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1.  Conference Proceedings: “Down Syndrome: National Conference on Patient Registries, Research Databases, and Biobanks” 
Molecular genetics and metabolism  2011;104(1-2):13-22.
A December 2010 meeting, “Down Syndrome: National Conference on Patient Registries, Research Databases, and Biobanks,” was jointly sponsored by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, and the Global Down Syndrome Foundation (GDSF)/Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome based in Denver, CO. Approximately 70 attendees and organizers from various advocacy groups, federal agencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and various NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices), members of industry, clinicians, and researchers from various academic institutions were greeted by Drs. Yvonne Maddox, Deputy Director of NICHD, and Edward McCabe, Executive Director of the Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome. They charged the participants to focus on the separate issues of contact registries, research databases, and biobanks through both podium presentations and breakout session discussions. Among the breakout groups for each of the major sessions, participants were asked to generate responses to questions posed by the organizers concerning these three research resources as they related to Down syndrome and then to report back to the group at large with a summary of their discussions. This report represents a synthesis of the discussions and suggested approaches formulated by the group as a whole.
doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.07.005
PMCID: PMC3171614  PMID: 21835664
Down syndrome; registry; database; biobank; trisomy 21
2.  Introduction to the Proceedings of the Avian Genomics and Gene Ontology Annotation Workshop 
BMC Genomics  2009;10(Suppl 2):I1.
The Avian Genomics Conference and Gene Ontology Annotation Workshop brought together researchers and students from around the world to present their latest research addressing the delivery of value from the billions of base-pairs of Archosaur sequence that have become available in the last few years. This editorial describes the conference itself and introduces the ten peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publications in the proceedings. These manuscripts address issues ranging from the poultry industry view of USDA genomics policy to the genomics of a wide variety of Archeosaur species including chicken, duck, alligator, and condors and their pathogens.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-S2-I1
PMCID: PMC2966328  PMID: 19607650
3.  Tobacco industry strategies to undermine the 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health 
Tobacco Control  2003;12(2):195-202.
Objective: To demonstrate that Philip Morris and British American Tobacco Company attempted to initiate a wide ranging campaign to undermine the success of the 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1992.
Data sources: Publicly available tobacco industry documents housed in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; Guilford, UK; on-line document websites; and telephone interviews with informed parties.
Study selection: Those documents determined to be relevant to the companies' campaigns against the 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health.
Data extraction: Revision of chapter VIII of the July 2000 WHO report by a committee of experts, entitled: Tobacco company strategies to undermine tobacco control activities at the World Health Organization: report of the committee of experts on tobacco industry documents.
Data synthesis: Internal documents describe proposed media and science orientated campaigns developed by BAT, Philip Morris, and their consultants to divert attention away from the conference.
Results and conclusion: This work shows that the tobacco industry has the resources and vested interest to combat perceived threats in its regional operating markets, in this case its Latin American market. It is important for the worldwide public heath community to become aware of the numerous ways in which the tobacco industry and its front groups can work against international tobacco control meetings, even including the manipulation of or working with other public health groups to oppose tobacco control efforts. Future world conference planners and participants should be aware that the tobacco industry is likely to continue to employ such methodology. There is no reason to think that the industry is paying less attention to such conferences in the present or future. Rather, it is likely the industry will adopt and expand strategies that were successful while abandoning those that were not effective. Required disclosure of financial support by all participants at all tobacco scientific conferences is recommended. For the tobacco control community, we also recommend careful coalition building and networking with other public health groups on the ways tobacco is implicated in other public health issues.
doi:10.1136/tc.12.2.195
PMCID: PMC1747698  PMID: 12773731
4.  Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Cancer: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities 
The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2013 Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts, in research, patient care and community outreach, on the “Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Cancer”. Smoking, HIV/AIDS and cancer are three individual areas of public health concern, each with its own set of disparities and risk factors based on race, ethnicity, gender, geography and socio-economic status. Disparities among patient populations, in which these issues are found to be comorbid, provide valuable information on goals for patient care. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing “Comorbidities and Treatment”, “Public Health Perspectives”, and “Best Practices”. This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates and public health data presented by the speakers.
doi:10.4103/1477-3163.119388
PMCID: PMC3814655  PMID: 24227993
Cancer; health disparities; human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; smoking
5.  Breast cancer disparities: Frontline strategies, proceedings of the 7th annual texas conference on health disparities 
There are striking disparities in health status, access to health care, and risk factors among racial and ethnic minorities and the general population in Texas. The disparities are multifactorial comprising genetic, sociocultural, and environmental variables. The Texas Center for Health Disparities (TCHD), a NIMHD Center of Excellence (COE), aims to prevent, reduce, and eliminate health disparities in the communities through research, education, and community-based programs. As part of the center's outreach activities, an annual conference is organized to build awareness and knowledge on health disparities. The overall theme for the 2012 conference was “Battling Breast Cancer Disparities: Frontline Strategies”. The scientific program consisted of three sessions: “Breakthroughs in Breast Cancer”, “Triple Negative Breast Cancer,” and “Hormone Resistant Breast Cancer” featuring different aspects of bench-research from molecular biology, proteomics, and genetics to the clinical aspects such as detection, diagnosis, and finally to community-based approaches. This article summarizes the proceedings of the meeting providing salient strategies and best practices presented by the speakers.
doi:10.4103/1477-3163.102950
PMCID: PMC3515942  PMID: 23230393
Breast cancer; conference; disparities; proceedings; triple negative breast cancer
6.  Forum on Bone and Skeletal Muscle Interactions: Summary of the Proceedings of an ASBMR Workshop 
Annual costs are enormous for musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia and for bone and muscle injuries, costing billions annually in health care. While it is clear that muscle and bone development, growth and function are connected, and that muscle loads bone, little is known regarding cellular and molecular interactions between these two tissues. A conference supported by the National Institutes of Health, NIH, and the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, ASBMR, was held in July 2012 to address the enormous burden of musculoskeletal disease. National and international experts in either bone or muscle presented their findings and their novel hypotheses regarding muscle-bone interactions in order to stimulate the exchange of ideas between these two fields. The immediate goal of the conference was to identify critical research themes that would lead to collaborative research interactions and grant applications focusing on interactions between muscle and bone. The ultimate goal of the meeting was to generate a better understanding of how these two tissues integrate and crosstalk in both health and disease in order to stimulate new therapeutic strategies to enhance and maintain musculoskeletal health.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.1980
PMCID: PMC3749267  PMID: 23671010
muscle; bone; musculoskeletal; osteoporosis; sarcopenia; aging
7.  Proceedings of the fourth international conference on central hypoventilation 
Central hypoventilation syndromes (CHS) are rare diseases of central autonomic respiratory control associated with autonomous nervous dysfunction. Severe central hypoventilation is the hallmark and the most life-threatening feature. CHS is a group of not-fully defined disorders. Congenital CHS (CCHS) (ORPHA661) is clinically and genetically well-characterized, with the disease-causing gene identified in 2003. CCHS presents at birth in most cases, and associated with Hirschsprung’s disease (ORPHA99803) and neural crest tumours in 20% and 5% of cases, respectively. The incidence of CCHS is estimated to be 1 of 200,000 live births in France, yet remains unknown for the rest of the world. In contrast, late-onset CHS includes a group of not yet fully delineated diseases. Overlap with CCHS is likely, as a subset of patients harbours PHOX2B mutations. Another subset of patients present with associated hypothalamic dysfunction. The number of these patients is unknown (less than 60 cases reported worldwide). Treatment of CHS is palliative using advanced techniques of ventilation support during lifetime. Research is ongoing to better understand physiopathological mechanisms and identify potential treatment pathways.
The Fourth International Conference on Central Hypoventilation was organised in Warsaw, Poland, April 13–15, 2012, under the patronage of the European Agency for Health and Consumers and Public Health European Agency of European Community. The conference provided a state-of-the-art update of knowledge on all the genetic, molecular, cellular, and clinical aspects of these rare diseases.
doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0194-5
PMCID: PMC4268904
Central hypoventilation; Autonomic nervous system; Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome; PHOX2B gene; Hirschsprung’s disease; Alanine expansion; Central control of breathing; Home mechanical ventilation; Phrenic nerve stimulation; Diaphragmatic stimulation
8.  Challenges, Progress, and Opportunities: Proceedings of the Filovirus Medical Countermeasures Workshop 
Viruses  2014;6(7):2673-2697.
On August 22–23, 2013, agencies within the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) sponsored the Filovirus Medical Countermeasures (MCMs) Workshop as an extension of the activities of the Filovirus Animal Non-clinical Group (FANG). The FANG is a federally-recognized multi-Agency group established in 2011 to coordinate and facilitate U.S. government (USG) efforts to develop filovirus MCMs. The workshop brought together government, academic and industry experts to consider the needs for filovirus MCMs and evaluate the status of the product development pipeline. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights progress and challenges remaining in the field.
doi:10.3390/v6072673
PMCID: PMC4113787  PMID: 25010768
Ebola; Sudan; ebolavirus; Marburg virus; marburgvirus; Filoviridae; filovirus medical countermeasures; Filovirus Animal Non-clinical Group; FANG
9.  Proceedings from the NICHD Conference on the Uterine Fibroid Research Update Workshop 
Fertility and sterility  2011;95(1):9-12.
The purpose of the National Institutes of Health conference Fibroid Research Workshop in September 2007 was to bring Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) funded fibroid investigators together to discuss basic science and clinical research advances on uterine leiomyomata. General topics included advances in epidemiology, etiology, therapeutic approaches, and clinical trial challenges; suggestions for advancement basic understanding, clinical intervention, clinical trials, and future directions were highlighted.
doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.08.049
PMCID: PMC4152853  PMID: 20883986
Leiomyoma; myometrium; epidemiology; etiology; therapy; clinical trials
10.  Interactions between Non-Physician Clinicians and Industry: A Systematic Review 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(11):e1001561.
In a systematic review of studies of interactions between non-physician clinicians and industry, Quinn Grundy and colleagues found that many of the issues identified for physicians' industry interactions exist for non-physician clinicians.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
With increasing restrictions placed on physician–industry interactions, industry marketing may target other health professionals. Recent health policy developments confer even greater importance on the decision making of non-physician clinicians. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the types and implications of non-physician clinician–industry interactions in clinical practice.
Methods and Findings
We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science from January 1, 1946, through June 24, 2013, according to PRISMA guidelines. Non-physician clinicians eligible for inclusion were: Registered Nurses, nurse prescribers, Physician Assistants, pharmacists, dieticians, and physical or occupational therapists; trainee samples were excluded. Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria. Data were synthesized qualitatively into eight outcome domains: nature and frequency of industry interactions; attitudes toward industry; perceived ethical acceptability of interactions; perceived marketing influence; perceived reliability of industry information; preparation for industry interactions; reactions to industry relations policy; and management of industry interactions. Non-physician clinicians reported interacting with the pharmaceutical and infant formula industries. Clinicians across disciplines met with pharmaceutical representatives regularly and relied on them for practice information. Clinicians frequently received industry “information,” attended sponsored “education,” and acted as distributors for similar materials targeted at patients. Clinicians generally regarded this as an ethical use of industry resources, and felt they could detect “promotion” while benefiting from industry “information.” Free samples were among the most approved and common ways that clinicians interacted with industry. Included studies were observational and of varying methodological rigor; thus, these findings may not be generalizable. This review is, however, the first to our knowledge to provide a descriptive analysis of this literature.
Conclusions
Non-physician clinicians' generally positive attitudes toward industry interactions, despite their recognition of issues related to bias, suggest that industry interactions are normalized in clinical practice across non-physician disciplines. Industry relations policy should address all disciplines and be implemented consistently in order to mitigate conflicts of interest and address such interactions' potential to affect patient care.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Making and selling health care goods (including drugs and devices) and services is big business. To maximize the profits they make for their shareholders, companies involved in health care build relationships with physicians by providing information on new drugs, organizing educational meetings, providing samples of their products, giving gifts, and holding sponsored events. These relationships help to keep physicians informed about new developments in health care but also create the potential for causing harm to patients and health care systems. These relationships may, for example, result in increased prescription rates of new, heavily marketed medications, which are often more expensive than their generic counterparts (similar unbranded drugs) and that are more likely to be recalled for safety reasons than long-established drugs. They may also affect the provision of health care services. Industry is providing an increasingly large proportion of routine health care services in many countries, so relationships built up with physicians have the potential to influence the commissioning of the services that are central to the treatment and well-being of patients.
Why Was This Study Done?
As a result of concerns about the tension between industry's need to make profits and the ethics underlying professional practice, restrictions are increasingly being placed on physician–industry interactions. In the US, for example, the Physician Payments Sunshine Act now requires US manufacturers of drugs, devices, and medical supplies that participate in federal health care programs to disclose all payments and gifts made to physicians and teaching hospitals. However, other health professionals, including those with authority to prescribe drugs such as pharmacists, Physician Assistants, and nurse practitioners are not covered by this legislation or by similar legislation in other settings, even though the restructuring of health care to prioritize primary care and multidisciplinary care models means that “non-physician clinicians” are becoming more numerous and more involved in decision-making and medication management. In this systematic review (a study that uses predefined criteria to identify all the research on a given topic), the researchers examine the nature and implications of the interactions between non-physician clinicians and industry.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 15 published studies that examined interactions between non-physician clinicians (Registered Nurses, nurse prescribers, midwives, pharmacists, Physician Assistants, and dieticians) and industry (corporations that produce health care goods and services). They extracted the data from 16 publications (representing 15 different studies) and synthesized them qualitatively (combined the data and reached word-based, rather than numerical, conclusions) into eight outcome domains, including the nature and frequency of interactions, non-physician clinicians' attitudes toward industry, and the perceived ethical acceptability of interactions. In the research the authors identified, non-physician clinicians reported frequent interactions with the pharmaceutical and infant formula industries. Most non-physician clinicians met industry representatives regularly, received gifts and samples, and attended educational events or received educational materials (some of which they distributed to patients). In these studies, non-physician clinicians generally regarded these interactions positively and felt they were an ethical and appropriate use of industry resources. Only a minority of non-physician clinicians felt that marketing influenced their own practice, although a larger percentage felt that their colleagues would be influenced. A sizeable proportion of non-physician clinicians questioned the reliability of industry information, but most were confident that they could detect biased information and therefore rated this information as reliable, valuable, or useful.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These and other findings suggest that non-physician clinicians generally have positive attitudes toward industry interactions but recognize issues related to bias and conflict of interest. Because these findings are based on a small number of studies, most of which were undertaken in the US, they may not be generalizable to other countries. Moreover, they provide no quantitative assessment of the interaction between non-physician clinicians and industry and no information about whether industry interactions affect patient care outcomes. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that industry interactions are normalized (seen as standard) in clinical practice across non-physician disciplines. This normalization creates the potential for serious risks to patients and health care systems. The researchers suggest that it may be unrealistic to expect that non-physician clinicians can be taught individually how to interact with industry ethically or how to detect and avert bias, particularly given the ubiquitous nature of marketing and promotional materials. Instead, they suggest, the environment in which non-physician clinicians practice should be structured to mitigate the potentially harmful effects of interactions with industry.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001561.
This study is further discussed in a PLOS Medicine Perspective by James S. Yeh and Aaron S. Kesselheim
The American Medical Association provides guidance for physicians on interactions with pharmaceutical industry representatives, information about the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, and a toolkit for preparing Physician Payments Sunshine Act reports
The International Council of Nurses provides some guidance on industry interactions in its position statement on nurse-industry relations
The UK General Medical Council provides guidance on financial and commercial arrangements and conflicts of interest as part of its good medical practice website, which describes what is required of all registered doctors in the UK
Understanding and Responding to Pharmaceutical Promotion: A Practical Guide is a manual prepared by Health Action International and the World Health Organization that schools of medicine and pharmacy can use to train students how to recognize and respond to pharmaceutical promotion.
The Institute of Medicine's Report on Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice recommends steps to identify, limit, and manage conflicts of interest
The University of California, San Francisco, Office of Continuing Medical Education offers a course called Marketing of Medicines
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001561
PMCID: PMC3841103  PMID: 24302892
11.  What’s New in Neurofibromatosis? Proceedings From The 2009 NF Conference: New Frontiers 
The NF Conference is the largest annual gathering of researchers and clinicians focused on neurofibromatosis and has been convened by the Children’s Tumor Foundation for over 20 years. The 2009 NF Conference was held in Portland, Oregon from June 13th – June 16th, 2009 and co-chaired by Kathryn North from the University of Sydney and The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia; and Joseph Kissil from the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia. The Conference included 80 platform presentations in 9 sessions over 4 days; over 100 abstracts presented as posters; and three Keynote presentations. To date, there have been tremendous advances in basic research in the pathogenesis of neurofibromatosis, and more recently in progress toward identifying effective drug therapies and the commencement of neurofibromatosis clinical trials. The NF Conference attendees have significantly increased (doubling from 140 in 2005 to 280 attending in 2009) with a significant increase in attendance of physicians and clinical researchers. Correspondingly the NF Conference scope has expanded to include translational research, clinical trials and clinical management issues while retaining a core of basic research. These themes are reflected in the highlights from the 2009 NF Conference presented here.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.33189
PMCID: PMC2818482  PMID: 20082461
Neurofibromatosis type 1; neurofibromatosis type 2; NF1; NF2; schwannomatosis; tumor suppressor; Ras/MAPK; learning disabilities; bone dysplasia
12.  Back to the Future: Proceedings From the 2010 NF Conference 
The neurofibromatoses (NF) encompass the rare diseases NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis. The NFs affect 100,000 Americans; over 2 million persons worldwide; and are caused by mutation of tumor suppressor genes. Individuals with NF1 in particular may develop tumors anywhere in the nervous system; additional manifestations can include learning disabilities, bone dysplasia, cardiovascular defects, unmanageable pain, and physical disfigurement. Ultimately, the NFs can cause blindness, deafness, severe morbidity, and increased mortality and NF1 includes a risk of malignant cancer. Today there is no treatment for the NFs (other than symptomatic); however, research efforts to understand these genetic conditions have made tremendous strides in the past few years. Progress is being made on all fronts, from discovery studies—understanding the molecular signaling deficits that cause the manifestations of NF—to the growth of preclinical drug screening initiatives and the emergence of a number of clinical trials. An important element in fuelling this progress is the sharing of knowledge, and to this end, for over 20 years the Children’s Tumor Foundation has convened an annual NF Conference, bringing together NF professionals to share ideas and build collaborations. The 2010 NF Conference held in Baltimore, MD June 5–8,2010 hosted over 300 NF researchers and clinicians. This paper provides a synthesis of the highlights presented at the Conference and as such, is a “state-of-the-field” for NF research in 2010.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.33804
PMCID: PMC3079924  PMID: 21271647
neurofibromatosis; schwannomatosis; NF1; NF2; neurofibroma; learning disabilities; bone dysplasia; MPNST
13.  Pathobiology of Biliary Epithelia and Cholangiocarcinoma: Proceedings of the Henry M. and Lillian Stratton Basic Research Single-Topic Conference 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)  2008;48(6):2040-2046.
In June 2008, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) sponsored the Henry M. and Lillian Stratton Basic Research Single-Topic Conference on the Pathobiology of Biliary Epithelia and Cholangiocarcinoma, which was held in Atlanta, GA. Attendees from 12 different countries participated in this conference, making it a truly international scientific event. Both oral and poster presentations were given by multidisciplinary experts, who highlighted important areas of current basic and translational research on biliary epithelial cell biology and pathophysiology, and on the etiology, cellular and molecular pathogenesis, and target-based therapy of cholangiocarcinoma. The specific goals and objectives of the conference were: (1) to advance knowledge of basic and molecular mechanisms underlying developmental and proliferative disorders of the biliary tract; (2) to foster a better and more comprehensive understanding of mechanisms regulating biliary epithelial (cholangiocyte) growth and transport, signaling, cell survival, and abnormalities that result in disease; and (3) to understand basic mechanisms of cholangiocarcinoma development and progression, with the added goal of identifying and exploiting potentially critical molecular pathways that may be targeted therapeutically. A number of interrelated themes emerged from the oral and poster sessions that affected current understandings of the complex organization of transcriptional and signaling mechanisms that regulate bile duct development, hepatic progenitor cell expansion, cholangiocyte secretory functions and proliferation, and mechanisms of cholangiocarcinogenesis and malignant cholangiocyte progression. Most notable were the critical questions raised as to how best to exploit aberrant signaling pathways associated with biliary disease as potential targets for therapy.
doi:10.1002/hep.22623
PMCID: PMC3724356  PMID: 18855901
14.  Clinical Significance of Ryanodine Receptor 1 Gene (RYR1) Variants: Proceedings of the 2013 MHAUS Scientific Conference 
The Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States (MHAUS) and the Department of Anesthesia at the University of Toronto sponsored a Scientific Conference on November 1–2, 2013 in Toronto, Canada. The multidisciplinary group of experts, including clinicians, geneticists and physiologists involved in research related to malignant hyperthermia (MH), shared new insights into the pathophysiology of type-1 ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1)-linked diseases, as well as the relationship between MH and “awake MH” conditions, such as exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) and exertional heat illness (EHI). In addition, the molecular genetics of MH, and clinical issues related to the diagnosis and management of RYR1-linked disorders, were presented. The conference also honored Dr. David H. MacLennan for his contributions to our understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis and treatment of MH and other RYR1-related myopathies. This report represents a summary of the proceedings of this conference.
doi:10.1007/s12630-014-0227-5
PMCID: PMC4276369  PMID: 25189431
15.  Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of the MidSouth Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Society 
BMC Bioinformatics  2005;6(Suppl 2):S1.
The MCBIOS 2004 conference brought together regional researchers and students in biology, computer science and bioinformatics on October 7th-9th 2004 to present their latest work. This editorial describes the conference itself and introduces the twelve peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the MCBIOS 2004 Conference. These manuscripts included new methods for analysis of high-throughput gene expression experiments, EST clustering, analysis of mass spectrometry data and genomic analysis
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-6-S2-S1
PMCID: PMC1637027  PMID: 16026594
bioinformatics; conferences; MCBIOS; ISCB
16.  Proceedings of the First International Conference on Toxicogenomics Integrated with Environmental Sciences (TIES-2007) 
BMC Proceedings  2009;3(Suppl 2):S1.
The First International Conference on Toxicogenomics Integrated with Environmental Sciences (TIES-2007) was held at the North Carolina State University McKimmon Center in Raleigh, North Carolina on October 25th and 26th, 2007. Based on the presentations at the conference and the commitment or interest of the presenters to contribute a manuscript of their research, we compiled this collection of articles as proceedings of the conference and an in-depth topical review of the utility of bioinformatics in the fields of toxicogenomics and environmental genomics.
PMCID: PMC2654484  PMID: 19278557
17.  Proceedings of the International Consensus Conference on Breast Cancer Risk, Genetics, & Risk Management, April, 2007 
The breast journal  2009;15(1):4-16.
A consensus conference including thirty experts was held in April, 2007, to discuss risk factors for breast cancer and their management. Four categories of risk were outlined, from breast cancer “average” through “very high” risk, the latter including individuals with high penetrance BRCA1 / 2 gene mutations. Guidelines for management of patients in each of these categories were discussed, with the major portion of the conference being devoted to individuals with BRCA1 / 2 mutations. Prevalence of these mutations in the general populations was estimated to be 1 in 250–500 individuals, with an increased prevalence in Ashkenazic Jews and other founder groups. Risk reduction strategies for these individuals include surveillance, with or without chemoprevention drugs, or surgical procedures to remove the organs at risk, i.e., bilateral mastectomy and / or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. These risk reduction strategies were evaluated fully, and recommendations were made for the care of patients in each of the risk categories. These guidelines for patient care were approved by the entire group of experts.
doi:10.1111/j.1524-4741.2008.00665.x
PMCID: PMC3756316  PMID: 19141130
BRCA; breast cancer; genetics; risk
18.  The inaugural European emergency medical dispatch conference – a synopsis of proceedings 
The inaugural European Emergency Medical Dispatch conference was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in May 2013. We provide a synopsis of the conference proceedings, highlight key topic areas of emergency medical dispatch and suggest future research priorities.
doi:10.1186/1757-7241-21-73
PMCID: PMC3848775  PMID: 24059651
19.  Practical solutions to challenges in research ethics proceedings of Bangalore conference 
On November 3rd and 4th, 2012, Manipal Hospital, Bangalore and Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs co-hosted a regional conference titled “Practical Solutions to Challenges in Research Ethics.” This paper is a synthesis of the major themes of the conference. The authors discuss the current state of the clinical research in India today, need to focus on human research protection programs rather than Ethics Committees or institutional review boards, the factors that influence high-quality research and some practical solutions to improving the quality of research and the protection of research participants.
doi:10.4103/2229-3485.120172
PMCID: PMC3835967  PMID: 24312891
Ethics committees; quality improvement; research protections
20.  Proceedings of the Modeling Evidence in HPV Pre-Conference Workshop 
Clinical therapeutics  2010;32(8):1546-1564.
All published and active HPV modelers from around the world were invited to Malmo, Sweden for the inaugural Modeling Evidence in HPV (MEHPV) Pre-Conference Workshop, May 9 and 10, 2009. This workshop—held for the 2 days preceding the 25th International Papillomavirus Conference—provided a unique opportunity for open discussion on HPV modeling and the related scientific and methodological issues. From over a dozen countries and a variety of settings, 34 participants (representing 82% of the HPV modeling literature) exchanged ideas on the field’s fundamental questions. The proceedings, based on the 217-page transcript, was assembled by the Scientific Committee for the explicit purpose of objectively summarizing these ideas in a de-identified, readable fashion. It represents the work and opinions of session participants as recorded and does not constitute official positions of the participants as a whole or individually, the scientific committee, or any sponsoring organization or entity. Through transparency and broad dissemination, this introspective proceedings further characterizes prominent, contemporaneous issues in the state of HPV modeling.
doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2010.06.017
PMCID: PMC4095755  PMID: 20728767
21.  An observational study of the proceedings of the All India Ophthalmological Conference, 2000 and subsequent publication in indexed journals 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2008;56(3):189-195.
Aims:
To determine the quality of reporting in the proceedings of the All India Ophthalmological Conference (AIOC) 2000, subsequent rate of publication in an indexed journal and differences between the proceedings and the journal version of these papers.
Design:
Observational study.
Materials and Methods:
All papers presented at the AIOC 2000 were retrieved from the proceedings and assessed for completeness of reporting. To determine the subsequent full publication, a Medline search was performed as of January 2007; consistency between the proceedings paper and the final publication was evaluated. Statistical analysis: Chi square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to compare publication rates based on geographical location, subspecialty and study design; Student′s t-test was used to compare differences based on the number of authors and sample size.
Results:
Two hundred papers were retrieved; many failed to include study dates, design or statistical methods employed. Thirty-three (16.5%) papers were subsequently published in indexed journals by January 2007. The published version differed from the proceedings paper in 27 (81.8%) instances, mostly relating to changes in author name, number or sequence.
Conclusions:
The overall quality of reporting of scientific papers in the proceedings of the AIOC 2000 was inadequate and many did not result in publication in an indexed journal. Differences between the published paper in journals and in proceedings were seen in several instances. Ophthalmologists should be cautious about using the information provided in conference proceedings in their ophthalmic practice.
PMCID: PMC2636100  PMID: 18417818
All India ophthalmological conference proceedings; indexed journal; ophthalmology; publication rates
22.  Selecting Paradigms From Cognitive Neuroscience for Translation into Use in Clinical Trials: Proceedings of the Third CNTRICS Meeting 
Schizophrenia Bulletin  2008;35(1):109-114.
This overview describes the goals and objectives of the third conference conducted as part of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative. This third conference was focused on selecting specific paradigms from cognitive neuroscience that measured the constructs identified in the first CNTRICS meeting, with the goal of facilitating the translation of these paradigms into use in clinical trials contexts. To identify such paradigms, we had an open nomination process in which the field was asked to nominate potentially relevant paradigms and to provide information on several domains relevant to selecting the most promising tasks for each construct (eg, construct validity, neural bases, psychometrics, availability of animal models). Our goal was to identify 1–2 promising tasks for each of the 11 constructs identified at the first CNTRICS meeting. In this overview article, we describe the on-line survey used to generate nominations for promising tasks, the criteria that were used to select the tasks, the rationale behind the criteria, and the ways in which breakout groups worked together to identify the most promising tasks from among those nominated. This article serves as an introduction to the set of 6 articles included in this special issue that provide information about the specific tasks discussed and selected for the constructs from each of 6 broad domains (working memory, executive control, attention, long-term memory, perception, and social cognition).
doi:10.1093/schbul/sbn163
PMCID: PMC2643950  PMID: 19023126
cognition; treatment; schizophrenia
23.  Perceptions and viewpoints on proceedings of the Fifteenth Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union Debate on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Development, 25–27 July 2010, Kampala, Uganda 
BMC Proceedings  2011;5(Suppl 5):S1.
Background
Out of 358000 maternal deaths that occurred globally in 2008, 57.8% occurred in continental Africa. Africa had a maternal mortality ratio of 590 compared to 14 in developed regions, 68 in Latin America and Caribbean, and 190 in Asia. This article reflects on the discussions held during the Fifteenth Assembly of the Heads of State and Government of the African Union on the reasons why the maternal mortality ratio is so high in Africa and what can be done to reduce it.
Methods
Methods employed included panel and open public discussions among the Heads of State and Government of the African Union. The article uses the WHO health systems strengthening framework, which consists of six pillars (information systems, leadership and governance, health workforce, financing, and medical products, vaccines and technologies, and health services) to describe the proceedings of the discussions.
Discussion
The high maternal mortality ratios in countries were attributed to weak national health information systems; leadership and governance challenges related to poverty, health illiteracy, poor transport networks and communications infrastructure, risky cultural practices, armed conflicts and domestic violence, dearth of women empowerment; inadequate levels of skilled birth attendants; inadequate domestic and external funding; stock-outs of consumable inputs; and limited coverage of maternal and child health interventions.
In order to accelerate progress towards MDGs 4 and 5, the Heads of State and Government recommended that countries should make maternal deaths notifiable and institutionalize maternal death audits; develop, fund and implement policies and strategies geared at improving maternal, newborn and child health; accelerate inter-sectoral action to address the broad health determinants; increase the number of skilled birth attendants; fulfil commitment to allocate at least 15% of the national budget to the health sector and allocate adequate resources to prevent stock-outs of essential medicines and reproductive health commodities; leverage health promotion approaches to raise national awareness; and ensure that there is a health centre within a radius of four kilometres equipped to provide good quality integrated maternal, newborn and child health services.
Conclusions
There was consensus among the discussants that there was urgent need to speed up actions for strengthening health systems to improve coverage of maternal, newborn and child health services; and to address broad determinants of women, newborn and children’s health for sustained improvements in health and other development goals.
doi:10.1186/1753-6561-5-S5-S1
PMCID: PMC3254895  PMID: 21810211
24.  Advancing radiology through informed leadership: summary of the proceedings of the Seventh Biannual Symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology (IS3R), 23–25 August 2007 
European Radiology  2009;19(8):1827-1836.
The International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology (IS3R) brings together thought leaders from academia and industry from around the world to share ideas, points of view and new knowledge. This article summarizes the main concepts presented at the 2007 IS3R symposium, providing a window onto trends shaping the future of radiology. Topics addressed include new opportunities and challenges in the field of interventional radiology; emerging techniques for evaluating and improving quality and safety in radiology; and factors impeding progress in molecular imaging and nanotechnology and possible ways to overcome them. Regulatory hurdles to technical innovation and drug development are also discussed more broadly, along with proposals for addressing regulators’ concerns and streamlining the regulatory process.
doi:10.1007/s00330-009-1370-1
PMCID: PMC2705708  PMID: 19277668
Interventional radiology; Molecular imaging; Device approval processes; Drug approval processes; Health-care quality; Radiology; Leadership
25.  Proceedings of the Summit on Environmental Challenges to Reproductive Health and Fertility: Executive Summary 
Fertility and sterility  2008;89(2):281-300.
The 2007 Summit on “Environmental Challenges to Reproductive Health and Fertility” convened scientists, health care professionals, community groups, political representatives and the media to hear presentations on the impact of environmental contaminants on reproductive health and fertility and to discuss opportunities to improve health through research, education, communication and policy. Environmental reproductive health focuses on exposures to environmental contaminants, particularly during critical periods of development, and their potential effects on future reproductive health, including conception, fertility, pregnancy, adolescent development and adult health. Approximately 87,000 chemical substances are registered for use in commerce in the US, with ubiquitous human exposures to environmental contaminants in air, water, food and consumer products. Exposures during critical windows of susceptibility may result in adverse effects with lifelong and even intergenerational health impacts. Effects can include impaired development and function of the reproductive tract and permanently altered gene expression, leading to metabolic and hormonal disorders, reduced fertility and fecundity and illnesses such as testicular, prostate, uterine and cervical cancers later in life. This executive summary reviews effects of pre- and post-natal exposures on male and female reproductive health and provides a series of recommendations for advancing the field in the areas of research, policy, health care and community action.
doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.10.002
PMCID: PMC2440710  PMID: 18275883
environmental contaminants; reproductive health; endocrine disrupting chemicals; fertility; fecundity; hormone disruption; sperm quality; reproductive tract development

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