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1.  Plasma Apolipoprotein Levels Are Associated with Cognitive Status and Decline in a Community Cohort of Older Individuals 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e34078.
Objectives
Apolipoproteins have recently been implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In particular, Apolipoprotein J (ApoJ or clusterin) has been proposed as a biomarker of the disease at the pre-dementia stage. We examined a group of apolipoproteins, including ApoA1, ApoA2, ApoB, ApoC3, ApoE, ApoH and ApoJ, in the plasma of a longitudinal community based cohort.
Methods
664 subjects (257 with Mild Cognitive Impairment [MCI] and 407 with normal cognition), mean age 78 years, from the Sydney Memory and Aging Study (MAS) were followed up over two years. Plasma apolipoprotein levels at baseline (Wave 1) were measured using a multiplex bead fluorescence immunoassay technique.
Results
At Wave 1, MCI subjects had lower levels of ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoH, and higher levels of ApoE and ApoJ, and a higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio. Carriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele had significantly lower levels of plasma ApoE, ApoC3 and ApoH and a significantly higher level of ApoB. Global cognitive scores were correlated positively with ApoH and negatively with ApoJ levels. ApoJ and ApoE levels were correlated negatively with grey matter volume and positively with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume on MRI. Lower ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoH levels, and higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, increased the risk of cognitive decline over two years in cognitively normal individuals. ApoA1 was the most significant predictor of decline. These associations remained after statistically controlling for lipid profile. Higher ApoJ levels predicted white matter atrophy over two years.
Conclusions
Elderly individuals with MCI have abnormal apolipoprotein levels, which are related to cognitive function and volumetric MRI measures cross-sectionally and are predictive of cognitive impairment in cognitively normal subjects. ApoA1, ApoH and ApoJ are potential plasma biomarkers of cognitive decline in non-demented elderly individuals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034078
PMCID: PMC3372509  PMID: 22701550
2.  Identification of the HDL-ApoCIII to VLDL-ApoCIII ratio as a predictor of coronary artery disease in the general population: The Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC) study in Taiwan 
Background
Apolipoprotein (Apo) levels are considered more reliable than plasma lipoprotein levels for predicting coronary artery disease (CAD). However, a unanimous Apo marker for CAD has not been identified. In the Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC), we sought to identify a common Apo marker for predicting CAD in the general population.
Methods
We examined the cross-sectional association between Apo markers and CAD in the CCCC from 1990 to 2001. Among 3,602 subjects, 90 had angiographically proven CAD (>50% stenosis in ≥1 vessel), and 200 did not have CAD. These subjects were divided into the following 4 groups for analysis: normolipidemic (total cholesterol [TC] <200 mg/dL, triglyceride [TG] <150 mg/dL), hypertriglyceridemic (TC <200 mg/dL, TG ≥150 mg/dL), hypercholesterolemic (TC ≥200 mg/dL, TG <150 mg/dL), and hyperlipidemic (TC ≥200 mg/dL, TG ≥150 mg/dL).
Results
Compatible with findings in other populations, our results showed that CAD patients in the CCCC had higher ApoB and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ApoAI concentrations than non-CAD subjects, but the differences were not significant in all groups. Plasma concentrations of ApoE and lipoprotein (a) were not consistently correlated with CAD. In contrast, the ratio of HDL-ApoCIII to very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-ApoCIII was the only universal determinant for CAD in the normolipidemic group (P=0.0018), the hypertriglyceridemic group (P=0.0001), the hypercholesterolemic group (P=0.0001), and the hyperlipidemic group (P=0.0001). Overall, a high HDL-ApoCIII/VLDL-ApoCIII ratio was observed in all CAD patients, including those with a normal lipid profile. In multivariate analyses, the HDL-ApoCIII/VLDL-ApoCIII ratio was the strongest predictor for CAD among all lipid factors investigated (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.46–2.84; P<0.0001).
Conclusions
A high HDL-ApoCIII to VLDL-ApoCIII ratio is a better marker for predicting CAD than are the conventional lipid markers or ApoAI and ApoB. High HDL-ApoCIII and low VLDL-ApoCIII values in CAD, irrespective of lipid variations, suggest that ApoCIII is markedly transported from VLDL to HDL in this disease. Measurement of plasma ApoCIII may improve CAD prediction in the general population.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-162
PMCID: PMC3543287  PMID: 23173569
Apolipoproteins; Coronary artery disease; Lipoproteins; Cardiovascular risk factors; Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC) Study; High-density lipoprotein (HDL); Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL); Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII)
3.  Effect of human apolipoprotein E genotype on the pathogenesis of experimental ocular HSV-1 
Experimental eye research  2008;87(2):122-130.
The isoform-specific role of human apolipoprotein E (apoE) has been assessed in a mouse model of ocular herpes. Female, age-matched transgenic mice knocked-in for the human allele apoE3 or apoE4 and their parent C57Bl/6 mice were inoculated corneally with HSV-1 strain KOS. Ocular HSV-1 pathogenesis was monitored through viral replication and clinical progression of stromal opacity and neovascularization by slit-lamp examination. Establishment of latency was determined by analysis of HSV-1 DNA (copy number) by specific real-time PCR in the cornea, trigeminal ganglia (TG), and brain. Representative groups of transgenic mice were sacrificed for the analysis of gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reverse-transcription PCR, and apoE expression by Western blot analysis. At 6 days post-infection (P.I.), the ocular infectious HSV-1 titer was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in apoE4 mice compared with apoE3 and C57Bl/6 mice. Corneal neovascularization in apoE4 mice was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than apoE3 and C57Bl/6 mice. The onset of corneal opacity in apoE4 mice was accelerated during days 9--11 P.I.; however, no significant difference in severity was seen on P.I. days 15 and beyond. At 28 days P.I., infected mice of all genotypes had no significant differences in copy numbers (range 0--15) of HSV-1 DNA in their corneas, indicating that HSV-1 DNA copy numbers in cornea are independent of apoE isoform regulation. At 28 days P.I., both apoE4 and C57Bl/6 mice had a significantly higher (p = 0.001) number of copies of HSV-1 DNA in TG compared with apoE3. ApoE4 mice also had significantly higher (p = 0.001) copies of HSV-1 DNA in their TGs compared with C57Bl/6 mice. In brain, both apoE4 and C57Bl/6 mice had significantly higher numbers (p ≤ 0.03) of copies of HSV-1 DNA compared with apoE3 mice. However, the number of HSV-1 DNA copies in the brain of C57Bl/6 mice was not significantly different than that of apoE4 (p = 0.1). Comparative molecular analysis between apoE3 and apoE4 mice on selected days between 7 and 28 P.I., inclusive, revealed that the corneas of apoE4 mice expressed VEGF. None of the corneas in the apoE3 mice expressed VEGF during this time. Western blot analysis showed proteolytic cleavage of the apoE protein in the corneas of the apoE4 mice. Through days 14 to 28 P.I., a ~29 kDa C-terminal truncated apoE fragment was present in the corneas of apoE4 mice, but not in apoE3 mice. ApoE4 is a risk factor for ocular herpes, in part, through increased replication of virus in the eye, an earlier onset in clinical opacity, significantly higher neovascularization, and increased HSV-1 DNA load in TG and brain than that of apoE3. Increased pathogenesis of ocular herpes in apoE4 mice was also mediated, in part through up-regulated expression of VEGF and apoE proteolysis in the cornea. This is the first report linking a human gene, apoE4, as a risk factor for ocular herpes pathogenesis in a transgenic mouse model.
doi:10.1016/j.exer.2008.05.007
PMCID: PMC2566951  PMID: 18572164
HSV-1; apolipoprotein E; brain; cornea; herpetic stromal keratitis; trigeminal ganglia; transgenic mouse model; vascular endothelial growth factor
4.  Consistency of genetic inheritance mode and heritability patterns of triglyceride vs. high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in two Taiwanese family samples 
BMC Genetics  2003;4:7.
Background
Triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) is considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Genetic components were important in controlling the variation in western countries. But the mode of inheritance and family aggregation patterns were still unknown among Asian-Pacific countries. This study, based on families recruited from community and hospital, is aimed to investigate the mode of inheritance, heritability and shared environmental factors in controlling TG/HDL-C.
Results
Two populations, one from community-based families (n = 988, 894 parent-offspring and 453 sibling pairs) and the other from hospital-based families (n = 1313, 76 parent-offspring and 52 sibling pairs) were sampled. The population in hospital-based families had higher mean age values than community-based families (54.7 vs. 34.0). Logarithmic transformed TG/ HDL-C values, after adjusted by age, gender and body mass index, were for genetic analyses. Significant parent-offspring and sibling correlations were also found in both samples. The parent-offspring correlation coefficient was higher in the hospital-based families than in the community-based families. Genetic heritability was higher in community-based families (0.338 ± 0.114, p = 0.002), but the common shared environmental factor was higher in hospital-based families (0.203 ± 0.042, p < 0.001). Commingling analyses showed that more than one-component distribution models were the best-fit models to explain the variance in both populations. Complex segregation analysis by regressive models revealed that in both samples the best-fit model of TG/HDL-C was the model of environmental effects plus familial correlation, in which significant parent-offspring and sibling correlations were demonstrated. Models of major gene effects were rejected in both samples.
Conclusion
Variations of TG/HDL-C in the normal ranges were likely to be influenced by multiple factors, including environmental and genetic components. Higher genetic factors were proved in younger community-based families than in older hospital-based families.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-4-7
PMCID: PMC155683  PMID: 12710891
5.  Human Intestinal Lipoproteins 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1979;64(1):233-242.
To explore the role of the human intestine as a source of apolipoproteins, we have studied intestinal lipoproteins and apoprotein secretion in two subjects with chyluria (mesenteric lymphatic—urinary fistulae). After oral corn oil, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) output in urine increased in parallel to urinary triglyceride. One subject, on two occasions, after 40 g of corn oil, excreted 8.4 and 8.6 g of triglyceride together with 196 and 199 mg apoA-I and on one occasion, 56 mg apoA-II. The other subject, after 40 g corn oil, excreted 0.3 g triglyceride and 17.5 mg apoA-I, and, after 100 g of corn oil, excreted 44.8 mg apoA-I and 5.8 mg apoA-II. 14.5±2.1% of apoA-I and 17.7±4.3% of apoA-II in chylous urine was in the d < 1.006 fraction (chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein). Calculations based on the amount of apoA-I and apoA-II excreted on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins revealed that for these lipid loads, intestinal secretion could account for 50 and 33% of the calculated daily synthetic rate of apoA-I and apoA-II, respectively. Similarly, subject 2 excreted 48-70% and 14% of the calculated daily synthetic rate of apoA-I and apoA-II, respectively.
Chylous urine contained chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins, all of which contained apoA-I. Chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins contained a previously unreported human apoprotein of 46,000 mol wt. We have called this apoprotein apoA-IV because of the similarity of its molecular weight and amino acid composition to rat apoA-IV. In sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, chylomicron apoproteins consisted of apoB 3.4±0.7%, apoA-IV 10.0±3.3%, apoE 4.4±0.3%, apoA-I 15.0±1.8%, and apoC and apoA-II 43.3±11.3%. Very low density lipoprotein contained more apoB and apoA-IV and less apoC than chylomicrons. Ouchterlony immunodiffusion of chylomicron apoproteins revealed the presence of apoC-I, apoC-II, and apoC-III. In contrast, plasma chylomicrons isolated during a nonchyluric phase revealed a markedly altered chylomicron apoprotein pattern when compared with urinary chylomicrons. The major apoproteins in plasma chylomicrons were apoB, apoE, and the C peptides: no apoA-I or apoA-IV were present in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels indicating that major changes in chylomicron apoproteins occur during chylomicron metabolism. When incubated in vitro with plasma, urinary chylomicrons lost apoA-I and apoA-IV and gained apoE and apoC. Loss of apoA-I and apoA-IV was dependent upon the concentration of high density lipoproteins in the incubation mixture.
These studies demonstrate that the human intestine secretes significant amounts of apoA-I and apoA-II during lipid absorption. Subsequent transfer of apoproteins from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to other plasma lipoproteins may represent a mechanism whereby the intestine contributes to plasma apoprotein levels.
Images
PMCID: PMC372110  PMID: 221544
6.  Apolipoprotein E levels in cerebrospinal fluid and the effects of ABCA1 polymorphisms 
Background
Animal studies suggest that brain apolipoprotein E (apoE) levels influence amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and thus risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously demonstrated that deletion of the ATP-binding cassette A1 transporter (ABCA1) in mice causes dramatic reductions in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) apoE levels and lipidation. To examine whether polymorphisms in ABCA1 affect CSF apoE levels in humans, we measured apoE in CSF taken from 168 subjects who were 43 to 91 years old and were either cognitively normal or who had mild AD. We then genotyped the subjects for ten previously identified ABCA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
Results
In all subjects, the mean CSF apoE level was 9.09 μg/ml with a standard deviation of 2.70 μg/ml. Levels of apoE in CSF samples taken from the same individual two weeks apart were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.93, p < 0.01). In contrast, CSF apoE levels in different individuals varied widely (coefficient of variation = 46%). CSF apoE levels did not vary according to AD status, APOE genotype, gender or race. Average apoE levels increased with age by ~0.5 μg/ml per 10 years (r2 = 0.05, p = 0.003). We found no significant associations between CSF apoE levels and the ten ABCA1 SNPs we genotyped. Moreover, in a separate sample of 1225 AD cases and 1431 controls, we found no association between the ABCA1 SNP rs2230806 and AD as has been previously reported.
Conclusion
We found that CSF apoE levels vary widely between individuals, but are stable within individuals over a two-week interval. AD status, APOE genotype, gender and race do not affect CSF apoE levels, but average CSF apoE levels increase with age. Given the lack of association between CSF apoE levels and genotypes for the ABCA1 SNPs we examined, either these SNPs do not affect ABCA1 function or if they do, they do not have strong effects in the CNS. Finally, we find no evidence for an association between the ABCA1 SNP rs2230806 and AD in a large sample set.
doi:10.1186/1750-1326-2-7
PMCID: PMC1857699  PMID: 17430597
7.  Sequence polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein (a) gene. Evidence for dissociation between apolipoprotein(a) size and plasma lipoprotein(a) levels. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;91(4):1630-1636.
Apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], an apolipoprotein unique to lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is highly polymorphic in size. Previous studies have indicated that the size of the apo(a) gene tends to be inversely correlated with the plasma level of Lp(a). However, several exceptions to this general trend have been identified. Individuals with apo(a) alleles of identical size do not always have similar plasma concentrations of Lp(a). To determine if these differences in plasma Lp(a) concentrations were due to sequence variations in the apo(a) gene, we examined the sequences of apo(a) alleles in 23 individuals homozygous for same-sized apo(a) alleles. We identified four single-strand DNA conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs) in the apo(a) gene. Of the 23 homozygotes, 21 (91%) were heterozygous for at least one of the SSCPs. Analysis of a family in which a parent was homozygous for the same-sized apo(a) allele revealed that each allele, though identical size, segregated with different plasma concentrations of Lp(a). These studies indicate that the apo(a) gene is even more polymorphic in sequence than was previously appreciated, and that sequence variations at the apo(a) locus, other than the number of kringle 4 repeats, contribute to the plasma concentration of Lp(a).
Images
PMCID: PMC288140  PMID: 8473506
8.  Human Apolipoprotein E Isoforms differentially affect Bone Mass and Turnover in vivo 
The primary role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) is to mediate the cellular uptake of lipoproteins. However, a new role for apoE as a regulator of bone metabolism in mice has recently been established. In contrast to mice, the human APOE gene is characterized by three common isoforms APOE ε2, ε3 and ε4 that result in different metabolic properties of the apoE isoforms, but it remains controversial whether the APOE polymorphism influences bone traits in humans. To clarify this, we investigated bone phenotypes of apoE knock-in mice, which express one human isoform each (apoE2 k.i., apoE3 k.i., apoE4 k.i.) in place of the mouse apoE. Analysis of 12 week-old female knock-in mice revealed increased levels of biochemical bone formation and resorption markers in apoE2 k.i. animals as compared to apoE3 k.i. and apoE4 k.i., with a reduced OPG/RANKL ratio in apoE2 k.i., indicating increased turnover with prevailing resorption in apoE2 k.i.. Accordingly, histomorphometric and μCT analyses demonstrated significantly lower trabecular bone mass in apoE2 than in apoE3 and apoE4 k.i. animals, which was reflected by a significant reduction of lumbar vertebrae maximum force resistance. Unlike trabecular bone, femoral cortical thickness, and stability was not differentially affected by the apoE isoforms. To extend these observations to the human situation, plasma from middle-aged healthy men homozygous for ε2/ε2, ε3/ε3, and ε4/ε4 (n=21, n=80, n=55 respectively) was analyzed with regard to bone turnover markers. In analogy to apoE2 k.i. mice, a lower OPG/RANKL ratio was observed in the serum of ε2/ε2 carriers as compared to ε3/ε3 and ε4/ε4 individuals (p=0.02 for ε2/ε2 vs ε4/ε4). In conclusion, the current data strongly underline the general importance of apoE as a regulator of bone metabolism and identifies the APOE ε2 allele as a potential genetic risk factor for low trabecular bone mass and vertebral fractures in humans.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.1757
PMCID: PMC3547162  PMID: 22991192
apolipoprotein E; OPG; RANKL; bone mass; genetic risk factor
9.  Apolipoprotein-E forms dimers in human frontal cortex and hippocampus 
BMC Neuroscience  2010;11:23.
Background
Apolipoprotein-E (apoE) plays important roles in neurobiology and the apoE4 isoform increases risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE3 and apoE2 are known to form disulphide-linked dimers in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid whereas apoE4 cannot form these dimers as it lacks a cysteine residue. Previous in vitro research indicates dimerisation of apoE3 has a significant impact on its functions related to cholesterol homeostasis and amyloid-beta peptide degradation. The possible occurrence of apoE dimers in cortical tissues has not been examined and was therefore assessed. Human frontal cortex and hippocampus from control and AD post-mortem samples were homogenised and analysed for apoE by western blotting under both reducing and non-reducing conditions.
Results
In apoE3 homozygous samples, ~12% of apoE was present as a homodimer and ~2% was detected as a 43 kDa heterodimer. The level of dimerisation was not significantly different when control and AD samples were compared. As expected, these dimerised forms of apoE were not detected in apoE4 homozygous samples but were detected in apoE3/4 heterozygotes at a level approximately 60% lower than seen in the apoE3 homozygous samples. Similar apoE3 dimers were also detected in lysates of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells and in freshly prepared rabbit brain homogenates. The addition of the thiol trapping agent, iodoacetamide, to block reactive thiols during both human and rabbit brain sample homogenisation and processing did not reduce the amount of apoE homodimer recovered. These data indicate that the apoE dimers we detected in the human brain are not likely to be post-mortem artefacts.
Conclusion
The identification of disulphide-linked apoE dimers in human cortical and hippocampal tissues represents a distinct structural difference between the apoE3 and apoE4 isoforms that may have functional consequences.
doi:10.1186/1471-2202-11-23
PMCID: PMC2837047  PMID: 20170526
10.  Lack of LDL Receptor Enhances Amyloid Deposition and Decreases Glial Response in an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e21880.
Background
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a cholesterol carrier associated with atherosclerosis, is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) regulates ApoE levels in the periphery and in the central nervous system. LDLR has been identified on astrocytes and a number of studies show that it modulates amyloid deposition in AD transgenic mice. However these findings are controversial on whether LDLR deletion is beneficial or detrimental on the AD-like phenotype of the transgenic mice.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To investigate the role of LDLR in the development of the amyloid related phenotype we used an APP/PS1 transgenic mouse (5XFAD) that develops an AD-like pathology with amyloid plaques, astrocytosis and microgliosis. We found that 4 months old 5XFAD transgenic mice on the LDLR deficient background (LDLR-/-) have increased amyloid plaque deposition. This increase is associated with a significant decrease in astrocytosis and microgliosis in the 5XFAD/LDLR-/- mice. To further elucidate the role of LDLR in relation with ApoE we have generated 5XFAD transgenic mice on the ApoE deficient (ApoE-/-) or the ApoE/LDLR double deficient background (ApoE-/-/LDLR -/-). We have found that ApoE deletion in the 4 months old 5XFAD/ApoE-/- mice decreases amyloid plaque formation as expected, but has no effect on astrocytosis or microgliosis. By comparison 5XFAD/ApoE-/-LDLR -/- double deficient mice of the same age have increased amyloid deposition with decreased astrocytosis and microgliosis.
Conclusions
Our analysis shows that LDL deficiency regulates astrocytosis and microgliosis in an AD mouse model. This effect is independent of ApoE, as both 5XFAD/LDLR -/- and 5XFAD/ApoE-/- LDLR -/- mice show reduction in inflammatory response and increase in amyloid deposition compared to control mice. These results demonstrate that LDLR regulates glial response in this mouse model independently of ApoE and modifies amyloid deposition.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021880
PMCID: PMC3130747  PMID: 21755005
11.  Reducing Human Apolipoprotein E Levels Attenuates Age-Dependent Aβ Accumulation in Mutant Human Amyloid Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice 
Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation depends on age and apoE isoforms (apoE4 > apoE3) both in humans and in transgenic mouse models. Brain apoE levels are also isoform-dependent, but in the opposite direction (apoE4 < apoE3). Thus, one prevailing hypothesis is to increase brain apoE expression to reduce Aβ levels. To test this hypothesis, we generated mutant human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice expressing one or two copies of the human apoE3 or apoE4 gene that was knocked-in and flanked by LoxP sites. We report that reducing apoE3 or apoE4 expression by 50% in 6-month-old mice results in efficient Aβ clearance and does not increase Aβ accumulation. However, 12-month-old mice with one copy of the human apoE gene had significantly reduced Aβ levels and plaque loads compared to mice with two copies, regardless of which human apoE isoform was expressed, suggesting a gene dose-dependent effect of apoE on Aβ accumulation in aged mice. Additionally, 12-month-old mice expressing one or two copies of the human apoE4 gene had significantly higher levels of Aβ accumulation and plaque loads than age-matched mice expressing one or two copies of the human apoE3 gene, suggesting an isoform-dependent effect of apoE on Aβ accumulation in aged mice. Moreover, Cre-mediated apoE4 gene excision in hippocampal astrocytes significantly reduced insoluble Aβ in adult mice. Thus, reducing, rather than increasing, apoE expression is an attractive approach to lowering brain Aβ levels.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0033-12.2012
PMCID: PMC3433173  PMID: 22492035
Aβ; Alzheimer’s disease; apoE expression level; Cre recombinase; transgenic and knock-in mice
12.  Novel action of apolipoprotein E (ApoE): ApoE isoform specifically inhibits lipid-particle-mediated cholesterol release from neurons 
Background
Since the majority of apolipoprotein E (apoE) existing in the cerebrospinal fluid is associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL), one should focus on the role of the apoE-HDL complex rather than on that of free apoE in cholesterol metabolism in the central nervous system. However, the apoE-isoform-specific effect of apoE-HDL on cholesterol transport remains unclarified.
Results
Here we show that apoE3-HDL induced a marked cholesterol release from neurons, while apoE4-HDL induced little. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we used a complex of lipid emulsion (EM) with recombinant apoE3 or apoE4 (apoE-EM) at various apoE concentrations. When a small number of apoE molecules were associated with EM, apoE3- and apoE4-EM, induced a marked cholesterol release to a level similar to that induced by EM alone. However, when apoE at given concentrations was incubated with EM, apoE3-EM induced a marked cholesterol release, while apoE4-EM induced little. Under these conditions, a greater number of apoE4 molecules were associated with EM than apoE3 molecules. When an increasing number of apoE molecules were associated with EM, both apoE3-EM and apoE4-EM induced little cholesterol release. Preincubation with β-mercaptoethanol increased the number of apoE3 molecules associated with EM similar to that of apoE4 molecules, indicating that the presence (apoE3) or absence (apoE4) of intermolecular disulfide bond formation is responsible for the association of a greater number of apoE4 molecules to EM than apoE3 molecules.
Conclusion
These results suggest that although apoE and a lipid particle are lipid acceptors, when apoE and a lipid particle form a complex, apoE on the particle surface inhibits the lipid particle-mediated cholesterol release from cells in an apoE-concentration-dependent manner.
doi:10.1186/1750-1326-2-9
PMCID: PMC1876452  PMID: 17504523
13.  Maternal apo E genotype is a modifier of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2004;41(8):577-584.
Background: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (MIM 270400) is an autosomal recessive malformation and mental retardation syndrome that ranges in clinical severity from minimal dysmorphism and mild mental retardation to severe congenital anomalies and intrauterine death. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is caused by mutations in the Δ7 sterol-reductase gene (DHCR7; EC 1.3.1.21), which impair endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis and make the growing embryo dependent on exogenous (maternal) sources of cholesterol. We have investigated whether apolipoprotein E, a major component of the cholesterol transport system in human beings, is a modifier of the clinical severity of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.
Method: Common apo E, DHCR7, and LDLR genotypes were determined in 137 biochemically characterised patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and 59 of their parents.
Results: There was a significant correlation between patients' clinical severity scores and maternal apo E genotypes (p = 0.028) but not between severity scores and patients' or paternal apo E genotypes. In line with their effects on serum cholesterol levels, the maternal apo ϵ2 genotypes were associated with a severe Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome phenotype, whereas apo E genotypes without the ϵ2 allele were associated with a milder phenotype. The correlation of maternal apo E genotype with disease severity persisted after stratification for DHCR7 genotype. There was no association of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome severity with LDLR gene variation.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the efficiency of cholesterol transport from the mother to the embryo is affected by the maternal apo E genotype and extend the role of apo E and its disease associations to modulation of embryonic development and malformations.
doi:10.1136/jmg.2004.018085
PMCID: PMC1735869  PMID: 15286151
14.  Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Carotid Atherosclerosis in an Intercross Between C57BL/6 and C3H Apolipoprotein E–Deficient Mice 
Background and Purpose
Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) exhibit marked differences in atherosclerotic lesion formation in the carotid arteries on the apolipoprotein E–deficient (apoE−/−) background when fed a Western diet. Quantitative trait locus analysis was performed on an intercross between B6.apoE−/− and C3H.apoE−/− mice to determine genetic factors contributing to variation in the phenotype.
Methods
Female B6.apoE−/− mice were crossed with male C3H.apoE−/− mice to generate F1 hybrids, which were intercrossed to generate 241 female F2 progeny. At 6 weeks of age, F2 mice were started on a Western diet. After being fed the diet for 12 weeks, F2 mice were analyzed for phenotypes such as lesion size in the left carotid arteries and plasma lipid levels and typed for 154 genetic markers spanning the mouse genome.
Results
One significant quantitative trait locus, named CAth1 (25 cM, log of the odds score: 4.5), on chromosome 12 and 4 suggestive quantitative trait loci, on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, and 11, respectively, were identified to influence carotid lesion size. One significant quantitative trait locus on distal chromosome 1 accounted for major variations in plasma low-density lipoprotein/very-low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Carotid lesion size was not significantly correlated with plasma low-density lipoprotein/very-low-density lipoprotein or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
Conclusions
These data indicate that the loci for carotid lesions do not overlap with those for aortic lesions as identified in a previous cross derived from the same parental strains, and carotid atherosclerosis and plasma lipids are controlled by separate genetic factors in the B6 and C3H mouse model.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.492165
PMCID: PMC2245805  PMID: 18048852
carotid atherosclerosis; hyperlipidemia; quantitative trait locus; stroke
15.  Correlation between mesenteric fat thickness and serum apolipoproteins in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease 
Background
Visceral fat possesses the most detrimental potential for cardiovascular morbidity through the release of adipokines, as well as metabolic and proinflammatory mediators, which adversely affect metabolic and vascular homeostasis. Among the different types of visceral adipose tissue, mesenteric fat is considered particularly detrimental, due to its close proximity to the portal circulation, affecting directly the liver, which is the main regulator of body metabolic homeostasis. Mesenteric fat can be reliably estimated using abdominal ultrasonography, the only available imaging method able to depict individual mesenteric leaves. Aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of mesenteric fat thickness (MFT) with serum apolipoprotein levels in patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography in a single center.
Methods
35 male patients with peripheral arterial disease were examined. After careful examination of the periumbilical area, the mesenteric leaves were identified. The maximal distance between each pair of sequential leaves was measured, and the mean value of the three thickest leaves was determined as the mesenteric fat thickness. Six apolipoprotein fasting serum concentrations were measured using a Luminex proteomics platform (xMAP Multiplex immunoassay): apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI), apolipoprotein A-II (apoAII), apolipoprotein B (apoB), apolipoprotein C-II (apoCII), apolipoprotein C-III (apoCIII) and apolipoprotein E (apoE).
Results
MFT correlated with apoAII and apoB serum concentrations. The correlations with apoAII and apoB remained significant following correction for BMI. No correlations were noted between MFT and serum apoAI, apoCII, apoCIII or apoE levels before or after adjustment for BMI.
Conclusions
Our study indicates that MFT is significantly correlated with the concentration of atherogenic low density lipoproteins particles, as well as with apoAII, a determinant of free fatty acids levels. No correlation was observed between mesenteric fat thickness and very low density lipoprotein or chylomicron particles concentration.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-125
PMCID: PMC3477087  PMID: 23025515
Ultrasound; Mesenteric fat thickness; Adipose tissue; Apolipoproteins; Atherosclerosis
16.  Effect of Apolipoprotein E on the Cerebral Load of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 DNA 
Journal of Virology  2006;80(11):5383-5387.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is neurotropic and enters a latent state lasting the lifetime of the host. This pathogen has recently been proposed as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in conjunction with apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4). In a murine acute infection model, we showed that viral neuroinvasiveness depends directly on the overall ApoE dosage and especially on the presence of isoform ApoE4. If an interaction between ApoE and HSV-1 is involved in AD, it may occur during latency rather than during acute infection. Certainly, ApoE plays an important role in late-onset AD, i.e., at a time in life when the majority of people harbor HSV-1 in their nervous system. In the present work, wild-type, APOE knockout, APOE3, and APOE4 transgenic mice were used to analyze the influence of the ApoE profile on the levels of latent virus DNA. The knockout mice had significantly lower concentrations of the virus in the nervous system than the wild-type mice, while the APOE4 mice had very high levels in the brain compared to the APOE3 animals. ApoE4 seems to facilitate HSV-1 latency in the brain much more so than ApoE3. The APOE dosage correlated directly with the HSV-1 DNA concentration in the brain, strengthening the hypothesis that HSV-1, together with ApoE, might be involved in AD.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00006-06
PMCID: PMC1472141  PMID: 16699018
17.  Human Apolipoprotein E Resequencing by Proteomic Analysis and Its Application to Serotyping 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85356.
Background
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) typing is considered important because of the association between ApoE and Alzheimer’s disease and familial dyslipidemia and is currently performed by genetic testing (APOE genotyping). ApoE levels in plasma and serum are clinically determined by immunoassay.
Methods
Combining an ApoE immunoassay reagent with proteomic analysis using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we attempted to resequence ApoE from trace amounts of serum for typing (serotyping). Most (24 of 33) ApoE mutant proteins registered to date with Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, such as ApoE2 and ApoE4, involve lysine and arginine mutations. Digestion of mutant ApoE with trypsin will thus result in fragments that differ substantially from wild-type ApoE3 in terms of mass, making serotyping ideally suited to mass spectrometry analysis.
Results
The mean coverage of the amino acid sequence of full-length ApoE was 91.6% in the protein resequence. Residues 112 and 158 (which are mutated in ApoE2 and ApoE4) were covered in all samples, and the protein sequences were used for serotyping. Serotypes including all heterozygous combinations (ApoE2/E3, E2/E4, E3/E4) corresponded exactly to the APOE genotyping results in each of the subjects.
Conclusion
Our novel ApoE serotyping method with protein resequencing requires no synthesis of stable isotope-labeled peptides or genome analysis. The method can use residual blood from samples collected for routine clinical tests, thus enabling retrospective studies with preserved body fluids. The test could be applied to samples from subjects whose DNA is unavailable. In future studies, we hope to demonstrate the capability of our method to detect rare ApoE mutations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085356
PMCID: PMC3891820  PMID: 24454848
18.  Apolipoprotein(a) gene accounts for greater than 90% of the variation in plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations. 
Plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a low density lipoprotein particle with an attached apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], varies widely in concentration between individuals. These concentration differences are heritable and inversely related to the number of kringle 4 repeats in the apo(a) gene. To define the genetic determinants of plasma Lp(a) levels, plasma Lp(a) concentrations and apo(a) genotypes were examined in 48 nuclear Caucasian families. Apo(a) genotypes were determined using a newly developed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method which distinguished 19 different genotypes at the apo(a) locus. The apo(a) gene itself was found to account for virtually all the genetic variability in plasma Lp(a) levels. This conclusion was reached by analyzing plasma Lp(a) levels in siblings who shared zero, one, or two apo(a) genes that were identical by descent (ibd). Siblings with both apo(a) alleles ibd (n = 72) have strikingly similar plasma Lp(a) levels (r = 0.95), whereas those who shared no apo(a) alleles (n = 52), had dissimilar concentrations (r = -0.23). The apo(a) gene was estimated to be responsible for 91% of the variance of plasma Lp(a) concentration. The number of kringle 4 repeats in the apo(a) gene accounted for 69% of the variation, and yet to be defined cis-acting sequences at the apo(a) locus accounted for the remaining 22% of the inter-individual variation in plasma Lp(a) levels. During the course of these studies we observed the de novo generation of a new apo(a) allele, an event that occurred once in 376 meioses.
Images
PMCID: PMC443062  PMID: 1386087
19.  Apolipoprotein E level and cholesterol are associated with reduced synaptic amyloid beta in Alzheimer’s disease and apoE TR mouse cortex 
Acta Neuropathologica  2011;123(1):39-52.
The apolipoprotein E4 allele (APOE4) contributes to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk and APOE2 is protective, but the relevant cellular mechanisms are unknown. We have used flow cytometry analysis to measure apolipoprotein E (apoE) and amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) levels in large populations of synaptic terminals from AD and aged cognitively normal controls, and demonstrate that modest but significant increases in soluble apoE levels accompany elevated Aβ in AD cortical synapses and in an APP/PS1 rat model of AD. Dual labeling experiments document co-localization of apoE and Aβ in individual synapses with concentration of Aβ in a small population of apoE-positive synapses in both AD and controls. Consistent with a clearance role, the apoE level was higher in Aβ-positive synapses in control cases. In aged targeted replacement mice expressing human apoE, apoE2/4 synaptic terminals demonstrated the highest level of apoE and the lowest level of Aβ compared to apoE3/3 and apoE4/4 lines. In apoE2/4 terminals, the pattern of immunolabeling for apoE and Aβ closely resembled the pattern in human control cases, and elevated apoE was accompanied by elevated free cholesterol in apoE2/4 synaptic terminals. These results are consistent with a role for APOE in Aβ clearance in AD synapses, and suggest that optimal lipidation of apoE2 compared to E3 and E4 makes an important contribution to Aβ clearance and synaptic function.
doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0892-1
PMCID: PMC3404604  PMID: 22020632
Synaptosome; Flow cytometry; Filipin; Ganglioside GM1; Triple transgenic mouse; Triple transgenic rat
20.  Heritability and major gene effects on left ventricular mass in the Chinese population: a family study 
Background
Genetic components controlling for echocardiographically determined left ventricular (LV) mass are still unclear in the Chinese population.
Methods
We conducted a family study from the Chin-San community, Taiwan, and a total of 368 families, 1145 subjects, were recruited to undergo echocardiography to measure LV mass. Commingling analysis, familial correlation, and complex segregation analysis were applied to detect component distributions and the mode of inheritance.
Results
The two-component distribution model was the best-fitting model to describe the distribution of LV mass. The highest familial correlation coefficients were mother-son (0.379, P < .0001) and father-son (0.356, P < .0001). Genetic heritability (h2) of LV mass was estimated as 0.268 ± 0.061 (P < .0001); it decreased to 0.153 ± 0.052 (P = .0009) after systolic blood pressure adjustment. Major gene effects with polygenic components were the best-fitting model to explain the inheritance mode of LV mass. The estimated allele frequency of the gene was 0.089.
Conclusion
There were significant familial correlations, heritability and a major gene effect on LV mass in the population-based families.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-6-37
PMCID: PMC1579230  PMID: 16945138
21.  Heritability of Serum Apolipoprotein Concentrations in Middle-Aged Japanese Twins 
Journal of Epidemiology  2009;19(5):260-265.
Background
Studies of the genetic and environmental influences on apolipoproteins have been conducted, but few have used data from Japanese twins. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the genetic and environmental causes of individual differences in the serum concentrations of apolipoproteins in Japanese middle-aged twins.
Methods
Apo A-I, apo A-II, apo B, apo C-II, apo C-III, and apo E were studied. A total of 142 twin pairs, aged 45 through 65 years, were enrolled: 85 monozygotic pairs (59 male, 26 female) and 57 same-sexed dizygotic pairs (43 male, 14 female). The intraclass correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling were used to estimate the best-fitting model and heritability.
Results
Sixteen percent to 75% of the total variances of apo A-I, apo C-II, and apo C-III were attributable to genetic influence; apo A-I and apo C-II were influenced by dominant genetic factors. Twenty percent to 73% of the total variances of apo A-II, apo B, and apo E were attributable to additive genetic influence; apo B was clearly influenced by common environmental factors. Furthermore, the heritability of all apolipoproteins was higher among females than among males.
Conclusions
Genetic factors, including additive genetic effects (A) and dominant effects (D), influence apolipoprotein levels. However, a common environment does not influence the variances of these apolipoproteins, with the exception of apo B. Furthermore, the heritability of apolipoprotein phenotypes differs by sex.
doi:10.2188/jea.JE20081037
PMCID: PMC3924129  PMID: 19700918
apolipoprotein; heritability; adult twins
22.  Parental history of Alzheimer disease associated with lower plasma apolipoprotein E levels 
Neurology  2009;73(9):681-687.
Background:
Variation in APOE genotype is a determinant of Alzheimer disease (AD), but the risk associated with variation in plasma apoE levels has yet to be determined. Here, we studied offspring with and without a parental history of AD to identify the effect of plasma apoE levels at middle age on the risk of late-onset AD.
Methods:
Some 203 offspring from 92 families with a parental history of AD were compared with 197 offspring from 97 families without a parental history of AD. APOE genotypes and plasma apoE levels were assessed in all offspring. Difference in plasma apoE level between subjects with and without a parental history of AD was calculated using robust linear regression, both stratified and adjusted for APOE genotype.
Results:
Offspring with a parental history of AD were more likely to be an APOE ɛ4 allele carrier (46% vs 21%, p < 0.001) than offspring without such a parental history. Mean plasma apoE levels strongly decreased from ɛ2 to ɛ3ɛ3 to ɛ4 carriers (p < 0.001). Offspring with a parental history of AD had lower plasma apoE levels than subjects without such a history, both in analyses adjusted for APOE genotype (difference: −0.21 mg/dL, p = 0.02) and when using standardized Z scores, when stratified for APOE genotype (difference: −0.22, p = 0.009).
Conclusions:
Our findings suggest that lower plasma apoE levels in middle age could be a risk factor for Alzheimer disease in old age, independent of APOE genotype.
GLOSSARY
= Alzheimer disease;
= body mass index;
= confidence interval;
= cardiovascular disease;
= early-onset Alzheimer disease;
= high-density lipoprotein;
= low-density lipoprotein;
= late-onset Alzheimer disease;
= Mini-Mental State Examination;
= vascular dementia.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b59c2e
PMCID: PMC2734293  PMID: 19720974
23.  Apolipoprotein E Genotype-Dependent Paradoxical Short-Term Effects of 56Fe Irradiation on the Brain 
Purpose
In humans, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by three major alleles (ε2, ε3, and ε4) and, compared to apoE3, apoE4 increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges. Exposure to irradiation, including that of 56Fe, during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system, and apoE isoform might modulate this risk.
Methods and Materials
We investigated whether apoE isoform modulates hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance starting 2 weeks after 56Fe irradiation. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) can affect cognition and are induced by irradiation. Therefore, after cognitive testing, we assessed hippocampal ROS levels in ex vivo brain slices, using the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, dihydroethidium (DHE). Brain levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), extracellular SOD, and apoE were assessed using Western blotting analysis.
Results
In the water maze, spatial memory retention was impaired by irradiation in apoE2 and apoE4 mice but enhanced by irradiation in apoE3 mice. Irradiation reduced DHE-oxidation levels in the enclosed blade of the dentate gyrus and levels of 3-NT and CuZnSOD in apoE2 but not apoE3 or apoE4 mice. Finally, irradiation increased apoE levels in apoE3 but not apoE2 or apoE4 mice.
Conclusions
The short-term effects of 56Fe irradiation on hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention are apoE isoform-dependent.
doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.12.049
PMCID: PMC3742074  PMID: 22401921
ApoE; Irradiation; ROS
24.  Molecular basis of apolipoprotein (a) isoform size heterogeneity as revealed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1991;87(6):2153-2161.
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a cholesterol-rich lipoprotein that is distinguished by its content of a glycoprotein called apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)]. Apo(a) varies in size among individuals owing to different numbers of cysteine-rich sequences that are homologous to kringle 4 of plasminogen. The genetic basis for this variation is not understood at the genomic level. In this study we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and genomic blotting to identify a highly polymorphic restriction fragment from the apo(a) gene. The fragment contains multiple tandem repeats of a kringle 4-encoding sequence and varies in length from 48 to 190 kb depending on the number of kringle 4-encoding sequences. A total of 19 different alleles were identified among 102 unrelated Caucasian Americans. 94% of individuals studied had two different alleles which could be distinguished by size on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The degree of size heterogeneity was much greater than had been previously appreciated based on the analysis of the apparent molecular mass of the protein. The size of the apo(a) gene correlated directly with the size of the apo(a) protein, and inversely with the concentration of Lp(a) in plasma. Segregation analysis of the apo(a) gene was performed in families; siblings with identical apo(a) genotypes had similar plasma levels of Lp(a). These results suggest that in the normal population, the level of plasma Lp(a) is largely determined by alleles at the apo(a) locus.
Images
PMCID: PMC296974  PMID: 1645755
25.  ApoE isoform-specific regulation of regeneration in the peripheral nervous system 
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;20(12):2406-2421.
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a 34 kDa glycoprotein with three distinct isoforms in the human population (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) known to play a major role in differentially influencing risk to, as well as outcome from, disease and injury in the central nervous system. In general, the apoE4 allele is associated with poorer outcomes after disease or injury, whereas apoE3 is associated with better responses. The extent to which different apoE isoforms influence degenerative and regenerative events in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is still to be established, and the mechanisms through which apoE exerts its isoform-specific effects remain unclear. Here, we have investigated isoform-specific effects of human apoE on the mouse PNS. Experiments in mice ubiquitously expressing human apoE3 or human apoE4 on a null mouse apoE background revealed that apoE4 expression significantly disrupted peripheral nerve regeneration and subsequent neuromuscular junction re-innervation following nerve injury compared with apoE3, with no observable effects on normal development, maturation or Wallerian degeneration. Proteomic isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) screens comparing healthy and regenerating peripheral nerves from mice expressing apoE3 or apoE4 revealed significant differences in networks of proteins regulating cellular outgrowth and regeneration (myosin/actin proteins), as well as differences in expression levels of proteins involved in regulating the blood–nerve barrier (including orosomucoid 1). Taken together, these findings have identified isoform-specific roles for apoE in determining the protein composition of peripheral nerve as well as regulating nerve regeneration pathways in vivo.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr147
PMCID: PMC3098734  PMID: 21478199

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