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1.  Glutathione S-transferase and Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Slovak Population 
Croatian medical journal  2008;49(2):182-191.
Aim
To determine the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GST T1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes in a cohort of Slovak population.
Methods
Two hundred and seventeen patients with the diagnosis of COPD and 160 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected from all subjects and the DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes was used for subsequent genotyping assays, using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment-length polymorphism methods.
Results
In an unadjusted model, an increased risk for COPD was observed in subjects with EPHX1 His113-His113 genotype (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.69; P = 0.008), compared with the carriers of the Tyr113 allele. However, after the adjustments for age, sex, and smoking status, the risk was not significant (adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 0.91-3.53; P = 0.093). In a combined analysis of gene polymorphisms, the genotype combination EPHX1 His113-His113/GSTM1 null significantly increased the risk of COPD in both, unadjusted (OR, 5.08; 95% CI, 1.70-20.43; P = 0.001) and adjusted model (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 1.57-15.13; P = 0.006).
Conclusion
Although none of the tested gene polymorphisms was significantly related to an increased risk of COPD alone, our results suggest that the homozygous exon 3 mutant variant of EPHX1 gene in the combination with GSTM1 null genotype is a significant predictor of increased susceptibility to COPD in the Slovak population. The findings of the present study emphasize the importance of detoxifying and antioxidant pathways in the pathogenesis of COPD.
doi:10.3325/cmj.2008.2.182
PMCID: PMC2359890  PMID: 18461673
2.  Microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene polymorphisms and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A comprehensive meta-analysis 
Oncology Letters  2012;5(3):1022-1030.
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) is an enzyme involved in the detoxification the products of smoking and is proposed to be a genetic factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two functional polymorphisms of EPHX1, T113C and A139G, have been analyzed in numerous studies to assess the COPD risk attributed to these variants. However, the conclusions were controversial. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to clarify these findings. A total of 24 studies comprising 8,259 COPD patients and 42,883 controls were included. The overall results showed that the EPHX1 113 mutant homozygote was significantly associated with an increased risk of COPD (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06–1.69). The subgroup analyses demonstrated this association in Caucasian individuals (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.12–2.31) but not in Asian individuals. The 139 mutant heterozygote was significantly associated with a decreased risk of COPD in Asian populations (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68–0.99) but not in Caucasian populations. Pooled analyses revealed that the extremely slow (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.23–2.55) and slow EPHX1 enzyme activity (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.13–1.85) were associated with an increased risk of COPD, while the fast enzyme activity was not associated with a decreased risk of COPD. The stratified analysis demonstrated this association in Caucasian but not in Asian individuals. Furthermore, a modest difference in the risk of COPD was observed between the subgroups by using the cigarette smokers or the non-smokers as controls. A significant correlation between the two functional polymorphisms, T113C and A139G, of the EPHX1 gene and the enzyme activity and the individual’s susceptibility to COPD was noted. In addition, the results supported a contribution of EPHX1 to the aetiology of COPD.
doi:10.3892/ol.2012.1099
PMCID: PMC3576314  PMID: 23426996
microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; polymorphism; meta-analysis
3.  Combined Analysis of EPHX1, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Gene Polymorphisms in Relation to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Risk and Lung Function Impairment 
Disease markers  2011;30(5):253-263.
Smoking is considered as the major causal factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, a minority of chronic heavy cigarette smokers develops COPD. This suggests important contribution of other factors such as genetic predisposing. Our objective was to investigate combined role of EPHX1, GSTP1, M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in COPD risk, its phenotypes and lung function impairment. Prevalence of EPHX1, GSTP1, M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms were assessed in 234 COPD patients and 182 healthy controls from Tunisia. Genotypes of EPHX1 (Tyr113His; His139Arg) and GSTP1 (Ile105Val; Ala114Val) polymorphisms were performed by PCR-RFLP, while the deletion in GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes was determined using multiplex PCR. Analysis of combinations showed a significant association of 113His/His EPHX1/null-GSTM1 (OR = 4.07) and null-GSTM1/105Val/Val GSTP1 (OR = 3.56) genotypes with increased risk of COPD (respectively P=0.0094 and P=0.0153). The null-GSTM1/ null-GSTT1, 105Val/Val GSTP1/null GSTT1, 113His/His EPHX1/null-GSTM1 and null-GSTM1/105Val/Val GSTP1 genotypes were related to emphysema (respectively P = 0.01; P = 0.009; P = 0.008 and P = 0.001). Combination of 113His/His EPHX1/null-GSTM1 genotypes showed a significant association with the decrease of ΔFEV1 in patients (P = 0.028).
In conclusion, our results suggest combined EPHX1, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms may play a significant role in the development of COPD, emphysema and decline of the lung function.
doi:10.3233/DMA-2011-0782
PMCID: PMC3825482  PMID: 21734345
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; microsomal epoxide hydrolase; glutathione S-transferase; emphysema; genetic polymorphism
4.  Genetic Variants in Antioxidant Genes Are Associated With Diisocyanate-Induced Asthma 
Toxicological Sciences  2012;129(1):166-173.
Diisocyanates are a common cause of occupational asthma, but risk factors are not well defined. A case-control study was conducted to investigate whether genetic variants of antioxidant defense genes, glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) are associated with increased susceptibility to diisocyanate-induced asthma (DA). The main study population consisted of 353 Caucasian French-Canadians from among a larger sample of 410 diisocyanate-exposed workers in three groups: workers with specific inhalation challenge (SIC) confirmed DA (DA+, n = 95); symptomatic diisocyanate workers with a negative SIC (DA−, n = 116); and asymptomatic exposed workers (AW, n = 142). Genotyping was performed on genomic DNA, using a 5′-nuclease PCR assay. The SOD2 rs4880, GSTP1 rs1695, and EPHX1 rs2740171 variants were significantly associated with DA in both univariate and multivariate analyses. In the first logistic regression model comparing DA+ and DA− groups, SOD2 rs4880, GSTM1 (null), GSTP1 rs762803, and EPHX1 rs2854450 variants were associated with DA (p = 0.004, p = 0.047, p = 0.021, p <0.001, respectively). Genotype combinations GSTT1*GSTP1 rs762803, GSTM1*EPHX1 rs2854450, EPHX1 rs2740168*EPHX1 rs1051741, and GSTP1 rs762803*EPHX1 rs2740168 were also associated with DA in this model (p = 0.027, p = 0.002, p = 0.045, p = 0.044, respectively). The GSTP1 rs1695 and EPHX1 rs1051741 and rs2740171 variants showed an association with DA in the second model comparing DA+ and AW groups (p = 0.040, p = 0.019, p = 0.002, respectively). The GSTM3 rs110913*EPHX1 rs1051741 genotype combination was also associated with DA under this model (p = 0.042). The results suggest that variations in SOD2, GST, and EPHX1 genes and their interactions contribute to DA susceptibility.
doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfs183
PMCID: PMC3499076  PMID: 22610343
diisocyanates;  occupational asthma;  antioxidant;  genetics;  single-nucleotide polymorphism.
5.  Analyses of association between PPAR gamma and EPHX1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to COPD in a Hungarian cohort, a case-control study 
BMC Medical Genetics  2010;11:152.
Background
In addition to smoking, genetic predisposition is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Genetic association studies of new candidate genes in COPD may lead to improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease.
Methods
Two proposed casual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (rs1051740, rs2234922) in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) and three SNPs (rs1801282, rs1800571, rs3856806) in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), a new candidate gene, were genotyped in a case-control study (272 COPD patients and 301 controls subjects) in Hungary. Allele frequencies and genotype distributions were compared between the two cohorts and trend test was also used to evaluate association between SNPs and COPD. To estimate the strength of association, odds ratios (OR) (with 95% CI) were calculated and potential confounding variables were tested in logistic regression analysis. Association between haplotypes and COPD outcome was also assessed.
Results
The distribution of imputed EPHX1 phenotypes was significantly different between the COPD and the control group (P = 0.041), OR for the slow activity phenotype was 1.639 (95% CI = 1.08- 2.49; P = 0.021) in our study. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for both variants, also age and pack-year, the rare allele of His447His of PPARG showed significant association with COPD outcome (OR = 1.853, 95% CI = 1.09-3.14, P = 0.0218). In haplotype analysis the GC haplotype of PPARG (OR = 0.512, 95% CI = 0.27-0.96, P = 0.035) conferred reduced risk for COPD.
Conclusions
The "slow" activity-associated genotypes of EPHX1 were associated with increased risk of COPD. The minor His447His allele of PPARG significantly increased; and the haplotype containing the minor Pro12Ala and the major His447His polymorphisms of PPARG decreased the risk of COPD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-152
PMCID: PMC2988760  PMID: 21044285
6.  Microsomal epoxide hydrolase, glutathione S‐transferase P1, traffic and childhood asthma 
Thorax  2007;62(12):1050-1057.
Background
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) metabolises xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Functional variants at this locus have been associated with respiratory diseases. The effects of EPHX1 variants may depend upon exposures from tobacco smoke and traffic emissions that contain PAHs as well as variants in other enzymes in the PAH metabolic pathway such as glutathione S‐transferase (GST) genes. A study was undertaken to investigate associations of variants in EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 with asthma and the relationships between asthma, EPHX1 metabolic phenotypes and exposure to sources of PAHs.
Methods
Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to estimate the associations of genetic variants and exposures with asthma phenotypes using data from 3124 children from the Children's Health Study.
Results
High EPHX1 activity was associated with an increased risk for lifetime asthma (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.98) which varied by GSTP1 Ile105Val genotype and by residential proximity to major roads (p for interaction = 0.006 and 0.03, respectively). Among children with GSTP1 105Val/Val genotype, those who had high EPHX1 phenotype had a fourfold (95% CI 1.97 to 8.16) increased risk of lifetime asthma than children with low/intermediate EPHX1 phenotype. Among children living within 75 metres of a major road, those with high EPHX1 activity had a 3.2‐fold (95% CI 1.75 to 6.00) higher lifetime asthma risk than those with low/intermediate activity. The results were similar for current, early persistent and late onset asthma. Children with high EPHX1 phenotype, GSTP1 Val/Val genotype who lived <75 metres from a major road were at the highest asthma risk.
Conclusion
EPHX1 and GSTP1 variants contribute to the occurrence of childhood asthma and increase asthma susceptibility to exposures from major roads.
doi:10.1136/thx.2007.080127
PMCID: PMC2094290  PMID: 17711870
7.  Polymorphic Variation in Surfactant Protein B is Associated with COPD Exacerbations 
Rationale
COPD exacerbations reduce quality of life and increase mortality. Genetic variation may explain the substantial variability seen in exacerbation frequency among COPD subjects with similar lung function. We analyzed whether polymorphisms in five candidate genes previously associated with COPD susceptibility also demonstrate association with COPD exacerbations.
Methods
Eighty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1), SERPINE2, glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1), and surfactant protein B (SFTPB) were genotyped in 389 non-Hispanic white participants in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. Exacerbations were defined as COPD-related emergency room visits or hospitalizations using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services claims data.
Measurements and Main Results
216 subjects (56%) experienced one or more exacerbations during the study period. An SFTPB promoter polymorphism, rs3024791, was associated with COPD exacerbations (p=0.008). Logistic regression models confirmed the association with rs3024791 (p = 0.007). Poisson regression models demonstrated association of multiple SFTPB SNPs with exacerbation rates: rs2118177 (p = 0.006), rs2304566 (p = 0.002), rs1130866 (p = 0.04), and rs3024791 (p = 0.002). Polymorphisms in EPHX1, GSTP1, TGFB1, and SERPINE2 did not demonstrate association with COPD exacerbations.
Conclusions
Variants in SFTPB are associated with COPD susceptibility and COPD exacerbation frequency.
doi:10.1183/09031936.00040208
PMCID: PMC2761762  PMID: 18550614
association analysis; COPD; exacerbations; genetics; surfactant protein B; single nucleotide polymorphisms
8.  Polymorphisms for microsomal epoxide hydrolase and genetic susceptibility to COPD 
Although smoking is the major causal factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), only 10–20% of chronic heavy cigarette smokers develop symptomatic COPD, which suggests the presence of genetic susceptibility. The human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EH) is a metabolizing enzyme which involves the process of numerous reactive epoxide intermediates and contains polymorphic alleles which are associated with altered EH activity and may be linked to increased risk for COPD. To determine whether the EH polymorphisms contributed to increased risk for COPD, prevalence of the EH codons 113 and 139 polymorphisms were compared between COPD patients and controls using a PCR-RFLP analysis using genomic DNA isolated from 131 COPD patients and 262 individually matched controls by age (± 5 years) among Caucasians with 1:2 ratio. Significantly increased risk for COPD was observed for subjects with the EH113His/His genotypes (OR =2.4, 95% CI=1.1–5.1). These results were consistent with the fact that a significant trend towards increased risk was observed with predicted less protective EH codon 113 genotypes (p = 0.03, trend test). A similar association was not observed for EH codon139 polymorphism. As expected, a significant correlation between smoking dose and severity of COPD was observed (p<0.001). These results suggest that EH codon 113 polymorphism may modify risk for COPD.
PMCID: PMC3705731  PMID: 15702235
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; epoxide hydrolase; genetic polymorphism; genetic susceptibility
9.  Genetic Association Analysis of Functional Impairment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 
Rationale: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may have varying levels of disability despite similar levels of lung function. This variation may reflect different COPD subtypes, which may have different genetic predispositions.
Objectives: To identify genetic associations for COPD-related phenotypes, including measures of exercise capacity, pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms.
Methods: In 304 subjects from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, we genotyped 80 markers in 22 positional and/or biologically plausible candidate genes. Regression models were used to test for association, using a test–replication approach to guard against false-positive results. For significant associations, effect estimates were recalculated using the entire cohort. Positive associations with dyspnea were confirmed in families from the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study.
Results: The test–replication approach identified four genes—microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1), latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein-4 (LTBP4), surfactant protein B (SFTPB), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFB1)—that were associated with COPD-related phenotypes. In all subjects, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EPHX1 (p ⩽ 0.03) and in LTBP4 (p ⩽ 0.03) were associated with maximal output on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Markers in LTBP4 (p ⩽ 0.05) and SFTPB (p = 0.005) were associated with 6-min walk test distance. SNPs in EPHX1 were associated with carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (p ⩽ 0.04). Three SNPs in TGFB1 were associated with dyspnea (p ⩽ 0.002), one of which replicated in the family study (p = 0.02).
Conclusions: Polymorphisms in several genes seem to be associated with COPD-related traits other than FEV1. These associations may identify genes in pathways important for COPD pathogenesis.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200509-1452OC
PMCID: PMC2662917  PMID: 16456143
dyspnea; emphysema; exercise tolerance; genetic association; pulmonary function tests
10.  Lack of increased genetic damage in 1,3-butadiene-exposed Chinese workers studied in relation to EPHX1 and GST genotypes 
Mutation research  2004;558(1-2):63-74.
1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial chemical and pollutant. Its ability to induce genetic damage and cause hematological malignancies in humans is controversial. We have examined chromosome damage by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and mutations in the HPRT gene in the blood of Chinese workers exposed to BD. Peripheral blood samples were collected and cultured from 39 workers exposed to BD (median level 2 ppm, 6 h time-weighted average) and 38 matched controls in Yanshan, China. No difference in the level of aneuploidy or structural changes in chromosomes 1, 7, 8, and 12 was detected in metaphase cells from exposed subjects in comparison with matched controls, nor was there an increase in the frequency of HPRT mutations in the BD-exposed workers. Because genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) may affect the genotoxic effects of BD and its metabolites, we also related chromosome alterations and gene mutations to GSTT1, GSTM1 and EPHX1 genotypes. Overall, there was no effect of variants in these genotypes on numerical or structural changes in chromosomes 1, 7, 8 and 12 or on HPRT mutant frequency in relation to BD exposure, but the GST genotypes did influence background levels of both hyperdiploidy and HPRT mutant frequency. In conclusion, our data show no increase in chromosomal aberrations or HPRT mutations among workers exposed to BD, even in potentially susceptible genetic subgroups. The study is, however, quite small and the levels of BD exposure are not extremely high, but our findings in China do support those from a similar study conducted in the Czech Republic. Together, these studies suggest that low levels of occupational BD exposure do not pose a significant risk of genetic damage.
doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2003.11.001
PMCID: PMC1249498  PMID: 15036120
1,3-Butadiene; Chromosomal aberrations; Fluorescence in situ hybridization; HPRT; GSTs; EPHX1; Genotypes; BD, 1,3-butadiene; EPHX1, microsomal epoxide hydrolase; FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization; GST, glutathione S-transferase; HPRT, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene; SCEs, sister chromatid exchanges; S.D., standard deviation; S.E., standard error; TWA, time-weighted average
11.  Genetic Associations With Hypoxemia and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure in COPD* 
Chest  2008;135(3):737-744.
Background
Hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension are known complications of advanced COPD. We sought to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with these traits in a population of patients with severe COPD from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT).
Methods
In 389 participants from the NETT Genetics Ancillary Study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in five candidate genes previously associated with COPD susceptibility (EPHX1, SERPINE2, SFTPB, TGFB1, and GSTP1). Linear regression models were used to test for associations among these SNPs and three quantitative COPD-related traits (Pao2, Paco2, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure). Genes associated with hypoxemia were tested for replication in probands from the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study.
Results
In the NETT Genetics Ancillary Study population, SNPs in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) [p = 0.01 to 0.04] and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2) [p = 0.04 to 0.008] were associated with hypoxemia. One SNP within surfactant protein B (SFTPB) was associated with pulmonary artery systolic pressure (p = 0.01). In probands from the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study, SNPs in EPHX1 and in SERPINE2 were associated with the requirement for supplemental oxygen.
Conclusions
In participants with severe COPD, SNPs in EPHX1 and SERPINE2 were associated with hypoxemia in two separate study populations, and SNPs from SFTPB were associated with pulmonary artery pressure in the NETT participants.
doi:10.1378/chest.08-1993
PMCID: PMC2906241  PMID: 19017876
case-control studies; COPD; genetics; phenotype; single-nucleotide polymorphism
12.  Association of TNF-α –308G/A, SP-B 1580 C/T, IL-13 –1055 C/T gene polymorphisms and latent adenoviral infection with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in an Egyptian population 
Introduction
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of disability and death. The most common cause of COPD is smoking. There is evidence suggesting that genetic factors influence COPD susceptibility and variants in several candidate genes have been significantly associated with COPD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible association of the TNF-α –308, SPB+1580, IL-13 –1055 gene polymorphisms and latent adenovirus C infection with COPD in an Egyptian population.
Material and methods
Our study included 115 subjects (75 smokers with COPD, 25 resistant smokers and 15 non-smokers) who were subjected to spirometric measurements, identification of adenovirus C and genotyping of TNF-α –308G/A, SP-B+1580 C/T and IL-13 –1055 C/T polymorphisms by real-time PCR.
Results
The adenovirus C gene was identified in all subjects. The distribution of TNF-α genotypes showed no significant differences between different groups. However, homozygous A genotype was associated with a significant decrease in FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25/75% of predicted in COPD (p < 0.05). As regards SP-B genotypes, resistant smokers had a significantly higher homozygous T genotype frequency compared to COPD and non smokers (p = 0.005). Interleukin 13 genotypes showed no significant difference between different groups. There was a significant decrease in FEF25/75% of predicted in T allele carriers in COPD patients (p = 0.001).
Conclusions
The COPD is a disease caused by the interaction of combined genes and environmental influences, in the presence of smoking and latent adenovirus C infection, TNF-α –308A, SPB +1580 T and IL-13 –1055 T polymorphisms predispose to the development of COPD.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28556
PMCID: PMC3361041  PMID: 22662002
single nucleotide polymorphism; smoking; adenovirus C; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
13.  Identification of the GST-T1 and GST-M1 Null Genotypes using High Resolution Melting Analysis 
Chemical Research in Toxicology  2011;25(1):216-224.
Glutathione S-transferases, including GST-T1 and GST-M1, are known to be involved in the phase II detoxification pathways for xenobiotics as well as in the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Polymorphisms in these genes have been linked to an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis and associated with risk factors that predispose to certain inflammatory diseases. In addition, GST-T1 and GST-M1 null genotypes have been shown to be responsible for interindividual variations in metabolism of arsenic, a known human carcinogen. To assess the specific GST genotypes in the Mexican population chronically exposed to arsenic, we have developed a multiplex High Resolution Melting PCR (HRM-PCR) analysis using LightCycler480 instrument. This method is based on analysis of the PCR product melting curve that discriminates PCR products according to their lengths and base sequences. Three pairs of primers that specifically recognize GST-T1, GST-M1, and β-globin, an internal control, to produce amplicons of different length were designed and combined with LightCycler480 High Resolution Melting Master Mix containing ResoLight, a completely saturating DNA dye. Data collected from melting curve analysis were evaluated using LightCycler480 software to determine specific melting temperatures of individual melting curves representing target genes. Using this newly developed multiplex HRM-PCR analysis we evaluated GST-T1 and GST-M1 genotypes in 504 DNA samples isolated from blood of individuals residing in Zimapan, Lagunera, and Chihuahua regions in Mexico. We found that Zimapan and Lagunera populations have similar GST-T1 and GST-M1 genotype frequencies which differ from Chihuahua population. In addition, 14 individuals have been identified as carriers of double null genotype, i.e. null genotypes in both GST-T1 and GST-M1 genes. Although this procedure does not distinguish between biallelic (+/+) and monoallelic (+/−) genotypes it can be used in an automated workflow as a simple, sensitive, time and money saving procedure for rapid identification of the GST-T1 and GST-M1 positive or null genotypes.
doi:10.1021/tx200457u
PMCID: PMC3262591  PMID: 22136492
Glutathione S-transferase; High Resolution Melting Analysis; Genotyping; Arsenic
14.  Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms predict response to lung volume reduction surgery 
Respiratory Research  2007;8(1):59.
Background
In the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), marked variability in response to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) was observed. We sought to identify genetic differences which may explain some of this variability.
Methods
In 203 subjects from the NETT Genetics Ancillary Study, four outcome measures were used to define response to LVRS at six months: modified BODE index, post-bronchodilator FEV1, maximum work achieved on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, and University of California, San Diego shortness of breath questionnaire. Sixty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in five genes previously shown to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility, exercise capacity, or emphysema distribution.
Results
A SNP upstream from glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1; p = 0.003) and a coding SNP in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1; p = 0.02) were each associated with change in BODE score. These effects appeared to be strongest in patients in the non-upper lobe predominant, low exercise subgroup. A promoter SNP in EPHX1 was associated with change in BODE score (p = 0.008), with the strongest effects in patients with upper lobe predominant emphysema and low exercise capacity. One additional SNP in GSTP1 and three additional SNPs in EPHX1 were associated (p < 0.05) with additional LVRS outcomes. None of these SNP effects were seen in 166 patients randomized to medical therapy.
Conclusion
Genetic variants in GSTP1 and EPHX1, two genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, were predictive of response to LVRS. These polymorphisms may identify patients most likely to benefit from LVRS.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-8-59
PMCID: PMC2048957  PMID: 17686149
15.  Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between EPHX1 Polymorphisms and Colorectal Cancer Risk 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43821.
Background
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) plays an important role in both the activation and detoxification of PAHs, which are carcinogens found in cooked meat and tobacco smoking. Polymorphisms at exons 3 and 4 of the EPHX1 gene have been reported to be associated with variations in EPHX1 activity. The aim of this study is to quantitatively summarize the relationship between EPHX1 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.
Methods
Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, CNKI, and Chinese Biomedicine Databases for studies published before June 2012. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EPHX1 Tyr113His (rs1051740) and His139Arg (rs2234922) polymorphisms and CRC were calculated in a fixed-effects model and a random-effects model when appropriate.
Results
This meta-analysis yielded 14 case-control studies, which included 13 studies for Tyr113His (6395 cases and 7893 controls) and 13 studies for His139Arg polymorphisms (5375 cases and 6962 controls). Overall, the pooled results indicated that EPHX1 Tyr113His polymorphism was not associated with CRC risk; while the His139Arg polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased CRC risk (Arg/His vs. His/His, OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.83–0.98; dominant model, OR = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85–0.99). The statistically significant association between EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism and CRC was observed among Caucasians and population-based case-control studies. This association showed little heterogeneity and remained consistently strong when analyses were limited to studies in which genotype frequencies were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, or limited to studies with matched controls. When cumulative meta-analyses of the two associations were conducted by studies’ publication time, the results were persistent and robust.
Conclusion
This meta-analysis suggests that EPHX1 Tyr113His polymorphism may be not associated with CRC development; while the EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism may have a potential protective effect on CRC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043821
PMCID: PMC3426545  PMID: 22928041
16.  Genetic Determinants of Emphysema Distribution in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial 
Rationale: Computed tomography (CT) scanning of the lung may reduce phenotypic heterogeneity in defining subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and allow identification of genetic determinants of emphysema severity and distribution.
Objectives: We sought to identify genes associated with CT scan distribution of emphysema in individuals without α1-antitrypsin deficiency but with severe COPD.
Methods: We evaluated baseline CT densitometry phenotypes in 282 individuals with emphysema enrolled in the Genetics Ancillary Study of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, and used regression models to identify genetic variants associated with emphysema distribution.
Measurements and Main Results: Emphysema distribution was assessed by two methods—assessment by radiologists and by computerized density mask quantitation, using a threshold of −950 Hounsfield units. A total of 77 polymorphisms in 20 candidate genes were analyzed for association with distribution of emphysema. GSTP1, EPHX1, and MMP1 polymorphisms were associated with the densitometric, apical-predominant distribution of emphysema (p value range = 0.001–0.050). When an apical-predominant phenotype was defined by the radiologist scoring method, GSTP1 and EPHX1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated. In a case–control analysis of COPD susceptibility limited to cases with densitometric upper-lobe–predominant cases, the EPHX1 His139Arg single-nucleotide polymorphism was associated with COPD (p = 0.005).
Conclusions: Apical and basal emphysematous destruction appears to be influenced by different genes. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic enzymes, GSTP1 and EPHX1, are associated with apical-predominant emphysema. Altered detoxification of cigarette smoke metabolites may contribute to emphysema distribution, and these findings may lead to further insight into genetic determinants of emphysema.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200612-1797OC
PMCID: PMC2049064  PMID: 17363767
COPD; genetics; association analysis; computed tomography; emphysema
17.  Glutathione-S-transferases in lung and sputum specimens, effects of smoking and COPD severity 
Respiratory Research  2008;9(1):80.
Background
Oxidative stress plays a potential role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) detoxify toxic compounds in tobacco smoke via glutathione-dependent mechanisms. Little is known about the regulation and expression of GSTs in COPD lung and their presence in airway secretions.
Methods
GST alpha, pi and mu were investigated by immunohistochemistry in 72 lung tissue specimens and by Western analysis in total lung homogenates and induced sputum supernatants from non-smokers, smokers and patients with variable stages of COPD severity.
Results
GST alpha was expressed mainly in the airway epithelium. The percentage of GST alpha positive epithelial cells was lower in the central airways of patients with very severe (Stage IV) COPD compared to mild/moderate COPD (p = 0.02). GST alpha by Western analysis was higher in the total lung homogenates in mild/moderate COPD compared to cases of very severe disease (p < 0.001). GST pi was present in airway and alveolar epithelium as well as in alveolar macrophages. GST mu was expressed mainly in the epithelium. Both GST alpha and pi were detectable in sputum supernatants especially in patients with COPD.
Conclusion
This study indicates the presence of GST alpha and pi especially in the epithelium and sputum supernatants in mild/moderate COPD and low expression of GST alpha in the epithelium in cases of very severe COPD. The presence of GSTs in the airway secretions points to their potential protective role both as intracellular and extracellular mediators in human lung.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-9-80
PMCID: PMC2654438  PMID: 19077292
18.  Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 
Executive Summary
In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions.
After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses.
The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework
Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model
Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature
For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty member_giacomini.htm.
For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx.
The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact.
Objective
The objective of this evidence-based analysis was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. It is estimated that 50% of older smokers develop COPD and more than 80% of COPD-associated morbidity is attributed to tobacco smoking. According to the Canadian Community Health Survey, 38.5% of Ontarians who smoke have COPD. In patients with a significant history of smoking, COPD is usually present with symptoms of progressive dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, and sputum production. Patients with COPD who smoke have a particularly high level of nicotine dependence, and about 30.4% to 43% of patients with moderate to severe COPD continue to smoke. Despite the severe symptoms that COPD patients suffer, the majority of patients with COPD are unable to quit smoking on their own; each year only about 1% of smokers succeed in quitting on their own initiative.
Technology
Smoking cessation is the process of discontinuing the practice of inhaling a smoked substance. Smoking cessation can help to slow or halt the progression of COPD. Smoking cessation programs mainly target tobacco smoking, but may also encompass other substances that can be difficult to stop smoking due to the development of strong physical addictions or psychological dependencies resulting from their habitual use.
Smoking cessation strategies include both pharmacological and nonpharmacological (behavioural or psychosocial) approaches. The basic components of smoking cessation interventions include simple advice, written self-help materials, individual and group behavioural support, telephone quit lines, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and antidepressants. As nicotine addiction is a chronic, relapsing condition that usually requires several attempts to overcome, cessation support is often tailored to individual needs, while recognizing that in general, the more intensive the support, the greater the chance of success. Success at quitting smoking decreases in relation to:
a lack of motivation to quit,
a history of smoking more than a pack of cigarettes a day for more than 10 years,
a lack of social support, such as from family and friends, and
the presence of mental health disorders (such as depression).
Research Question
What are the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions compared with usual care for patients with COPD?
Research Methods
Literature Search
Search Strategy
A literature search was performed on June 24, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations (1950 to June Week 3 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010 Week 24), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination for studies published between 1950 and June 2010. A single reviewer reviewed the abstracts and obtained full-text articles for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Data were extracted using a standardized data abstraction form.
Inclusion Criteria
English-language, full reports from 1950 to week 3 of June, 2010;
either randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses, or non-RCTs with controls;
a proven diagnosis of COPD;
adult patients (≥ 18 years);
a smoking cessation intervention that comprised at least one of the treatment arms;
≥ 6 months’ abstinence as an outcome; and
patients followed for ≥ 6 months.
Exclusion Criteria
case reports
case series
Outcomes of Interest
≥ 6 months’ abstinence
Quality of Evidence
The quality of each included study was assessed taking into consideration allocation concealment, randomization, blinding, power/sample size, withdrawals/dropouts, and intention-to-treat analyses.
The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. The following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
Summary of Findings
Nine RCTs were identified from the literature search. The sample sizes ranged from 74 to 5,887 participants. A total of 8,291 participants were included in the nine studies. The mean age of the patients in the studies ranged from 54 to 64 years. The majority of studies used the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD staging criteria to stage the disease in study subjects. Studies included patients with mild COPD (2 studies), mild-moderate COPD (3 studies), moderate–severe COPD (1 study) and severe–very severe COPD (1 study). One study included persons at risk of COPD in addition to those with mild, moderate, or severe COPD, and 1 study did not define the stages of COPD. The individual quality of the studies was high. Smoking cessation interventions varied across studies and included counselling or pharmacotherapy or a combination of both. Two studies were delivered in a hospital setting, whereas the remaining 7 studies were delivered in an outpatient setting. All studies reported a usual care group or a placebo-controlled group (for the drug-only trials). The follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 5 years. Due to excessive clinical heterogeneity in the interventions, studies were first grouped into categories of similar interventions; statistical pooling was subsequently performed, where appropriate. When possible, pooled estimates using relative risks for abstinence rates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The remaining studies were reported separately.
Abstinence Rates
Table ES1 provides a summary of the pooled estimates for abstinence, at longest follow-up, from the trials included in this review. It also shows the respective GRADE qualities of evidence.
Summary of Results*
Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; NRT, nicotine replacement therapy.
Statistically significant (P < 0.05).
One trial used in this comparison had 2 treatment arms each examining a different antidepressant.
Conclusions
Based on a moderate quality of evidence, compared with usual care, abstinence rates are significantly higher in COPD patients receiving intensive counselling or a combination of intensive counselling and NRT.
Based on limited and moderate quality of evidence, abstinence rates are significantly higher in COPD patients receiving NRT compared with placebo.
Based on a moderate quality of evidence, abstinence rates are significantly higher in COPD patients receiving the antidepressant bupropion compared to placebo.
PMCID: PMC3384371  PMID: 23074432
19.  Glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms, cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk among Chinese in Singapore 
Carcinogenesis  2011;32(10):1507-1511.
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Putative colorectal procarcinogens in tobacco smoke include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines that are known substrates of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This study examined the influence of functional GST gene polymorphisms on the smoking–colorectal cancer association in a population known to be minimally exposed to dietary sources of these procarcinogens. Incident cases of colorectal cancer (n = 480) and matched controls (n = 1167) were selected from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort of 63 257 men and women who have been followed since 1993. We determined the deletion polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and the functional polymorphism at codon 105 of GSTP1 for each subject. A three level composite GST index was used to examine if GST profile affected a smoker’s risk of developing colorectal cancer. While there was no statistically significant association between cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk among subjects absent of any at-risk GST genotypes, smokers possessing two to three at-risk GST genotypes exhibited a statistically significant increased risk of colorectal cancer compared with non-smokers (P = 0.0002). In this latter stratum, heavy smokers exhibited a >5-fold increased risk relative to never-smokers (odds ratio, 5.43; 95% confidence interval, 2.22–13.23). Subjects with one at-risk GST genotype displayed a statistically significant but weaker association with smoking. These findings suggest that GST gene polymorphisms influence interindividual susceptibility to smoking-associated colorectal cancer. Our data indicate an important role for GST enzymes in the detoxification of colorectal carcinogens in tobacco smoke.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgr175
PMCID: PMC3179426  PMID: 21803734
20.  Attempted Replication of Reported Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Candidate Gene Associations 
Case-control studies have successfully identified many significant genetic associations for complex diseases, but lack of replication has been a criticism of case-control genetic association studies in general. We selected 12 candidate genes with reported associations to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and genotyped 29 polymorphisms in a family-based study and in a case-control study. In the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study families, significant associations with quantitative and/or qualitative COPD-related phenotypes were found for the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α −308G>A promoter polymorphism (P < 0.02), a coding variant in surfactant protein B (SFTPB Thr131Ile) (P = 0.03), and the (GT)31 allele of the heme oxygenase (HMOX1) promoter short tandem repeat (P = 0.02). In the case-control study, the SFTPB Thr131Ile polymorphism was associated with COPD, but only in the presence of a gene-by-environment interaction term (P = 0.01 for both main effect and interaction). The 30-repeat, but not the 31-repeat, allele of HMOX1 was associated (P = 0.04). The TNF −308G>A polymorphism was not significant. In addition, the microsomal epoxide hydrolase “fast” allele (EPHX1 His139Arg) was significantly associated in the case-control study (P = 0.03). Although some evidence for replication was found for SFTPB and HMOX1, none of the previously published COPD genetic associations was convincingly replicated across both study designs.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2005-0073OC
PMCID: PMC2715305  PMID: 15817713
association studies; case-control studies; emphysema; genetics; single nucleotide polymorphism
21.  Investigation of the Association between Genetic Polymorphism of Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase and Primary Brain Tumor Incidence 
mEH is a critical biotransformation enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of xenobiotic epoxide substrates into more polar diol metabolites: it is also capable of inactivating a large number of structurally different molecules. Two polymorphisms affecting enzyme activity have been described in the exon 3 and 4 of the mEH gene. The hypothesis of this study is that inherent genetic susceptibility to a primary brain tumor is associated with mEH gene polymorphisms. The polymorphisms of the mEH gene were determined with PCR-RFLP techniques and 255 Turkish individuals. Our results indicate that the frequency of the mEH exon 4 polymorphism (in controls) is significantly higher than that of primary brain tumor patients (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0–3.4). This report, however, failed to demonstrate a significant association between mEH exon 3 polymorphism and primary brain tumor susceptibility in this population. Analysis of patients by both histological types of primary brain tumor and gene variants showed no association, although analysis of family history of cancer between cases and controls showed a statistically significant association (χ2 = 7.0, P = 0.01). Our results marginally support the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to brain tumors may be associated with mEPHX gene polymorphisms.
doi:10.1155/2013/189237
PMCID: PMC3876919  PMID: 24455257
22.  Biomarkers of Human Exposure to Acrylamide and Relation to Polymorphisms in Metabolizing Genes 
Toxicological Sciences  2009;108(1):90-99.
Acrylamide (AA) is formed in heat treated carbohydrate rich foods in the so-called Maillard reaction. AA is readily absorbed in the body and converted to glycidamide (GA) by epoxidation by the CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E) enzyme. Both AA and GA may be detoxified through direct conjunction to glutathione by glutathione-S-transferases and GA by hydrolysis to glyceramide. Recently, we reported that biomarkers of AA exposure reflect intake of major food sources of AA; there were large interindividual variations in the blood ratio of GA-Hb/AA-Hb (GA- and AA-hemoglobin adducts). In this study we investigated whether the ratio of GA-Hb/AA-Hb in subjects could be related to polymorphic differences in genes coding for metabolizing enzymes CYP2E1, EPHX1 (microsomal epoxide hydrolase), GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1, all being expected to be involved in the activation and detoxification of AA-associated adducts. We found significant associations between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and the ratio of GA-Hb/AA-Hb (p = 0.039 and p = 0.006, respectively). The ratio of GA-Hb/AA-Hb in individuals with the combined GSTM1- and GSTT1-null variants was significantly (p = 0.029) higher than those with the wild-type genotypes. Although the number of subjects was small, there were also significant associations with other combinations; CYP2E1 (Val179Val) plus GSTM1-null (p = 0.022); CYP2E1 (Val/Val), GSTM1-null plus GSTT1-null (p = 0.047); and CYP2E1 (Val/Val), GSTT1 null, EPHX1 (Tyr113Tyr) plus EPHX1 (His139Arg) (p = 0.018). Individuals with these combined genotypes had significantly higher blood ratio of GA-Hb/AA-Hb than other combinations. The observed associations correspond with what would be expected from the relative roles of these enzymes in activation and detoxification of AA, except for individuals with the EPHX1 (His139Arg) variant. The internal dose of genotoxic metabolite and also the concentration of AA in blood seem to be affected by these polymorphic genes. The genotypes and their combination may constitute useful biomarkers for the assessment of individual susceptibility to AA intake, and could add to the precision of epidemiological studies of dietary cancer.
doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfn269
PMCID: PMC2644397  PMID: 19131562
cytochrome P450 2E1; glutathione-S-transferase; SNPs; polymorphisms; glycidamide; acrylamide; biotransformation
23.  A polymorphism in the gene for microsomal epoxide hydrolase is associated with pre-eclampsia 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2001;38(4):234-237.
OBJECTIVE—Microsomal epoxide hydrolase is an important enzyme involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous toxicants. Polymorphic variants of the human epoxide hydrolase gene vary in enzyme activity. We determined whether genetic variability in the gene encoding for microsomal epoxide hydrolase contributes to individual differences in susceptibility to the development of pre-eclampsia with or without the syndrome of Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets (HELLP).
METHODS—A total of 183 non-pregnant women with a history of pre-eclampsia, 96 of whom had concurrently developed the HELLP syndrome, and 151 healthy female controls were genotyped for the 113Tyr→His polymorphism in exon 3 and the 139His→Arg polymorphism in exon 4 of the epoxide hydrolase gene by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Chi-square analysis was used for statistical evaluation of differences in polymorphic rates.
RESULTS—In pre-eclampsia a higher frequency (29%) of the high activity genotype Tyr113 Tyr113 in exon 3 was found as compared to controls (16%, OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.7). There was no difference between groups for the 139His→Arg polymorphism. In women with a history of pre-eclampsia, no difference in epoxide hydrolase genotypes was found between women who either did or did not develop the HELLP syndrome. In addition, a significant association was found between predicted EPHX activity and pre-eclampsia.
CONCLUSIONS—Women with the high activity genotype in exon 3, which could reflect differences in metabolic activation of endogenous or exogenous toxic compounds, may have enhanced susceptibility to pre-eclampsia. However, polymorphisms in the epoxide hydrolase gene do not seem to influence the risk for concurrent development of the HELLP syndrome.


Keywords: pre-eclampsia; HELLP syndrome; epoxide hydrolase; genetic polymorphism
doi:10.1136/jmg.38.4.234
PMCID: PMC1734856  PMID: 11283205
24.  Glutathione S-transferase genotypes modify lung function decline in the general population: SAPALDIA cohort study 
Respiratory Research  2007;8(1):2.
Background
Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors of accelerated lung function decline in the general population is a first step in a prevention strategy against the worldwide increasing respiratory pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Deficiency in antioxidative and detoxifying Glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene has been associated with poorer lung function in children, smokers and patients with respiratory diseases. In the present study, we assessed whether low activity variants in GST genes are also associated with accelerated lung function decline in the general adult population.
Methods
We examined with multiple regression analysis the association of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes with annual decline in FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 during 11 years of follow-up in 4686 subjects of the prospective SAPALDIA cohort representative of the Swiss general population. Effect modification by smoking, gender, bronchial hyperresponisveness and age was studied.
Results
The associations of GST genotypes with FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 were comparable in direction, but most consistent for FEV1. GSTT1 homozygous gene deletion alone or in combination with GSTM1 homozygous gene deletion was associated with excess decline in FEV1 in men, but not women, irrespective of smoking status. The additional mean annual decline in FEV1 in men with GSTT1 and concurrent GSTM1 gene deletion was -8.3 ml/yr (95% confidence interval: -12.6 to -3.9) relative to men without these gene deletions. The GSTT1 effect on the FEV1 decline comparable to the observed difference in FEV1 decline between never and persistent smoking men. Effect modification by gender was statistically significant.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that genetic GSTT1 deficiency is a prevalent and strong determinant of accelerated lung function decline in the male general population.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-8-2
PMCID: PMC1781067  PMID: 17217536
25.  Functional analysis of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase genetic variants 
Chemico-biological interactions  2004;150(2):149-159.
Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) is active in the metabolism of many potentially carcinogenic or otherwise genotoxic epoxides, such as those derived from the oxidation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. EPHX1 is polymorphic and encodes allelic variation at least two amino acid positions, Y113H and H139R. In a number of recent molecular epidemiological investigations, EPHX1 polymorphism has been suggested as a susceptibility factor for several human diseases. To better evaluate the functional contribution of EPHX1 genetic polymorphism, we characterized the enzymatic properties associated with each of the respective variant proteins. Enzymatic profiles were evaluated with cis-stilbene oxide (cSO) and benzo[a]pyrene-4,5-epoxide (BaPO), two prototypical substrates for the hydrolase. In one series of experiments, activities of recombinant EPHX1 proteins were analyzed subsequent to their expression using the pFastbac® baculovirus vector in Spodoptera frugiperda-9 (Sf9) insect cells, and purification by column chromatography. In parallel studies, EPHX1 activities were evaluated with human liver microsomes derived from individuals of known EPHX1 genotype. Using the purified protein preparations, rates of cSO and BaPO hydrolysis for the reference protein, Y113/H139, were approximately 2-fold greater than those measured with the other EPHX1 allelic variants. However, when activities were analyzed using human liver microsomal fractions, no major differences were evident in the reaction rates generated among preparations representing the different EPHX1 alleles. Collectively, these results suggest that the structural differences encoded by the Y113H and H139R variant alleles exert only modest impact on EPHX1-specific enzymatic activities in vivo.
doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2004.07.004
PMCID: PMC4091877  PMID: 15535985
Epoxide hydrolase; EPHX1; Human; Genetic polymorphism; Metabolism

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