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1.  Helicobacter pylori in Iran: A systematic review on the association of genotypes and gastroduodenal diseases 
Background:
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known as a major etiologic factor for a variety of gastroduodenal diseases. In Iran, with a high rate of H. pylori infection close to 90%, numerous studies have revealed many aspects of interaction between the bacterium, mucosal surface and induction of disease outcome. The organism is genetically diverse and several virulence factors are attributed to the more virulent strains. The well-characterized virulence factors of H. pylori are cytotoxin associated gene A and vacuolating cytotoxin gene A. The distribution pattern of H. pylori genotypes and its association with disease status varies geographically. The present review focused on the virulence factors and genotyping of H. pylori in relation to gastroduodenal disorders in different regions of Iran.
Methods:
In total, 398 studies were reported on different aspects related to H. pylori in our electronic search from 1995-2011. H. pylori infection and its virulence factors in association with disease status were investigated in 159 reports. Looking specifically at the gastrointestinal tract disorders, the most relevant reports including 37 papers were selected.
Results:
We found no correlation of cagA genotype and disease status in the majority of studies, whereas vacA was demonstrated as a useful marker in predicting the disease outcome. The results of reports on other virulence factors of H. pylori such as blood group antigen-binding adhesion gene A, the induced by contact with epithelium gene A, the outer inflammatory protein A, the duodenal ulcer promoting gene A, and Helicobacter outer membrane gene and their relation with disease status were contradictory.
Conclusions:
Although different markers of H. pylori were emphasized as useful when predicting disease outcomes in some studies, the inconsistent researches and the scarcity of data made any conclusion or even comparison impossible. Considering the gap of information observed during our search relating to genotyping and other aspects of H. pylori infection, further investigations are suggested.
PMCID: PMC3527048  PMID: 23267382
H. pylori; Genotyping; Virulence; Gastroduodenal; cagA; vacA; Iran
2.  Houseflies Are an Unlikely Reservoir or Vector for Helicobacter pylori 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(9):2786-2788.
The route of transmission of Helicobacter pylori from individual to individual remains undefined. It has recently been reported that the domestic housefly, Musca domestica, when fed pure cultures of H. pylori, was able to harbor the organism in its midgut for up to 30 h (P. Grubel, S. Hoffman, F. K. Chong, N. A. Barstein, C. Mepani, and D. R. Cave, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1300–1303, 1997). Our investigation examined whether houseflies could acquire H. pylori from fresh human feces. Domestic houseflies (40 flies/group) were exposed for 24 h to feces from an H. pylori-positive volunteer, feces from an H. pylori-negative volunteer, or feces from an H. pylori-negative volunteer to which a known amount of viable H. pylori had been added. At various intervals, flies were sacrificed and the midguts were excised, homogenized, and plated in duplicate onto selective horse blood agar plates. All plates were incubated under microaerobic conditions at 37°C for 14 days. Emergent colonies presumptive of H. pylori were picked and tested biochemically to confirm the identity as H. pylori. H. pylori was not recovered from houseflies fed human feces either naturally infected or artificially infected with H. pylori. These results suggest that the domestic housefly is not a vector for transmission or a reservoir for H. pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC105211  PMID: 9705441
3.  Helicobacter pylori Infection in an Urban African Population 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(4):1323-1327.
We have studied 221 adults drawn from an impoverished urban population with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence (35%) to determine the prevalence of gastroduodenal pathology and its relationship to serological markers of Helicobacter pylori virulence proteins and other potential environmental and immunological determinants of disease including HIV infection. Eighty-one percent were H. pylori seropositive, and 35% were HIV seropositive. Urban upbringing and low CD4 count were associated with a reduced likelihood of H. pylori seropositivity, as was current Ascaris infection, in keeping with recent evidence from an animal model. One hundred ninety-one adults underwent gastroduodenoscopy, and 14 had gastroduodenal pathology. Mucosal lesions were a major cause of abdominal pain in this population. While the majority of patients with gastroduodenal pathology (12 of 14) were seropositive for H. pylori, none were seropositive for HIV. Smoking was associated with increased risk of macroscopic pathology, and a history of Mycobacterium bovis BCG immunization was associated with reduced risk. Antibodies to H. pylori lipopolysaccharide were associated with pathology. HIV infection was associated with protection against mucosal lesions, suggesting that fully functional CD4 lymphocytes may be required for the genesis of gastroduodenal pathology.
doi:10.1128/JCM.39.4.1323-1327.2001
PMCID: PMC87933  PMID: 11283050
4.  What Is the Difference Between Helicobacter pylori-Associated Dyspepsia and Functional Dyspepsia? 
Advances in basic and clinical research have revealed that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the development of gastroduodenal dysmotility and hypersensitivity, as also in dyspepsia symptoms. In addition, recent studies have proposed an inflammation-immunological model for the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. Since H. pylori is the major microbe that provokes a gastroduodenal inflammatory response, it should not be overlooked when considering the pathophysiology of dyspepsia symptoms. In fact, population-based studies have demonstrated that H. pylori is detected more frequently in dyspepsia patients. However, although many clinical studies tried to reveal the association of H. pylori infection with gastric motility dysfunction or hypersensitivity, the results have been conflicting. On the other hand, many etiological features were revealed for the development of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia, such as abnormal ghrelin or leptic secretion, altered expression of muscle-specific microRNAs, and duodenal inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, therapeutic strategy for H. pylori-associated dyspepsia would be different from H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia. This review focuses the issue of whether H. pylori-associated dyspepsia should be considered as a different disease entity from functional dyspepsia.
doi:10.5056/jnm.2011.17.2.124
PMCID: PMC3093003  PMID: 21602988
Duodenum; Ghrelin; Helicobacter pylori; MicroRNAs
5.  Microevolution of Helicobacter pylori Type IV Secretion Systems in an Ulcer Disease Patient over a Ten-Year Period▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(12):4039-4043.
Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotypes have been used for almost a decade as stable entities to link the severity of gastritis and ulcer disease. We describe here microevolution of the two genomic islands, cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI; 40 kb) and tfs3 (16 kb) from isolates obtained at inclusion (one subclone) and after a 10-year period (two subclones) from a duodenal ulcer patient. Our results indicate microevolution in cagA, cagE, and cag7 genes of the cagPAI and open reading frames G, P, and L in tfs3, which possibly leads to inactivation or pseudogenization of these genes. Interestingly, no significant reduction in the severity of gastroduodenal pathology was found. These results point to an obvious difficulty in correlating the continuously evolving virulence factors such as the cagPAI genes with disease characteristics that appear to remain stable.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01631-07
PMCID: PMC2168557  PMID: 17942650
6.  Cloning and genetic characterization of the Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae flaB flagellin genes and construction of H. pylori flaA- and flaB-negative mutants by electroporation-mediated allelic exchange. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(11):3278-3288.
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human pathogens. It causes chronic gastritis and is involved in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal ulcer disease and possibly gastric carcinoma. Helicobacter mustelae is a bacterium closely related to H. pylori that causes gastritis and ulcer disease in ferrets and is therefore considered an important animal model of gastric Helicobacter infections. Motility, even in a viscous environment, is conferred to the bacteria by several sheathed flagella and is regarded as one of their principal virulence factors. The flagellar filament of H. pylori consists of two different flagellin species expressed in different amounts. The gene (flaA) encoding the major flagellin has recently been cloned and sequenced. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of two highly homologous new flagellin genes from H. pylori 85P and H. mustelae NCTC 12032. The nucleotide sequence of the H. pylori gene proved that it encoded the second flagellin molecule found in H. pylori flagellar filaments. The genes were named flaB. The H. mustelae and H. pylori flaB genes both coded for proteins with 514 amino acids and molecular masses of 54.0 and 53.9 kDa, respectively. The proteins shared 81.7% identical amino acids. The degree of conservation between H. pylori FlaB and the H. pylori FlaA major flagellin was much lower (58%). Both flaB genes were preceded by sigma 54-like promoter sequences. Mapping of the transcription start site for the H. pylori flaB gene by a primer extension experiment confirmed the functional activity of the sigma 54 promoter. To evaluate the importance of both genes for motility, flaA- and flaB-disrupted mutants of H. pylori N6 were constructed by electroporation-mediated allelic exchange and characterized by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis and motility testing. Both mutations selectively abolished the expression of the targeted gene without affecting the synthesis of the other flagellin molecule. Whereas flaA mutants were completely nonmotile, flaB mutants retained motility.
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PMCID: PMC204724  PMID: 8501031
7.  vacA Genotypes in Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Children with and without Duodenal Ulcer in Brazil 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(8):2853-2857.
Data concerning the association between vacA genotypes and disease in children in both developed and developing countries are scarce, especially because of the small number of children with a duodenal ulcer studied. The vacA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori strains obtained from 65 children (24 with a duodenal ulcer and 41 without a duodenal ulcer; 33 girls; mean age, 10.2 years; age range, 1 to 17 years) were investigated as described by J. C. Atherton et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:2979–2982, 1999). Ten (15.4%) children were infected with more than one H. pylori strain. None of these patients were included in our analysis of the relationship between gastric disorders and specific vacA genotypes. The s1 allele was detected in all H. pylori strains isolated from patients with a duodenal ulcer and from 21 (58.3%) patients without a duodenal ulcer (P = 0.003). Strains with the s2 allele were found only in patients without ulcer (n = 15; 41.7%). Most s1 strains had the s1b allele (97.5%), a result similar to that reported for adults from the Iberian peninsula, which could reflect the Brazilian population origin. One untypeable s1 strain was isolated. The m1 allele was also more frequently found in strains obtained from duodenal ulcer patients (P = 0.028). The m2 allele was found in strains obtained from 20 (36.4%) children, 3 (15.8%) with an ulcer and 17 (47.2%) without an ulcer. Only one m hybrid strain (m1 and m2 hybrid) was detected. It was demonstrated for the first time that the frequencies of colonization with strains with the s1 allele (14.3% in children up to 8 years of age and 85.7% in older patients; P = 0.012) and of strains with the m1 allele (11.1% in patients up to the age 8 years and 88.9% in older children; P = 0.013) increase with age.
PMCID: PMC87127  PMID: 10921938
8.  A Comprehensive Sequence and Disease Correlation Analyses for the C-Terminal Region of CagA Protein of Helicobacter pylori 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(11):e7736.
Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is known to be associated with the development of peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma. Currently, the bacterial factors of H. pylori are reported to be important in the development of gastroduodenal diseases. CagA protein, encoded by the cagA, is the best studied virulence factor of H. pylori. The pathogenic CagA protein contains a highly polymorphic Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) repeat region in the C-terminal. This repeat region is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases. The segments containing EPIYA motifs have been designated as segments A, B, C, and D; however the classification and disease relation are still unclear. This study used 560 unique CagA sequences containing 1,796 EPIYA motifs collected from public resources, including 274 Western and 286 East Asian strains with clinical data obtained from 433 entries. Fifteen types of EPIYA or EPIYA-like sequences are defined. In addition to four previously reported major segment types, several minor segment types (e.g., segment B′, B′′) and more than 30 sequence types (e.g., ABC, ABD) were defined using our classification method. We confirm that the sequences from Western and East Asian strains contain segment C and D, respectively. We also confirm that strains with two EPIYA segment C have a greater chance of developing gastric cancer than those with one segment C. Our results shed light on the relationships between the types of CagAs, the country of origin of each sequence type, and the frequency of gastric disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007736
PMCID: PMC2768901  PMID: 19893742
9.  Algorithm of OMA for large-scale orthology inference 
BMC Bioinformatics  2009;10:220.
Since the publication of our article (Roth, Gonnet, and Dessimoz: BMC Bioinformatics 2008 9: 518), we have noticed several errors, which we correct in the following.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-220
PMCID: PMC2729779
10.  In Vitro Comparison of NALC-NaOH, Tween 80, and C18-Carboxypropylbetaine for Processing of Specimens for Recovery of Mycobacteria 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(12):3558-3566.
A recent article (C. G. Thornton et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:1996–2003, 1998) reported a new specimen-processing method for improved recovery of mycobacteria. This method used C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) and increased both smear and culture sensitivity. The companion article (C. G. Thornton et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:2004–2013, 1998) described initial improvements to this method. Additional significant parameters of the CB-18 processing method are identified herein. First, eliminating the incubation step was shown to further improve culture sensitivity. Subsequently, recovery of several mycobacterial isolates by the CB-18 method was compared to a contemporary processing method that combines NALC and NaOH (NALC-NaOH) and a Tween 80-based method. Recovery of the tuberculous isolates following NALC-NaOH processing averaged 20% and ranged from 1.6 to 45%, whereas recovery of the nontuberculous isolates averaged 11% and ranged from 0.1 to 55%. Recovery of the tuberculous and nontuberculous isolates by the Tween 80-based method ranged from 22 to 92% and 27 to 93%, respectively, with averages of 58 and 65%, respectively. Recovery of the tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria following CB-18 processing averaged 86 and 73%, respectively, with ranges from 61 to over 100% and from 43 to over 100%, respectively. Other parameters of the CB-18 method were also examined, including recovery versus CB-18 concentration and the relationship between CB-18 concentration and the tuberculocidal effect. The tuberculocidal effect was time dependent but independent of concentration, whereas recovery was directly proportional to concentration. Increasing the CB-18 concentration to 4 mM provided quantitative recovery on solid medium; however, higher concentrations of CB-18 were not compatible with liquid culture. Examination of the relationship between increasing CB-18 and lecithin concentrations suggested that lecithin could not overcome the deleterious effects of CB-18 in liquid culture at these higher concentrations.
PMCID: PMC105240  PMID: 9817873
11.  Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Brazilian Children 
Helicobacter  2010;15(4):273-278.
Background:
Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved to be of great relevance to public health in unindustrialized countries, especially in low socioeconomic groups. Poor hygiene, deficient sanitation, and crowded conditions have been reported as risk factors for this infection. In this work, we investigated whether social and demographic characteristics were associated with anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies in 1104 children aged 4–11 years old from Salvador, a large city located in northeastern Brazil.
Methods:
Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain social, demographic, and environmental data for the studied population in two periods of time (from 1997 to 2003 and in 2005). Anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies were assessed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 2005.
Results:
Anti-H. pylori IgG antibody was present in 28.7% of the children. Among the studied variables, the following were positively associated with the presence of anti-H. pylori antibodies in multivariable analyses: age above 8 years old (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.23–2.40), a larger sibling number (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.26–2.18), nursery attendance (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.04–2.12), location of the house at an unpaved street (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.44–2.87) and absence of a flush toilet (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.00–1.74).
Conclusion:
Our data show that H. pylori infection in children from a major Brazilian city is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and deficient sanitation/habitation conditions, leading to the conclusion that improvements in hygiene and social conditions may protect children against this infection.
doi:10.1111/j.1523-5378.2010.00766.x
PMCID: PMC2913100  PMID: 20633188
Helicobacter pylori; seroepidemiology; risk factors; children; Brazil
12.  Identification of Immunodominant Antigens from Helicobacter pylori and Evaluation of Their Reactivities with Sera from Patients with Different Gastroduodenal Pathologies 
Infection and Immunity  2000;68(2):915-920.
Colonization of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori is the major cause of gastroduodenal pathologies in humans. Studying the outcome of the humoral immune response directed against this gastric pathogen may contribute substantially to vaccine development and to the improvement of diagnostic techniques based on serology. By using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 29 proteins from H. pylori G27 were identified which strongly react with sera derived from H. pylori-infected patients suffering from different gastroduodenal pathologies. These antigens were characterized by mass spectrometry and proved to correspond to products of open reading frames predicted by the H. pylori genome sequence. The comparison of the antigenic patterns recognized by these sera revealed no association of specific H. pylori antigens with antibodies in patients with particular gastroduodenal pathologies.
PMCID: PMC97222  PMID: 10639463
13.  High Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori hopQ II Genotype Isolated from Iranian Patients with Gastroduodenal Disorders 
Journal of Pathogens  2014;2014:842469.
Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and noncardia gastric cancer. Several putative virulence factors for H. pylori have been identified including vacA, babA, and iceA. HopQ is one of the outer membrane proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to also play a role in the virulence of H. pylori. Due to the substantial geographic differences in the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors reported, the main purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between different H. pylori virulence hopQ alleles (types I and II) and patients with gastroduodenal disorders. The presence of H. pylori and hopQ alleles in gastric biopsy specimens was identified by specific PCR assays. H. pylori type II hopQ was found to be significantly associated with gastric cancer patients (odds ratio: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.56–5.89). Information about the prevalence of H. pylori hopQ type II can be used for determining the high-risk diseases type which is actually colonized by H. pylori hopQ type II positive strains. The presence of H. pylori hopQ type II should be investigated in different geographical regions as confirmatory findings may provide a definite biomarker attributed to the pathogenesis of certain severe digestive diseases.
doi:10.1155/2014/842469
PMCID: PMC3941210  PMID: 24672729
14.  Characteristics of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Jamaican Adults with Gastrointestinal Symptoms 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(1):212-216.
Helicobacter pylori infection is common in Jamaica. Describing its epidemiology in a population-based study depends largely on serology, but serologic assays have not been validated in this population. To address this issue, we examined the presence of H. pylori infection in 30 sequential adult patients with gastroduodenal symptoms by three biopsy-based methods (rapid urease test, histology, and culture) as well as by one research and two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A patient was considered H. pylori positive if the organism was detected by at least one biopsy-based method. Eighteen (60%) of the 30 patients were H. pylori positive by these criteria, whereas 21 (70%) were seropositive for H. pylori immunoglobulin G by our research ELISA. The presence of H. pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer and those with chronic gastritis was missed by biopsy-based methods but was detected by serologic assays. This observation indicates that serologic assays may be better suited for the detection of this infection in a population in which H. pylori-associated pathology is prevalent. The performance of our research ELISA in detecting biopsy-based H. pylori-positive cases was excellent, with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 75%, respectively. Molecular genotyping of the isolates revealed that the predominant H. pylori genotypes in this cohort of Jamaicans were cagA+ vacA slb-m1, and iceA2. The validated serologic assay enables us to interpret epidemiologic data from population-based studies in Jamaica by comparison to those from other populations.
doi:10.1128/JCM.39.1.212-216.2001
PMCID: PMC87704  PMID: 11136773
15.  Raltegravir, elvitegravir, and metoogravir: the birth of "me-too" HIV-1 integrase inhibitors 
Retrovirology  2009;6:33.
Correction to Erik Serrao, Srinivas Odde, Kavya Ramkumar and Nouri Neamati: Raltegravir, elvitegravir, and metoogravir: the birth of "me-too" HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Retrovirology 2009, 6:25. Since the recent publication of our article (Neamati, Retrovirology 2009, 6:25), we have noticed an error which we would like to correct and we would like to apologise to the readers for this mistake.
doi:10.1186/1742-4690-6-33
PMCID: PMC2672074
16.  Molecular epidemiology, population genetics, and pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori 
Infection, Genetics and Evolution  2011;12(2):203-213.
Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to various gastroduodenal diseases; however, only approximately 20% of infected individuals develop severe diseases. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in Africa and South Asia, the incidence of gastric cancer in these areas is much lower than in other countries. Furthermore, the incidence of gastric cancer tends to decrease from north to south in East Asia. Such geographic differences in the pathology can be explained, at least in part, by the presence of different types of H. pylori virulence factors, especially cagA, vacA, and the right end of the cag pathogenicity island. The genotype of the virulence genes is also useful as a tool to track human migration utilizing the high genetic diversity and frequent recombination between different H. pylori strains. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using 7 housekeeping genes can also help predict the history of human migrations. Population structure analysis based on MLST has revealed 7 modern population types of H. pylori, which derived from 6 ancestral populations. Interestingly, the incidence of gastric cancer is closely related to the distribution of H. pylori populations. The different incidence of gastric cancer can be partly attributed to the different genotypes of H. pylori circulating in different geographic areas. Although approaches by MLST and virulence factors are effective, these methods focus on a small number of genes and may miss information conveyed by the rest of the genome. Genome-wide analyses using DNA microarray or whole-genome sequencing technology give a broad view on the genome of H. pylori. In particular, next-generation sequencers, which can read DNA sequences in less time and at lower costs than Sanger sequencing, enabled us to efficiently investigate not only the evolution of H. pylori, but also novel virulence factors and genomic changes related to drug resistance.
doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.12.002
PMCID: PMC3294018  PMID: 22197766
Helicobacter pylori; cagA; vacA; multilocus sequence typing; whole genome sequencing technology; next-generation sequencer
17.  Opacification of the Optic of an Akreos Adapt Intraocular Lens 
A 60-year-old diabetic patient transferred to our retina clinic for a regular follow-up for diabetic retinopathy. He had uneventful cataract surgery at the time of pars plana vitrectomy in the right eye due to diabetic retinopathy at a private ophthalmologic hospital. Six months after the surgery, neovascular glaucoma with hyphema developed in the right eye and an Ahmed valve was implanted at our hospital. Ten months after cataract surgery, we found opacification of the intraocular lens (IOL) which was causing significant visual disturbance. At the time, the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the right eye was hand motion. The IOL was explanted 45 months after the operation. Five months after explantation, the BCVA was 0.06. Unfortunately, pathologic analysis was not performed. Patient-related factors such as an anterior chamber reaction caused by hyphema might have been responsible for the opacification. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of opacification of the Akreos Adapt IOL.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2010.24.6.371
PMCID: PMC2992567  PMID: 21165238
Akreos; Intraocular lens; Opacification
18.  Eradication of Helicobacter mustelae from the ferret stomach: an animal model of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori chemotherapy. 
Colonization of the ferret stomach by Helicobacter mustelae has been suggested as a possible animal model for Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal disease of humans. Our study was designed to determine whether antimicrobial chemotherapy could eradicate H. mustelae from ferrets. Triple antimicrobial therapy combining amoxicillin, metronidazole, and bismuth subsalicylate was successful in eradicating the organism from 5 of 7 (71%) adult ferrets. Despite apparent in vitro susceptibility, neither chloramphenicol monotherapy nor a polytherapeutic regimen combining tetracycline, metronidazole, and bismuth subsalicylate proved effective in the eradication of H. mustelae. Several strains isolated after unsuccessful polytherapy showed markedly increased resistance to metronidazole. These preliminary findings are similar to results of H. pylori treatment trials with humans and suggest that the ferret may be a useful model for evaluating and comparing potential antimicrobial modalities for the eradication of H. pylori.
PMCID: PMC171790  PMID: 2393285
19.  Helicobacter pylori-specific CD4+ T-cell clones from peripheral blood and gastric biopsies. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(3):1102-1106.
Colonization of human gastric mucosa with cytotoxic strains of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcer and with chronic gastritis. Since little is known about the T-cell response to H. pylori, we investigated the CD4+ T-cell response both in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and at the site of infection. First, we compared the bulk PBMC proliferative response to the bacterium in individuals with and without symptoms of gastroduodenal disease. We found that the PBMCs from virtually all individuals proliferate in response to heat-inactivated bacteria. Second, we cloned H. pylori-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes from the PBMCs of three patients and from both the gastric mucosa and PBMCs of a fourth patient. We have found that CD4+ T-cell clones specific for H. pylori from peripheral blood samples and gastric mucosae of infected patients are major histocompatibility complex class II restricted and discriminate between several cytotoxic and noncytotoxic bacterial strains. Moreover, they are polyclonal in terms of T-cell receptor usage and major histocompatibility complex restriction. Our results demonstrate that the T-cell response to the whole bacterium in PBMCs does not correlate with antibody response, infection, or disease. However, H. pylori-specific CD4+ T cells are detectable, at the clonal level, in both the periphery and gastric mucosa of infected patients. Localization of these cells at the site of disease suggests they are effectors of the immune response to the bacteria.
PMCID: PMC173116  PMID: 7868233
20.  Secretor status and Helicobacter pylori infection are independent risk factors for gastroduodenal disease. 
Gut  1993;34(3):351-353.
The hypothesis that non-secretors of ABO blood group antigens, a group shown to be more susceptible to certain bacterial infections, may be at greater risk of gastroduodenal disease because of increased susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection was investigated. Of 101 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia who were undergoing endoscopy, 32% were non-secretors (determined from Lewis blood group phenotype), 36% had endoscopically visible gastroduodenal disease (antral gastritis, gastric ulcer, erosive duodenitis, duodenal ulcer or some combination), and 58% had H pylori detected in antral biopsy specimens. Non-secretors and patients with H pylori infection were significantly more likely to have gastroduodenal disease (p = 0.02 and p = 0.002 respectively). There was, however, no significant association between secretor status and H pylori infection, logistic regression analysis confirming that these were independently associated with gastroduodenal disease. Overall, the relative risk of gastroduodenal disease for non-secretors compared with secretors was 1.9 (95% confidence intervals 1.2, 3.2). Non-secretion of ABO blood group antigens is not related to H pylori infection but is independently and significantly associated with endoscopic gastroduodenal disease. The mechanism of this remains to be explained.
PMCID: PMC1374140  PMID: 8472982
21.  Genetic Analysis of cagA and vacA Genes in Helicobacter Pylori Isolates and Their Relationship with Gastroduodenal Diseases in the West of Iran 
Background
Helicobacter pylori have different virulence factors which are associated with several gastroduodenal diseases; however, this association is variable in different geographical regions. Data of genotypes of Iranian H. pylori isolates are few.
Objectives
The aim of the current study was to investigate the cagA/vacA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori isolates and determine the relationship between these genotypes with respect to different gastric disorders in patients of Chaharmahalo Bakhtiarian.
Materials and Methods
In this cross-sectional study, gastric biopsies were taken from 200 patients with gastrodoudenal diseases. Histopathological features were recognized by specialist. The samples were subjected to PCR for detection and identification of ureC, cagA and vacA genes.
Results
The frequency of the vacA genotypes, sa1/m1, s1a/m1b, s1a/m2, s1b/m1a, s1b/m1b, s1b/m2, s1c/m1a, s1c/m1b, s1c/m2, s2/m1a, s2/m1b and s2/m2 were 27(6.6%), 8(4.3%), 45(28.04%), 7(3.7%), 5(2.5%), 10 (6.1%), 12 (7.4%), 4 (2.5%), 18(11%), 6(3.7%), 0 and 22(13.5%) respectively. The cagA gene was detected in 92% of strains. Based on our findings, it seemed that cagPAI and vacA s1 genotypes were associated with some gastric disorders in patients with H. pylori. In this region, the isolates carrying s1a/m2 were the most prevalent.
Conclusions
We found considerable relationship between s1a/m1a, s1a/m2, s2/m2 and s1c/m1a and some gastric disorders. Further studies about the role of H. pylori virulence factors and gastric disorders were recommended.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.3732
PMCID: PMC3838643  PMID: 24349721
Helicobacter Pylori; VacA Protein, Helicobacter Pylori; CagA protein, Helicobacter Pylori
22.  Roles of virD4 and cagG genes in the cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori using a Mongolian gerbil model 
Gut  2005;54(5):584-590.
Background and Aims: The roles of the virD4 and the cagG genes in the cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori for gastroduodenal pathogenesis are unclear and their roles in vivo have not been examined.
Methods: Seven week old male Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with the wild type H pylori TN2GF4, its isogenic virD4, or cagG mutants. Animals were sacrificed at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after inoculation. Gastric inflammation and H pylori density were evaluated by histology, inflammatory response (as measured by interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA levels), proliferative activity (as assessed by 5′-bromo-2′deoxyuridine labelling indices), and host systemic reaction (as measured by anti-H pylori IgG antibody).
Results: Degree of gastric inflammation, proliferative activity, and mucosal IL-1β mRNA levels remained low throughout the first 12 weeks in gerbils infected with the virD4 mutants. Degree of gastric inflammation and proliferative activity increased at 24 weeks with the virD4 mutants reaching levels comparative with those seen at four weeks with the wild-type strains. Mucosal IL-1β mRNA levels were also increased at 24 weeks with the virD4 mutants and levels at 24 weeks were similar between the wild-type and virD4 mutants. In contrast, gerbils infected with the cagG mutants had reduced ability to colonise gerbils, and no or little gastric inflammation or proliferative activity was observed.
Conclusions: Loss of the virD4 gene temporally retarded but did not abrogate gastric inflammation. Loss of the cagG gene abolished gastric inflammation partially via reduced ability to colonise gerbils. Unknown factors related to the type IV secretion system other than CagA may influence gastric inflammation.
doi:10.1136/gut.2004.058982
PMCID: PMC1774503  PMID: 15831899
Helicobacter pylori; cag pathogenicity island; cagG; virD4; Mongolian gerbils
23.  Ghrelin and oxidative stress in gastrointestinal tract 
Oxidative stress is a major cause of the gastrointestinal damage under physical or psychological stress. Ghrelin exhibits gastroprotective effects and they are supposed to be derived from antioxidant effects. In gastroduodenal mucosal injury, the plasma ghrelin levels increase in response to the demand for gastroduodenal cytoprotection. However, in the condition of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal severe atrophy, the plasma ghrelin concentration shifted to lower levels. In diabetic gastroparesis, the regulation of ghrelin secretion is impaired with vagal nerve dysfunction. Selective ghrelin agonist is expected to represent a new class of prokinetic agent. In addition, the plasma ghrelin levels are also enhanced by systemic oxidative stress, and ghrelin exhibits antioxidant effects in many organs, such as heart, pancreas, and lung. This suggests that ghrelin would be an important player as a sensor of systemic oxidative stress.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.10-16GFR
PMCID: PMC3045684  PMID: 21373264
oxidative stress; ghrelin; peptic ulcer; gastroparesis
24.  Nodular Gastritis and Pathologic Findings in Children and Young Adults with Helicobacter pylori Infection 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(2):240-246.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic characteristics of nodular gastritis in children and young adults infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori).
Materials and Methods
A total of 328 patients were enrolled in this study, and the diagnosis of H. pylori infection was done with gastroduodenal endoscopy concomitant with a CLO™ test and pathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens. Diagnoses of normal, superficial gastritis, nodular gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease were made from the gastroduodenal endoscopic findings. The density of H. pylori organisms in the gastric mucosa was rated as normal, mild, moderate, or marked. The pathologic findings of nodular gastritis were based on the histopathologic findings of inflammation, immune activity, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Each of these findings was scored as either normal (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or marked (3) according to the updated Sydney system and using visual analog scales. The gastritis score was the sum of the four histopathologic scores.
Results
In this study, nodular gastritis (50.6%) was most common, and mild density (51.5%) H. pylori infection was also common upon microscopic examination. Intestinal metaplasia occurred in 9 patients (2.7%).
Conclusion
Logistic regression revealed a significant increase in the incidence of nodular gastritis with gastritis score (p = 0.008), but not an association with sex, age, or H. pylori density. Gastritis score was the only significant factor influencing the occurrence of nodular gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia, which was originally thought to be a pre-malignant lesion, occurred in 2.7% of the patients with H. pylori infection.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2007.48.2.240
PMCID: PMC2628119  PMID: 17461522
Helicobacter pylori; updated Sydney system; nodular gastritis; gastritis score
25.  Helicobacter pylori associated gastric diseases and lymphoid tissue hyperplasia in gastric antral mucosa 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2002;55(2):133-137.
Aim: To investigate the relation between Helicobacter pylori associated gastroduodenal diseases and lymphoid tissue hyperplasia in the antral mucosa and to pursue its evolution after eradication of H pylori.
Methods: Gastric antral biopsy specimens were obtained from 438 patients with H pylori positive gastroduodenal diseases (185 chronic gastritis, 69 gastric ulcer, and 184 duodenal ulcer) and 50 H pylori negative healthy controls. Lymphoid follicles and aggregates were counted and other pathological features were scored according to the updated Sydney system for classification of chronic gastritis. After a course of anti-H pylori treatment, biopsy specimens were obtained at four to six weeks, 12 months, and 24 months in the chronic gastritis patient group.
Results: The total prevalence of lymphoid follicles and aggregates in the biopsies was 79.9% (350 of 438; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.76 to 0.84). The prevalence and density of lymphoid follicles and aggregates were significantly different in the various gastroduodenal diseases. The highest prevalence (89.9%; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97) and density (0.82) of lymphoid follicles and aggregates occurred in patients with gastric ulcers. The lowest prevalence of lymphoid follicles and aggregates was found in patients with chronic gastritis (74.6%; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.81), and the lowest density of lymphoid follicles and aggregates (0.56) was seen in patients with duodenal ulcers. The prevalence and density of lymphoid follicles and aggregates correlated strongly with the activity and severity of gastric antral mucosal inflammation. The eradication of H pylori resulted in a decrease in the prevalence and density of lymphoid follicles and aggregates.
Conclusion: The prevalence and density of lymphoid follicles and aggregates in gastric antral mucosal biopsies correlated closely with H pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC1769586  PMID: 11865009
Helicobacter pylori associated gastroduodenal diseases; lymphoid follicles; lymphoid aggregates; eradication

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