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1.  188Re radiopharmaceuticals for radiosynovectomy: evaluation and comparison of tin colloid, hydroxyapatite and tin-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates 
Background
Radiosynovectomy is a therapy used to relieve pain and inflammation from rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases. In this study three 188Re particulate compounds were characterized according to their physico-chemical properties and their biological behavior in rabbits. The results were compared in order to establish which was the radiopharmaceutical that better fits the requirements of this kind of radiotherapy.
Methods
Three radiopharmaceutical formulations, tin colloid, hydroxyapatite particles (HA) and ferric hydroxide macroaggregates coated with tin colloid (FHMA), were physically characterized (number, volume and surface of the particles). For this purpose laser diffraction methodology was used. To evaluate cavity leakage of activity the following studies in New Zealand rabbits were performed: scintigraphic images for 48 hr after intraarticular injection of each radiopharmaceutical, biodistribution at 48 hr and urine samples collection during the first 24 hr post-radiopharmaceutical administration.
Results
Labeling procedures for 188Re-HA and 188Re-Sn-FHMA were labour intensive while 188Re-Sn was easily prepared. Furthermore, 188Re-Sn colloid offered the greatest surface area in the 2–10 microm range and was obtained with a radiochemical purity over 95%, while percentage of bound activity for 188Re-HA and 188Re-Sn-FHMA were 55% and 92% respectively. Stability was verified for the three radiopharmaceuticals for 24 hr. Scintigraphic studies and biodistribution in rabbits after intraarticular administration of the radiopharmaceuticals showed relevant activity only in the knee, this being over 90% of the residual activity in the whole body at 48 hr in every case. Renal elimination of 188Re-Sn colloid and 188Re-Sn-FHMA was detected by activity measurements in urine samples, during the first 12 hr post-radiopharmaceutical injection.
The percentage of activity retained in the knee was 69.1% for 188Re-Sn colloid, 55.1% for 188Re-Sn-FHMA and 33.6% for 188Re-HA.
Conclusion
The 188Re-Sn colloid was easy to prepare, minimum facilities were required, was stable for 24 hr and showed minimal leakage from the joint after intraarticular injection into the rabbit's knee. Furthermore, 188Re-Sn colloid has greater retention in the knee when it is compared with the other radiopharmaceuticals, so it could provide the best therapeutic effect/absorbed dose ratio for the patient.
doi:10.1186/1471-2385-4-1
PMCID: PMC373254  PMID: 15040807
2.  The Efficacy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and X-Ray in the Evaluation of Response to Radiosynovectomy in Patients with Hemophilic Arthropathy 
Objective: We aimed to assess the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and X-Ray in the evaluation of response to radiosynovectomy (RS) in patients with hemophilic arthropathy.
Material and Methods: Eleven patients who suffered from hemophilic arthropathy with a mean age of 11.7 (range between 7-15) were included in this study. 148-185 MBq Yttrium 90 silicate (Y-90) was administered intraarticularly to ten knee joints and one patient was treated with intraarticular 74 MBq Rhenium 186 (Re-186) injection into his ankle. Before radiosynovectomy, plain anteroposterior and lateral X-rays of the target joints were obtained by standard technique. The follow-up MRI and X-ray studies of the patients were done 6 months after RS. Pettersson hemophilic arthropathy scales were utilized to stage the condition of the joints on plain X-ray and classification of the investigated joints on MRI were done according to Denver score. The clinical assessment of the efficacy of the RS was made with the comparison of the average bleedings before and after the intervention.
Results: During the 6-month follow-up period after RS, an improvement in number of hemarthrosis 75% or greater compared with the prior six months occurred in six joints (54.5%). The Pettersson scores worsened in 1/11 (9%), remained unchanged in 9/11 (81.8%), and improved in 1/11 (9%) joints. At the 6-month follow-up, the MRI score worsened in one (9%) and was unchanged in 10/11 joints (90.9%).
Conclusion: MRI is a more sensitive tool than plain radiography for evaluating and follow-up of joint disease in persons with hemophilia, but both methods don’t show correlation with the therapeutic response
Conflict of interest:None declared.
doi:10.4274/MIRT.25
PMCID: PMC3590945  PMID: 23487524
Radiosynovectomy; hemophilic arthropathy; magnetic resonance imaging; therapy response
3.  Radiosynovectomy in Hemophilic Synovitis 
Radisosynovectomy (RS) is a local form of radionuclide therapy used in various forms of arthritis characterized by synovitis. In hemophilic arthropathy, RS provides removal of inflamed synovium and prevents further joint damage. This review focuses on the practical aspects of radionuclide synovectomy in hemophilic patients and describes the issues both related to the methodology and post-therapeutic follow-up.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
doi:10.4274/Mirt.49369
PMCID: PMC3957964  PMID: 24653927
radioisotope therapy; Hemophilia; synovitis
4.  Long term follow up of radiosynovectomy with yttrium-90 silicate in haemophilic haemarthrosis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1993;52(7):548-550.
OBJECTIVES--The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effect of radiation synovectomy with yttrium-90 silicate in haemophiliac patients with recurrent haemarthrosis. METHODS--The bleeding frequency and the mobility of the joint were recorded in 16 joints of 14 patients 1 year before radiosynovectomy and during follow up, which ranged from 3 to 6 years. Patients evaluated the effect of their own treatment by completing a questionnaire. Radiographs of the joints were scored by an independent radiologist before treatment. RESULTS--A satisfactory reduction of the frequency of haemorrhage was achieved in 94% of joints during the first year after treatment and was maintained in 63% until the end of the follow up period. In general there was no decrease in mobility attributable to radiosynovectomy, and the patients' own evaluations agreed with the evaluations based on the frequencies of haemarthrosis in 75%. Patients who had only minor, or no, radiological abnormalities of the joints before treatment showed the best results. One patient developed synovitis as a complication of the radiosynovectomy. CONCLUSION--Radiosynovectomy is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent haemarthrosis in haemophiliac patients, especially in those who have joints with no or minor radiological damage.
PMCID: PMC1005098  PMID: 8346985
5.  Treatment of Diffuse Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Knee with Combined Surgical and Radiosynovectomy 
HSS Journal  2008;5(1):19-23.
Treatment of extensive diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of large joints by isolated surgical resection is unsatisfactory, with high rates of local recurrence. Post-synovectomy adjuvant treatment with external beam radiation therapy or intra-articular injection of radioactive material as yttrium-90 (90Y) yielded better results. Between January 2005 and January 2007, 12 patients (eight men and four women aged 19–49 years) with extensive diffuse PVNS of the knee were treated. All patients had an adjuvant post-operative external beam radiation therapy (2,600–3,000 cGy) conventionally fractionated 200 cGy/fraction, five fractions/week, 6–8 weeks after surgery. Mean follow-up time was 27 months (range from 20 to 36 months). All patients were followed up using clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, and plain X-ray. In all patients, neither evidence of disease recurrence nor progression of bone or articular destruction was noted. No complications were noticed after surgery or after post-operative external beam radiation therapy. A combination of debulking surgery using anterior and posterior approach with adjuvant post-operative external beam radiation therapy for extensive diffuse PVNS of the knee joint is a reliable treatment method, with good results in regard to the incidence of local recurrence and functional outcome.
doi:10.1007/s11420-008-9104-5
PMCID: PMC2642543  PMID: 19096892
PVN; synovitis; radiosynovectomy; synovectomy
6.  Consecutive radiosynovectomy procedures at 6-monthly intervals behave independently in haemophilic synovitis 
Blood Transfusion  2013;11(2):254-259.
Background
Previous studies on the same group of patients investigated here demonstrated the effectiveness of radiosynovectomy in the treatment of chronic haemophilic synovitis even if one, two or three radiosynovectomy procedures (RS-1, RS-2, RS-3) may be necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the joints’ response to each radiosynovectomy procedure behaved independently or not.
Materials and methods
One hundred and fifty-six radiosynovectomies were performed in 104 joints of 78 people diagnosed with chronic haemophilic synovitis. The patient’s mean age was 18 years. Fifty-eight patients required radiosynovectomy in a single joint, whereas 20 received treatment in more than one joint. Of the 104 joints subjected to radiosynovectomy, 33 were elbows, 47 knees and 24 ankles. Radiosynovectomy was carried out with either yttrium-90 or rhenium-186 (1–3 injections with 6-month intervals between them). Of the 104 joints, 68 required a single injection of the radioisotope (RS-1), 20 required two injections (RS-2) and 16 required three injections (RS-3). In eight cases (7.6%), the affected joints eventually required surgery.
Results
An analysis of seven variables (number of bleeding episodes, articular pain, range of motion in flexion and extension, muscle strength in flexion and extension, and synovial thickness by imaging) demonstrated that each consecutive radiosynovectomy behaves independently in haemophilic synovitis.
Discussion
Each consecutive radiosynovectomy behaves independently in haemophilic synovitis. This finding had not been documented in the literature before the present study.
doi:10.2450/2012.0099-12
PMCID: PMC3626478  PMID: 23245712
haemophilia; synovitis; radiosynovectomy
7.  Lipid Nanocapsules Loaded with Rhenium-188 Reduce Tumor Progression in a Rat Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e16926.
Background
Due to their nanometric scale (50 nm) along with their biomimetic properties, lipid nanocapsules loaded with Rhenium-188 (LNC188Re-SSS) constitute a promising radiopharmaceutical carrier for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment as its size may improve tumor penetration in comparison with microspheres devices. This study was conducted to confirm the feasibility and to assess the efficacy of internal radiation with LNC188Re-SSS in a chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma rat model.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Animals were treated with an injection of LNC188Re-SSS (80 MBq or 120 MBq). The treated animals (80 MBq, n = 12; 120 MBq, n = 11) were compared with sham (n = 12), blank LNC (n = 7) and 188Re-perrhenate (n = 4) animals. The evaluation criteria included rat survival, tumor volume assessment, and vascular endothelial growth factor quantification. Following treatment with LNC188Re-SSS (80 MBq) therapeutic efficiency was demonstrated by an increase in the median survival from 54 to 107% compared with control groups with up to 7 long-term survivors in the LNC188Re-SSS group. Decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the treated rats could indicate alterations in the angiogenesis process.
Conclusions/Significance
Overall, these results demonstrate that internal radiation with LNC188Re-SSS is a promising new strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016926
PMCID: PMC3049769  PMID: 21408224
8.  Role of radiosynovectomy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and hemophilic arthropathies 
Radiosynovectomy is a novel method of treatment for several acute and chronic inflammatory joint disorders. A small amount of a beta-emitting radionuclide is injected into the affected joint delivering a radiation dose of 70 to 100 Gy to the synovia. The proliferative tissue is destroyed, secretion of fluid and accumulation of inflammation causing cellular compounds stops and the joint surfaces become fibrosed, providing long term symptom relief. The radionuclides are injected in colloidal form so that they remain in the synovium and are not transported by lymphatic vessels causing radiation exposure to other organs. Complete reduction of knee joint swelling has been seen in above 40% and pain relief in 88% of patients. Wrist, elbow, shoulder, ankle and hip joints showed significant improvement in 50-60% and restoration of normal function and long term pain relief has been achieved in about 70% of small finger joints. In hemophilic arthropathies complete cessation of bleeding in about 60% and improved mobility in 75% of patients has been reported.
doi:10.2349/biij.3.4.e45
PMCID: PMC3097689  PMID: 21614297
Radiosynovectomy; treatment of hemophilic arthropathies; radionuclides in rheumatoid arthritis
9.  Artemisia arborescens L essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for potential agricultural application: Preparation and characterization 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2006;7(1):E10-E18.
The aim of this study was to formulate a new delivery system for ecological pesticides by the incorporation of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Two different SLN formulations were prepared following the high-pressure homogenization technique using Compritol 888 ATO as lipid and Poloxamer 188 or Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. The SLN formulation particle size was determined using Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and laser diffraction analysis (LD). The change of particle charge was studied by zeta potential (ZP) measurements, while the melting and recrystallization behavior was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release studies of the essential oil were performed at 35°C. Data showed a high physical stability for both formulations at various storage temperatures during 2 months of investigation. In particular, average diameter of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil-loaded SLN did not vary during storage and increased slightly after spraying the SLN dispersions. In vitro release experiments showed that SLN were able to reduce the rapid evaporation of essential oil if compared with the reference emulsions. Therefore, obtained results showed that the studied SLN formulations are suitable carriers in agriculture.
doi:10.1208/pt070102
PMCID: PMC2750709  PMID: 16584140
solid lipid nanoparticles; SLN; natural pesticide; in vitro release; agriculture
10.  Does yttrium radiosynovectomy increase the risk of cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2003;62(3):251-253.
Methods: The medical record numbers of 1228 patients with RA who were admitted to hospital in 1979–85 were identified in the database of Jyväskylä Central Hospital. Radiosynovectomy of the knee joint was performed in a total of 143 patients using yttrium-90 silicate during the years 1970–85, while 1075 did not receive yttrium radiosynovectomy; 10 received yttrium treatment later than 1985 and were excluded from the analysis. The Finnish Cancer Registry database was used to examine whether the subjects had cancer during the follow up from 1979 until the end of 1999.
Results: Nine cases of cancer were found among the patients who had received yttrium, whereas the expected number based on the incidence among the population in the region was 14.9. The standardised incidence ratio of cancer was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3 to 1.1) for the patients who received yttrium, and 1.1 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.3) for the patients who did not receive yttrium.
Conclusions: Yttrium treatment did not increase the risk of cancer.
doi:10.1136/ard.62.3.251
PMCID: PMC1754477  PMID: 12594113
11.  Analysis of lapine cartilage matrix after radiosynovectomy with holmium-166 ferric hydroxide macroaggregate 
Objective: To study the short and long term effects of radiosynovectomy on articular cartilage in growing and mature rabbits.
Methods: The articular cartilage of the distal femurs of rabbits was examined four days, two months, and one year after radiosynovectomy with holmium-166 ferric hydroxide macroaggregate ([166Ho]FHMA). Arthritic changes were evaluated from histological sections by conventional and polarised light microscopy, and glycosaminoglycan measurements using safranin O staining, digital densitometry, and uronic acid determination. Proteoglycan synthesis was studied by metabolic [35]sulphate labelling followed by autoradiography, and electrophoretic analysis of extracted proteoglycans. Northern analyses were performed to determine the mRNA levels of type II collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9 in cartilage samples.
Results: Radiosynovectomy had no major effect on the histological appearance of articular cartilage in mature rabbits, whereas more fibrillation was seen in [166Ho]FHMA radiosynovectomised knee joints of growing rabbits two months after treatment, but not after one year. Radiosynovectomy did not cause changes in the glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage or in the synthesis or chemical structure of proteoglycans. No radiosynovectomy related changes were seen in the mRNA levels of type II collagen, whereas a transient down regulation of aggrecan and Sox9 mRNA levels was seen in young rabbits two months after [166Ho]FHMA radiosynovectomy.
Conclusions: [166Ho]FHMA radiosynovectomy caused no obvious chondrocyte damage or osteoarthritic changes in mature rabbits, but in growing rabbits some transient radiation induced effects were seen—for example, mild cartilage fibrillation and down regulation of cartilage-specific genes.
doi:10.1136/ard.62.1.43
PMCID: PMC1754287  PMID: 12480668
12.  Development of 177Lu-phytate Complex for Radiosynovectomy 
Objective(s): In this work a new possible agent for radiosynovectomy has been targeted for articular pain palliation.
Materials and Methods: Lu-177 of 2.6-3 GBq/mg specific activity was obtained by irradiation of natural Lu2O3 sample with thermal neutron flux of 4 × 1013 n.cm-2.s-1. The product was converted into chloride form which was further used for labeling of 177Lu-phytate complex and checked using ITLC (MeOH: H2O: acetic acid, 4: 4: 2, as mobile phase). The complex stability and viscosity were checked in the final solution up to seven days. The prepared complex solution (100 µCi/100 µl) was injected intra-articularly to male rat knee joint. Leakage of radioactivity from injection site and its distribution in organs were investigated up to seven days.
Results: The complex was successfully prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99.9 %). Approximately, the whole injected dose has remained in injection site seven days after injection.
Conclusion: The complex was proved to be a feasible agent for cavital radiotherapy in oncology and rheumatology.
PMCID: PMC3700046  PMID: 23826493
Biodistribution; Lutetium-177; Phytate Radiosynovectomy
13.  Improved Albendazole Dissolution Rate in Pluronic 188 Solid Dispersions 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2010;11(4):1518-1525.
Solids dispersions (SDs) have been proposed as an alternative to improve the dissolution rate of low solubility drugs. SDs containing albendazole (ABZ; 5, 10, 25, and 50% w/w) and Pluronic 188 (P 188) as hydrophilic carrier were formulated. The obtained SDs were assessed in comparison to physical mixtures (PMs). Drug–polymer interactions in solid state were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. No chemical interaction was found between ABZ and poloxamer. The dissolution profiles indicated that ABZ incorporated in SDs and PMs was rapidly released, reaching rapidly the steady state. Increased dissolution rates are usually observed at the highest polymer proportions. However, an opposite effect for SDs as well as for PMs was observed in the assays described here. The systems with the lowest P 188 percentages (SD4, SD3; PM4, PM3) tended to be more effective in increasing the ABZ dissolution rate. Such a result can be attributed to the fact that concentrated aqueous solutions of Poloxamer may form thermo-reversible gels. The physical–mechanical properties indicated that SDs possess improved flow and compacting properties compared to PMs. Thus, ABZ SDs would be more convenient for solid dosage form design and manufacture.
doi:10.1208/s12249-010-9517-6
PMCID: PMC3011078  PMID: 20945166
albendazole; dissolution rate; poloxamer; solid dispersions; surfactant
14.  Preparation and biodistribution of 188Re-labeled folate conjugated human serum albumin magnetic cisplatin nanoparticles (188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA MNPs) in vivo 
Background
The purpose of this study was to develop intraperitoneal hyperthermic therapy based on magnetic fluid hyperthermia, nanoparticle-wrapped cisplatin chemotherapy, and magnetic particles of albumin. In addition, to combine the multiple-killing effects of hyperthermal targeting therapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, the albumin-nanoparticle surfaces were linked with radionuclide 188Re-labeled folic acid ligand (188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA).
Methods
Human serum albumin was labeled with 188Re using the pre-tin method. Reaction time and optimal conditions of labeling were investigated. The particles were intravenously injected into mice, which were sacrificed at different time points. Radioactivity per gram of tissue of percent injected dose (% ID/g) was measured in vital organs. The biodistribution of 188Re-folate-CDDP/HAS magnetic nanoparticles was assessed.
Results
Optimal conditions for 188Re-labeled folate-conjugated albumin combined with cisplatin magnetic nanoparticles were: 0.1 mL of sodium gluconate solution (0.3 mol/L), 0.1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid with dissolved stannous chloride (10 mg/mL), 0.04 mL of acetic acid buffer solution (pH 5, 0.2 mol/L), 30 mg of folate-conjugated albumin combined with cisplatin magnetic nanoparticles, and 188ReO4 eluent (0.1 mL). The rate of 188Re-folate-CDDP-HSA magnetic nanoparticle formation exceeded 90%, and radiochemical purity exceeded 95%. The overall labeling rate was 83% in calf serum at 37°C. The major uptake tissues were the liver, kidney, intestine, and tumor after the 188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA magnetic nanoparticles were injected into nude mice. Uptake of 188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA magnetic nanoparticles increased gradually after injection, peaked at 8 hours with a value of 8.83 ± 1.71, and slowly decreased over 24 hours in vivo.
Conclusion
These results indicate that 188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA magnetic nanoparticles can be used in radionuclide-targeted cancer therapy. Surface-modified albumin nanoparticles with folic acid ligand-labeled radionuclide (188Re) were successfully prepared, laying the foundation for a triple-killing effect of thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S24322
PMCID: PMC3235028  PMID: 22163161
cisplatin; folic acid; albumin; magnetic nanoparticles; 188Re; ovarian cancer
15.  Colloidal stability of polymeric nanoparticles in biological fluids 
Estimating the colloidal stability of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) in biological environments is critical for designing optimal preparations and to clarify the fate of these devices after administration. To characterize and quantify the physical stability of nanodevices suitable for biomedical applications, spherical NPs composed of poly-lactic acid (PLA) and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA), in the range 100–200 nm, were prepared. Their stability in salt solutions, biological fluids, serum and tissue homogenates was analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The PMMA NPs remained stable in all fluids, while PLA NPs aggregated in gastric juice and spleen homogenate. The proposed stability test is therefore useful to see in advance whether NPs might aggregate when administered in vivo. To assess colloidal stability ex vivo as well, spectrophotofluorimetric analysis was employed, giving comparable results to DLS.
doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0920-7
PMCID: PMC3496558  PMID: 23162376
Nanoparticles; Poly-lactic acid; Poly-methyl-methacrylate; Nanomedicine; Gastrointestinal fluids; Serum; Homogenates
16.  Characterisation of Ilomastat for Prolonged Ocular Drug Release 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2012;13(4):1063-1072.
We are developing tablet dosage forms for implantation directly into the subconjunctival space of the eye. The matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, ilomastat, has previously been shown to be efficacious at suppressing scarring following glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS). We report on the physical characterisation of ilomastat which is being developed for ocular implantation. Since ilomastat is being considered for implantation it is necessary to examine its polymorphs and their influence on aspects of the in vitro drug release profile. X-ray powder diffraction identified two polymorphs of ilomastat from different commercial batches of the compound. Tablets were prepared from the two different polymorphs. Isothermal perfusion calorimetry was used to show that amorphous content is not increased during tablet formulation. The melting points of the two polymorphs are 188 and 208°C as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Utilising single crystal X-ray diffraction, the structural conformations and packing arrangements of the different polymorphs were determined. The orthorhombic crystal crystallised as a monohydrate while the second monoclinic crystal form is non-solvated. Ilomastat tablets prepared from the two different solid forms exhibited similar drug release profiles in vitro under conditions mimicking the aqueous composition, volume and flow of the subconjunctival space after GFS. This suggests that a reproducible dose at each time point during release after implantation should be achievable in vivo with ilomastat tablets prepared from the two polymorphs identified.
doi:10.1208/s12249-012-9832-1
PMCID: PMC3513442  PMID: 22903888
ocular drug delivery; enantiotrope; dissolution; biorelevant media; solid–solid transition
17.  The influence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, external radiation and unlabeled antibody on the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 188Re-labeled anti-E6 C1P5 antibody in cervical cancer in mice 
Cancer  2010;116(4 Suppl):1067-1074.
Background
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered a necessary step for the development of cervical cancer and >95% of all cervical cancers have detectable HPV sequences. We have recently demonstrated the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) which targeted viral oncoprotein E6 in treatment of experimental cervical cancer We hypothesized that pre-treatment of tumor cells with various agents which cause cell death and/or elevation of E6 levels would increase the accumulation of radiolabeled antibodies to E6 in cervical tumors.
Methods
HPV-16 positive CasKi cells were treated in vitro with up to 6 Gy of external radiation, or proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or unlabeled anti-E6 antibody C1P5 and cell death was assessed. Biodistribution of 188Rhenium (188Re)-labeled C1P5 antibody was performed in both control and radiation MG-132 treated CasKi tumor-bearing nude mice.
Results
. 188Re-C1P5 antibody demonstrated tumor specificity and very low uptake and fast clearance from the major organs. The amount of tumor uptake was enhanced by MG-132 but was unaffected by pre-treatment with radiation. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated an unanticipated effect of unlabeled antibody on the amount of cell death, a finding that was suggested by our previous in vivo studies in CasKi tumor model.
Conclusion
We demonstrated that pre-treatment of cervical tumors with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and with unlabeled antibody to E6 can serve as a means to generate non-viable cancer cells and to elevate the levels of target oncoproteins in the cells for increasing the accumulation of targeted radiolabeled antibodies in tumors. These results favor further development of RIT of cervical cancers targeting viral antigens.
doi:10.1002/cncr.24794
PMCID: PMC2820134  PMID: 20127955
Cervical cancer; viral antigens; radiolabeled antibodies; 188-Rhenium; chemotherapy
18.  Production of nanoparticles from natural hydroxylapatite by laser ablation 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2011;6(1):255.
Laser ablation of solids in liquids technique has been used to obtain colloidal nanoparticles from biological hydroxylapatite using pulsed as well as a continuous wave (CW) laser. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements revealed the formation of spherical particles with size distribution ranging from few nanometers to hundred nanometers and irregular submicronic particles. High resolution TEM showed that particles obtained by the use of pulsed laser were crystalline, while those obtained by the use of CW laser were amorphous. The shape and size of particles are consistent with the explosive ejection as formation mechanism.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-255
PMCID: PMC3211317  PMID: 21711800
19.  Toxicity of various silver nanoparticles compared to silver ions in Daphnia magna 
Background
To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impacts of silver nanoparticles released into freshwater environments, the Daphnia magna 48-hour immobilization test was used.
Methods
The toxicities of silver nitrate, two types of colloidal silver nanoparticles, and a suspension of silver nanoparticles were assessed and compared using standard OECD guidelines. Also, the swimming behavior and visible uptake of the nanoparticles by Daphnia were investigated and compared. The particle suspension and colloids used in the toxicity tests were well-characterized.
Results
The results obtained from the exposure studies showed that the toxicity of all the silver species tested was dose and composition dependent. Plus, the silver nanoparticle powders subsequently suspended in the exposure water were much less toxic than the previously prepared silver nanoparticle colloids, whereas the colloidal silver nanoparticles and AgNO3 were almost similar in terms of mortality. The silver nanoparticles were ingested by the Daphnia and accumulated under the carapace, on the external body surface, and connected to the appendages. All the silver species in this study caused abnormal swimming by the D. magna.
Conclusion
According to the present results, silver nanoparticles should be classified according to GHS (Globally Harmonized System of classification and labeling of chemicals) as "category acute 1" to Daphnia neonates, suggesting that the release of nanosilver into the environment should be carefully considered.
doi:10.1186/1477-3155-10-14
PMCID: PMC3344683  PMID: 22472056
Daphnia magna; Silver; Nanoparticle; Colloid; Ion; Acute toxicity
20.  Insulin-Egg Yolk Dispersions in Self Microemulsifying System 
Formulation of insulin into a microemulsion very often presents a physicochemical instability during their preparation and storage. In order to overcome this lack of stability and facilitate the handling of these colloidal systems, stabilization of insulin in presence of hydrophobic components of a microemulsion appears as the most promising strategy. The present paper reports the use of egg yolk for stabilization of insulin in self microemulsifying dispersions. Insulin loaded egg yolk self microemulsifying dispersions were prepared by lyophilization followed by dispersion into self microemulsifying vehicle. The physicochemical characterization of selfmicroemulsifying dispersions includes such as insulin encapsulation efficiency, in vitro stability of insulin in presence of proteolytic enzymes and in vitro release. The biological activity of insulin from the dispersion was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and in vivo using Wistar diabetic rats. The particle size ranged 1.023±0.316 μm in diameter and insulin encapsulation efficiency was 98.2±0.9 %. Insulin hydrophobic self microemulsifying dispersions suppressed insulin release in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer and shown to protect insulin from enzymatic degradation in vitro in presence of chymotripsin. Egg yolk encapsulated insulin was bioactive, demonstrated through both in vivo and in vitro.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.49092
PMCID: PMC3040865  PMID: 21369432
Insulin; egg yolk; microemulsion; in vitro stability; oral delivery
21.  Barriers for lateral diffusion of transferrin receptor in the plasma membrane as characterized by receptor dragging by laser tweezers: fence versus tether 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1995;129(6):1559-1574.
Our previous results indicated that the plasma membrane of cultured normal rat kidney fibroblastic cell is compartmentalized for diffusion of receptor molecules, and that long-range diffusion is the result of successive intercompartmental jumps (Sako, Y. and Kusumi, A. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 125:1251-1264). In the present study, we characterized the properties of intercompartmental boundaries by tagging transferrin receptor (TR) with either 210-nm-phi latex or 40-nm-phi colloidal gold particles, and by dragging the particle-TR complexes laterally along the plasma membrane using laser tweezers. Approximately 90% of the TR- particle complexes showed confined-type diffusion with a microscopic diffusion coefficient (Dmicro) of approximately 10(-9) cm2/s and could be dragged past the intercompartmental boundaries in their path by laser tweezers at a trapping force of 0.25 pN for gold-tagged TR and 0.8 pN for latex-tagged TR. At lower dragging forces between 0.05 and 0.1 pN, particle-TR complexes tended to escape from the laser trap at the boundaries, and such escape occurred in both the forward and backward directions of dragging. The average distance dragged was half of the confined distance of TR, which further indicates that particle- TR complexes escape at the compartment boundaries. Since variation in the particle size (40 and 210 nm, the particles are on the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane) hardly affects the diffusion rate and behavior of the particle-TR complexes at the compartment boundaries, and since treatment with cytochalasin D or vinblastin affects the movements of TR (Sako and Kusumi as cited above), argument has been advanced that the boundaries are present in the cytoplasmic domain. Rebound of the particle-TR complexes when they escape from the laser tweezers at the compartment boundaries suggests that the boundaries are elastic structures. These results are consistent with the proposal that the compartment boundaries consist of membrane skeleton or a membrane-associated part of the cytoskeleton (membrane skeleton fence model). Approximately 10% of TR exhibited slower diffusion (Dmicro approximately 10(-10)-10(-11) cm2/s) and binding to elastic structures.
PMCID: PMC2291191  PMID: 7790354
22.  Safety and Efficacy of 188-Rhenium-Labeled Antibody to Melanin in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma 
Journal of Skin Cancer  2013;2013:828329.
There is a need for effective “broad spectrum” therapies for metastatic melanoma which would be suitable for all patients. The objectives of Phase Ia/Ib studies were to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, dosimetry, and antitumor activity of 188Re-6D2, a 188-Rhenium-labeled antibody to melanin. Stage IIIC/IV metastatic melanoma (MM) patients who failed standard therapies were enrolled in both studies. In Phase Ia, 10 mCi 188Re-6D2 were given while unlabeled antibody preload was escalated. In Phase Ib, the dose of 188Re-6D2 was escalated to 54 mCi. SPECT/CT revealed 188Re-6D2 uptake in melanoma metastases. The mean effective half-life of 188Re-6D2 was 12.4 h. Transient HAMA was observed in 9 patients. Six patients met the RECIST criteria for stable disease at 6 weeks. Two patients had durable disease stabilization for 14 weeks and one for 22 weeks. Median overall survival was 13 months with no dose-limiting toxicities. The data demonstrate that 188Re-6D2 was well tolerated, localized in melanoma metastases, and had antitumor activity, thus warranting its further investigation in patients with metastatic melanoma.
doi:10.1155/2013/828329
PMCID: PMC3556872  PMID: 23365757
23.  Radionuclide therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma 
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumour of the hepatocyte. It is a common malignancy worldwide and causes almost half a million deaths annually. Asia is a high risk area. Although surgery (hepatectomy or liver transplantation) is the main form of curative treatment, the majority of patients are not eligible for surgery due to extent of tumour and dysfunction of liver. Radiopharmaceuticals used for transarterial treatment of HCC were Yttrium-90 microspheres, Iodine-131 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 lipiodol, and Holmium-166 Chitosan complex. Yittrium-90 microspheres are glass or resin microspheres of mean sphere diameter of 20 to 30 micrometre. The activity administered was about 4 GBq. Reported response rate was about 20%, and median survival was 54 weeks. On inoperable tumours, reported objective response of I-131 lipiodol was 40 to 70%, and median survival was six to nine months. It showed efficacy similar to TACE. In adjuvant treatment following curative resection of HCC, reported three year survival was 86% compared with 46% for the control group. The administered activity in both adjuvant and inoperable HCC was about 2 GBq (55 mCi). Rhenium-188 lipiodol is a new radioconjugate, and using it we treated 70 patients with inoperable HCC. This treatment was a part of a multi-centre trial sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Partial response was obtained in 17% of cases, while 49% had stable disease at three months, and 34% showed disease progression. In terms of survival, 19% survived one year, 60% for six months, and 90% for three months. The mean activity was about 4.6 GBq (124 mCi). This method was safe and free from adverse effects.
doi:10.2349/biij.2.3.e40
PMCID: PMC3097631  PMID: 21614248
Hepatocellular carcinoma; iodine-131; lipiodol; rhenium-188; yttrium-90 microspheres
24.  Chiral Colloidal Molecules And Observation of The Propeller Effect 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2013;135(33):12353-12359.
Chiral molecules play an important role in biological and chemical processes, but physical effects due to their symmetry-breaking are generally weak. Several physical chiral separation schemes which could potentially be useful, including the propeller effect, have therefore not yet been demonstrated at the molecular scale. However, it has been proposed that complex nonspherical colloidal particles could act as “colloidal molecules” in mesoscopic model systems to permit the visualization of molecular phenomena that are otherwise difficult to observe. Unfortunately, it is difficult to synthesize such colloids because surface minimization generally favors the growth of symmetric particles. Here we demonstrate the production of large numbers of complex colloids with glancing angle physical vapor deposition. We use chiral colloids to demonstrate the Baranova and Zel’dovich (BaranovaN. B.Zel’dovichB. Y.Chem. Phys. Lett.1978, 135, 435) propeller effect: the separation of a racemic mixture by application of a rotating field that couples to the dipole moment of the enantiomers and screw propels them in opposite directions. The handedness of the colloidal suspensions is monitored with circular differential light scattering. An exact solution for the colloid’s propulsion is derived, and comparisons between the colloidal system and the corresponding effect at the molecular scale are made.
doi:10.1021/ja405705x
PMCID: PMC3856768  PMID: 23883328
25.  In vitro dissolution study of atorvastatin binary solid dispersion 
The aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of atorvastatin (ATV), a slight water-soluble drug, by solid dispersion (SD) technique using a hydrophilic carrier Poloxamer 188 (POL188). Physical mixing (PM) and solvent evaporation (SE) method were used to prepare ATV-SD where different drug-carrier ratios were used. Prepared formulations were characterized in their solid state by solubility study; differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy which demonstrated changes in the formulations supporting the improved solubility. Percent content of POL188 in the SD matrix was found to play the pivotal role in the improvement of dissolution property of ATV. In case of PM, highest enhancement in drug release was found for 1:3 ratio (P < 0.05, ANOVA Single factor) whereas in case of SE, 3:0.5 ratio of ATV-POL188 resulted the maximum enhancement in ATV release (P < 0.05, ANOVA Single factor). Analysis of dissolution data of optimized formula indicated the best fitting with Peppas-Korsmeyer model and the drug release kinetics was fickian diffusion. In conclusion, binary SD prepared by both PM and SE technique using POL188 could be considered as a simple, efficient method to prepare ATV solid dispersions with significant improvement in the dissolution rate.
doi:10.4103/2231-4040.107496
PMCID: PMC3645364  PMID: 23662278
Atorvastatin; physical mixing; poloxamer 188; solid dispersion; solvent evaporation

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