We present a novel feature-based groupwise registration method to simultaneously warp the subjects towards the common space. Due to the complexity of the groupwise registration, we resort to decoupling it into two easy-to-solve tasks, i.e., alternatively establishing the robust correspondences across different subjects and interpolating the dense deformation fields based on the detected sparse correspondences. Specifically, several novel strategies are proposed in the correspondence detection step. First, attribute vector, instead of intensity only, is used as a morphological signature to guide the anatomical correspondence detection among all subjects. Second, we detect correspondence only on the driving voxels with distinctive attribute vectors for avoiding the ambiguity in detecting correspondences for non-distinctive voxels. Third, soft correspondence assignment (allowing for adaptive detection of multiple correspondences in each subject) is also presented to help establish reliable correspondences across all subjects, which is particularly necessary in the beginning of groupwise registration. Based on the sparse correspondences detected on the driving voxels of each subject, thin-plate splines (TPS) are then used to propagate the correspondences on the driving voxels to the entire brain image for estimating the dense transformation for each subject. By iteratively repeating correspondence detection and dense transformation estimation, all the subjects will be aligned onto a common space simultaneously. Our groupwise registration algorithm has been extensively evaluated by 18 elderly brains, 16 NIREP, and 40 LONI data. In all experiments, our algorithm achieves more robust and accurate registration results, compared to a groupwise registration method and a pairwise registration method, respectively.
Robust anatomical correspondence detection is a key step in many medical image applications such as image registration and motion correction. In the computer vision field, graph matching techniques have emerged as a powerful approach for correspondence detection. By considering potential correspondences as graph nodes, graph edges can be used to measure the pairwise agreement between possible correspondences. In this paper, we present a novel, hierarchical graph matching method with sparsity constraint to further augment the power of conventional graph matching methods in establishing anatomical correspondences, especially for the cases of large inter-subject variations in medical applications. Specifically, we first propose to measure the pairwise agreement between potential correspondences along a sequence of intensity profiles which reduces the ambiguity in correspondence matching. We next introduce the concept of sparsity on the fuzziness of correspondences to suppress the distraction from misleading matches, which is very important for achieving the accurate, one-to-one correspondences. Finally, we integrate our graph matching method into a hierarchical correspondence matching framework, where we use multiple models to deal with the large inter-subject anatomical variations and gradually refine the correspondence matching results between the tentatively deformed model images and the underlying subject image. Evaluations on both synthetic data and public hand X-ray images indicate that the proposed hierarchical sparse graph matching method yields the best correspondence matching performance in terms of both accuracy and robustness when compared with several conventional graph matching methods.
Graph matching; hierarchical correspondence detection; line patch; multi-models; sparsity
The correspondence problem is a classic issue in vision and cognition. Frequent perceptual disruptions, such as saccades and brief occlusion, create gaps in perceptual input. How does the visual system establish correspondence between objects visible before and after the disruption? Current theories hold that object correspondence is established solely on the basis of an object's spatiotemporal properties and that an object's surface feature properties (such as color or shape) are not consulted in correspondence operations. In five experiments, we tested the relative contributions of spatiotemporal and surface feature properties to establishing object correspondence across brief occlusion. Correspondence operations were strongly influenced both by the consistency of an object's spatiotemporal properties across occlusion and by the consistency of an object's surface feature properties across occlusion. These data argue against the claim that spatiotemporal cues dominate the computation of object correspondence. Instead, the visual system consults multiple sources of relevant information to establish continuity across perceptual disruption.
Objectives: To determine whether there are statistically significant differences in the content of electronic mail (e-mail) and conventional mail sent to authors of papers published in medical journals.
Design: Prospective study by postal questionnaire. Over two one-month periods, corresponding authors of papers published in medical journals were asked to record details of the correspondence prompted by their publications.
Measurements: Conventional and e-mail correspondence received. Reprint requests. Content of correspondence. Quality of correspondence.
Results: Eighty-two of 96 authors replied. Fifty received e-mail (mean, 5.7 ± 8.8 e-mails per author) and 72 received conventional mail (15.5 ± 32.8 letters per author) (p ≪ 0.05). Seventy percent of e-mails and only 53% of correspondence sent by conventional mail (p ≪ 0.05) referred to the content of the paper.
Conclusions: Publication in general medical journals stimulates more conventional than electronic mail. However, the content of e-mail may be of greater scientific relevance. Electronic mail can be encouraged without fear of diminishing the quality of the communications received.
Folk names of plants are the roots of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. This paper mainly records and analyses the wild plant folk names of the Mongolians in the Ejina desert area based on a field survey for collection and identification of voucher specimens. The results show that a total of 121 folk names of local plants have correspondence with 93 scientific species which belong to 26 families and 70 genera. The correspondence between plants' Mongol folk names and scientific species may be classified as one to one correspondence, multitude to one correspondence and one to multitude correspondence. The Ejina Mongolian plant folk names were formed on the basis of observations and an understanding of the wild plants growing in their desert environment. The high correspondence between folk names and scientific names shows the scientific meaning of folk botanical nomenclature and classification. It is very useful to take an inventory of biodiversity, especially among the rapid rural appraisal (RRA) in studying biodiversity at the community level.
Suppression scotomas and retinal projection (retinal correspondence) were measured in six intermittent exotropes during deviation. Measurements used red-green anaglyph stimuli presented on a black background which could be varied from 3.4 minutes of arc to 3 degrees 24'. Results showed non-suppression of all points between the fovea and the diplopia point. Harmonious anomalous retinal correspondence was usually observed. Two subjects had spontaneous changes from anomalous retinal correspondence to normal retinal correspondence without a concurrent change in ocular position. Conventional testing resulted in more variable results in regard to retinal correspondence and suppression, suggesting that non-suppression and anomalous retinal correspondence occur when black backgrounds are used for testing.
We investigated correspondence between verbal and nonverbal behavior in preschool children in a play setting. Four children (4 years old) participated in a multiple baseline across subjects design. Children were asked what toy(s) they were going to play with during an immediately upcoming play period. When no contingencies were placed on either verbal or nonverbal behavior, children showed high rates of correspondence. When children were required to verbalize about a toy from a restricted range of infrequently used toys, but no contingencies were placed on correspondence, low rates of correspondence were observed. High rates of correspondence were noted when reinforcement was contingent on it. Results are discussed in terms of tacting and manding.
Two groups of six mentally retarded adults were exposed to either a "say/do" correspondence training program or a "do only" reinforcement procedure to evaluate the suggestion of Rogers-Warren and Baer (1976) that reinforcement of the nonverbal target behavior in the absence of the relevant verbal behavior may account for the behavior changes seen in correspondence training. The participants worked in an experimental setting on a variety of manipulatory responses leading to various auditory and visual consequences. Analysis of individual patterns of responding indicated no apparent differences between the groups during training; four individuals in each group appeared to develop generalized correspondence skills. We conclude that the outcome of correspondence training may not necessarily be verbal regulation of behavior as is assumed. Rather, we suggest that the notion of rule-governed behavior can best account for the type of behavior changes seen in correspondence studies.
Correspondence between verbal and nonverbal behavior in an exercise room was taught to 4 13-year-old boys diagnosed with moderate mental retardation. Participants were asked prior to each exercise session which exercise machine(s) they intended to use. No contingencies on stating intentions (promising) were applied. Following the exercise session, participants were asked to say (report) which machine(s) they had used. Following the baseline condition, do-report correspondence training was introduced sequentially across participants. During do-report correspondence training, accurate reporting was reinforced. High rates of both do-report and promise-do correspondence were observed. Data were analyzed via a multiple baseline across subjects design and contingency-space analysis. Results are discussed with regard to observed changes in promise-do correspondence subsequent to observed changes in do-report correspondence.
Israel (1978) evaluated and discussed research on positive and negative verbal-nonverbal correspondence. In the present report we attempt to delineate the relationship of correspondence training to two major intervention goals—producing (increasing) behavior and inhibiting (decreasing) behavior. The concepts of noncorrespondence and generalized positive correspondence are introduced. Past research relating to the correspondence analyses offered for the two intervention outcomes and possibilities for future research are discussed. The relationship of verbal correspondence training to the issues of response maintenance and response generalization is also examined.
verbal-nonverbal correspondence; positive correspondence; negative correspondence; facilitating behavior; inhibiting behavior; self-instruction
We investigated the programming of generalization and maintenance of correspondence between verbal and nonverbal behavior in a preschool setting. Four children participated in a series of multiple-baseline designs. In Experiment 1, delayed reinforcement of verbal behavior effectively controlled maintenance of correspondence with previously trained responses and also resulted in generalization of correspondence to one untrained response. As the latter effect was limited, Experiment 2 was a further assessment of the effects of delayed reinforcement of generalization of correspondence to untrained responses, and consistent generalization was shown. Experiment 2 also showed that generalization, if lost, could be recovered through use of “booster training,” in which the original contingencies were reinstated for a brief period. Experiment 3 provided replications, with two additional children, of the effects of delayed reinforcement on maintenance of correspondence. Results are discussed in terms of using delayed reinforcement as an indiscriminable contingency.
correspondence training; generalization; delayed reinforcement; verbal behavior; preschool children
Four boys and 4 girls (3 to 5 years old) played with as many as three toys chosen from a set of six, and were then asked whether they played with each of the toys. After a baseline in which all children showed high levels of correspondence between reported and actual behavior, reports of play were differentially reinforced, first in an individual and then in a social context. Two children in the individual condition began to report play with all six toys, even though no more than three toys had been played with. When reports of play were reinforced in a group context, 5 children reported play with all six toys. When correspondence was subsequently reinforced, virtually complete correspondence returned and was maintained in a third noncontingent reinforcement condition. Correspondence and lack of correspondence were discussed in terms of self-tacting and distorted tacting or manding.
verbal behavior; (self) tacting; distorted tacting and manding; correspondence training; rule-governed behavior; truth telling and lying; self-report; children
We investigated the influence of hand posture in handedness recognition, while varying the spatial correspondence between stimulus and response in a modified Simon task. Drawings of the left and right hands were displayed either in a back or palm view while participants discriminated stimulus handedness by pressing either a left or right key with their hands resting either in a prone or supine posture. As a control, subjects performed a regular Simon task using simple geometric shapes as stimuli. Results showed that when hands were in a prone posture, the spatially corresponding trials (i.e., stimulus and response located on the same side) were faster than the non-corresponding trials (i.e., stimulus and response on opposite sides). In contrast, for the supine posture, there was no difference between corresponding and non-corresponding trials. Control experiments with the regular Simon task showed that the posture of the responding hand had no influence on performance. When the stimulus is the drawing of a hand, however, the posture of the responding hand affects the spatial correspondence effect because response location is coded based on multiple reference points, including the body of the hand.
handedness recognition; Simon effect; hand posture; motor imagery
This paper presents a new method for optimizing surface point correspondences for shape modeling of multiobject anatomy, or shape complexes. The proposed method is novel in that it optimizes correspondence positions in the full, joint shape space of the object complex. Researchers have previously only considered the correspondence problem separately for each structure, thus ignoring the interstructural shape correlations that are increasingly of interest in many clinical contexts, such as the study of the effects of disease on groups of neuroanatomical structures. The proposed method uses a nonparametric, dynamic particle system to simultaneously sample object surfaces and optimize correspondence point positions. This paper also suggests a principled approach to hypothesis testing using the Hotelling T2 test in the PCA space of the correspondence model, with a simulation-based choice of the number of PCA modes. We also consider statistical analysis of object poses. The modeling and analysis methods are illustrated on brain structure complexes from an ongoing clinical study of pediatric autism.
This paper presents a novel method of optimizing point-based correspondence among populations of human cortical surfaces by combining structural cues with probabilistic connectivity maps. The proposed method establishes a tradeoff between an even sampling of the cortical surfaces (a low surface entropy) and the similarity of corresponding points across the population (a low ensemble entropy). The similarity metric, however, isn’t constrained to be just spatial proximity, but uses local sulcal depth measurements as well as probabilistic connectivity maps, computed from DWI scans via a stochastic tractography algorithm, to enhance the correspondence definition. We propose a novel method for projecting this fiber connectivity information on the cortical surface, using a surface evolution technique. Our cortical correspondence method does not require a spherical parameterization. Experimental results are presented, showing improved correspondence quality demonstrated by a cortical thickness analysis, as compared to correspondence methods using spatial metrics as the sole correspondence criterion.
A new approach, based on the hierarchical soft correspondence detection, has been presented for significantly improving the speed of our previous HAMMER image registration algorithm. Currently, HAMMER takes a relative long time, e.g., up to 80 minutes, to register two regular sized images using Linux machine (with 2.40GHz CPU and 2-Gbyte memory). This is because the results of correspondence detection, used to guide the image warping, can be ambiguous in complex structures and thus the image warping has to be conservative and accordingly takes long time to complete. In this paper, a hierarchical soft correspondence detection technique has been employed to detect correspondences more robustly, thereby allowing the image warping to be completed straightforwardly and fast. By incorporating this hierarchical soft correspondence detection technique into the HAMMER registration framework, the robustness and the accuracy of registration (in terms of low average registration error) can be both achieved. Experimental results on real and simulated data show that the new registration algorithm, based the hierarchical soft correspondence detection, can run nine times faster than HAMMER while keeping the similar registration accuracy.
The effects of reinforcer magnitude and response requirement on pigeons' say choices in an experimental homologue of human say–do correspondence were assessed in two experiments. The procedure was similar to a conditional discrimination procedure except the pigeons chose both a sample stimulus (the say component) and a comparison stimulus that corresponded to it (the do component). Correspondence was trained on red, green, and white key colors before the duration of food presentations following correspondence on each key color (Experiment 1) and the number of key pecks required as the say response on each key color (Experiment 2) were manipulated in an attempt to influence the initial say response. The frequency of say responses on each key color coincided with programmed changes in the duration of food presentations and the key-peck requirements assigned to each key color. Correspondence accuracy remained stable in all conditions, even those in which the say responding occurred primarily on two of the three key colors. Implications for human behavior are discussed.
say–do correspondence; choice; conditional discrimination; pigeons; key peck
We analyzed the effects of verbal mediating responses on the acquisition and generalization of say–do correspondence and noncorrespondence. Participants were assigned to groups in which either reinforcers (feedback and tokens) were arranged for say–do correspondence and noncorrespondence, or no reinforcers were programmed. Participants in these groups were further subdivided into groups in which they were required to repeat what was said previously, were required to repeat random numbers, or no verbalizations were required. When correspondence was reinforced, repetition of what was said produced greater acquisition and generalization of correspondence. When noncorrespondence was reinforced, repetition of numbers facilitated acquisition and generalization of noncorrespondence. Verbal mediating responses interacted with contingencies of reinforcement in determining acquisition and generalization of correspondence and noncorrespondence.
generalization; noncorrespondence; say–do correspondence; verbal mediating responses
We explore global spatial diversity patterns for terrestrial mammals using as a tool range-diversity plots. These plots display simultaneously information about the number of species in localities and their spatial covariance in composition. These are highly informative, as we show by linking range-diversity plots with maps and by highlighting the correspondences between well defined regions of the plots with geographical regions or with taxonomic groups. Range-diversity plots are mathematically constrained by the lines of maximum and minimum mean covariance in species composition. We show how regions in the range-diversity plot corresponding to the line of maximum covariance correspond to large continental masses, and regions near the lower limit of the range-diversity plot correspond to archipelagos and mountain ranges. We show how curves of constant covariance correspond to nested faunas. Finally, we show that the observed distribution of the covariance range has significantly longer tails than random, with clear geographic correspondences. At the scale of our data we found that range-diversity plots reveal biodiversity patterns that cannot be replicated by null models, and correspond to conspicuous terrain features and taxonomic groupings.
The accurate estimation of point correspondences is often required in a wide variety of medical image-processing applications. Numerous point correspondence methods have been proposed in this field, each exhibiting its own characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses. This paper presents a comprehensive comparison of four automatic methods for allocating corresponding points, namely the template-matching technique, the iterative closest points approach, the correspondence by sensitivity to movement scheme, and the self-organizing maps algorithm. Initially, the four correspondence methods are described focusing on their distinct characteristics and their parameter selection for common comparisons. The performance of the four methods is then qualitatively and quantitatively compared over a total of 132 two-dimensional image pairs divided into eight sets. The sets comprise of pairs of images obtained using controlled geometry protocols (affine and sinusoidal transforms) and pairs of images subject to unknown transformations. The four methods are statistically evaluated pairwise on all image pairs and individually in terms of specific features of merit based on the correspondence accuracy as well as the registration accuracy. After assessing these evaluation criteria for each method, it was deduced that the self-organizing maps approach outperformed in most cases the other three methods in comparison.
Point extraction; automatic point correspondence; iterative closest points; template matching; correspondence by sensitivity to movement; self-organizing maps; features of merit; registration accuracy
Identifying corresponding features (LC peaks registered by identical peptides) in multiple Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) datasets plays a crucial role in the analysis of complex peptide or protein mixtures. Warping functions are commonly used to correct the mean of elution time shifts among LC-MS datasets, which cannot resolve the ambiguity of corresponding feature identification since elution time shifts are random. We propose a Statistical Corresponding Feature Identification Algorithm(SCFIA) based on both elution time shifts and peak shape correlations between corresponding features. SCFIA first trains a set of statistical models, and then, all candidate corresponding features are scored by the statistical models to find the maximum likelihood solution.
We test SCFIA on publicly available datasets. We first compare its performance with that of warping function based methods, and the results show significant improvements. The performance of SCFIA on replicates datasets and fractionated datasets is also evaluated. In both cases, the accuracy is above 90%, which is near optimal. Finally the coverage of SCFIA is evaluated, and it is shown that SCFIA can find corresponding features in multiple datasets for over 90% peptides identified by Tandem MS.
SCFIA can be used for accurate corresponding feature identification in LC-MS. We have shown that peak shape correlation can be used effectively for improving the accuracy. SCFIA provides high coverage in corresponding feature identification in multiple datasets, which serves the basis for integrating multiple LC-MS measurements for accurate peptide quantification.
Local features in volumetric images have been used to identify correspondences of localized anatomical structures for brain morphometry. However, the correspondences are often sparse thus ineffective in reflecting the underlying structures, making it unreliable to evaluate specific morphological differences. This paper presents a morphometry method (MEACOLP) based on correspondences with improved effectiveness and accuracy. A novel two-level scale-invariant feature transform is used to enhance the detection repeatability of local features and to recall the correspondences that might be missed in previous studies. Template patterns whose correspondences could be commonly identified in each group are constructed to serve as the basis for morphometric analysis. A matching algorithm is developed to reduce the identification errors by comparing neighboring local features and rejecting unreliable matches. The two-sample t-test is finally adopted to analyze specific properties of the template patterns. Experiments are performed on the public OASIS database to clinically analyze brain images of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal controls (NC). MEACOLP automatically identifies known morphological differences between AD and NC brains, and characterizes the differences well as the scaling and translation of underlying structures. Most of the significant differences are identified in only a single hemisphere, indicating that AD-related structures are characterized by strong anatomical asymmetry. In addition, classification trials to differentiate AD subjects from NC confirm that the morphological differences are reliably related to the groups of interest.
This paper presents a new approach to the automatic registration of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds using panoramic reflectance images. The approach follows a two-step procedure that includes both pair-wise registration and global registration. The pair-wise registration consists of image matching (pixel-to-pixel correspondence) and point cloud registration (point-to-point correspondence), as the correspondence between the image and the point cloud (pixel-to-point) is inherent to the reflectance images. False correspondences are removed by a geometric invariance check. The pixel-to-point correspondence and the computation of the rigid transformation parameters (RTPs) are integrated into an iterative process that allows for the pair-wise registration to be optimised. The global registration of all point clouds is obtained by a bundle adjustment using a circular self-closure constraint. Our approach is tested with both indoor and outdoor scenes acquired by a FARO LS 880 laser scanner with an angular resolution of 0.036° and 0.045°, respectively. The results show that the pair-wise and global registration accuracies are of millimetre and centimetre orders, respectively, and that the process is fully automatic and converges quickly.
Point cloud; Registration; LIDAR, Terrestrial laser scanning; Automation; Image Matching
Description of purpose
The NA-MIC SPHARM-PDM Toolbox represents an automated set of tools for the computation of 3D structural statistical shape analysis. SPHARM-PDM solves the correspondence problem by defining a first order ellipsoid aligned, uniform spherical parameterization for each object with correspondence established at equivalently parameterized points. However, SPHARM correspondence has shown to be inadequate for some biological shapes that are not well described by a uniform spherical parameterization. Entropy-based particle systems compute correspondence by representing surfaces as discrete point sets that does not rely on any inherent parameterization. However, they are sensitive to initialization and have little ability to recover from initial errors. By combining both methodologies we compute reliable correspondences in topologically challenging biological shapes.
Diverse subcortical structures cohorts were used, obtained from MR brain images.
The SPHARM-PDM shape analysis toolbox was used to compute point based correspondent models that were then used as initializing particles for the entropy-based particle systems. The combined framework was implemented as a stand-alone Slicer3 module, which works as an end-to-end shape analysis module.
The combined SPHARM-PDM-Particle framework has demonstrated to improve correspondence in the example dataset over the conventional SPHARM-PDM toolbox.
The work presented in this paper demonstrates a two-sided improvement for the scientific community, being able to 1) find good correspondences among spherically topological shapes, that can be used in many morphometry studies 2) offer an end-to-end solution that will facilitate the access to shape analysis framework to users without computer expertise.
Spherical harmonic representation; entropy-based particle systems; statistical shape analysis; shape analysis framework; 3DSlicer
Skin cancer is common among older adults. Some national organizations recommend total cutaneous examination (TCE) and skin self-examinations (SSE) for skin cancer detection. Although the spousal relationship is a known influence on health behavior, little is known about the level of correspondence in skin screening among couples. The study objective was to investigate correspondence of TCE and SSE among older couples, demographic correlates of correspondence, and correspondence among barriers to skin exams.
Online via the nationally-representative GfK Internet Panel
Cohabitating partners 50 years of age and older
Main Outcome Measures
TCE in the past three years and SSE in the past year
Correspondence among partners was high. With regard to TCE, in 24% of the sample, both partners completed TCE, and in 48% of the sample, both partners had not completed TCE. With regard to SSE, in 40% of the sample, both partners completed SSE, and in 40% of the sample, both partners had not completed SSE. Correlates of both partners not doing TCE include lower household income, larger household size, non-metropolitan residence, living in the Midwest, and being in a same-sex relationship. Correlates of both members not doing SSE included larger household size and being in a same-sex relationship. Barriers to screening that members of couples reported were similar to one another.
Couples were mostly concordant with regard to engagement in skin exams. Therefore, dyadic interventions to increase screening rates could be useful. Certain socio-demographic groups should especially be targeted.