Uncontrolled trials indicate that treatment of condylomata acuminata with the carbon dioxide laser is effective and probably superior to conventional surgical treatment. We performed a controlled study of refractory condylomata acuminata to clarify whether this is the case. In this randomised trial 21 patients were treated with the carbon dioxide laser and 22 by conventional surgery after having been treated with podophyllin for an average of 33 and 35 weeks respectively. Five and seven patients respectively had previously required additional treatment, such as an operation. The treatment schedule was equally effective for both groups of patients. No difference between the two groups was seen in numbers of recurrences, postoperative pain, healing time, and rate of scar formation (p greater than 0.1-0.2). Treatment of recalcitrant condylomata acuminata with the carbon dioxide laser did not offer any advantages over traditional surgery, including electrocautery.
Condylomata acuminata, or genital warts, are proliferative lesions of genital epithelium caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV types 6 and 11 are most often detected in these lesions. Genital lesions consistent with exophytic condylomata acuminata were removed by excision biopsy from 65 patients, 41 of whom were otherwise healthy individuals (control group) and 24 of whom had conditions known to cause immunosuppression. Histologically, the majority of the lesions were typical condylomata acuminata. Three lesions removed from immunosuppressed individuals also contained foci of moderate to severe dysplasia (intraepithelial neoplasia grade II/III). A recently developed PCR and reverse blot strip assay was used to determine the specific HPV types present in the genital lesions. With a set of oligonucleotide primers based on the same primer binding regions used for the MY09 and MY11 primer pair, this PCR assay detects the presence of 27 HPV types known to infect the genital tract. All but two condylomata acuminata contained either HPV type 6 or 11. The predominant type in the lesions from control patients was HPV 6, while lesions from immunosuppressed types most often contained HPV 11. Condylomata acuminata from immunosuppressed patients contained significantly more overall HPV types than lesions from the control group. HPV types associated with an increased risk of dysplasia (high-risk types) were detected in 42 (64.6%) of the total of 65 specimens; 18 (43.9%) specimens were detected in the 41 otherwise healthy individuals, and 24 (100%) specimens were detected in the 24 immunosuppressed patients. HPV 16 was the most common high-risk type detected, found in 21 of 65 (32.3%) specimens. After HPV types 6 and 11, HPV types 53 and 54 were the most frequently detected low-risk HPV types. This study demonstrates that a high percentage of condylomata acuminata lesions contain multiple HPV types, including types associated with a high risk of dysplastic abnormalities. Further studies are needed to determine the influence these additional HPV types have on the epidemiology of genital tract HPV infections and the natural history of condylomata acuminata, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a diverse family of viruses, of which 30–40 genotypes specifically infect the genital tract. Genital HPVs are largely transmitted sexually, with most infections being asymptomatic and transient. In contrast, persistent infection with oncogenic genotypes in a minority is a strong risk factor, for subsequent development of high grade dysplasia, the precursor lesion to cervical neoplasia, which generally occurs after a long latency period. It is unknown whether there is a disease correlate in children chronically infected with oncogenic HPVs. Low risk HPV genotypes 6 and 11 are the primary cause of condylomata acuminata, although in children non‐genital genotypes are also found in a proportion, with the mode of transmission being either perinatal, horizontal, or sexual. The finding of asymptomatic HPV DNA in children, and correlation with live virus, infectivity, or disease is unclear. Long term follow up for children with anogenital warts is recommended, although there are no longitudinal studies available to clarify whether they are at risk of developing carcinoma in young adulthood.
human papillomaviruses; genital warts; sexual abuse
Four cases of condylomata acuminata in children (two boys, two girls) are reported. Three children had perianal warts and one vulvar warts. One of the four children had been sexually assaulted, but a history of sexual contact was absent in the other three. Surgical excision was undertaken in one case and the others responded well to the local application of 25% podophyllin in benzoin tincture compound. In the absence of sexual contact, a non-coital mode of transmission of infection could be a possibility.
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether interferon alpha-2a, when utilised as adjuvant chemotherapy following ablation of condylomata acuminata (genital warts) by cryotherapy, is effective in the prevention of recurrences. DESIGN--Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Statistical analysis was by 2-tailed Fisher's Exact Test. PATIENTS--97 patients with recurrent condylomata acuminata. INTERVENTION--49 patients were treated with cryotherapy plus subcutaneously administered interferon alpha-2a, and 48 received cryotherapy plus placebo. Of these, 36 and 37 patients, respectively, completed the study and were evaluable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Clinical eradication of condylomata for six months following adjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS--By completion of the adjuvant chemotherapy, 10 (28%) interferon recipients and 16 (43%) placebo recipients experienced recurrences. At six months follow-up, 25 (69%) interferon and 27 (73%) placebo recipients experienced recurrences. In the six months following interferon therapy, only 31% of interferon and 27% of placebo recipients remained free of recurrences (p = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS--Interferon alpha-2a administered subcutaneously offers no benefit as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant to cryotherapy when used alone in the therapy of genital warts in this population of patients with recurrent condylomata.
Among 237 cases of condyloma diagnosed in Uganda between 1964 and 1975 seven types of lesions were defined. Three of these were found within a wide age range in both young and elderly people, namely, the common (49.4%) and the flat (2.0%) condyloma acuminatum, and condyloma acuminatum of irregular outline (13.5%). Four variants, on the other hand, fell into different age groups. Condyloma acuminatum, showing marked cell death (5.1%) and observed exclusively among girls in the first decade of life, displayed numerous aciophil bodies, presumably reflecting single cell necroses. Condylomata acuminata showing marked acanthosis (16.9%) were found in patients between 12 and 30 years, dysplastic condylomata acuminata (5.9%) between 20 and 62 years, and proliferative (giant) condylomata acuminata (7.2%) between 31 and 80 years of age. In the latter two groups of lesions, the inflammatory stromal infiltrate was more prominent, but cytoplasmic vacuolation, often believed to be a sign of viral infection, was seen less frequently than in the remaining types. In young people, the features seen resemble, therefore, a cytocidal and/or vacuolating viral infection, whereas the dysplastic and proliferative changes observed in older patients are compatible with malignant transformation being under way.
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether patients with condylomata acuminata have an increased risk of developing cancer. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study on patients diagnosed as having condylomata acuminata. The number of malignant tumours in the cohort was compared with national incidences obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. SETTING--Dermatology department of the Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. SUBJECTS--3260 patients (2549 males and 711 females, median (range) age 23 (1-80) years) seen during 1969-84, with a mean follow up of 7.8 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of malignant tumours observed in the cohort during the study period and expected number from national incidence. RESULTS--There were 27 malignancies in the study group. There was no significant increase genital cancer in females compared with the national incidence. Only one patient had invasive cervical cancer (relative risk = 1.8; 95% confidence interval 0 to 10.1). Seventeen women had cervical carcinoma in situ (1.5; 0.9 to 2.5) compared with an expected number of 11.5; this increase was not significant. For males 22 cancers were observed at all sites (1.6; 1.0 to 2.5). The number of genitourinary cancers observed in males was almost three times higher than expected (2.6; 1.2 to 5.0). CONCLUSION--The results indicate that the risk of developing cervical carcinoma in situ or invasive cervical cancer after a genital human papillomavirus infection is less than previously thought. The implications of increase in the genitourinary malignancies in males are uncertain.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a sustained release chemotherapy for treating condylomata acuminata with an injectable gel containing fluorouracil and adrenaline (5-FU/adrenaline gel). Study 1-- To assess contributions of the components of 5-FU/adrenaline gel to efficacy. Study 2--To assess therapeutic contribution of adrenaline and safety and efficacy of the formulations. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled studies. SETTING: Private practices and university clinics in the United States. PATIENTS: Men and women with new, recurrent, or refractory external condylomata acuminata. INTERVENTION: Six injections over 8 weeks; follow up visits at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy: patient/wart response, times to complete response, recurrence rates. Safety: injection reactions, tissue conditions, other adverse events, laboratory studies. RESULTS: Study 1: 132 evaluable patients. Complete response (CR) rate was highest for the 5-FU/adrenaline gel group, followed by the 5-FU/adrenaline solution group, then the 5-FU gel group. 5-FU, adrenaline, and the collagen gel vehicle (in the presence of 5-FU) significantly affected CR and strongly influenced time to CR. The effects of 5-FU and adrenaline were statistically significant. Cutaneous reactions were mild to moderate. Study 2: 187 evaluable patients. Patients treated with 5-FU/adrenaline gel had a significantly higher CR rate and lower cumulative 90 day recurrence rate than those treated with 5-FU gel without adrenaline. Treatments were generally well tolerated, with only three treatment related, serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: 5-FU/adrenaline gel is safe and efficacious for treatment of condylomata acuminata, and when compared with individual or various combinations of components, this formulation provided the greatest therapeutic advantage.
A 30 year old man presented with a large, penile, warty growth. The histopathological features were consistent with giant condylomata acuminata. After successful treatment with 5-fluorouracil cream and electrocautery some growth recurred at the excision site. Subtotal amputation of the penis was performed to remove the warty base. Because of the infective component of giant condylomata acuminata patients as well as their wives should be examined regularly.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the adverse psychological implications of referral for colposcopic screening within a genitourinary medicine clinic. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey. SETTING--A colposcopy clinic held within a genitourinary medicine clinic. SUBJECTS--160 consecutive women referred to the clinic were assessed for psychiatric morbidity using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Women were referred to the colposcopy clinic because of one or more of the following: abnormal cervical cytology, condylomata acuminata, HIV antibody positivity. A history of prior local ablative therapy to the cervix was also included in the analysis. RESULTS--There was no difference in psychiatric morbidity, as detected by the GHQ-28, in women referred to the clinic because of abnormal cervical cytology or condylomata acuminata. The total GHQ-28 scores indicated a significant increase in psychiatric morbidity, with increased sub-scores indicating social dysfunction, anxiety and somatic symptoms, in women who had had prior laser therapy to the cervix. Women with HIV infection attending the clinic were noted to have an increase in GHQ-28 sub-scores indicating social dysfunction and depression. CONCLUSIONS--Women who have undergone laser therapy to the cervix may benefit from psychological evaluation and supportive measures if they develop further genital lesions which require colposcopic evaluation. Women with HIV infection need further psychological evaluation prior to planning intervention and preventative strategies.
Exophytic condylomata acuminata of the external genitalia of 40 patients were analyzed for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by the Southern blot and hybrid capture methods. All lesions were initially analyzed by the Southern blot method by using a mixture of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18 whole genomic probes. Southern blots demonstrated characteristic PstI restriction patterns of HPV type 6, 11, or 16 in all but one lesion. HPV 6 subtypes accounted for 28 of 39 HPV-positive lesions. Twenty-seven of these 28 lesions contained HPV type 6a, and 1 lesion contained HPV type 6c. Eight lesions contained HPV type 11 and three contained HPV type 16. Two of the three condylomata acuminata containing HPV type 16 were obtained from solid-organ transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive medications. The third lesion containing HPV type 16 was a typical exophytic condyloma acuminatum from a woman with previously resected vulvar carcinoma. The hybrid capture assay detected HPV DNAs in all lesions except the Southern blot-negative lesion. Twenty-five lesions were positive for the A probe only (HPV types 6 and 11 and related types). All of these lesions were found to contain HPV type 6 or 11 sequences in the Southern blot assay. The remaining 14 lesions were positive for both the A probe and the B probe (HPV types 16 and 18 and related types). The strongest signal in these 14 lesions by the hybrid capture assay was consistent with the result of the Southern blot assay in all but one case. We conclude that (i) HPV type 6a is the most common type found in these lesions, (ii) HPV type 16 may be present more often in exophytic condylomata acuminata from immunosuppressed individuals, (iii) hybrid capture is a useful tool for documenting the presence of HPV sequences in DNAs from exophytic condylomata acuminata, and (iv) in samples containing multiple HPV types, hybrid capture allows detection of minority HPV types.
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that particular clinical features of foreskin condylomata acuminata in Chinese male patients are associated with diabetes. A prospective study enrolled 126 men presenting with foreskin condylomata acuminata from 2001 to 2006. Mean age was 46 years (age range 25–74 years) and mean duration of disease was 4.8 months (range 1–18 months). Patients were divided into two groups according to clinical features. In group 1, 42 men had distinctive signs such as redundant prepuce, crown warts circling the entire preputial ring, maceration, fissures, phimosis and balanitis, and 37 of 42 (88%) patients were found to have concurrent type 2 diabetes, furthermore 32 of these 37 patients had an insidious onset and were previously undiagnosed. In group 2, 84 male patients did not have those distinctive clinical features and type 2 diabetes was found in only 10 cases (11.9%, p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). These clinical features strongly suggest the presence of diabetes. Therapy should address diabetes and condylomata concurrently.
condylomata acuminata; diabetes mellitus; clinical features
The therapeutic effectiveness of the carbon dioxide laser was evaluated in 55 women with condylomata acuminata, particularly of the vulva but also of the urethral meatus and anal region, and in 11 women with multicentric vulvar intraepidermal neoplasia. The rates of persistence and recurrence were 13% and 5% respectively for condylomata and were both 9% for intraepidermal neoplasia. Perioperative and postoperative complications occurred in 6 of the 66 cases (9%) and all were managed on an outpatient basis. Laser beam therapy is recommended as an effective and safe means of treating extensive condylomata and intraepidermal neoplasia of the external urogenital region and anal mucous membrane.
The safety and efficacy of intralesionally administered interferon alfa-2b were assessed in 11 patients suffering from condylomata acuminata for four to 10 months for whom application of podophyllum resin had proved unsuccessful. Three warts from each patient were injected with 10(6) IU interferon alfa-2b three times a week for three weeks. Treatment was followed by a 13 week observation period. Interferon alfa-2b treatment resulted in a highly significant (p less than 0.0001) reduction in the mean size of the treated warts, which decreased from an initial size of 29 mm2 to 2-3 mm2 by week 16. In six out of the 10 patients completing the trial, both the test condylomata and adjacent control warts cleared completely; a recurrence was observed in one of these six patients. Influenza like symptoms (headache and myalgia) were the most common side effects reported, though they were mild in nature and not disabling. These results corroborate those of previous trials with interferon preparations and indicate that its antiviral activity makes it a possible treatment for this sexually transmitted disorder.
OBJECTIVES--to compare the response to treatment and recurrence rate of condylomata accuminata using subcutaneous injection of interferon alfa 2a 1.5 million units three times weekly for four weeks, or podophyllin resin 25% applied to lesions twice weekly for up to six weeks. DESIGN--Randomised open study. SETTING--Multicentre European study in genitourinary medicine, dermatovenereology, and gynaecology departments. PATIENTS--87 males and 67 females with condylomata acuminata for less than six months and no history of previous treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Complete clearance of lesions and evidence of recurrence at three months and nine months after treatment commenced. RESULTS--A complete response was achieved at three months in 15 of 64 (23%) in the interferon treated group, and 31 of 69 (45%) in the podophyllin treated group (p = 0.003). At nine months 10 of 13 patients in the interferon group and 22 of 30 patients in the podophyllin group remained completely clear of lesions.
An immunohistological study of four men whose perianal warts were undergoing spontaneous regression was undertaken, and the results compared with those obtained from non-regressing condylomata from six men. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were noted in the stroma of each wart, but there was no clear difference in the density of the infiltrate between regressing and non-regressing warts. Natural killer cells (CD16+ and CD57+) were only noted in the stroma and epidermis of regressing warts. Possible immunological mechanisms of regression of condylomata acuminata are discussed.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and collected information on their management to estimate the annual cost of disease.
This was a multi-centre observational (cross-sectional) study of genital warts in Germany. Data were collected from gynecologists, dermatologists, and urologists seeing patients with genital warts between February and April 2005. The number of patients with new and recurrent genital warts was used to estimate the incidence in Germany. We assessed resource use for patients with genital warts seen during a two-month period as well as retrospective resource use twelve months prior to the inclusion visit through a chart review. The mean costs of treatment of patients with genital warts from third-party payer and societal perspectives were estimated, and the total annual cost of genital warts was then calculated.
For the incidence calculation 217 specialists provided information on 848 patients and 214 specialists provided resource use data for 617 patients to assess resource consumption. The incidence of new and recurrent cases of genital warts was 113.7 and 34.7 per 100 000, respectively, for women aged 14–65 years consulting gynecologists. The highest incidence was observed in women aged 14–25 years (171.0 per 100 000) for new cases and in women aged 26–45 years (53.1 per 100 000) for recurrent cases. The sample size for males was too small to allow a meaningful estimate of the incidence. The mean direct cost per patient with new genital warts was estimated at 378 euros (95% CI: 310.8–444.9); for recurrent genital warts at 603 euros (95% CI: 436.5–814.5), and for resistant genital warts at 1,142 euros (95% CI: 639.6–1752.3). The overall cost to third-party payers was estimated at 49.0 million euros, and the total societal cost at 54.1 million euros, corresponding to an average cost per patient of 550 euros and 607 euros, respectively.
The societal burden and costs of managing and treating genital warts in Germany are considerable. A vaccination programme using the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine could provide a substantial health benefit and reduce the costs associated with genital warts in Germany.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was performed using the polymerase chain reaction technique on urine samples from 17 male patients with condylomata acuminata in the meatus urethrae. Urine samples from 14 male laboratory volunteers were analyzed as controls. The DNA was extracted and purified from urine sediments, centrifuged at 1,800 and 100,000 x g, and subjected to 40 cycles of amplification with HPV 6 and HPV 11 type-specific anticontamination primers and the heat-stable Taq DNA polymerase. HPV was detected in the urine of 15 (88%) patients. In all positive patients the urine sediments of both the 1,800 and 100,000 x g centrifugation steps contained HPV DNA. Eight patients were found to be positive for HPV 6 DNA, six were positive for HPV 11 DNA, and one was positive for both HPV 6 and HPV 11 DNA. None of the males in the control group was positive for either HPV 6 or HPV 11 DNA. The results demonstrate that HPV can be transported by the urine, probably in exfoliated HPV-infected cells. A similar mechanism may occur during ejaculation, allowing sexual transmission of HPV viruses harbored in the cells of the male genital tract.
The L1 genes of two human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) isolates derived from condylomata acuminata were used to express the L1 major capsid protein in insect cells via recombinant baculoviruses. Both L1 major capsid proteins self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLP) with high efficiency and could be purified in preparative amounts on density gradients. The yield of VLP was 3 orders of magnitude higher than what has been obtained previously, using L1 derived from the prototype HPV16. DNA sequence comparison identified a single nonconserved amino acid change to be responsible for the inefficient self-assembly of the prototype L1. VLP were also obtained by expressing L1 of HPV6, HPV11, and cottontail rabbit papillomavirus, indicating that L1 from a variety of papillomaviruses has the intrinsic capacity to self-assemble into VLP. Coexpression of HPV16 L1 plus L2 by using a baculovirus double-expression vector also resulted in efficient self-assembly of VLP, and the average particle yield increased about fourfold in comparison to when L1 only was expressed. Coimmunoprecipitation of L1 and L2 and cosedimentation of the two proteins in a sucrose gradient demonstrated that L2 was incorporated into the particles. The ability to generate preparative amounts of HPV16 L1 and L1-L2 VLP may have implications for the development of a serological assay to detect anti-HPV16 virion immune responses to conformational epitopes and for immunoprophylaxis against HPV16 infection.
Hanson, Albert W. (Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta, Ga.), and George R. Cannefax. Isolation of Borrelia refringens in pure culture from patients with condylomata acuminata. J. Bacteriol. 88:111–113. 1964.—Borrelia refringens was isolated from five of ten clinical specimens by use of a modification of the Noguchi technique. An enriched anaerobic medium is described for the cultivation of B. refringens with retention of morphological characteristics.
The pharmaceutical industry is not supplying the penicillin preparations that are required for the treatment of syphilis. For those in whom penicillin hypersensitivity is suspected there is a need for a safe injectable alternative that is effective if given once daily or, preferably, at two- or three-day intervals. Existing treatments for chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale are described, but even collectively there are few cases and treatments for other sexually transmitted diseases merit priority. Treatments for scabies and pediculosis pubis, although not perfect, are reasonable. There is a need for better local treatment for condylomata acuminata and systemic immunological methods, including those that increase cell-mediated immunity, deserve attention. The same is true for molluscum contagiosum. There is an urgent need for an effective, safe treatment of herpes genitalis that is able to eradicate the virus from the host. If it is proved that the herpes virus is responsible for carcinoma of the cervix this could then be the most serious sexually transmitted disease as in many countries such carcinomas are responsible for approximate seven times more deaths in women than is syphilis in men and women together. The limitations of prophylactic methods in preventing all possibility of infection with one or more of the sexually transmitted diseases are discussed.
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) cream was compared with podophyllin 25 percent in alcohol for treating genital and urethral condylomata acuminata. The cure rate after four weeks was found to be 6 of 18 patients treated with 5-FU and 10 of 19 treated with podophyllin. By changing the treatment for those not cured, warts regressed after four weeks in four more patients in each group. Patients were followed up for four to nine months; 10 of 27 treated with 5-FU and 14 of 31 treated with podophyllin remained in remission. It is not possible to support earlier reports on the successful treatment of meatal warts using 5-FU cream. More than half of the patients given 5-FU reported side effects after 10 to 14 days' treatment, which in some cases led them to stop using the cream. Twenty-one men considered to be treatment failures or relapses were examined by urethroscopy. No intraurethral condylomata were found but three cases of warts in the fossa navicularis were doscovered; this prompted us to introduce an instrument to examine the urethral meatus and the fossa navicularis.
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a 0.15% and a 0.3% cream formulation of podophyllotoxin in comparison with the 0.5% solution in the treatment of condylomata acuminata and to compare the treatment modalities regarding side effects. DESIGN--The study was designed as an open randomised trial. Ninety male patients with signs of penile HPV infection, with either acuminate or papular lesions, were randomised into three parallel treatment groups. The study medication comprised 0.15% and 0.3% cream and 0.5% solution of podophyllotoxin. The patients treated themselves twice daily for three consecutive days and if total regression of the warts was not achieved after this first treatment cycle, further treatment cycles at 7-day intervals were to be repeated up to a maximum of four treatments. SETTING--The study was carried out in three outpatient clinics: two STD clinics, Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital (45 patients) and Institut Antoine Fournier, Paris (30 patients), and one military hospital, S1/FO 47/48, Sjukhusenheten, Enköping (15 patients). RESULTS--Statistical evaluation of the treatment effect was based on a "Response rate" calculation at each visit. The number of completely responding patients after the first, second, third and fourth cycle were 40 (44%), 61 (68%), 67 (74%) and 70 (78%), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the three treatments after four treatment cycles. However, the 0.15% cream had a significantly slower onset of efficacy as compared with the 0.3% cream and 0.5% solution. Adverse effects were less severe and less frequent with the 0.15% cream than with the other treatment modalities. Severe adverse effects were reported by 12 patients, of whom two were treated with 0.15% cream, five with 0.3% cream and five with 0.5% solution. Thirty-one patients were completely free from adverse effects. CONCLUSION--In this open randomised study with three parallel treatment groups, two cream formulations of 0.15% and 0.3% podophyllotoxin and a 0.5% solution of the same drug all showed an equally good response rate after four treatment cycles. Reported adverse effects were few and mild. The convenience of having different formulations to offer when prescribing treatment for condylomata must be considered.
A one year old male child presented with a perianal growth of two months' duration. Clinical and histopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of condylomata acuminata, which regressed completely following topical treatment with podophyllin.
Condylomata acuminata occurred intraorally in a 6 year old Nigerian girl. Since she had no skin or genital lesions and no history of sexual contact, the virus was probably acquired from environmental sources. Non-sexual modes of transmission should, therefore, be considered, particularly when the lesions are extragenital.