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1.  Prevalence, clinical and biochemical profile of subclinical hypothyroidism in normal population in Mumbai 
Subclinical Hypothyroidism (ScHt) affects 3–15% of the adult population. It's clinical and biochemical profile is not well defined, especially in Indian scenario. Our study aimed at screening normal population to define normative ranges of thyroid hormones and Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S.TSH) and prevalence of ScHt and thyroid autoimmunity.
Materials and Methods:
Two-hundred thirty-seven normal subjects without family history of thyroid disease were evaluated for symptoms and laboratory tests for thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity.
The thyroid function tests were as follows:
Euthyroid Group:
Mean values were: T3: 1.79 ± 0.42 ng/mL, T4: 10.23 ± 2.25 μg/dL, FT3: 1.88 ± 0.19 pg/mL, FT4: 1.12 ± 0.21 ng/dL, S.TSH: 2.22 ± 1.06 μlu/mL. 10.2% of euthyroid subjects had antimicrosomal antibodies (AMA) +ve (mean titer 1:918) and 23.6% were anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (anti-TPO) +ve (mean titer 15.06 Au/mL). The euthyroid outlier range for S.TSH was 0.3–4.6 μlu/mL. The values were comparable in both the sexes. Those with S.TSH ≥ 5 μlu/mL were defined to have ScHt.
ScHt Group:
Prevalence of ScHt was 11.3% (M:F ratio 1:3.7). 74% belonged to 35–54 years age group and prevalence increased with age (post-menopausal females: prevalence 20%). S.TSH was 9.8 ± 7.22 μlu/mL, mean S.AMA was 1:5079 (40.7% positivity) and mean S.anti-TPO was 260 Au/mL (47.6% positivity). Majority were agoitrous (74%), and stage I goiter was seen in 26% of this population. Symptom score of 5–8 was seen in 55% ScHt subjects versus 35% normal subjects.
Mean S.TSH in our population was 2.22 μlu/mL (euthyroid outliers: 0.3–4.6 μlu/mL); hence, S.TSH above 4.6 μlu/mL should be considered as abnormal. The prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity increases after age of 35 years. ScHt presents mainly in agoitrous form and with positive antibodies, suggesting autoimmunity as the cause.
PMCID: PMC3712376  PMID: 23869302
Autoimmunity; normative ranges; prevalence; subclinical hypothyroidism
2.  Hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate TSH secretion with associated hyperprolactinaemia--a case report and review of the literature. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1984;60(703):328-335.
A patient with inappropriate thyrotrophin (TSH) secretion is described. She initially presented with classical hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, responded to propylthiouracil and, subsequently, had a normal delivery. Hyperthyroidism persisted and 7.5 months later a subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. After a further 16 months, mild symptoms of hyperthyroidism recurred. She again responded to propylthiouracil, but developed galactorrhoea. At that stage, it was noted that she had persistently elevated circulating TSH in the presence of elevated T4 and T3 levels. Her symptomatology was mild, although objective indices of thyroid activity, including pulse rate, BMR, sex hormone binding globulin and cholesterol, were indicative of hyperthyroidism. CT scan and tomography of the sella were normal. She had a markedly exaggerated TSH response to thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH). Basal TSH and responsiveness to TRH was suppressed by high dose dexamethasone. The TSH response to TRH was partially suppressed by exogenous T3, but there was no effect on basal TSH levels. TSH also decreased slightly with L-dopa and bromocriptine. Circulating TSH rose markedly during methimazole administration. TSH alpha and beta subunits were elevated and appropriate for the high TSH. In addition, both subunits increased following TRH. The patient had basal hyperprolactinaemia with an impaired prolactin (PRL) response to TRH and metoclopramide. PRL suppressed with L-dopa and bromocriptine. The remaining anterior pituitary function was intact. Most of the laboratory findings argue against the presence of a TSH producing pituitary tumour and the most likely cause for inappropriate TSH secretion in this patient is selective resistance of the thyrotroph to thyroid hormones. A mild element of peripheral resistance might also be present. The hyperprolactinaemia could be related to lactotroph resistance to thyroid hormone. The complexities of treatment in this patient are stressed. Therapy was initially attempted with low dose dexamethasone, but this had no effect. T3 treatment produced an exacerbation of her symptomatology and did not influence basal TSH, thyroid hormones, or 131I uptake. Bromocriptine administration for 11 months partially suppressed basal TSH without influencing T3 and there was an increase in T4. Methimazole did decrease her T4 and T3, but TSH and PRL rose to even greater levels. Her hyperthyroidism was eventually controlled with an ablative dose of 131I. Thyroid hormone will be given in an attempt to suppress her TSH.
PMCID: PMC2417872  PMID: 6429655
3.  Neonatal Thyroid Function in Seveso 25 Years after Maternal Exposure to Dioxin 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(7):e161.
Neonatal hypothyroidism has been associated in animal models with maternal exposure to several environmental contaminants; however, evidence for such an association in humans is inconsistent. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a persistent and widespread toxic environmental contaminant, is associated with modified neonatal thyroid function in a large, highly exposed population in Seveso, Italy.
Methods and Findings
Between 1994 and 2005, in individuals exposed to TCDD after the 1976 Seveso accident we conducted: (i) a residence-based population study on 1,014 children born to the 1,772 women of reproductive age in the most contaminated zones (A, very high contamination; B, high contamination), and 1,772 age-matched women from the surrounding noncontaminated area (reference); (ii) a biomarker study on 51 mother–child pairs for whom recent maternal plasma dioxin measurements were available. Neonatal blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (b-TSH) was measured on all children. We performed crude and multivariate analyses adjusting for gender, birth weight, birth order, maternal age, hospital, and type of delivery. Mean neonatal b-TSH was 0.98 μU/ml (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90–1.08) in the reference area (n = 533), 1.35 μU/ml (95% CI 1.22–1.49) in zone B (n = 425), and 1.66 μU/ml (95% CI 1.19–2.31) in zone A (n = 56) (p < 0.001). The proportion of children with b-TSH > 5 μU/ml was 2.8% in the reference area, 4.9% in zone B, and 16.1% in zone A (p < 0.001). Neonatal b-TSH was correlated with current maternal plasma TCDD (n = 51, β = 0.47, p < 0.001) and plasma toxic equivalents of coplanar dioxin-like compounds (n = 51, β = 0.45, p = 0.005).
Our data indicate that environmental contaminants such as dioxins have a long-lasting capability to modify neonatal thyroid function after the initial exposure.
Andrea Baccarelli and colleagues show that maternal exposure to a dioxin following the industrial accident in Seveso, Italy in 1976 is associated with modified neonatal thyroid function even many years later.
Editors' Summary
The thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck, controls the speed at which the human body converts food into the energy and chemicals needed for life. In healthy people, the thyroid makes and releases two hormones (chemical messengers that travel around the body and regulate the activity of specific cells) called thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The release of T4 and T3 is controlled by thyroid secreting hormone (TSH), which is made by the pituitary gland in response to electrical messages from the brain. If the thyroid stops making enough T4 and T3, a condition called hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid) develops. Adults with hypothyroidism put on weight, feel the cold, and are often tired; children with hypothyroidism may also have poor growth and mental development. Because even a small reduction in thyroid hormone levels increases TSH production by the pituitary, hypothyroidism is often diagnosed by measuring the amount of TSH in the blood; it is treated with daily doses of the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although hypothyroidism is most common in ageing women, newborn babies sometimes have hypothyroidism. If untreated, “neonatal” hyperthyroidism can cause severe mental and physical retardation so, in many countries, blood TSH levels are measured soon after birth. That way, levothyroxine treatment can be started before thyroid hormone deficiency permanently damages the baby's developing body and brain. But what causes neonatal hypothyroidism? Animal experiments (and some but not all studies in people) suggest that maternal exposure to toxic chemicals called dioxins may be one cause. Dioxins are byproducts of waste incineration that persist in the environment and that accumulate in people. In this study, the researchers investigate whether exposure to dioxin (this name refers to the most toxic of the dioxins—2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) affects neonatal thyroid function by studying children born near Seveso, Italy between 1994 and 2005. An accident at a chemical factory in 1976 heavily contaminated the region around this town with dioxin and, even now, the local people have high amounts of dioxin in their bodies.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 1,772 women of child-bearing age who were living very near the Seveso factory (the most highly contaminated area, zone A) or slightly further away where the contamination was less but still high (zone B) at the time of the accident or soon after. As controls, they selected 1,772 women living in the surrounding, noncontaminated (reference) area. Altogether, these women had 1,014 babies between 1994 and 2005. The babies born to the mothers living in the reference area had lower neonatal blood TSH levels on average than the babies born to mothers living in zone A; zone B babies had intermediate TSH levels. Zone A babies were 6.6. times more likely to have a TSH level of more than 5 μU/ml than the reference area babies (the threshold TSH level for further investigations is 10 μU/ml; the average TSH level among the reference area babies was 0.98 μU/ml). The researchers also examined the relationship between neonatal TSH measurements and maternal dioxin measurements at delivery (extrapolated from measurements made between 1992 and 1998) in 51 mother–baby pairs. Neonatal TSH levels were highest in the babies whose mothers had the highest blood dioxin levels.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that maternal dioxin exposure has a long-lasting, deleterious effect on neonatal thyroid function. Because the long-term progress of the children in this study was not examined, it is not known whether the increases in neonatal TSH measurements associated with dioxin exposure caused any developmental problems. However, in regions where there is a mild iodine deficiency (the only environmental exposure consistently associated with reduced human neonatal thyroid function), TSH levels are increased to a similar extent and there is evidence of reduced intellectual and physical development. Future investigations on the progress of this group of children should show whether the long-term legacy of the Seveso accident (and of the high environmental levels of dioxin elsewhere) includes any effects on children's growth and development.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The MedlinePlus encyclopedia provides information about hypothyroidism and neonatal hypothyroidism; MedlinePlus provides links to additional information on thyroid diseases (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Direct health encyclopedia provides information on hypothyroidism
The Nemours Foundation's KidsHealth site has information written for children about thyroid disorders
Toxtown, an interactive site from the US National Library of Science, provides information on environmental health concerns including exposure to dioxins (in English and Spanish)
More information about dioxins is provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency and by the US Food and Drug Administration
Wikipedia has a page on the Seveso disaster (note: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
PMCID: PMC2488197  PMID: 18666825
4.  Ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary tumor: a case report and review of prior cases 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):544.
Ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSH-oma) is a very unusual disorder. To date, there are only four cases reported. It is difficult to distinguish ectopic cases from both regular TSH-omas and resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH).
Case presentation
A newly identified case of ectopic TSH-oma arising from the nasal pharynx was described, and reports of four prior cases were reviewed. The patient was a 41-year-old male who developed what appeared to be typical hyperthyroidism and atrial fibrillation in 2009. Thyroid function tests showed elevated basal levels of free T3 (FT3, 24.08 pmol/L), free T4 (FT4, 75.73 pmol/L), and serum TSH (7.26 μIU/ml). Both TSH-oma and resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome were considered. TRH stimulating test was negative, whereas octreotide inhibition test showed a reduction in TSH by 30.8%. Furthermore, a large space-occupying lesion located at the nasopharynx was found by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A normal pituitary was visualized. Ectopic TSH-oma was preliminarily established. Using an endoscopic endonasal approach, the tumor was resected. Histological features and immunophenotypes were consistent with those of TSH-secreting tumor. The levels of both free thyroxine and TSH returned to normal ranges the day after surgery and remained within normal range for 48 months.
Although exceedingly rare, ectopic TSH-oma should be considered for patients with inappropriate secretion of TSH with hyperthyroidism and pituitary tumor undetectable by computed tomography and MRI. To our knowledge, this is the first case followed up more than 4 years. The characteristics and successful interventions summarized in this report provide a guideline for clinicians.
PMCID: PMC4125694  PMID: 25069990
Ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma; Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH); TRH stimulating test; Octreotide inhibition test; Hyperthyroidism
5.  A Case of simultaneous occurrence of Marine – Lenhart syndrome and a papillary thyroid microcarcinoma 
Marine-Lenhart syndrome is defined as the co-occurrence of Graves’ disease and functional nodules. The vast majority of autonomous adenomas are benign, whereas functional thyroid carcinomas are considered to be rare. Here, we describe a case of simultaneous occurrence of Marine-Lenhart syndrome and a papillary microcarcinoma embedded in a functional nodule.
Case presentation
A 55 year-old, caucasian man presented with overt hyperthyroidism (thyrotropin (TSH) <0.01 μIU/L; free thyroxine (FT4) 3.03 ng/dL), negative thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin autoantibodies, but elevated thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSH-RAb 2.6 IU/L). Ultrasound showed a highly vascularized hypoechoic nodule (1.1 × 0.9 × 2 cm) in the right lobe, which projected onto a hot area detected in the 99mtechnetium thyroid nuclear scan. Overall uptake was increased (4.29%), while the left lobe showed lower tracer uptake with no visible background-activity, supporting the notion that both Graves’ disease and a toxic adenoma were present. After normal thyroid function was reinstalled with methimazole, the patient underwent thyroidectomy. Histological work up revealed a unifocal papillary microcarcinoma (9 mm, pT1a, R0), positively tested for the BRAF V600E mutation, embedded into the hyperfunctional nodular goiter.
Neither the finding of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule nor the presence of Graves’ disease rule out papillary thyroid carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3654942  PMID: 23657056
Toxic adenoma; Graves’ disease; Marine-Lenhart syndrome; Papillary carcinoma; Hyperthyroidism
6.  Longitudinal study on thyroid function in patients with thalassemia major: High incidence of central hypothyroidism by 18 years 
Primary hypothyroidism is one of the most frequent complications observed in-patients suffering from thalassemia. We investigated and reviewed the thyroid function in all thalassemic patients attending the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic of Hamad Medical Center, Doha, Qatar during the last 10 years of follow-up.
Patients and Methods:
A total of 48 patients with ί-thalassemia major between 5 years and 18 years of age. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as follows: Overt hypothyroidism (low Free thyroxine [FT4] and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] levels >5 μIU/ml); subclinical hypothyroidism (normal FT4, TSH between 5 μIU/ml and 10 μIU/ml) and central (secondary) hypothyroidism (low FT4 and normal or decreased TSH).
A total of 48 patients (22 males and 26 females) completed a 12 year-period of follow-up. During this period, hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 17/48 (35%) of patients. There was no significant difference in the prevalence in males 7/22 (32%) versus females 10/26 (38%). Sixteen of the patients had hypothyroidism after the age of 10 years (94%). The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism had risen from 0% at the age of 7 years to 35% at the age of 18 years. None of the patients had high anti-thyroperoxidase antibody titers. Out of 17 patients, 13 patients with hypothyroidism had normal or low TSH level (not appropriately elevated) indicative of defective hypothalamic pituitary response to low FT4 (central hypothyroidism). Three patients (6.3%) had subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH between 5 uIU/ml and 10 uIU/ml and normal FT4). The general trend of FT4 level showed progressive decrease over the 12 years, whereas, TSH levels did not show a corresponding increase. These data suggested defective hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis involving both TSH and FT4 sretion in patients with thalassemia major over time. There was a significant negative correlation between serum ferritin and FT4 (r = −0.39, P = 0.007), but no correlation was found between ferritin and TSH.
Worsening of thyroid function was observed in 35% of the studied thalassemic patients by the age of 18 years. The lack of proper increase of TSH in response to the low circulating levels of FT4 in 13/17 (76%) of these patients indicates a relatively high incidence of defective pituitary thyrotrophic function in these patients.
PMCID: PMC3872691  PMID: 24381890
Ferritin; free thyroxine; growth; hypothyroidism; prevalence; thalassemia; thyroid stimulating hormone
7.  Prospective Observation of 5-Year Clinical Course of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Korean Population 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(11):1622-1626.
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common clinical condition, whereas it's natural course has not been identified distinctly. We evaluated the natural history of 169 SCH patients over 5-yr and the prognostic factors including thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid ultrasonographic (USG) findings related to develop overt hypothyroidism. After 5 yr, 47.3% of patients showed normalization of TSH, while 36.7% of patients remained persistence of high level of TSH, and overt hypothyroidism developed in 11.2% of patients. There were painless thyroiditis (2.9%) and hyperthyroidism (1.7%) during 5 yr follow-up. The thyroid nodule was seen in 48.6% of patients. Most of patients had 1 to 2 nodules whereas only 3% of patients with thyroid nodule had more than 6 nodules. Overt hypothyroidism patients had more heterogenous echogenecity in USG compared to patients with normalization or persistent SCH (76.5% vs 50.0% vs 35.0%, P = 0.048) and higher prevalence positive anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO Ab) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) and titer of anti-TPO Ab than other two groups. The cut off values for prediction of overt hypothyroidism were TSH > 7.45 µIU/mL, free T4 < 1.09 ng/dL and Anti-TPO Ab > 560 IU/mL. SCH has various courses and initial TSH, free T4, presence of thyroid autoantibody, titer of thyroid autoantibody; and thyroid USG findings can serve as a prognostic factor for progression of overt hypothyroidism. These parameters suggest consideration to initiate thyroid hormone treatment in SCH.
PMCID: PMC3835504  PMID: 24265525
Subclinical Hypothyroidism; Natural History; Hypothyroidism
8.  Validation of a Decision Rule for Selective TSH Screening in Atrial Fibrillation 
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac dysrhythmia. Current guidelines recommend obtaining thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in all patients presenting with AF. Our aim was to investigate the utility of TSH levels for emergency department (ED) patients with a final diagnosis of AF while externally validating and potentially refining a clinical decision rule that recommends obtaining TSH levels only in patients with previous stroke, hypertension, or thyroid disease.
We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of consecutive patients who presented to an ED from January 2011 to March 2014 with a final ED diagnosis of AF. Charts were reviewed for historical features and TSH level. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the previously derived clinical decision rule.
Of the 1,964 patients who were eligible, 1,458 (74%) had a TSH level available for analysis. The overall prevalence of a low TSH (<0.3μIU/mL) was 2% (n=36). Elevated TSH levels (>5μIU/mL) were identified in 11% (n=159). The clinical decision rule had a sensitivity of 88.9% (95% CI [73.0–96.4]) and a specificity of 27.5% (95% CI [25.2–29.9]) for identifying a low TSH. When analyzed for its ability to identify any abnormal TSH values (high or low TSH), the sensitivity and specificity were 74.4% (95% CI [67.5–80.2]) and 27.3% (95% CI [24.9–29.9]), respectively.
Low TSH in patients presenting to the ED with a final diagnosis of AF is rare (2%). The sensitivity of a clinical decision rule including a history of thyroid disease, hypertension, or stroke for identifying low TSH levels in patients presenting to the ED with a final diagnosis of atrial fibrillation was lower than originally reported (88.9% vs. 93%). When elevated TSH levels were included as an outcome, the sensitivity was reduced to 74.4%. We recommend that emergency medicine providers not routinely order TSH levels for all patients with a primary diagnosis of AF. Instead, these investigations can be limited to patients with new onset AF or those with a history of thyroid disease with no known TSH level within three months.
PMCID: PMC4307717
9.  Metabolic Clearance and Production Rates of Human Thyrotropin 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1974;53(3):895-903.
Metabolic clearance (MCR) and production rates (PR) of human thyrotropin (hTSH) were determined by the constant infusion to equilibrium method 57 times in 55 patients. 16 control patients had a mean hTSH MCR of 50.7 ml/min. The mean hTSH MCR was significantly (P < 0.02) higher in 19 euthyroid men (51.6 ml/min) than in 12 euthyroid women (43.0 ml/min), but this apparent sex difference disappeared when the MCR were corrected for surface area, 25.8 (men) versus 25.2 ml/min per m2 (women). Hypothyroid patients had significantly (P < 0.005) lower hTSH MCR (30.9 ml/min), and hyperthyroid patients had significantly (P < 0.05) higher hTSH MCR (60.9 ml/min) than controls. The hTSH MCR in patients with “decreased thyroid reserve” (40.9 ml/min), hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule (53.8 ml/min), and “empty sella syndrome” (46.6 ml/min) were not significantly different from controls. The mean hTSH PR in controls (104.3 mU/day) was significantly (P < 0.005) different from that in patients with “decreased thyroid reserve” (956 mU/day), hypothyroidism (4,440 mU/day), hyperthyroidism (< 43.9 mU/day) and a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule (< 38.7 mU/day). In primary hypothyroidism intravenous triiodothyronine therapy (50 μg/day) for 10 days decreased the hTSH PR (from 4,244 to 2,461 mU/day) before changes in the hTSH MCR (from 33.1 to 33.7 mU/day) were observed.
These studies have demonstrated that changes in the serum concentration of hTSH are mainly due to altered pituitary hTSH secretion with only a minor contribution from the change in hTSH MCR.
PMCID: PMC333072  PMID: 4812446
10.  Thyroid Function in Heart Failure and Impact on Mortality 
JACC. Heart failure  2013;1(1):48-55.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with systolic heart failure (HF) and abnormal thyroid function are at increased risk for death.
Thyroid hormone homeostasis is vital to the optimal functioning of the cardiovascular system, but an independent prognostic effect of thyroid abnormalities in patients with HF has not been established.
In SCD-HeFT (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial), which randomized patients with ischemic or nonischemic HF to placebo or amiodarone or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured at baseline and at 6-month intervals throughout the 5-year study.
Of 2,225 patients, the majority (87%) had normal TSH levels (0.3 to 5.0 μU/ml) at baseline, 12% had values suggestive of hypothyroidism, and 1% had values consistent with hyperthyroidism. Compared with euthyroid patients, those hypothyroid at baseline were older and included more women and Caucasians (all p values <0.05). Over the median follow-up period of 45.5 months, among patients euthyroid at baseline, 89 developed abnormally low TSH levels, and 341 developed abnormally high values. Patients randomized to amiodarone (median dose 300 mg) had an elevated risk for developing abnormal TSH levels compared with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy or placebo (p < 0.0001). Patients with baseline or new-onset abnormal thyroid function had a higher mortality than those with normal thyroid function, even after controlling for other known mortality predictors (hazard ratio: 1.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.29 to 1.94; p < 0.0001 for hypothyroid; hazard ratio: 1.85; 95% confidence interval: 1.21 to 2.83; p = 0.0048 for hyperthyroid). Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator benefit did not vary with thyroid function.
Abnormal thyroid function in patients with symptomatic HF and ejection fractions ≤35% is associated with significantly increased risk for death, even after controlling for known mortality predictors. (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial [SCD-HeFT]; NCT00000609)
PMCID: PMC3803999  PMID: 24159562
amiodarone; heart failure; ICD; thyroid disease
11.  Level of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in Patients with Acute Schizophrenia, Unipolar Depression or Bipolar Disorder 
Neurochemical Research  2014;39(7):1245-1253.
The aim of this study is to investigate differences in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in patients with acute schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar depression and bipolar mania. Serum level of TSH was measured in 1,685 Caucasian patients (1,064 women, 63.1 %; mean age 46.4). Mean serum TSH concentration was: schizophrenia (n = 769) 1.71 μIU/mL, unipolar depression (n = 651) 1.63 μIU/mL, bipolar disorder (n = 264) 1.86 μIU/mL, bipolar depression (n = 203) 2.00 μIU/mL, bipolar mania (n = 61) 1.38 μIU/mL (H = 11.58, p = 0.009). Depending on the normal range used, the overall rate of being above or below the normal range was 7.9–22.3 % for schizophrenia, 13.9–26.0 % for unipolar depression, 10.8–27.6 % for bipolar disorder, 12.2–28.5 % for bipolar depression, and 11.4–24.5 % for bipolar mania. We have also found differences in TSH levels between the age groups (≤20, >20 years and ≤40, >40 years and ≤60 years and >60 years). TSH level was negatively correlated with age (r = − 0.23, p < 0.001). Weak correlations with age have been found in the schizophrenia (r = − 0.21, p < 0.001), unipolar depression (r = − 0.23, p < 0.001), bipolar depression (r = − 0.25, p = 0.002) and bipolar disorder (r = − 0.21, p = 0.005) groups. Our results confirm that there may be a higher prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in patients with mood disorders (both unipolar and bipolar) and that these two diagnostic groups differ in terms of direction and frequency of thyroid dysfunctions.
PMCID: PMC4103998  PMID: 24723220
Thyroid-stimulating hormone; Schizophrenia; Depression; Bipolar disorder
12.  Suppression of Pituitary TSH Secretion in the Patient with a Hyperfunctioning Thyroid Nodule 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1973;52(11):2783-2792.
10 patients with a single hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule each were studied for pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) suppression. They were judged to be euthyroid on clinical grounds. The total thyroxine (T4D), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (T3D), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were normal in most of the patients. Incorporation of 131I into the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules was not suppressed by the administration of physiological doses of T3. Basal serum TSH concentrations were undetectable (<0.5 - 1.0 μU/ml) in all patients. The metabolic clearance of TSH in one patient before and after excision of the thyroid nodule was unchanged (40 vs. 42 ml/min) whereas the calculated production rate was undetectable before the operation (<29 mU/day) and normal after (103 mU/day). These data, in one patient, suggest that the undetectable concentration of TSH in these patients is a result of suppressed TSH secretion rather than accelerated TSH clearance.
In eight patients, basal serum TSH concentrations failed to increase after the intravenous administration of 200 μg of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); minimal increases in serum TSH concentrations were observed in two patients. The suppression of TSH was evident despite “normal” concentrations of circulating thyroid hormones. The observation that normal serum concentrations of T4D, FT4, T3D, and FT3 may be associated with undetectable basal serum TSH concentrations and suppressed TSH response to TRH was also found in four hypothyroid patients given increasing doses of L-thyroxine and sequential TRH stimulation tests.
PMCID: PMC302546  PMID: 4201265
13.  Variable Thyrotropin Response to Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone after Small Decreases in Plasma Free Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in Patients with Nonthyroidal Diseases 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1980;66(3):451-456.
Although a normal serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration is generally considered to be the most important finding to support the clinical impression of euthyroidism in patients with nonthyroidal diseases and decreased serum triiodothyronine (T3), the regulation of TSH secretion in sick patients has not been studied previously. Accordingly, we studied the regulation of TSH secretion in 23 patients with nonthyroidal diseases; 15 of the patients had decreased serum T3. TSH regulation was studied by measuring the TSH response to injected thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) before and after effecting a small decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) and/or T3 concentrations by iodide treatment, 262 mg daily for 10 d. Iodide treatment significantly decreased (> 10%) the free T4 index (FT4-I) and/or free T3 index (FT3-I) in all patients. FT4-I values were correlated (0.611, P < 0.001), with free T4 concentration determined by equilibrium dialysis. Despite decreased FT4-I and/or FT3-I after iodide treatment in all patients, the TSH response to TRH after iodide treatment was augmented in only 8 of 15 patients who had decreased serum T3 (group 1) and in only 5 of 8 patients who had a normal serum T3. Mean base-line TSH concentration was increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 0.9±0.1 to 1.5±0.3 μU/ml in group 1 only. Comparison of the mean TSH response to TRH showed that there was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2. Moreover, no significant difference in thyroidal parameters was observed between patients who had augmented TSH response to TRH after iodides and those who had either similar or decreased TSH response irrespective of the initial serum T3. These studies show that an augmented TSH response to TRH in response to a small reduction in serum T4 and T3 concentration occurred in only 57% of the entire group of patients with nonthyroidal diseases and that the presence or absence of a normal TSH response to this stimulus did not seem to be related to the base-line serum T3 concentration. Because an increase in serum TSH in response to decreased serum T4 and T3 did not occur in about one-half of patients with nonthyroidal diseases, normal serum TSH may not be a reliable index of the euthyroid state in these patients.
PMCID: PMC371672  PMID: 6772675
14.  Subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2014;57(6):507-512.
To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulating test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L.
This study was performed in 39 infertile women with ovulatory disorders (group 1) and 27 infertile women with male infertility only (group 2, controls) who had basal serum TSH levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L and a TRH stimulating test. Serum TSH levels were measured before TRH injection (TSH0) and also measured at 20 minutes (TSH1) and 40 minutes (TSH2) following intravenous injection of 400 µg TRH. Exaggerated TSH response above 30 mIU/L following TRH injection was diagnosed as SH. Group 1 was composed of poor responders (subgroup A), patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup B) and patients with WHO group II anovulation except poor responder or polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup C).
The prevalence of SH was significantly higher in group 1 of 46.2% (18/39) compared with 7.4% (2/27) in group 2 (P=0.001). TSH0, TSH1, and TSH2 levels were significantly higher in group 1 than the corresponding values in group 2 (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001). In group 1, TSH1 and TSH2 levels were significantly lower in subgroup C compared with those in subgroup A and B (P=0.008, P=0.006, respectively).
TRH stimulation test had better be performed in infertile women with ovulatory disorders who have TSH levels between 2.5 and 5.0 mIU/L for early detection and appropriate treatment of SH.
PMCID: PMC4245345  PMID: 25469340
Infertility; Ovulatory disorder; Subclinical hypothyroidism; Thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulating test
15.  Endogenous Thyrotropin and Triiodothyronine Concentrations in Individuals with Thyroid Cancer 
Thyroid  2008;18(9):943-952.
Thyroid hormone suppression therapy is associated with decreased recurrence rates and improved survival in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Recently higher baseline thyrotropin (TSH) levels have been found to be associated with a postoperative diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer. Our objective was to confirm whether preoperative TSH levels were higher in patients who were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer after undergoing thyroidectomy, compared with patients who were found to have benign disease. We also sought to determine whether thyroid hormone levels were lower in the patients with malignancy.
The study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective study. The study setting was the General Clinical Research Center of an Academic Medical Center. Participants were 50 euthyroid patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine (T3), and TSH levels were documented in patients prior to their scheduled thyroidectomy. Following thyroidectomy, patients were divided into those with a histologic diagnosis of either differentiated thyroid cancer or benign disease. Preoperative thyroid profiles were correlated with patients' postoperative diagnoses.
All patients had a normal serum TSH concentration preoperatively. One-third of the group was diagnosed with thyroid cancer as a result of their thyroidectomy. These patients had a higher serum TSH level (mean = 1.50 mIU/L, CI 1.22–1.78 mIU/L) than patients with benign disease (mean = 1.01 mIU/mL, CI 0.84–1.18 mIU/L). There was a greater risk of having thyroid cancer in patients with TSH levels in the upper three quartiles of TSH values, compared with patients with TSH concentrations in the lowest quartile of TSH values (odd ratio = 8.7, CI 2.2–33.7). Patients with a thyroid cancer diagnosis also had lower T3 concentrations measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mean = 112.6 ng/dL, CI 103.8–121.4 ng/dL) than did patients with a benign diagnosis (mean 129.9 ng/dL, CI 121.4–138.4 ng/dL).
These data confirm that higher TSH concentrations, even within the normal range, are associated with a subsequent diagnosis of thyroid cancer in individuals with thyroid abnormalities. This further supports the hypothesis that TSH stimulates the growth or development of thyroid malignancy during its early or preclinical phase. We also show for the first time that patients with thyroid cancer also have lower T3 levels than patients with benign disease.
PMCID: PMC2879493  PMID: 18788918
16.  Thyrotropin-induced hyperthyroidism caused by selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. A new syndrome of "inappropriate secretion of TSH". 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1975;56(3):633-642.
An 18-yr-old woman with clinical and laboratory features of hyperthyroidism had persistently elevated serum levels of immunoreative thyrotropin (TSH). During 11 yr of follow-up there had been no evidence of a pituitary tumor. After thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), there was a marked increase in TSH and secondarily in triiodothyronine (T3), the latter observation confirming the biologic activity of the TSH. Exogenous T3 raised serum T3 and several measurements of peripheral thyroid hormone effect, while decreasing serum TSH, thyroxine (T4), and thyroidal radioiodine uptake. After T3, the TRH-stimulated TSH response was decreased but was still inappropriate for the elevated serum T3 levels. Dexamethasone reduced serum TSH but did not inhibit TRH stimulation of TSH. Propylthiouracil reduced serum T4 and T3 and raised TSH. This patient represents a new syndrome of TSH-induced hyperthyroidism, differing from previous reports in the absence of an obvious pituitary tumor and in the responsiveness of the TSH to TRH stimulation and thyroid hormone suppression. This syndrome appears to be caused by a selective, partial resistance of the pituitary to the action of thyroid hormone. This case is also compared with previous reports in the literature of patients with elevated serum levels of immunoreactive TSH in the presence of elevated total and free thyroid hormones. A classification of these cases, termed "inappropriate secretion of TSH," is proposed.
PMCID: PMC301911  PMID: 1159077
17.  Limited adequacy of thyroid cancer patient follow-up at a Canadian tertiary care centre 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2013;56(6):385-392.
We sought to evaluate the adequacy of follow-up of thyroid cancer patients at a Canadian centre.
We mailed a survey to the family physicians of thyroid cancer patients and analyzed the findings relative to follow-up guidelines published by the American Thyroid Association (ATA). Statistical significance between early and late follow-up patterns was analyzed using the χ2 test.
Our survey response rate was 56.2% (91 of 162). The time from operation ranged from 1.24–7.13 (mean 3.96) years, and 87.9% of patients had undergone a physical exam within the previous year. Only 37.4% and 14% of patients had a serum thyroglobulin measurement within 6 and between 6 and 12 months before the survey, respectively. Thyroid simulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured within the prior 6 months in 67% of patients and between 6 and 12 months in 13.2%. The TSH levels were suppressed (< 0.1 μIU/L) in 24.2% of patients, 0.1–2 μIU/L in 44% and greater than 2 μIU/L in 17.6%. Ultrasonography was the most common imaging test performed.
There is significant variation in the follow-up patterns of patients with thyroid cancer, and there is considerable deviation from current ATA guidelines.
PMCID: PMC3859780  PMID: 24284145
18.  Management of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism 
The ideal approach for adequate management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal thyroid hormone level) is a matter of intense debate among endocrinologists. The prevalence of low serum TSH levels ranges between 0.5% in children and 15% in the elderly population. Mild subclinical hyperthyroidism is more common than severe subclinical hyperthyroidism. Transient suppression of TSH secretion may occur because of several reasons; thus, corroboration of results from different assessments is essential in such cases. During differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, pituitary or hypothalamic disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, and drug-mediated suppression of TSH must be ruled out. A low plasma TSH value is also typically seen in the first trimester of gestation. Factitial or iatrogenic TSH inhibition caused by excessive intake of levothyroxine should be excluded by checking the patient’s medication history. If these nonthyroidal causes are ruled out during differential diagnosis, either transient or long-term endogenous thyroid hormone excess, usually caused by Graves’ disease or nodular goiter, should be considered as the cause of low circulating TSH levels.
We recommend the following 6-step process for the assessment and treatment of this common hormonal disorder: 1) confirmation, 2) evaluation of severity, 3) investigation of the cause, 4) assessment of potential complications, 5) evaluation of the necessity of treatment, and 6) if necessary, selection of the most appropriate treatment.
In conclusion, management of subclinical hyperthyroidism merits careful monitoring through regular assessment of thyroid function. Treatment is mandatory in older patients (> 65 years) or in presence of comorbidities (such as osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation).
PMCID: PMC3693616  PMID: 23843809
Hyperthyroidism; Disease Management; Therapeutics; Graves’ Disease
19.  Oscillating hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism – a case-based review 
To discuss a unique clinical entity where inappropriate activity of inhibitory and stimulatory thyroid antibodies resulted in alternating hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
We report the clinical history, laboratory data, and results of imaging studies, along with the pathophysiological mechanism and the subsequent treatment in a patient with fluctuating thyroid functional status.
A 52-year-old female was treated for hypothyroidism for more than two decades. She started having symptoms of hyperthyroidism along with a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). She continued to have persistent symptoms despite stopping her levothyroxine. Her free T3 and T4 were elevated along with an increased radioactive uptake scan. She was diagnosed with Graves’ disease and started on methimazole, which relieved her symptoms for a few months. Subsequently, her TSH began to rise beyond expected level, her hypothyroid symptoms reappeared, and methimazole was discontinued. Following this, she again developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism and thyroid values revealed an undetectable TSH. She had at least two such documented cycles of hyperthyroidism alternating with hypothyroidism. She was eventually treated with radioactive iodine ablation followed by levothyroxine replacement. Swinging dominance of TSH-blocking autoantibodies (TBAb) and thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies (TSAb) triggered by methimazole and levothyroxine, respectively, is likely the underlying mechanism.
Physicians should be vigilant to the phenomenon of spontaneous conversion of hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism, or vice versa, in a subset of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Repeated assessment of thyroid function along with measurement of TBAb and TSAb are invaluable in identifying this rare clinical entity.
PMCID: PMC4246140  PMID: 25432652
hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism; TBAb; TSAb; oscillating
20.  Patterns of Interferon-Alpha–Induced Thyroid Dysfunction Vary with Ethnicity, Sex, Smoking Status, and Pretreatment Thyrotropin in an International Cohort of Patients Treated for Hepatitis C 
Thyroid  2013;23(9):1151-1158.
Interferon-alpha (IFNα)–induced thyroid dysfunction occurs in up to 20% of patients undergoing therapy for hepatitis C. The diversity of thyroid disease presentations suggests that several different pathological mechanisms are involved, such as autoimmunity and direct toxicity. Elucidating the relationships between risk factors and disease phenotype provides insight into the mechanisms of disease pathophysiology.
We studied 869 euthyroid patients from the ACHIEVE 2/3 trial, a randomized international clinical trial comparing pegylated-IFNα2a weekly or albumin-IFNα2b every 2 weeks for up to 24 weeks in patients with hepatitis C, genotype 2 or 3, from 136 centers. The study population was 60% male and 55% white. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine were measured before therapy, monthly during treatment from week 8, and at 4- and 12-week follow-up visits.
Overall, 181 (20.8%) participants had at least one abnormal TSH during the study. Low TSH occurred in 71 (8.2%), of whom 30 (3.5%) had a suppressed TSH below 0.1 mU/L. Hypothyroidism occurred in 53 patients (6.1%), with peak TSH above 10 mU/L in 12 patients (1.4%). Fifty-seven patients had a biphasic thyroiditis (6.6%), with extreme values for the nadir and/or peak TSH in all but one. Medical therapy was given to one thyrotoxic patient, four hypothyroid patients, and 26 biphasic thyroiditis patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that biphasic thyroiditis is associated with being female and higher pretreatment serum TSH, whereas being Asian or a current smoker decreased the risk of thyroiditis. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are most strongly predicted by the pretreatment TSH.
Biphasic thyroiditis accounted for the majority (58%) of clinically relevant IFNα-induced thyroid dysfunction. We confirmed our recent findings in a related cohort that female sex is a risk factor for thyroiditis but not hypothyroidism. Further, in this large multiethnic study, the risk of thyroiditis is dramatically increased, specifically for white women. Smoking was found to be protective of thyroiditis. These results support closer monitoring of women and those with a serum TSH at the extremes of the normal range during therapy so that prompt intervention can mitigate the consequences of thyroid dysfunction associated with IFNα treatment.
PMCID: PMC3770239  PMID: 23517287
21.  Hypothyroidism, new nodule formation and increase in nodule size in patients who have undergone hemithyroidectomy 
The current medical literature has conflicting results about factors related to hypothyroidism and nodular recurrences during follow-up of hemithyroidectomized patients. We aimed to evaluate factors that may have a role in new nodule formation, hypothyroidism, increase in thyroid lobe and increase in nodule volumes in these patients with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and with and without levothyroxine (LT4) use.
Material and methods
We enrolled 140 patients from five different hospitals in Ankara and evaluated their thyroid tests, autoantibody titre results and ultrasonographic findings longitudinally between two visits with a minimum 6-month interval.
In patients with HT there was no significant difference between the two visits but in patients without HT, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and nodule volume were higher, and free T4 levels were lower in the second visit. Similarly, in patients with LT4 treatment there was no difference in TSH, free T4 levels, or lobe or nodule size between the two visits, but the patients without LT4 had free T4 levels lower in the second visit. Regression analysis revealed a relationship between first visit TSH levels and hypothyroidism during follow-up.
Patients who have undergone hemithyroidectomy without LT4 treatment and without HT diagnosis should be followed up more carefully for thyroid tests, new nodule formation and increase in nodule size. The TSH levels at the beginning of the follow-up may be helpful to estimate hypothyroidism in hemithyroidectomized patients.
PMCID: PMC3361026  PMID: 22661999
hemithyroidectomy; hypothyroidism; nodular goitre; Hashimoto's disease; thyroid lobectomy
22.  Bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in patients on long-term suppressive levothyroxine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer 
Current management for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer includes near total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy followed by administration of supraphysiological doses of levothyroxine (L-T4). Although hyperthyroidism is a well known risk factor for osteoporosis, the effects of L-T4 treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with thyroid cancer do not appear to be as significant as with endogenous hyperthyroidism. In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term suppressive therapy with L-T4 on BMD and bone turn over markers in Korean female patients receiving L-T4 suppressive therapy.
We enrolled 94 female subjects (mean age, 50.84 ± 11.43 years) receiving L-T4 after total or near total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer (mean follow-up period, 12.17 ± 4.27 years). The subjects were divided into three groups by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level (group 1 with TSH level ≤0.001 µIU/mL, group 2 with TSH level between 0.001 and 0.17 µIU/mL, group 3 with TSH level >0.17 µIU/mL) and four groups by quartile of free T4 level. L-T4 dosage, BMD (examined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and bone turnover markers were evaluated according to TSH and free T4 levels.
No significant decrease was detected in BMD or bone turnover markers according to TSH level or free T4 level. Also, the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was not different among groups.
Long-term L-T4 suppressive therapy after thyroid cancer management did not affect bone density or increase the prevalence of osteoporosis even though TSH levels were supraphysiologically suppressed.
PMCID: PMC3994597  PMID: 24761409
Thyroid neplasms; Levothyroxine; Bone mineral density; Osteoporosis; Osteopenia
23.  Thyroid disorders in women of Puducherry 
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Free Thyroxine (FT4) and Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) were assayed in 505 women of this region. 60 women had previous history of thyroid disease. The remaining 445 women formed the “Disease free group”. A “Reference group” was obtained by excluding women with previous and present history of thyroid dysfunction. Of the total 505 women examined 15.8% had thyroid dysfunction and 84.2% were euthyroid. 11.5% were hypothyroid (9.5% sub-clinical) and 1.8% hyperthyroid (1.2% clinical). The geometric mean TSH for the total population was 2.65 μIU/ml. It was significantly (p=0.025) lower in the reference population 2.17 μIU/ml. There was no significant difference in the FT3 and FT4 values between groups. 19% of women over 60 years had elevated TSH above 4.5 μIU/ml. The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of the reference population was 1.1–5.2 μIU/ml. 6.1% of women in the reference group had TSH levels above the reference intervals. Hypothyroidism particularly sub-clinical hypothyroidism is predominantly present amongst women in this iodine sufficient region. Evaluation of thyroid status could help in early detection and treatment.
PMCID: PMC3453473  PMID: 23105807
Thyroid function; Hypothyroidism; Sub-clinical hypothyroidism
24.  Partial Target Organ Resistance to Thyroid Hormone 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1973;52(4):776-782.
An 8-year old boy with a small goiter, normal basal metabolic rate (BMR), and elevated serum thyroid hormone levels (thyroxine [T4] 19.5 μg per 100 ml, free T4 4 ng per 100 ml, triiodothyronine [T3] 505 ng per 100 ml) was studied. He had measurable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (average 5.5 μU per ml), and the thyroxine-binding proteins, hearing, and epiphyseal structures were normal. There was no parental consanguinity nor were there thyroid abnormalities either in the parents or six siblings.
Methimazole, 50 mg daily, depressed thyroxine synthesis (T4 10.5, free T4 2.5) and caused a rise in TSH to 11 μU per ml. After discontinuation of treatment, TSH declined to 4.2 μU per ml and chemical hyperthyroidism returned (T4 21.0 μg per 100 ml, free T4 4.2, and total T3 475 ng per 100 ml, radioactive iodine [RAI] uptake 68%), but studies of BMR and insensible water loss showed the patient to be clinically euthyroid. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 200 μg i.v., caused a brisk rise in TSH to 28 μU per ml, with T4 rising to 28 μg per 100 ml, free T4 to 5.6, and T3 to 730 ng per 100 ml, thus indicating that the pituitary-thyroid system was intact and that the patient's TSH was biologically active. The unusual sensitivity of the pituitary cells to TRH in spite of the markedly elevated serum thyroid hormone levels also suggested that the pituitary was insensitive to suppression by T3 or T4. Serum dilution studies gave immunochemical evidence that this patient's TSH was normal. Neither propranolol, 60 mg, chlorpromazine, 30 mg, nor prednisone, 15 mg daily, influenced thyroid indices. Steroid treatment, however, suppressed the pituitary response to TRH, T3 in doses increased over a period of 12 days to as much as 150 μg daily caused a rise in serum T3 to above 800 ng per 100 ml, a decline of T4 to euthyroid levels (T4 9.5 μg per 100 ml, free T4 1.6 ng per 100 ml), suppression of the RAI uptake from 68% to 35%, and marked blunting of the responses to TRH, but the BMR and insensible water loss remained normal. The data suggest that the patient's disorder is due to partial resistance to thyroid hormone.
PMCID: PMC302323  PMID: 4632689
25.  Screening Strategies for Thyroid Disorders in the First and Second Trimester of Pregnancy in China 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99611.
Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, but whether all women should be screened for thyroid disorders during pregnancy remains controversial.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the targeted high risk case-finding approach for identifying women with thyroid dysfunction during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy.
Levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) were measured in 3882 Chinese women during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. All tested women were divided into the high risk or non-high risk groups, based on their history, findings from physical examination, or other clinical features suggestive of a thyroid disorder. Diagnosis of thyroid disorders was made according to the standard trimester-specific reference intervals. The prevalence of thyroid disorders in each group was determined, and the feasibility of a screening approach focusing exclusively on high risk women was evaluated to estimate the ability of finding women with thyroid dysfunction.
The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism in the high risk group was higher than in the non-high risk group during the first trimester (0.8% vs 0, χ2 = 7.10, p = 0.008; 1.6% vs 0.2%, χ2 = 7.02, p = 0.008, respectively). The prevalence of hypothyroxinemia or TPOAb positivity was significantly higher in the high risk group than in the non-high risk group during the second trimester (1.3% vs 0.5%, χ2 = 4.49, p = 0.034; 11.6% vs 8.4%, χ2 = 6.396, p = 0.011, respectively). The total prevalence of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism were not statistically different between the high risk and non-high risk groups, for either the first or second trimester.
The high risk screening strategy failed to detect the majority of pregnant women with thyroid disorders. Therefore, we recommend universal screening of sTSH, FT4, and TPOAb during the first trimester and second trimester of pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC4055732  PMID: 24925135

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