AIM: To evaluate the treatment options for nephrotoxicity due to cisplatin combination chemotherapy.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who had received cisplatin combination chemotherapy for gastric cancer between January 2002 and December 2008. We investigated patients who had shown acute renal failure (ARF), and examined their clinical characteristics, laboratory data, use of preventive measures, treatment cycles, the amount of cisplatin administered, recovery period, subsequent treatments, and renal status between the recovered and unrecovered groups.
RESULTS: Forty-one of the 552 patients had serum creatinine (SCR) levels greater than 1.5 mg/dL. We found that pre-ARF SCR, ARF SCR, and ARF glomerular filtration rates were significantly associated with renal status post-ARF between the two groups (P = 0.008, 0.026, 0.026, respectively). On the receiver operating characteristic curve of these values, a 1.75 mg/dL ARF SCR value had 87.5% sensitivity and 84.8% specificity (P = 0.011).
CONCLUSION: Cessation or reduction of chemotherapy should be considered for patients who have an elevation of SCR levels during cisplatin combination chemotherapy.
Acute renal failure; Cisplatin; Drug toxicities; Nephrotoxicity
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) refers to the delivery of mechanical respiratory support without the use of endotracheal intubation (ETI). The present review focused on the effectiveness of NPPV in children > 1 month of age with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to different conditions. ARF is the most common cause of cardiac arrest in children. Therefore, prompt recognition and treatment of pediatric patients with pending respiratory failure can be lifesaving. Mechanical respiratory support is a critical intervention in many cases of ARF. In recent years, NPPV has been proposed as a valuable alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in this acute setting. Recent physiological studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of NPPV in children with ARF. Several pediatric clinical studies, the majority of which were noncontrolled or case series and of small size, have suggested the effectiveness of NPPV in the treatment of ARF due to acute airway (upper or lower) obstruction or certain primary parenchymal lung disease, and in specific circumstances, such as postoperative or postextubation ARF, immunocompromised patients with ARF, or as a means to facilitate extubation. NPPV was well tolerated with rare major complications and was associated with improved gas exchange, decreased work of breathing, and ETI avoidance in 22-100% of patients. High FiO2 needs or high PaCO2 level on admission or within the first hours after starting NPPV appeared to be the best independent predictive factors for the NPPV failure in children with ARF. However, many important issues, such as the identification of the patient, the right time for NPPV application, and the appropriate setting, are still lacking. Further randomized, controlled trials that address these issues in children with ARF are recommended.
Sepsis is a clinical syndrome related to severe infection and is characterized by systemic inflammation and injury to multiple organs and functional systems. Sepsis is one of the main causes of acute renal failure (ARF). Diuretics are frequently administered during ARF. However, there is scant evidence that diuretics provide any benefit to the patients with ARF. This case report highlights the occurrence of uremia and nonrecovery of renal function after administration of diuretics in a patient with ARF caused by sepsis. It is suggested that physicians should be cautious in prescribing diuretics to patients with ARF due to septicemia. Diuretics cause uremia and may lead to false diagnosis of chronic renal failure and nonrecovery of renal function. The patient may unnecessarily require prolonged dialysis.
Dialysis; diuretics; sepsis; uremia
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a relatively frequent complication associated with heart transplantation. It develops in the first few days postoperatively and is characterized by oliguria with laboratory and urinary indices typical of pre-renal azotemia. Cyclosporine, especially with higher doses, is one of the many factors which play an integral part in the nephrotoxicity following cardiac transplant. Poor preoperative renal function and perioperative hemodynamic compromise may also contribute to ARF. The actual incidence of ARF now encountered by transplant centers may be lower than previously reported, the result of lower cyclosporine doses. Currently, management is entirely supportive, but novel therapeutic approaches with atrial natriuretic peptide-like substances are being explored. A case illustrating the typical clinical presentation of ARF after heart transplant will be presented and the clinical features will be reviewed.
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious condition which still carries a mortality of around 50%. People with diabetes may be at increased risk of developing ARF, either as a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma, increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, or due to increased susceptibility of the kidney to adverse effects in the presence of underlying diabetic renal disease. During the period 1956-1992, 1,661 cases of ARF have been treated at Leeds General Infirmary. Of these, we have identified 26 patients also having type 1 diabetes. ARF due to diabetic ketoacidosis is surprisingly uncommon (14 cases out of 23 patients whose notes were reviewed). All cases of ARF complicating ketoacidosis in the last decade have been associated with particularly severe illness requiring intensive care unit support, rather than otherwise 'uncomplicated' ketoacidosis. We discuss the conditions that may result in ARF in patients with diabetes and the particular difficulties that may be encountered in management.
The aging kidney is at risk for both toxic and hemodynamic-induced acute damage, resulting in a high incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) in elderly patients. The effect of age and or gender in ARF mortality in African Americans (AA) was studied in a 3-year, computer assisted retrospective review. In an inner city medical center, 100 patients classified as ARF at discharge or expiration were included in the study. Patients were classified into 3 age categories: <40, 40-64, and >64 years. The incidence of ARF was 35%, 28% and 37%, respectively. Patients >64 years of age were less likely to be dialyzed. Both pre- and postrenal causes of ARF were more common in patients >64 years of age than in younger patients. Hospital length of stay increased progressively with age. Mortality was lower in patients >64 years of age than in younger patients. The incidence of ARF was higher in male than female patients and the incidence of sepsis was higher in female than male patients. Dialytic need was greater in male patients, but mortality was higher in female than male patients. Multivariate logistic regression showed that in the presence of sepsis, oliguria and mechanical ventilatory support, the relative risk of mortality associated with advanced age was 16.5, the relative risk of mortality associated with female gender was 0.2. In summary, hospitalized elderly African-American patients have a high incidence of ARF, and patients less than 40 years of age are equally at risk. Although mortality was higher in female patients, gender and advanced age did not independently contribute to high mortality. Neither age nor gender considerations should supplant sound clinical judgment in the management of and decision making in elderly African-American patients with ARF.
Albeit the considerable progress that has been made both in our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure (ARF) and in its treatment (continuous renal replacement therapies), the morbidity of this complex syndrome remains unacceptably high. The current review focuses on recent developments concerning the definition of ARF, new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of specific causes of ARF, dialysis treatment in the intensive care setting and provides an update on critical care issues relevant to the clinical nephrologist.
N-galactosamine; renal replacement therapy (RRT); sequential organ failure assessment; intensive care nephrology
Postoperative acute renal failure (PO-ARF) is an important cause of mortality among surgical patients. Although there have been many reports on PO-ARF after cardiac surgery and liver transplantation, less is known about the risk of PO-ARF after gynecologic operations. We aimed to investigate the risk of PO-ARF on gynecologic malignancy operations.
1,155 patients' medical charts were reviewed who underwent therapeutic surgery for gynecologic malignancies from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007, at the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
Of these, 10 patients, comprising 0.89% of those who underwent radical hysterectomies and 0.86% of those who underwent debulking operations, were diagnosed with PO-ARF. Their mean age was 61.9±10.1 years. Five patients had preoperative risk factors. Mean operating time was 360.8±96.2 minutes. Five patients experienced intra-operative hypotension and all patients were given blood transfusions during surgery. Eight patients underwent hemodialysis, with two continuing on dialysis to date. Only two patients fully recovered.
Patients undergoing surgery for gynecologic malignancies may be at high risk for PO-ARF, because of old age, long operation times, and profuse bleeding. It is necessary to monitor these patients for postoperative renal function and urine output. If a postoperative oliguric state is detected, aggressive volume expansion should be started immediately, followed by hemodialysis.
Postoperative acute renal failure; Gynecologic malignancy
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a common cause of acute renal failure (ARF). Ischemic ARF is associated with tubulointerstitial inflammation, and studies using animal models have demonstrated that the inflammatory response to I/R exacerbates the resultant renal injury. Ischemic ARF involves complement activation, the generation of cytokines and chemokines within the kidney, and infiltration of the kidney by leukocytes. Recent work has revealed some of the events and signals that trigger the inflammatory response to aseptic, hypoxic injury of the kidney. In many ways, the inflammatory reaction to this injury resembles that seen during ascending urinary infection, and it may represent a general response of the tubular epithelial cells (TECs) to stress or injury. A greater understanding of the signals that trigger the inflammatory response may permit the development of effective therapies to ameliorate ischemic ARF.
Acute renal failure (ARF) severely worsens prognosis of hospitalized patients. The most frequent cause of intrarenal ARF is transient or prolonged renal hypoperfusion (ischemia). Ischemia primarily affects the function and structure of tubular epithelial cells, which, in severe cases, is characterized by epithelial cell necrosis. Nevertheless, ischemia does not exclusively lead to alterations of epithelial cells but also causes interstitial inflammation and interstitial microvasculopathy. Both inflammation and microvasculopathy are particularly important in terms of postischemic kidney repair. Postischemic microvasculopathy is characterized by endothelial cell swelling with subsequent microvascular occlusion. Thus, reperfusion is inhibited (no-reflow phenomenon). Such endothelial cell dysfunction offers new therapeutic perspectives in ischemic ARF. Newer observations point towards the role of the so-called endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the treatment of ARF. Systemic administration of EPCs to mice with bilateral renal ischemia mitigates postischemic endothelial cell dysfunction and protects animals from acute renal failure.
Acute renal failure (ARF) is s a major complication after cardiac surgery and its prevalence still remains high. Even minor changes in serum creatinine are related to an increase morbidity and mortality.
Recently two consensus conferences have suggested new diagnostic criteria to define acute kidney injury and risk scores to better identify patients who will probably develop ARF after cardiac surgery. In fact a prompt recognition of high risk patients could allow a more aggressive therapy at a reversible stage of an incoming ARF. To date prophylactic strategies of renal function preservation during surgery include the avoidance of nephrotoxic insult and the prevention or correction of renal hypoperfusion. Although there are still no pharmacological agents able to prevent the perioperative ARF, several trials are investigating new pharmacological approaches.
When prophylactic strategies fail and severe ARF occurs, renal replacement therapy becomes mandatory. The timing and the kind of renal replacement therapy remain an open issue. Further randomized case-control studies with adequate statistical power are needed to have more conclusive data. Aim of this paper is to start from the acute renal injury physiopathology to analyze the most common prophylactic and pharmacological strategies.
acute renal failure; acute kidney injury; renal replacement therapy; cardiac surgery
We have performed a retrospective review of the incidence and etiologies of acute renal failure (ARF) in 105 adult patients receiving liver transplants. The prevalence of chronic renal failure was also determined. ARF occurred in 94.2% of these patients. Acute tubular necrosis was the leading cause of ARF and was associated with the highest mortality. Factors associated with increased mortality included: (1) peak serum creatinine >3 mg/dl, (2) multiple liver transplants and (3) the need for dialysis. Pretransplant renal failure did not increase mortality. Chronic renal failure developed in 83% of patients at latest follow-up (mean: 30.5 ± 7.9 months).
Acute renal failure; Chronic renal failure; Liver transplantation; Ciclosporin nephrotoxicity; Dialysis; Acute tubular necrosis
To determine the effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), and the factors predicting failure of NIPPV in acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) versus other causes of ARF.
Patients and methods
This was a prospective observational study and all patients with ARF requiring NIPPV over a one-and-a-half year period were enrolled in the study. We recorded the etiology of ARF and prospectively collected the data for heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood gases (pH, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood [PaO2], partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood [PaCO2]) at baseline, one and four hours. The patients were further classified into two groups based on the etiology of ARF as COPD–ARF and ARF due to other causes. The primary outcome was the need for endotracheal intubation during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay.
During the study period, 248 patients were admitted in the ICU and of these 63 (25.4%; 24, COPD–ARF, 39, ARF due to other causes; 40 male and 23 female patients; mean [standard deviation] age of 45.7 [16.6] years) patients were initiated on NIPPV. Patients with ARF secondary to COPD were older, had higher APACHE II scores, lower respiratory rates, levels compared to other causes of ARF. After one hour there was lower pH and higher PaCO2 levels with increase a significant decrease in respiratory rate and heart rate and decline in PaCO2 levels in patients successfully managed with NIPPV. However, there was no in pH and PaO2 difference in improvement of clinical and blood gas parameters between the two groups except at one hour which was significantly the rate of decline of pH at one and four hours and PaCO2 faster in the COPD group. NIPPV failures were significantly higher in ARF due to other causes (15/39) than in ARF–COPD (3/24) (p = 0.03). The mean ICU and hospital stay and the hospital mortality were similar in the two groups. In the multivariate logistic regression model (after and adjusting for gender, APACHE II scores and improvement in respiratory rate, pH, PaO2 at one hour) only the etiology of ARF, ie, ARF–COPD, was associated with a decreased PaCO2 risk of NIPPV failure (odds ratio 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–0.9).
NIPPV is more effective in preventing endotracheal intubation in ARF due to COPD than other causes, and the etiology of ARF is an important predictor of NIPPV failure.
noninvasive ventilation; noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; acute respiratory failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CPAP; bilevel positive airway pressure; pneumonia; ALI; ARDS
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is unequivocally elevated in the kidney with ischemic acute renal failure (ARF), whereas ET receptors (ETAR and ETBR) are variably expressed. Although renal functional and structural changes are similar between ischemic and nephrotoxic ARF, there are few reports on the alteration in the ET system in nephrotoxic ARF. This study was, therefore, undertaken to investigate changes in renal expression of ET-1 and its receptors in nephrotoxic ARF induced by cisplatin. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with 16 mg of cisplatin/kg at a single dose, and the expression of mRNA and protein was then quantified by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was conducted for localization. Three days after treatment, ET-1 transcript in cisplatin-treated mice was thirteen times higher than that in controls, whereas ET-1 peptide was increased by 1.5-fold. Cisplatin caused a 2-fold increase in the levels of ETAR mRNA and protein. Most of the increased immunoreactive ET-1 and ETAR were localized in damaged tubules. Neither the expression of ETBR mRNA nor the abundance and immunoreactive level of ETBR protein were changed. The findings suggest that the individual components of the renal ET system are differentially regulated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic ARF.
Cisplatin; Acute renal failure; Endothelin; Endothelin receptor
Neurological abnormalities are a major cause of morbidity in patients with renal failure. The pathophysiology of these neurological changes is unclear, and the effects on them of dialysis and return of renal function have not been well studied. Studies were done in 31 patients who had acute renal failure (ARF), all of whom were either treated with dialysis within 5 days or did not survive. Studies on these patients included the electroencephalogram (EEG), motor nerve conduction velocity, and plasma Ca++ and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Studies were done at the time ARF was diagnosed, after stabilization on dialysis, during the diuretic phase of ARF, and 3 mo after recovery from ARF. In 16 patients with acute or chronic renal failure who did not survive and in nine patients without renal disease who died, measurements were made in brain of content of Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca++, Mg++, and water.
In patients with ARF for less than 48 h, despite the fact that there were only modest increases in plasma urea and creatinine, there were striking abnormalities in the EEG. The percent EEG power < 5 Hz±SE was 41±8% (normal = 2±1%), whereas the percent of frequencies > 9 Hz was only 22±6% (normal = 62±3%). These changes were unaffected by dialysis, but became normal with return of renal function and remained normal at 3 mo follow-up. The motor nerve conduction velocity was unaffected by either ARF or dialysis. In patients with ARF, the brain Ca++ was 46.5±3.2 meq/kg dry wt, almost twice the normal value of 26.9±1.0 meq/kg dry wt (P < 0.001). The plasma PTH level was 3.2±0.6 ng/ml (normal < 1.5 ng/ml, P < 0.01). The increased brain Ca++ was not related to an increased plasma (Ca++) (PO4−−−) product (r2 = 0.14, P > 0.05). There was a small but significant decrement in brain Na+ (P < 0.05), but brain water, K+, and Mg++ were unaffected by ARF.
Thus, in patients with ARF for less than 48 h, the EEG is grossly abnormal and there are elevated levels of PTH in plasma. The PTH appears to have a direct effect on the brain, resulting in an increased brain Ca++ content. The EEG abnormalities are unaffected by dialysis, but they become normal with return of renal function and remain normal after 3 mo follow-up. Thus, PTH may be a major uremic toxin, demonstrating evidence for central nervous system toxicity when there are only minimal abnormalities of other biochemical markers of ARF.
Pregnancy-related acute renal failure (ARF) is a common occurrence and is associated with substantial maternal and fetal mortality. It also bears a high risk of bilateral renal cortical necrosis. We conducted this study to evaluate the contributing factors and to assess the frequency of cortical necrosis. In this prospective study, of the 772 patients with ARF admitted at our institute between January 2004 and May 2006, 70 had ARF associated with pregnancy complications. ARF was diagnosed by documenting oliguria (urine output <400 ml/d) or mounting azotemia in the presence of normal urine output. (serum creatinine >2 mg%). Renal biopsy was performed if a patient was found to be oliguric or required dialysis support at the end of three weeks. The incidence of pregnancy-related ARF was 9.06%. Approximately 20% cases occurred due to postabortal complications in early pregnancy and 80% following complications in late pregnancy. Puerperal sepsis was the most common etiological factor in 61.42% of the patients. Preeclampsia accounted for 28.57% of ARF. Two-thirds of patients recovered with dialysis and supportive care. The incidence of biopsy proven renal cortical necrosis was 14.8% (10 of the 70 patients). The incidence of renal cortical necrosis was 28.57% in the early pregnancy group and 10.71% in the late pregnancy group. Postabortal sepsis was the most common precipitating event for renal cortical necrosis. Maternal mortality was 18.57%. Sepsis accounted for a majority of deaths (61.53%). Pregnancy-related ARF is common in western India. Puerperal sepsis is the most frequent etiological factor. Renal cortical necrosis is common and postabortal sepsis was the most common precipitating event. Sepsis accounted for a majority of maternal mortality.
Acute renal failure; renal cortical necrosis; pregnancy; sepsis
Partial EN (enteral nutrition) should always be aimed for in patients with renal failure that require nutritional support. Nevertheless PN (parenteral nutrition) may be necessary in renal failure in patient groups with acute or chronic renal failure (ARF or CRF) and additional acute diseases but without extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, or in patients with ARF or CRF with additional acute diseases on extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis therapy (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), or in patients on HD therapy with intradialytic PN. Patients with renal failure who show marked metabolic derangements and changes in nutritional requirements require the use of specifically adapted nutrient solutions. The substrate requirements of acutely ill, non-hypercatabolic patients with CRF correspond to those of patients with ARF who are not receiving any renal replacement patients therapy (utilisation of the administered nutrients has to be monitored carefully). In ARF patients and acutely ill CRF patients on renal replacement therapy, substrate requirements depend on disease severity, type and extent/frequency of extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, nutritional status, underlying disease and complications occurring during the course of the disease. Patients under HD have a higher risk of developing malnutrition. Intradialytic PN (IDPN) should be used if causes of malnutrition cannot be eliminated and other interventions fail. IDPN should only be carried out when modifiable causes of malnutrition are excluded and enhanced oral (like i.e. additional energy drinks) or enteral supply is unsuccessful or cannot be carried out.
acute renal failure; chronic renal failure; haemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis
We summarize all original research in the field of critical care nephrology published in 2004 or accepted for publication in Critical Care and, when considered relevant or directly linked to this research, in other journals. Articles were grouped into four categories to facilitate a rapid overview. First, regarding the definition of acute renal failure (ARF), the RIFLE criteria (risk, injury, failure, loss, ESKD [end-stage kidney disease]) for diagnosis of ARF were defined by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative workgroup and applied in clinical practice by some authors. The second category is acid–base disorders in ARF; the Stewart–Figge quantitative approach to acidosis in critically ill patients has been utilized by two groups of researchers, with similar results but different conclusions. In the third category – blood markers during ARF – cystatin C as an early marker of ARF and procalcitonin as a sepsis marker during continuous venovenous haemofiltration were examined. Finally, in the extracorporeal treatment of ARF, the ability of two types of high cutoff haemofilters to influence blood levels of middle- and high-molecular-weight toxins showed promise.
We summarize original research in the field of critical care nephrology accepted or published in 2005 in Critical Care and, when considered relevant or directly linked to this research, in other journals. The articles have been grouped into four categories to facilitate a rapid overview. First, physiopathology, epidemiology and prognosis of acute renal failure (ARF): an extensive review and some observational studies have been performed with the aim of describing aspects of ARF physiopathology, precise epidemiology and long-term outcomes. Second, several authors have performed clinical trials utilizing a potential nephro-protective drug, fenoldopam, with different results. Third, the issue of continuous renal replacement therapies dose has been addressed in a small prospective study and a large observational trial. And fourth, alternative indications to extracorporeal treatment of ARF and systemic inflammatory response syndrome have been explored by three original clinical studies.
Shigella dysentery caused 65% of all cases of acute renal failure (ARF) seen in children treated at the Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, during the 33 months ending September 1977. In the 40 children with ARF secondary to shigella dysentery, haematological findings suggested that they were suffering from the haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, and glomerular hypercellularity and fibrin deposition were present in all 12 patients whose renal histology could be studied. Peritoneal dialysis was the main element of treatment: 43% of children who underwent dialysis improved, compared with only 25% of those who did not undergo dialysis. The haemolytic-uraemic syndrome precipitated by bacillary dystentery is therefore the most important cause of ARF in children aged under 5 years in Tamil Nadu and the adjoining area of Andhra Pradesh.
There has been a recent increase in the number of reported cases of acute renal failure (ARF) in cystic fibrosis (CF). A study was undertaken to determine the incidence risk of ARF in patients with CF in the UK and to identify possible aetiological factors.
All doctors working at UK CF centres were asked if they had been involved with the management of a patient with CF who had developed ARF. Those responding positively were asked to request informed consent for entry into the study and the patient's case notes were then reviewed. The analysis was restricted to patients developing ARF between 1997 and 2004. A second questionnaire sought information on aminoglycoside prescribing practice.
Responses were received from 55 of 56 centres with 64 reports, 9 of which were duplicates, leaving 55 cases. Consent was obtained for data extraction in 26 cases, of which 24 fitted the criteria for ARF (verified data). Median age at presentation with ARF was 9.7 years (range 0.4–31.8) and 12 cases were male. The incidence risk of ARF was 4.6 (verified data) to 10.5 cases (all data)/10 000 CF patients/year. In 21 cases (88%) an aminoglycoside was prescribed at onset of ARF or in the preceding week; 16 (76%) of those receiving an aminoglycoside had gentamicin. A renal biopsy was performed in 7 cases and histological examination revealed acute tubular necrosis in 6, all of whom had received gentamicin. Renal dialysis was required in 13 cases (54%). Complete recovery was seen in 22/24 patients (92%).
ARF is increasingly being recognised in patients with CF. There is significant morbidity with most patients requiring dialysis. This study implicates intravenous aminoglycosides, particularly gentamicin, in the aetiology of ARF in CF.
The incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) in the hospital setting is increasing. It portends excessive morbidity and mortality and a considerable burden on hospital resources. Extracorporeal therapies show promise in the management of patients with shock and ARF. It is said that the potential of such therapy goes beyond just providing renal support. The aim of our study was to analyze the clinical setting and outcomes of critically ill ARF patients managed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).
Patients and Methods:
Ours was a retrospective study of 50 patients treated between January 2004 and November 2005. These 50 patients were in clinical shock and had concomitant ARF. All of these patients underwent CVVHDF (continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration) in the intensive care unit. For the purpose of this study, shock was defined as systolic BP < 100 mm Hg in spite of administration of one or more inotropic agents. SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score before initiation of dialysis support was recorded in all cases. CVVHDF was performed using the Diapact® (Braun) CRRT machine. The vascular access used was as follows: femoral in 32, internal jugular in 8, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in 4, and subclavian in 6 patients. We used 0.9% or 0.45% (half-normal) saline as a prefilter replacement, with addition of 10% calcium gluconate, magnesium sulphate, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride in separate units, while maintaining careful monitoring of electrolytes. Anticoagulation of the extracorporeal circuit was achieved with systemic heparin in 26 patients; frequent saline flushes were used in the other 24 patients.
Of the 50 patients studied, 29 were males and 21 females (1.4:1). The average age was 52.88 years (range: 20–75 years). Causes of ARF included sepsis in 24 (48%), hemodynamically mediated renal failure (HMRF) in 18 (36%), and acute over chronic kidney disease in 8 (16%) patients. The overall mortality was 74%. The average SOFA score was 14.31. The variables influencing mortality on multivariate analysis were: age [odds ratio (OR):1.65; 95% CI: 1.35 to 1.92; P = 0.04], serum creatinine (OR:1.68; 95% CI: 1.44 to 1.86; P = 0.03), and serum bicarbonate (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.94; P = 0.01). On univariate analysis the SOFA score was found to be a useful predictor of mortality.
Despite advances in treating critically ill patients with newer extracorporeal therapies, mortality is dismally high. Multiorgan dysfunction adversely affects outcome of CRRT. Older age, level of azotemia, and severity of metabolic acidosis are important predictors of adverse outcome.
Acute renal failure; continuous renal replacement therapy; shock; sepsis
Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management.
Acute renal failure; hair dye; paraphenylenediamine; rhabdomyolysis
Mechanical ventilation is commonly required in critically ill pregnant patients, requiring ICU admission, with higher morbidity and mortality related to airway management. Alternatively, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is increasingly used to treat nonpregnant patients. Pregnancy has been a contraindication to its use. We would like to report a case series of successful use of NIPPV in pregnancy.
NIPPV is increasingly used to treat hypoxemic respiratory failure. It has rarely been used during pregnancy. On the other hand, acute respiratory failure (ARF) remains a leading cause of ICU admission in obstetric patients. The use of NIPPV in managing ARF in pregnant patients was not investigated. We report the outcome of treatment with NIPPV of four sickle cell disease pregnant patients with ARF caused by acute chest syndrome. Median APACHE II score for the four cases was 27. Intubation was avoided in all cases. None had aspiration. Mean duration of NIPPV was 40 h with ICU discharge after a mean of 4 days.
Acute respiratory failure; noninvasive ventilation; outcome; pregnancy
To avoid the complications associated with endotracheal intubation, noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) has been proposed in the management of ventilator weaning in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) of various etiologies. Several studies have been performed to assess the benefit of NPPV in various weaning strategies, including permitting early extubation in patients who fail to meet standard extubation criteria (facilitation use), avoiding reintubation in patients who fail extubation (curative use), and preventing extubation failure in nonselected and selected patients (preventive use). NPPV has been successfully used in facilitating early extubation, particularly in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In contrast, applying curative NPPV to treat postextubation ARF in nonselected populations may not be effective and could even be deleterious. Early use of NPPV was successful in preventing ARF after extubation, and decreased the need for reintubation in selected patients at risk of developing postextubation ARF. It is important that caregivers clearly differentiate among these application modalities of NPPV. The skills and expertise of both medical and nonmedical personnel are crucial predictive factors for the success of NPPV in the ventilator weaning process.