Previous studies on trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce have produced mixed findings, with two studies (McLanahan and Bumpass 1988; Teachman 2002) reporting no trend in divorce transmission and one study (Wolfinger 1999) finding that divorce transmission has weakened substantially. Using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model, we analyze data from the National Survey of Families and Households and find no evidence for any trend in divorce transmission. To reconcile apparent differences in results, we note that the General Social Survey data used by Wolfinger lack information on marital duration, permitting analysis only for whether respondents have divorced by interview. As a result, an apparent decline in divorce transmission could be due to inadequate adjustments for the longer exposures to risk by earlier marriage cohorts, yielding a higher probability of divorce by interview for earlier cohorts relative to more recent cohorts even if divorce risks are identical across all marriage cohorts. We confirm this possibility by using a series of discrete-time hazard logistic regressions to investigate the sensitivity of estimates of trends in divorce transmission to different adjustments for exposure to risk. We conclude that there has been no trend in the intergenerational transmission of divorce.
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of topical Whitfield's ointment plus oral fluconazole with topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin.
Materials and Methods:
Patients were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups and advised to apply either agent topically twice-a-day for 4 weeks on the lesions and fluconazole (150 mg) was administered once a week for 4 weeks in the study group applying Whitfield's ointment. Patients were followed-up at an interval of 10 days for clinical score and global evaluation response was assessed at baseline and during each follow-up.
Out of 120 patients enrolled in the study 103 completed the study. Patients treated with Whitfield's ointment and oral fluconazole reduced mean sign and symptom score from 8.81 ± 0.82 to 0.18 ± 0.59 while butenafine treated patients reduced it from 8.88 ± 0.53 to 0.31 ± 0.67 at the end of the treatment. Nearly, 98% patients were completely cleared of the lesion on the 3rd follow-up with both treatments.
Whitfield's ointment with oral fluconazole is as efficacious, safe and cost-effective as compared with 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin.
Butenafine; fluconazole; tinea infections; Whitfield's ointment
Microarray analysis of gene expression during the yeast division cycle has led to the proposal that a significant number of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are expressed in a cell-cycle-specific manner. Four different methods of synchronization were used for cell-cycle analysis. Randomized data exhibit periodic patterns of lesser strength than the experimental data. Thus the cyclicities in the expression measurements in the four experiments presented do not arise from chance fluctuations or noise in the data. However, when the degree of cyclicity for genes in different experiments are compared, a large degree of non-reproducibility is found. Re-examining the phase timing of peak expression, we find that three of the experiments (those using α-factor, CDC28 and CDC15 synchronization) show consistent patterns of phasing, but the elutriation synchrony results demonstrate a different pattern from the other arrest-release synchronization methods. Specific genes can show a wide range of cyclical behavior between different experiments; a gene with high cyclicity in one experiment can show essentially no cyclicity in another experiment. The elutriation experiment, possibly being the least perturbing of the four synchronization methods, may give the most accurate characterization of the state of gene expression during the normal, unperturbed cell cycle. Under this alternative explanation, the observed cyclicities in the other three experiments are a stress response to synchronization, and may not reproduce in unperturbed cells.
Microarrays have been applied to the determination of genome-wide expression patterns during the cell cycle of a number of different cells. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have been studied using whole-culture and selective synchronization methods. The published microarray data on yeast, mammalian, and bacterial cells have been uniformly interpreted as indicating that a large number of genes are expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner. These conclusions are reconsidered using explicit criteria for synchronization and precise criteria for identifying gene expression patterns during the cell cycle. The conclusions regarding cell-cycle-dependent gene expression based on microarray analysis are weakened by arguably problematic choices for synchronization methodology (e.g., whole-culture methods that do not synchronize cells) and questionable statistical rigor for identifying cell-cycle-dependent gene expression. Because of the uncertainties in synchrony methodology, as well as uncertainties in microarray analysis, one should be somewhat skeptical of claims that there are a large number of genes expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner.
Double thymidine block; Affymetrix, cell cycle, synchronization, nocodazole, yeast, HeLa
Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) treatment has been shown to increase mass transport, which could benefit tissue grafts during the immediate postimplant period, when blood supply to the implanted tissue is suboptimal. In this in vitro study, we investigated effects of LIUS stimulation on dye diffusion, proliferation, metabolism, and tropomyosin expression of muscle cells (C2C12) and on tissue viability and gene expression of human adipose tissue organoids.
We found that LIUS increased dye diffusion within adjacent tissue culture wells and caused anisotropic diffusion patterns. This effect was confirmed by a hydrophone measurement resulting in acoustic pressure 150–341 Pa in wells. Cellular studies showed that LIUS significantly increased proliferation, metabolic activity, and expression of tropomyosin. Adipose tissue treated with LIUS showed significantly increased metabolic activity and the cells had similar morphology to normal unilocular adipocytes. Gene analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression (a marker for tissue damage) was significantly lower for stimulated organoids than for control groups. Our data suggests that LIUS could be a useful modality for improving graft survival in vivo.
Initial stages of embryonic development rely on rapid, synchronized cell divisions of the fertilized egg followed by a set of morphogenetic movements collectively called epiboly and gastrulation. Lzap is a putative tumor suppressor whose expression is lost in 30% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Lzap activities include regulation of cell cycle progression and response to therapeutic agents. Here we explore developmental roles of the lzap gene during zebrafish morphogenesis. Lzap is highly conserved among vertebrates and is maternally deposited. Expression is initially ubiquitous during gastrulation, and later becomes more prominent in the pharyngeal arches, digestive tract and brain. Antisense morpholino-mediated depletion of Lzap resulted in delayed cell divisions and apoptosis during blastomere formation, resulting in fewer, larger cells. Cell cycle analysis suggested that Lzap loss in early embryonic cells resulted in a G2/M arrest. Furthermore, the Lzap-deficient embryos failed to initiate epiboly – the earliest morphogenetic movement in animal development – which has been shown to be dependent on cell adhesion and migration of epithelial sheets. Our results strongly implicate Lzap in regulation of cell cycle progression, adhesion and migratory activity of epithelial cell sheets during early development. These functions provide further insight into Lzap activity that may contribute not only to development, but also to tumor formation.
Lzap; zebrafish; epiboly; cell cycle; tumor suppressor
Problems with whole-culture synchronization methods for the study of the cell cycle have led to the need for an analysis of protein content during the cell cycle of cells that have not been starved or inhibited. The membrane-elution method is a method that allows the study of the cell cycle by producing a culture of unperturbed, synchronized cells.
The Helmstetter membrane-elution method for the continuous production of newborn, unperturbed, mammalian cells has been enhanced so that the collection of cells of different cell cycle ages is automated, reproducible, and relatively inexpensive. We have applied the automated membrane-elution method to the analysis of cyclin content during the cell cycle. Cyclin E protein was invariant during the cell cycle. Cyclins B1 and A accumulated continuously during the cell cycle and were degraded at mitosis. Newborn cells had ~0.5% of the cyclin B1 content of dividing cells.
The expression patterns of cyclins A, B1, and E can be explained by constant mRNA levels during the cell cycle. Previously reported phase specific variations of the cyclins are not strictly necessary for cell-cycle progression. Cells produced by membrane-elution are available to other laboratories for analysis of the cell cycle.
The cell cycle of the chlorophyll b-possessing marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is highly synchronized under natural conditions. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms we cloned and sequenced dnaA and ftsZ, two key cell cycle-associated genes, and studied their expression. An axenic culture of Prochlorococcus sp. strain PCC 9511 was grown in a turbidostat with a 12 h–12 h light-dark cycle for 2 weeks. During the light periods, a dynamic light regimen was used in order to simulate the natural conditions found in the upper layers of the world's oceans. This treatment resulted in strong cell cycle synchronization that was monitored by flow cytometry. The steady-state mRNA levels of dnaA and ftsZ were monitored at 4-h intervals during four consecutive division cycles. Both genes exhibited clear diel expression patterns with mRNA maxima during the replication (S) phase. Western blot experiments indicated that the peak of FtsZ concentration occurred at night, i.e., at the time of cell division. Thus, the transcript accumulation of genes involved in replication and division is coordinated in Prochlorococcus sp. strain PCC 9511 and might be crucial for determining the timing of DNA replication and cell division.
For gene expression data obtained from a time-course microarray experiment, Liu et al.  developed a new algorithm for clustering genes with similar expression profiles over time. Performance of their proposal was compared with three other methods including the order-restricted inference based methodology of Peddada et al. [2,3]. In this note we point out several inaccuracies in Liu et al.  and conclude that the order-restricted inference based methodology of Peddada et al. (programmed in the software ORIOGEN) indeed operates at the desired nominal Type 1 error level, an important feature of a statistical decision rule, while being computationally substantially faster than indicated by Liu et al. .
Application of ORIOGEN to the well-known breast cancer cell line data of Lobenhofer et al.  revealed that ORIOGEN software took only 21 minutes to run (using 100,000 bootstraps with p = 0.0025), substantially faster than the 72 hours found by Liu et al.  using Matlab. Also, based on a data simulated according to the model and parameters of simulation 1 (σ2 = 1, M = 5) in  we found that ORIOGEN took less than 30 seconds to run in stark contrast to Liu et al. who reported that their implementation of the same algorithm in R took 2979.29 seconds. Furthermore, for the simulation studies reported in , unlike the claims made by Liu et al. , ORIOGEN always maintained the desired false positive rate. According to Figure three in Liu et al.  their algorithm had a false positive rate ranging approximately from 0.20 to 0.70 for the scenarios that they simulated.
Our comparisons of run times indicate that the implementations of ORIOGEN's algorithm in Matlab and R by Liu et al.  is inefficient compared to the publicly available JAVA implementation. Our results on the false positive rate of ORIOGEN suggest some error in Figure three of Liu et al. , perhaps due to a programming error.
The progression of normal cells through the cell cycle is meticulously regulated by checkpoints guaranteeing the exact replication of the genome during S-phase and its equal division at mitosis. A prerequisite for this achievement is synchronized DNA-replication and centrosome duplication. In this context the expression of cyclins A and E has been shown to play a principal role.
Our results demonstrated a correlation between centrosome amplification, cell cycle fidelity and the level of mRNA and protein expression of cyclins A and E during the part of the cell cycle defined as G1-phase by means of DNA content based histogram analysis. It is shown that the normal diploid breast cell line HTB-125, the genomically relatively stable aneuploid breast cancer cell line MCF-7, and the genomically unstable aneuploid breast cancer cell line MDA-231 differ remarkably concerning both mRNA and protein expression of the two cyclins during G1-phase. In MDA-231 cells the expression of e.g. cyclin A mRNA was found to be ten times higher than in MCF-7 cells and about 500 times higher than in HTB-125 cells. Topoisomerase II α showed high mRNA expression in MDA compared to MCF-7 cells, but the difference in protein expression was small. Furthermore, we measured centrosome aberrations in 8.4% of the MDA-231 cells, and in only 1.3% of the more stable aneuploid cell line MCF-7. MDA cells showed 27% more incorporation of BrdU than reflected by S-phase determination with flow cytometric DNA content analysis, whereas these values were found to be of the same size in both HTB-125 and MCF-7 cells.
Our data indicate that the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-231, although both DNA-aneuploid, differ significantly regarding the degree of cell cycle disturbance and centrosome aberrations, which partly could explain the different genomic stability of the two cell lines. The results also question the reliability of cytometric DNA content based S-phase determination in genomically unstable tumor cell populations.
The previous studies of genome-wide expression patterns show that a certain percentage of genes are cell cycle regulated. The expression data has been analyzed in a number of different ways to identify cell cycle dependent genes. In this study, we pose the hypothesis that cell cycle dependent genes are considered as oscillating systems with a rhythm, i.e. systems producing response signals with period and frequency. Therefore, we are motivated to apply the theory of multivariate phase synchronization for clustering cell cycle specific genome-wide expression data.
We propose the strategy to find groups of genes according to the specific biological process by analyzing cell cycle specific gene expression data. To evaluate the propose method, we use the modified Kuramoto model, which is a phase governing equation that provides the long-term dynamics of globally coupled oscillators. With this equation, we simulate two groups of expression signals, and the simulated signals from each group shares their own common rhythm. Then, the simulated expression data are mixed with randomly generated expression data to be used as input data set to the algorithm. Using these simulated expression data, it is shown that the algorithm is able to identify expression signals that are involved in the same oscillating process. We also evaluate the method with yeast cell cycle expression data. It is shown that the output clusters by the proposed algorithm include genes, which are closely associated with each other by sharing significant Gene Ontology terms of biological process and/or having relatively many known biological interactions. Therefore, the evaluation analysis indicates that the method is able to identify expression signals according to the specific biological process. Our evaluation analysis also indicates that some portion of output by the proposed algorithm is not obtainable by the traditional clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance or linear correlation.
Based on the evaluation experiments, we draw the conclusion as follows: 1) Based on the theory of multivariate phase synchronization, it is feasible to find groups of genes, which have relevant biological interactions and/or significantly shared GO slim terms of biological process, using cell cycle specific gene expression signals. 2) Among all the output clusters by the proposed algorithm, the cluster with relatively large size has a tendency to include more known interactions than the one with relatively small size. 3) It is feasible to understand the cell cycle specific gene expression patterns as the phenomenon of collective synchronization. 4) The proposed algorithm is able to find prominent groups of genes, which are not obtainable by traditional clustering algorithm.
Cells of certain strains of Escherichia coli, after transfer from 37 to 45 C and incubation for 16 min, were observed to swell and subsequently divide synchronously. This swelling and the resulting stretching of the membrane are proposed to be the basis for the synchronous division. Four lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, osmotic protection by the addition of either sodium chloride or sucrose at the time of heat shock prevents both swelling and synchrony. Second, a mutant neither swelled nor divided synchronously after heat shock. Third, cells grown for several generations with 10% sucrose in the medium swelled and divided synchronously upon transfer to medium without sucrose. Fourth, the mutant not synchronized by heat shock also swelled and underwent synchronous division after the osmotic shift. A tentative model is suggested for the normal control of division, based on membrane configuration at the septation site.
We have used high-density DNA microarrays to provide an analysis of gene regulation during the mammalian cell cycle and the role of E2F in this process. Cell cycle analysis was facilitated by a combined examination of gene control in serum-stimulated fibroblasts and cells synchronized at G1/S by hydroxyurea block that were then released to proceed through the cell cycle. The latter approach (G1/S synchronization) is critical for rigorously maintaining cell synchrony for unambiguous analysis of gene regulation in later stages of the cell cycle. Analysis of these samples identified seven distinct clusters of genes that exhibit unique patterns of expression. Genes tend to cluster within these groups based on common function and the time during the cell cycle that the activity is required. Placed in this context, the analysis of genes induced by E2F proteins identified genes or expressed sequence tags not previously described as regulated by E2F proteins; surprisingly, many of these encode proteins known to function during mitosis. A comparison of the E2F-induced genes with the patterns of cell growth-regulated gene expression revealed that virtually all of the E2F-induced genes are found in only two of the cell cycle clusters; one group was regulated at G1/S, and the second group, which included the mitotic activities, was regulated at G2. The activation of the G2 genes suggests a broader role for E2F in the control of both DNA replication and mitotic activities.
Variation in gene expression among cells in a population is often considered as noise produced from gene transcription and post-transcription processes and experimental artifacts. Most studies on noise in gene expression have emphasized a few well-characterized genes and proteins. We investigated whether different cell-arresting methods have impacts on the maximum expression levels (amplitudes) of a cell cycle related gene.
By introducing random noise, modeled by a von Mises distribution, to the phase angle in a sinusoidal model in a cell population, we derived a relationship between amplitude and the distribution of noise in maximum transcription time (phase). We applied our analysis to Whitfield's HeLa cell cycle data. Our analysis suggests that among 47 cell cycle related genes common to the 2nd experiment (thymidine-thymidine method) and the 4th experiment (thymidine-nocodazole method): (i) the amplitudes of CDC6 and PCNA, which are expressed during G1/S phase, are smaller in the 2nd experiment than in the 4th, while the amplitude of CDC20, which is expressed during G2/M phase, is smaller in the 4th experiment; and (ii) the two cell-arresting methods had little impact on the amplitudes of the other 43 genes in the 2nd and 4th experiments.
Our analysis suggests that procedures that arrest cells in different stages of the cell cycle differentially affect expression of some cell cycle related genes once the cells are released from arrest. The impact of the cell-arresting method on expression of a cell cycle related gene can be quantitatively estimated from the ratio of two estimated amplitudes in two experiments. The ratio can be used to gauge the variation in the phase/peak expression time distribution involved in stochastic transcription and post-transcriptional processes for the gene. Further investigations are needed using normal, unperturbed and synchronized HeLa cells as a reference to compare how many cell cycle related genes are directly and indirectly affected by various cell-arresting methods.
Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) histone mRNA synthesis is tightly regulated to the S phase of the cell division cycle as a result of both transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. We focused on the role of posttranscriptional control in histone H2B1 gene (HTB1) regulation and studied a portion of the HTB1 message required for cell-cycle-specific accumulation. The 3' end of the HTB1 gene containing a 17-amino-acid coding sequence and entire noncoding sequence was fused to the bacterial neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (neo) under control of the GAL1 promoter. The expression of the endogenous and chimeric HTB1 genes was analyzed during the yeast cell cycle. As yeast cells entered a synchronous cell cycle following release from alpha-factor arrest, the level of GAL1-promoter-controlled neo-HTB1 message increased approximately 12-fold during S phase and dropped to basal level when the cells left S phase. This indicates that the 3' end of the HTB1 mRNA is capable of conferring cycle-specific regulation on a heterologous message. Deletion analysis of the 3' end showed that the signal for cell cycle control of HTB1 mRNA includes contiguous coding and noncoding sequences surrounding the stop codon. This differs from the situation in mammalian cells, whose posttranscriptional regulation of histone genes is mediated through a short sequence containing a stem-loop structure near the very terminus of the untranslated 3' end.
Cell division involves a complex series of events orchestrated by thousands of molecules. To study this process, researchers have employed mRNA expression profiling of synchronously growing cell cultures progressing through the cell cycle. These experiments, which have been carried out in several organisms, are not easy to access, combine and evaluate. Complicating factors include variation in interdivision time between experiments and differences in relative duration of each cell-cycle phase across organisms. To address these problems, we created Cyclebase, an online resource of cell-cycle-related experiments. This database provides an easy-to-use web interface that facilitates visualization and download of genome-wide cell-cycle data and analysis results. Data from different experiments are normalized to a common timescale and are complimented with key cell-cycle information and derived analysis results. In Cyclebase version 2.0, we have updated the entire database to reflect changes to genome annotations, included information on cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) substrates, predicted degradation signals and loss-of-function phenotypes from genome-wide screens. The web interface has been improved and provides a single, gene-centric graph summarizing the available cell-cycle experiments. Finally, key information and links to orthologous and paralogous genes are now included to further facilitate comparison of cell-cycle regulation across species. Cyclebase version 2.0 is available at http://www.cyclebase.org.
Four isogenic strains of temperature-sensitive septationless mutants, whose mutations are located on different genes, were used to study the periods of action of the gene products required for the initiation of septum formation during the cell cycle of Bacillus subtilis. The shift-up experiments, in which portions of a synchronous culture of each mutant were transferred to the nonpermissive temperature, showed that the transition point, at which cells attained the ability to divide at the nonpermissive temperature in the cell cycle, was strain specific. Furthermore, the heat shock experiments, in which portions of a synchronous culture were subjected to the nonpermissive temperature before the transition point for a fixed period and shifted back to the permissive temperature, showed that the time interval between the shift-back and the subsequent cell division was specific to each strain but was independent of the age of heat shock. These results led us to the idea that the initiation of septum formation in B. subtilis requires the timed action of the four gene products, each of which functions at a specific stage in the cell cycle. In addition, the result with DNA elongation mutant MK-526, which is also septation defective, supported our previous findings that the initiation of septum formation requires the termination of DNA replication in the previous cell cycle.
Analysis of exponential and synchronous cultures of Escherichia coli B/r after the addition of FL1060 indicates a block point for division by this agent some 15 to 20 min before the end of the preceding cell division cycle, a time corresponding to the beginning of the C period of the cell division cycle. Morphological examination of FL1060-treated synchronous cultures of E. coli /r was consistent with inhibition by FL1060 of a very early event in the cell division cycle. This event appears to be essential for normal cell surface elongation in a rod configuration. Temporary treatment of synchronous cultures of E. coli B/r with FL1060 resulted in division delay, the extent of which was a function of the duration of exposure to FL1060. However, even after relatively long times of FL1060 treatment the delayed divisions were still synchronous. Although FL1060 had no direct effect on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, the synchronous delayed division occuring after temporary treatment with FL1060 were accompanied by a delay in the attainment of resistance of cell division to inhibitors of DNA, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis. These results suggest aht an FL1060-sensitive event initiates at the beginning of the C period of the cell division cycle of E. coli and is responsible for normal cell elongation. This cell elongation pathway procedes independently of DNA synthesis, but there is an interaction between this pathway and termination of a round of DNA replication in which a normal rod configuration is necessary to allow a signal for cell division to be generated upon completion of DNA replication.
Shi-Liu-Wei-Liu-Qi-Yin (SLWLQY) was traditionally used to treat cancers. However, scientific evidence of the anticancer effects still remains undefined. In this study, we aimed to clarify the possible mechanisms of SLWLQY in treating cancer. We evaluated the effects of SLWLQY on apoptosis-related experiments inducing in TSGH-8301 cells by (i) 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-zyl)-2,5-diphenylterazolium bromide (MTT) for cytotoxicity; (ii) cell-cycle analysis and (iii) western blot analysis of the G2/M-phase and apoptosis regulatory proteins. Human bladder carcinoma TSGH-8301 cells were transplanted into BALB/c nude mice as a tumor model for evaluating the antitumor effect of SLWLQY. Treatment of SLWLQY resulted in the G2/M phase arrest and apoptotic death in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinases (cdc2) and cyclins (cyclin B1). SLWLQY stimulated increases in the protein expression of Fas and FasL, and induced the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-8. The ratio of Bax/Bcl2 was increased by SLWLQY treatment. SLWLQY markedly reduced tumor size in TSGH-8301 cells-xenografted tumor tissues. In the tissue specimen, SLWLQY up-regulated the expression of Fas, FasL and Bax proteins, and down-regulated Bcl2 as well as in in vitro assay. Our results showed that SLWLQY reduced tumor growth, caused cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in TSGH-8301 cells via the Fas and mitochondrial pathway.
The polar organelle development gene, podJ, is expressed during the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition of the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. Mutants with insertions that inactivate the podJ gene are nonchemotactic, deficient in rosette formation, and resistant to polar bacteriophage, but they divide normally. In contrast, hyperexpression of podJ results in a lethal cell division defect. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the podJ promoter region revealed a binding site for the global response regulator, CtrA. Deletion of this site results in increased overall promoter activity, suggesting that CtrA is a negative regulator of the podJ promoter. Furthermore, synchronization studies have indicated that temporal regulation is not dependent on the presence of the CtrA binding site. Thus, although the level of podJ promoter activity is dependent on the CtrA binding site, the temporal control of podJ promoter expression is dependent on other factors.
Synchronously growing staphylococci were treated with "lytic" concentrations of penicillin at different stages of their division cycle. Coulter Counter measurements and light microscopy were used to determine the onset of bacteriolysis. Independent of the stage of the division cycle at which penicillin was added, (i) the cells were always able to perform the next cell division; (ii) the following division, however, did not take place; and (iii) instead, at this time, when the onset of the subsequent cell separation was observed in control cultures, lysis of the penicillin-treated cells occurred. These results support a recent model (P. Giesbrecht, H. Labischinski, and J. Wecke, Arch. Microbiol. 141:315-324, 1985) explaining penicillin-induced bacteriolysis of staphylococci as the result of a special morphogenetic mistake during cross wall formation.
A heat-labile protein required for division accumulates during the duplication cycle of Escherichia coli. Its formation appears to commence shortly after the cell divides, and it reaches a maximal amount shortly before the next division. A plausible mechanism for timing cell division depends on building up the critical amount of this protein. Completion of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication is also necessary for division to occur, but it does not uniquely initiate division. The evidence for these conclusions comes from heat-shock experiments; heating to 45 C for 15 min delays division increasingly with the age of a cell. A heat shock given near the end of a cycle delays division for about 30 min, whereas at the beginning of the cycle it hardly affects division. The net result is synchronization of cell division. The effect of heat is increased in bacteria which have incorporated p-fluoro-phenylalanine into their proteins. When the incorporation is early and the heat shock is late in the cycle, division is delayed by about 30 min, indicating that the division protein is synthesized early even though its sensitivity is not observed until later. At any time in the cell cycle, heat shock simply delays total protein and DNA synthesis (3H-thymidine uptake) for approximately 14 min. DNA replication and cell division are thus discoordinated, since DNA replication is not synchronized by the treatment.