtained using scintigraphy. This technique is suitable for studying the effect of emotional state on GI physiology and for measuring GI transit time. The biomagnetic technique can be used to evaluate digesta transit time in the esophagus, stomach and colon, peristaltic frequency and gastric emptying and is easy to use in the hospital setting.
doi:10.4291/wjgp.v2.i5.65
PMCID: PMC3196621  PMID: 22025978
Biomagnetic techniques; Magnetogastrography; Gastric emptying; Scintigraphy; Peristaltic contractions
17.  Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Large Uterus 
Aim:
In this review, we assessed the feasibility of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) in cases of very large uteri weighing more than 500 grams. We have analyzed whether it is possible for an experienced laparoscopic surgeon to perform efficient total laparoscopic hysterectomy for large myomatous uteri regardless of the size, number and location of the myomas.
Design:
Retrospective review (Canadian Task Force Classification II-1)
Setting:
Dedicated high volume Gynecological laparoscopy centre.
Patients:
173 women with symptomatic myomas who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy at our center. There were no exclusion criteria based on the size number or location of myomas.
Intervention:
TLH and modifications of performing the surgery by ligating the uterine arteries prior, myomectomy followed by hysterectomy, direct morcellation after uterine artery ligation.
Results:
72% of patients had previous normal vaginal delivery and 28% had previous cesarean section. Average clinical size of the uterus was 18 weeks (10, 32). The average weight of the specimen was 700 grams (500, 2240). The average duration of surgery was 107 min (40, 300) and the average blood loss was 228 ml (10, 3200).
Conclusion:
Total laparoscopic hysterectomy is a technically feasible procedure. It can be performed by experienced surgeons for large uteri regardless of the size, number or location of the myomas.
doi:10.4103/0974-1216.51908
PMCID: PMC3304266  PMID: 22442509
Large uterus; multiple fibroids; total laparoscopic hysterectomy
18.  Submucosal uterine leiomyomas have a global effect on molecular determinants of endometrial receptivity 
Fertility and sterility  2008;93(6):2027-2034.
Study objective
To evaluate the effect of uterine leiomyomas on the endometrium using molecular markers of endometrial receptivity: HOXA10, HOXA11, LIF, and BTEB1.
Design
Case-control study
Setting
University medical center
Patients
Thirty reproductive-age women with submucosal, intramural, or no uterine myomas who underwent hysteroscopy or hysterectomy.
Interventions
Proliferative phase endometrial sampling was performed at the time of surgery. In uteri with a submucosal myoma, directed endometrial biopsies were obtained over the myoma and over normal myometrium.
Main outcome measures
Endometrial HOXA10 expression was evaluated as a primary end point using quantitative real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. HOXA11, BTEB1, and LIF were evaluated using real time RT-PCR.
Results
Endometrial HOXA10 and HOXA11 mRNA expression were significantly decreased in uteri with submucosal myomas compared to controls and to uteri with intramural myomas. A similar trend was seen in BTEB1 mRNA expression, however no difference was found in LIF mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry localized the decrease in endometrial HOXA10 protein expression to stroma. In the presence of a submucosal myoma, there were no regional differences in gene expression.
Conclusions
The molecular mechanism by which submucosal myomas adversely affect reproduction includes a global decrease in endometrial HOX gene expression, not simply a focal change over the myoma. This may explain the reproductive dysfunction observed with submucosal myomas.
doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.03.029
PMCID: PMC3107853  PMID: 18555231
leiomyoma; fibroid; submucosal myoma; endometrium; endometrial receptivity; HOXA10
19.  Highly Automated Dipole EStimation (HADES) 
Automatic estimation of current dipoles from biomagnetic data is still a problematic task. This is due not only to the ill-posedness of the inverse problem but also to two intrinsic difficulties introduced by the dipolar model: the unknown number of sources and the nonlinear relationship between the source locations and the data. Recently, we have developed a new Bayesian approach, particle filtering, based on dynamical tracking of the dipole constellation. Contrary to many dipole-based methods, particle filtering does not assume stationarity of the source configuration: the number of dipoles and their positions are estimated and updated dynamically during the course of the MEG sequence. We have now developed a Matlab-based graphical user interface, which allows nonexpert users to do automatic dipole estimation from MEG data with particle filtering. In the present paper, we describe the main features of the software and show the analysis of both a synthetic data set and an experimental dataset.
doi:10.1155/2011/982185
PMCID: PMC3061326  PMID: 21437232
20.  Combining Myoma Coagulation with Endometrial Ablation/Resection Reduces Subsequent Surgery Rates 
Background:
This study compares results of endometrial ablation alone and in combination with myoma coagulation. Subsequent surgery rates were 38% for ablation alone and 12% for combined therapy.
Objective:
The purpose of this study was to compare hysterectomy rates following various surgical procedures to treat profuse uterine bleeding as well as myomatous uteri.
Study Design:
This is a descriptive study of women who underwent endometrial ablation alone, endometrial ablation with myoma coagulation, or endometrial resection with myoma coagulation to treat profuse uterine bleeding as well as myomatous uterus. From 1986 to 1995, the author performed 52 endometrial ablation procedures; 88 myoma coagulation and endometrial ablation procedures; and 28 myoma coagulations with resection of submucous myomas in patients who were subsequently available for follow-up. Patients were followed up for up to ten years.
Results:
Of the patients undergoing ablation alone, 20 (38%) of 52 required a second surgery for continued symptoms during a mean follow-up of 47 months. Five of these patients (9.6%) underwent hysterectomy. Of the patients who underwent endometrial ablation plus myoma coagulation (myolysis), 11 (12.5%) of 88 required a repeat surgical procedure during a mean follow-up of 25 months. Five of these patients (5.7%) underwent hysterectomy. Volumetric measurements revealed an average reduction in fibroid volume of 54.5% in this patient group following treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and combined myoma coagulation and endometrial ablation surgery. Of the 28 patients who underwent myoma coagulation plus resection, five (18%) required a repeat procedure. Of these five, one (4%) required hysterectomy. Fibroid volume in this group was reduced by a mean of 72.6% following administration of a GnRH agonist and combined laparoscopic and hysteroscopic surgery as described. The rate of reoperation was significantly lower among patients receiving endometrial ablation with myoma lysis with or without resection compared with those undergoing endometrial ablation alone (P<0.01).
Conclusions:
Myoma coagulation (myolysis), when combined with endometrial ablation among women with symptomatic fibroids and bleeding, reduces all subsequent surgery rates compared with endometrial ablation alone. Myolysis with endometrial resection also results in a reduced need for hysterectomy.
PMCID: PMC3015361  PMID: 10694070
Fibroids; Uterine bleeding; Endometrial ablation; Myoma coagulation; Endometrial resection; Hysterectomy
21.  Perceived Racial Discrimination and Risk of Uterine Leiomyomata 
Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)  2007;18(6):747-757.
Background
The incidence of uterine leiomyomata (fibroids, myomas) is 2-3 times higher in black women than white women. Black women also report higher levels of racial discrimination. We evaluated the hypothesis that greater exposure to racism increases myoma risk in black women.
Methods
Data were derived from the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective cohort study of US black women age 21-69 years in 1995. In 1997, women reported on “everyday” and “life-time” experiences of racism. From 1997 through 2003, we followed 22,002 premenopausal women to assess the association between self-reported racism and risk of myomas. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox regression models.
Results
During 107,127 person-years of follow-up, 3440 new cases of uterine myomas confirmed by ultrasound (n = 2774) or surgery (n = 666) were reported. All IRRs for “lifetime” and “everyday” experiences of racism were above 1.0. Using a summary variable that averaged the responses from 5 “everyday” racism items, multivariable IRRs comparing quartiles 2, 3, and 4 to quintile 1 (lowest) were 1.16 (95% CI = 1.04-1.29), 1.19 (1.06-1.32), and 1.27 (1.14-1.43), respectively. Multivariable IRRs comparing women who reported 1, 2, or 3 lifetime occurrences of major discrimination (ie, job, housing, or police) relative to those who reported none were 1.04 (0.96-1.13), 1.17 (1.07-1.28), and 1.24 (1.10-1.39), respectively. Results did not vary according to case definition (ultrasound vs. surgery) or health care utilization. Associations were weaker among foreign-born women and among women with higher coping skills.
Conclusions
Perceived racism was associated with an increased risk of uterine myomas in US-born black women.
doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181567e92
PMCID: PMC2150737  PMID: 17917606
22.  Endometrial changes associated with myomata of the uterus 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1970;23(8):676-680.
The endometrium of 30 uteruses with myomata was studied at four standard sites. Glandular atrophy over a myoma or opposite a myoma was the most constant finding. At the margin of a myoma hyperplastic glands were frequently found, and distorted, elongated, or dilated glands were present at this site in half of all specimens. Other changes included adenomyosis and the separation of glands by muscle fibres from the basal layer of the endometrium. The coexistence of many of these findings in endometrial curettings can lead to the histological diagnosis of uterine myomata. Two factors, mechanical and hormonal, may be responsible and their mechanisms are discussed.
Images
PMCID: PMC476867  PMID: 5488038
23.  Uterine C-Kit positive low grade stromal sarcoma 
Uterine C-Kit positive stromal tumors are rare, however, there are a few cases reported in literature. A 58-year-old post menopausal lady presented with bleeding per vaginum. An abdominal examination revealed an enlarged uterus. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a large myomatous uterus, with a probable subserosal intramural and intracavitary myoma or cervical myoma in the presence of a solitary large aortocaval node, with multiple bone lesions. The biopsy taken from the uterine mass had revealed, a low-grade uterine sarcoma, which was positive for CD117. This case is presented for its rarity and management dilemma.
doi:10.4103/0971-5851.64258
PMCID: PMC2930290  PMID: 20838549
C-Kit; stromal sarcomas; uterine
24.  Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) assessment of superselective uterine fibroid embolization (SUFE): Preliminary experience☆ 
Journal of Ultrasound  2008;11(4):158-161.
Purpose
The use of superselective uterine fibroid embolization (SUFE) requires imaging techniques that can be used to verify the success of the procedure. The purpose of our study was to analyze the potential value of pre- and post-treatment contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for assessing the outcome of SUFE and for posttreatment follow-up.
Materials and methods
We studied twelve women undergoing SUFE for uterine fibroids. In those with multiple fibroids, only the three largest were considered in this study. A total of 21 lesions (size range 3.5–9.0 cm, mean 5.2 cm) were examined. Each myoma was examined immediately before and after SUFE (while the patient was still in the angiography room) with transabdominal CEUS performed after intravenous administration of a single bolus of contrast agent. The follow-up protocol included CEUS evaluation one month after treatment and CEUS plus dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) studies six months after treatment.
Results
In 20/21 cases, postembolization CEUS revealed total fibroid devascularization. The remaining lesion (in a woman with multiple lesions) showed persistent vascularization after SUFE. These findings were all consistent with angiographic data. No recurrences were observed during the six-month follow-up. One patient reported the reappearance of symptoms 18 months after SUFE, and CEUS showed the persistence of intralesional vascularization.
Conclusions
CEUS is effective for assessing the completeness of vascular occlusion following SUFE for uterine fibroids. CEUS findings correlate with clinical results observed one and six months after treatment. Compared with dynamic MR, CEUS is reliable and cost-effective.
doi:10.1016/j.jus.2008.09.005
PMCID: PMC3552644  PMID: 23396952
Fibroids; Therapeutic embolization; Ultrasonography; Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography
25.  Magnetic sensors using amorphous metal materials: detection of premature ventricular magnetic waves 
Physiological Reports  2013;1(2):e00030.
The detection of magnetic activity enables noncontact and noninvasive evaluation of electrical activity in humans. We review the detection of biomagnetic fields using amorphous metal wire-based magnetic sensors with the sensitivity of a pico-Tesla (pT) level. We measured magnetic fields close to the thoracic wall in a healthy subject sitting on a chair. The magnetic sensor head was mounted perpendicularly against the thoracic wall. Simultaneous measurements with ECG showed that changes in the magnetic field were synchronized with the cardiac electric activity, and that the magnetic wave pattern changed reflecting electrical activity of the atrium and ventricle, despite a large variation. Furthermore, magnetic waves reflecting ventricular arrhythmia were recorded in the same healthy subject. These results suggest that this magnetic sensor technology is applicable to human physiology and pathophysiology research. We also discuss future applications of amorphous wire-based magnetic sensors as well as possible improvements.
doi:10.1002/phy2.30
PMCID: PMC3831925  PMID: 24303116
Biomagnetic field; magneto-impedance/inductive effect; magnetocardiogram; room temperature-operated; shieldless; electric current propagation

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