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The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of male students at the Health Science College in Abha, towards road traffic regulations.
Material and Methods:
This study was carried out during the second semester of the academic year 2002G among the students studying at the Health Science College for Boys in Abha, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire of 28 different questions was distributed to all available students and responded to under the direct supervision of the heads of the six departments of the college. The questionnaire consisted of three main parts; the first was about the socio-demographic and scientific data of the students; the second on the knowledge of road traffic regulations and the third dealt with attitudes and practice of driving and the use of seat belts.
Two hundred thirty eight out of 297 students (80%) responded to the questionnaire in this study. The mean age of the participants was 21 years, 47% lived in cities, 70% and 72% had cars and driving licenses respectively. More than half of the students had been involved in road traffic accidents (RTAs), 22% of these had been injured in these RTAs and 13% admitted to hospital for an average of nine days. High speed was the main cause of their RTAs. The mean speed at which the students drove their cars within and outside the city boundaries were 81 KM/h and 127 KM/h respectively.
The degree of knowledge of road traffic regulation was moderate to high in more than 75% of the students, while more than 90% of them believed in the importance of the use of seat belts. More than 75% of the participants mentioned that they had problems with the use of seat belts, the most common of which were forgetfulness and anxiety.
This study revealed that many students had been involved in RTAs as a result of driving at high speed. Most of the students had good attitudes towards the use of seat belts. The rate of compliance to the use of seat belts increased with the legislation on its use. Continuing health education and the monitoring of compliance to road traffic regulations is necessary if the incidence of RTAs is to be reduced.
PMCID: PMC3410057  PMID: 23012129
Attitudes; Practice; Road Traffic Regulations; Students
2.  HIV-Related Knowledge and Perceptions by Academic Major: Implications for University Interventions 
Most universities offer human sexuality courses, although they are not required for graduation. While students in health-related majors may receive sexuality education in formal settings, majority of college students never receive formal sexual health or HIV/AIDS-related education, which may lead to elevated engagement in high-risk sexual behaviors. This study examines perceived knowledge about HIV/AIDS, perceived risk, and perceived consequences among college students by two distinct classifications of academic majors. Data were collected from 510 college students. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed to compare HIV-related covariates by academic major category. Limited differences were observed by science, technology, engineering, and mathematics categorization. Relative to health and kinesiology majors, those who self-reported being “completely knowledgeable” about HIV were less likely to be physical sciences, mathematics, engineering, and business (PMEB) (OR = 0.41, P = 0.047) or education, humanities, and social sciences majors (OR = 0.25, P = 0.004). PMEB majors were less likely to report behavioral factors as a risk for contracting HIV (OR = 0.86, P = 0.004) and perceived acquiring HIV would be more detrimental to their quality of life (OR = 2.14, P = 0.012), but less detrimental to their mental well-being (OR = 0.58, P = 0.042). Findings can inform college-wide campaigns and interventions to raise HIV/AIDS awareness and improve college health.
PMCID: PMC3950560  PMID: 24660165
HIV; AIDS; college students; academic major; perceived risk
3.  Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey 
BMC Oral Health  2001;1:2.
This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000.
The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999 and 2001.
Cross-tabulation analyses revealed that in 1999, the rates of abstinence from tobacco use, and of soft drink consumption, regular dental checkups, and intake of chocolate/candy were 84%, 51%, 48%, and 12%, respectively, among students of urban origin and 83%, 29%, 37%, and 5% among their rural counterparts. The corresponding rates in 2001 were 87%, 56%, 50%, and 9% among urban students and 84%, 44%, 38%, and 4% among rural ones. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, age, place of origin, educational level, year of survey, and their interaction terms revealed a significant increase in the rate of soft drink consumption, implementation of oral hygiene measures, and abstinence from tobacco use between 1999 and 2001. Social inequalities observed in 1999, with urban students being more likely than their rural counterparts to take soft drinks and go for regular dental checkups, had leveled off by 2001.
This study provides initial evidence of oral health behavioral trends, that may be utilized in the planning of preventive programs among university students in Tanzania.
PMCID: PMC64501  PMID: 11782294
4.  Oral health related quality of life among dental students in a private dental institution in India 
The compartmentalization involved in viewing the mouth separately from the rest of the body must cease. This is because oral health affects general health by causing considerable pain and suffering; and, by changing what people eat and their speech, can bring about a change in their quality of life and well-being. There are several instruments for measuring oral health related quality of life, and, OIDP (Oral Impact on Daily Performance) is one among them.
The aim of this study is to assess the OIDP among dental students and to know whether students in different stages of the dental course had any difference in impact on their daily performance.
Materials and Methods:
372 students of Bachelor of Dental Sciences’ (BDS) course at Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka, India, from the first to final year, and interns answered a structured questionnaire recording their demographic characteristics, behavioral characteristics and eight items of OIDP.
The mean OIDP Additive scores (ADD) and OIDP Simple count scores (SC) scores were 7.02 (sd = 3.3, range 8 - 40) and 2.16 (sd = 1.55, range 0 - 8), repectively. A total of 36.6%, 12.9% and 12.9% of the dental students confirmed difficulties with eating, enjoying contact with other people and carrying out major college work, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that compared with the first BDS dental students, the Odds ratio (OR) for the second, third, fourth year and intern dental students for being without oral impacts, despite reporting poor oral health, were 0.21 (95% CI: 0.24 – 1.9), 0.61 (95% CI: 0.06 – 6.2), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.61 – 8.2) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.3 – 9.3), respectively.
The study reported the OIPD among dental students and provided evidence of importance of social and behavioral characteristics in shaping the response by dental students.
PMCID: PMC3894072  PMID: 24478957
Dental students; oral health; oral health related quality of life; Oral Impact on Daily Performance; socio – demographic factors
5.  Water Pipe & Cigarette Smoking among Qassim University Male Students: Prevalence and Beliefs 
The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and beliefs of water pipe & cigarette smoking among Qassim University male students.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the students of Literature Colleges, Health Colleges of Qassim University and a self-administered, anonymous, pre-structured, designed proforma was distributed among randomly selected group of 500 male university students during January 2011. The questionnaire was designed to ask specific questions that are related to cigarette smoking and water pipe smoking in general and their belief regarding smoking. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software.
The total prevalence rate of waterpipe smoking was found to be 40% and Cigarette smoking was 41%. The major prevalence was found among the students of Health College (50%) then Science College (38%) and Literature College (12%). Cigarette smoking, smoking among relatives and friends has significant association (P<0.05) with prevalence of waterpipe among university students, while residence, income and marital status do not have any significant effect on water pipe smoking.
Approximately more than one-third of the students currently smoke waterpipe. Smoking of both cigarette and waterpipe was frequently found and it is precipitated with the same habits in family and friends.
PMCID: PMC3523782  PMID: 23267303
6.  Nosocomial infections: knowledge and source of information among clinical health care students in Ghana 
This study determined and compared the knowledge of nosocomial infections among clinical health care students at the College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana.
Two hundred undergraduate health care students from four academic programs participated in the study. The study sample was drawn from each academic program by a simple random sampling technique using the class directory from each course. The Infection Control Standardized Questionnaire (ICSQ) was used to assess the knowledge of students about three main domains, ie, hand hygiene, nosocomial infections, and standard precautions. A maximum score of 50 was obtainable, and respondents with scores ≥70% were classified as having a satisfactory knowledge. The response on each item was coded numerically to generate data for statistical analysis. Comparison of knowledge on the domains among categories of students was assessed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, while associations between courses of study and knowledge about nosocomial infections were determined using the Chi-square test. All statistical tests had a significant level of 5% (P < 0.05)
Overall mean percentage score of the participants on ICSQ was 65.4 ± 2.58, with medical, physiotherapy, radiography, and nursing students recording mean percentage scores of 70.58 ± 0.62, 65.02 ± 2.00, 64.74 ± 1.19, and 61.31 ± 2.35, respectively. The main source of information about the prevention of nosocomial infections as cited by participants was their routine formal training in class. There was no significant association (P > 0.05) between course of study and knowledge of students about preventive measures for nosocomial infections.
The students sampled demonstrated moderate knowledge of nosocomial infections and this was acquired largely through formal classroom training. These findings underscore the need for more emphasis on education about this important source of infection in the clinical training curriculum.
PMCID: PMC3160866  PMID: 21887110
knowledge; prevention; nosocomial infections
7.  Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh 
Dental Research Journal  2012;9(4):386-392.
The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among the health care professionals working at KFMC, Riyadh.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study of 161 health professionals consisting of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and medical students was carried out using a structured, self-administered, close-ended questionnaire. Responses were collected and descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Chi square tests and z-tests were performed.
Doctors showed a high mean knowledge score as compared with other health professionals. Comparison of oral health knowledge scores among the different types of health professionals yielded statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). The attitude toward visit to the dentist varied; 52.7% of nurses and 50% of technicians said that they would like to visit the dentist regularly. 66.7% of the medical students visit the dentist whenever they get pain in their tooth. 54.5% doctors and 45.8% pharmacists are likely to visit the dentist occasionally. For 60% medical students, tooth ache was the driving factor for their last visit. Majority of the health professionals said that the fear of drilling was the main reason for avoiding the dentist. Almost all the health professionals said that they cleaned their tooth by toothbrush and toothpaste. Less than 50% of the health professionals used mouth wash and dental floss. Less than 10% used Miswak and toothpick as part of their oral hygiene.
Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.
PMCID: PMC3491323  PMID: 23162577
Attitude; health professionals; knowledge; oral health; practices
8.  Nigerian Clinical Level Medical Students’ Knowledge of Dental Specialty 
The roles of physicians in oral healthcare delivery are very important due to the unequal distribution of the low oral health manpower as well as the lack of awareness of patients concerning the treatment of oral health problems by dentists in Nigeria.
To assess the Nigerian clinical level medical students’ knowledge of dental problems and conditions in relation to the dental specialty that treat them.
Subjects and Methods:
This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of clinical level medical students of University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, was conducted between May and June, 2010. The knowledge of the students was graded as good (16-20), fair (8-15), and poor (<8).
Out of the 350 questionnaires distributed, 279 were filled and returned giving an overall response rate of 79.7% (279/350). Of these, 47.0% (131/279), 50.2% (140/279), and 2.8% (8/279) of respondents showed poor, fair and good knowledge respectively. The trend showed a statistically significant increase in the mean level of knowledge of dental specialty with an ascent in the clinical level (P = 0.01).
The level of knowledge of dental specialty in this survey was suboptimal and varied with different specialties which may have adverse implication in future patient care. The variation in the level of knowledge with different clinical level suggested gain in knowledge about dental specialty mainly through nonformal means among medical students.
PMCID: PMC3573511  PMID: 23439430
Clinical level; Dental specialty; Knowledge; Medical students
9.  Determinants of preventive oral health behaviour among senior dental students in Nigeria 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:28.
To study the association between oral health behaviour of senior dental students in Nigeria and their gender, age, knowledge of preventive care, and attitudes towards preventive dentistry.
Questionnaires were administered to 179 senior dental students in the six dental schools in Nigeria. The questionnaire obtained information on age, gender, oral self-care, knowledge of preventive dental care and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Attending a dental clinic for check-up by a dentist or a classmate within the last year was defined as preventive care use. Students who performed oral self-care and attended dental clinic for check-ups were noted to have complied with recommended oral self-care. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses.
More male respondents agreed that the use of fluoride toothpaste was more important than the tooth brushing technique for caries prevention (P < 0.001). While the use of dental floss was very low (7.3%), more females were more likely to report using dental floss (p=0.03). Older students were also more likely to comply with recommended oral self-care (p<0.001). In binary regression models, respondents who were younger (p=0.04) and those with higher knowledge of preventive dental care (p=0.008) were more likely to consume sugary snacks less than once a day.
Gender differences in the awareness of the superiority of using fluoridated toothpaste over brushing in caries prevention; and in the use of dental floss were observed. While older students were more likely to comply with recommended oral self-care measures, younger students with good knowledge of preventive dental care were more likely to consume sugary snacks less than once a day.
PMCID: PMC3700852  PMID: 23777298
Nigeria; Dental; Students; Knowledge; Behaviour; Prevention
10.  Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2010;5(3):145-148.
Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community.
The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students' attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption.
A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).
A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19%) indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value <0.0001) and by senior more than junior students (<0.0001). About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20%) thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation.
Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
PMCID: PMC2930652  PMID: 20835308
Medical students; Saudi Arabia; smoking
11.  Knowledge and awareness of palliative medicine amongst students of a rural dental college in India 
To determine the current knowledge and awareness among undergraduate dental students in a rural dental college regarding palliative medicine.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional observational study was conducted on students of a rural dental college located in western India. They were asked to fill a pre-designed questionnaire. The variables assessed were their knowledge and awareness towards palliative medicine and a dentist role in palliative team.
A total of 150 students participated. The male:female ratio was 1:2; mean age of respondent was 20.66 ± 1.01 years. On an average, 59.23% were correct and 40.67% were incorrect for knowledge about palliative medicine, while 81.55% were correct and 18.45% were incorrect regarding awareness about oral care in palliative medicine.
Results indicate that students had good awareness and perception level about awareness of oral care in palliative treatment.
PMCID: PMC3657958  PMID: 23776773
Palliative; Dental; Awareness; Hospice
12.  Narghile (water pipe) smoking among university students in Jordan: prevalence, pattern and beliefs 
Background and objectives
Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghile use among students in three public Jordanian universities; to assess their beliefs about narghile's adverse health consequences; and to evaluate their awareness of oral health and oral hygiene.
The study was a cross-sectional survey of university students. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed randomly to university students in three public Jordanian universities during December, 2008. The questionnaire was designed to ask specific questions that are related to smoking in general, and to narghile smoking in specific. There were also questions about oral health awareness and oral hygiene practices.
36.8% of the surveyed sample indicated they were smokers comprising 61.9% of the male students and 10.7% of the female students in the study sample. Cigarettes and narghile were the preferred smoking methods among male students (42%). On the other hand, female students preferred narghile only (53%). Parental smoking status but not their educational level was associated with the students smoking status. Smokers had also significantly poor dental attendance and poor oral hygiene habits.
This study confirmed the spreading narghile epidemic among young people in Jordan like the neighboring countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Alarming signs were the poor oral health awareness among students particularly smokers.
PMCID: PMC2893172  PMID: 20497563
13.  The Trend of Governmental Support from Post-Graduated Iranian Students in Medical Fields to Study Abroad 
Iranian Journal of Public Health  2013;42(Supple1):141-146.
To explore the trend and composition of post-graduate Iranian students who received governmental scholarship during the last two decades.
Detailed information about the awarded scholarships and also about the number of post graduate students in clinical and basic sciences in domestic universities were collected from the related offices within the ministry of health and medical education and their trends were triangulated.
A sharp drop was observed in the number of awarded scholarships, from 263 in 1992 to 46 in 2009. In the beginning, almost all of scholarships fully supported students for a whole academic course; while in recent years most of scholarships supported students for a short fellowship or complementary course (more than 80%). Students studied in a wide range of colleges within 30 countries; more than 50% in Europe. Although one third of students studied in UK in the first years, only 4% of students selected this country in recent years. conversely, the number of scholarships to Germany and sweden have increased more than 10 and 3 times during this period. In parallel, the capacity of domestic universities for training of post-graduate students has been expanded dramatically.
Although expanding post-graduate education has been one of the main strategic objectives of the ministry of health and medical education in last two decades, it was obtained using different approaches. By time, more attention was to expanding the capacities of Iranian universities, and choosing less but more targeted students to continue their studies abroad.
PMCID: PMC3712597  PMID: 23865032
Scholarship; Abroad; Post- graduate; Iran
14.  Professional attitudes and behaviors acquired during undergraduate education in the College of Dentistry, King Saud University 
The Saudi Dental Journal  2013;25(2):69-74.
The purpose of the study was to investigate and evaluate the professional attitudes and behaviors acquired by students and recently graduated dentists during undergraduate education at King Saud University.
This cross-sectional survey used a 27-item questionnaire covering four cumulative theoretical dimensions of professionalism. Questionnaires were distributed to fifth-year students, interns, and demonstrators in the College of Dentistry during the academic year 2010–2011, and 203 completed questionnaires were used in analyses. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize responses. Crosstab and chi-squared tests were used, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05.
The response rate was 79.3% (43.6% of males, 94% of females). Eighty-seven questionnaires were collected from fifth-year students, 92 from interns, and 24 from demonstrators. Many (59%) participants demonstrated high levels of professional attitudes and behaviors, whereas 40% did not comply with the elements of professionalism. Analyses revealed highly significant differences in certain responses with regard to gender, academic level, and grade point average.
Although some participants did not possess all professional qualities, all participants possessed at least some elements of professionalism measured in this study. We thus recommend a strategic effort to develop targeted plans emphasizing professionalism at all levels of the dental school curriculum. High-profile role modeling, lectures, seminars, and academic ceremonies are ways of achieving professional development among dental students in parallel with their acquisition of basic scientific knowledge and clinical skills. This approach will formally and informally communicate that professionalism is a core value.
PMCID: PMC3723254  PMID: 23960558
Professionalism; Attitudes; Behavior
15.  Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among University Students in Oman 
Oman Medical Journal  2011;26(4):235-239.
To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with gender, academic year, and college among university students in Oman.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among Omani students attending the students’ clinic of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU). A systematic sampling of students, males and females, from different colleges, who visited the clinic during the study period, was carried out. The self-administered Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to screen for propensity to depression.
A total of 481 students participated in the study (243 males and 238 females). Overall, 133 (27.7%) of the participants (66 males and 67 females) had depression of various grades based on the PHQ-9 diagnostic criteria using a cut point of more than 11. Depression score at the cut point of 11 was not statistically associated with gender, college and the academic year.
Tendency for depression might be a common health problem among college students in Oman attending primary health care facilities. Further research on socio-demographic characteristics and the effect of depression on the academic performance is needed.
PMCID: PMC3191716  PMID: 22043426
Prevalence; Affective disorders; Depression; PHQ-9; University Students; SQU; Oman
16.  Immigrant-native differences in caries-related knowledge, attitude, and oral health behaviors: a cross-sectional study in Taiwan 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14:3.
With the growing number of transnational marriages in Taiwan, oral health disparities have become a public health issue. This study assessed immigrant-native differences in oral health behaviors of urban mothers and their children.
We used the baseline data of an oral health promotion program to examine the immigrant-native differences in caries-related knowledge, attitude, and oral health behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from mothers in urban area, Taiwan. A total of 150 immigrant and 440 native mothers completed the self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models analyzed the racial differences in oral health behaviors.
Approximately 37% of immigrant mothers used dental floss, 25% used fluoride toothpaste, and only 13.5% of them regularly visited a dentist. Less that 40% of immigrant mothers brush their children’s teeth before aged one year, 45% replaced child’s toothbrush within 3 months, and only half of the mothers regularly took their child to the dentist. Immigrant mothers had lower level of caries-related knowledge and attitudes than native mothers (p < .001). Compared to native group, the immigrant mothers were less likely to use of dental floss ([Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =0.35], fluoride toothpaste (aOR = 0.29), visit a dentist in the past 2 years (aOR = 0.26), and take their children to regular dental check-up (aOR = 0.38); whereas, they were more likely to not consume sweeten beverages (aOR = 3.13).
The level of caries-related knowledge, attitudes and oral health behaviors were found lower in immigrant mothers than native ones. The findings suggested cross-cultural caries prevention programs aimed at reducing immigrant-native disparities in child oral health care must be developed for these immigrant minorities.
PMCID: PMC3898042  PMID: 24423385
Attitudes; Behavior; Dental caries; Immigrants; Health care
17.  Oral Health Attitudes and Behavior among a Group of Dental Students in Bangalore, India 
European Journal of Dentistry  2011;5(2):163-167.
To evaluate self-reported oral health attitudes and behavior among a group of dental students in Bangalore, India and to compare the oral health attitudes of students of different years of dental school.
A self-administered questionnaire based on a modified version of the Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI) was administered to 250 dental students.
Significant differences (P<.05) were observed among students of different years in the degree of worrying about the color of the teeth, not having been to the dentist before and brushing each tooth carefully. Strongly significant differences (P<.001) were observed among students of different years in brushing the teeth twice daily, being satisfied with the appearance of the teeth, cleaning the teeth well without toothpaste, visiting dentist only when having a toothache, taking too much time to brush their teeth, worrying about having bad breath and using mouth rinse on a regular basis.
Among dental students, the overall knowledge of oral health was good, even though there were deficits in knowledge in a few areas. The oral health attitudes and behavior of dental students improved with increasing levels of education.
PMCID: PMC3075990  PMID: 21494383
Oral health; Dental students; Questions; Oral attitudes; Oral health behavior
18.  Factors Associated with Condom Use among Male College Students in Wuhan, China 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51782.
Using condoms consistently could prevent unintended pregnancy among young people. This study highlights multiple domains of influence on condom use among male college students in China, including knowledge, attitudes, health services utility on condom use and reproductive health information sources.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To identify factors associated with condom use in Chinese male college students, we examined a sample of 870 sexually experienced male students in seven colleges in Wuhan, China, 2009. 535 (61.5%) of 870 male students reported condom use during their most recent sexual encounter. Male students with steady partners were more likely to use condoms than students with casual partners (adjusted OR = 3.11, 95%CI 2.30–4.20). And positive attitudes toward contraceptive responsibility were associated with greater odds of condom use (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95%CI 1.02–1.92). Only 54(6.2%) and 83(9.5%) of respondents reported that free condoms and reproductive health counseling were available at the student health center. Providing free condoms and reproductive health counseling at the student health central were associated with increased condom use among college students (both P<0.05). In addition, students who gained reproductive health information mainly through websites, television and radio programs were more likely to use condoms than through school education (all P<0.05).
Improving attitudes of male students toward contraceptive responsibility, providing proper reproductive health information through mass media and making free condoms and reproductive health counseling available in school may help increase condom use among college students in China.
PMCID: PMC3525661  PMID: 23272167
19.  Knowledge and utilization of information communication technology (ICT) among health science students at the University of Gondar, North Western Ethiopia 
Despite the relatively huge ICT investment and policy deployment in higher institutions in Ethiopia, there is still scant information about the success of implementation of the Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the higher education. This study, therefore, was carried out with an aim to assess knowledge and utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among medicine and health science students and its associated factors in Gondar College of Medicine and Health sciences, University of Gondar.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of the students, level of knowledge and utilization of ICT were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13.
A total of 1096 students responded giving a response rate of 97.8%. The mean age of the study participants was 20.3 (±1. 3) years. Females constitute only 26% of the respondents. The majority (79%) were fulltime students. Only half of the respondents (51%) had ICT knowledge and only 46% students utilized ICT while 47% of the respondents never used electronic communication (e.g. email or chat room) and 39% of the respondents never used Microsoft office (e.g. word ® or WordPerfect ®). ICT knowledge [AOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.5], family educational background [AOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 2.16-8.80], and perceived quality of training [AOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8] showed strong and positive associations with ICT utilization. Students from urban areas were more likely to utilize ICT compared with those from rural areas [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 2.097, 3.497], and information technology training was found to be positively associated with ICT utilization [AOR = 2. 07, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.62].
The result showed that students’ knowledge was inadequate and utilization of ICT was poor. Therefore, the university should sustain professional development to improve teaching, to raise student performance and equip the college with student centered ICT computer labs to increase students’ ICT utilization.
PMCID: PMC3599196  PMID: 23452346
20.  Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries 
The Libyan Journal of Medicine  2010;5:10.3402/ljm.v5i0.4859.
To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students.
A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need.
The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3%) rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5%) agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life.
Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%), tooth restoration (10.3%), to extraction (1.2%).
This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.
PMCID: PMC3071173  PMID: 21483589
oral health; status; dental auxiliaries
21.  Factors associated with dental attendance among adolescents in Santiago, Chile 
BMC Oral Health  2007;7:4.
Dental treatment needs are commonly unmet among adolescents. It is therefore important to clarify the determinants of poor utilization of dental services among adolescents.
A total of 9,203 Chilean students aged 12–21 years provided information on dental visits, oral health related behavior, perceived oral health status, and socio-demographic determinants. School headmasters provided information on monthly tuition and annual fees. Based on the answers provided, three outcome variables were generated to reflect whether the respondent had visited the dentist during the past year or not; whether the last dental visit was due to symptoms; and whether the responded had ever been to a dentist. Aged adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the influence of the covariates gender; oral health related behaviors (self-reported tooth brushing frequency & smoking habits); and measures of social position (annual education expenses; paternal income; and achieved parental education) on each outcome.
Analyses showed that students who had not attended a dentist within the past year were more likely to be male (OR = 1.3); to report infrequent tooth brushing (OR = 1.3); to have a father without income (OR = 1.8); a mother with only primary school education (OR = 1.5); and were also more likely to report a poor oral health status (OR = 2.0), just as they were more likely to attend schools with lower tuition and fees (OR = 1.4). Students who consulted a dentist because of symptoms were more likely to have a father without income (OR = 1.4); to attend schools with low economic entry barriers (OR = 1.4); and they were more likely to report a poor oral health status (OR = 2.9). Students who had never visited a dentist were more likely to report infrequent tooth brushing (OR = 1.9) and to have lower socioeconomic positions independently of the indicator used.
The results demonstrate that socioeconomic and behavioral factors are independently associated with the frequency of and reasons for dental visits in this adolescent population and that self-perceived poor oral health status is strongly associated with infrequent dental visits and symptoms.
PMCID: PMC1853081  PMID: 17425778
22.  Relationship of Periodontal Status and Dental Caries Status with Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior among Professional Students in India 
To find the relationship of periodontal status and dental caries status with oral health knowledge, attitude, behavior, among professional students in India.
In a cross sectional study, a total of 825 students (males: 577, females: 248) from six professions were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire including 41 multiple choice questions and the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). The data was analyzed using the SPSS version 13.0 to perform the Student's t-test, ANOVA test, Scheffe's test and Chi-square test, linear regression analysis.
The mean percentage scores of the students for knowledge were 53.25 ± 15.05; for attitude 74.97 ±20.48; and for behavior 59.09 ± 18.77. The percentage of students with calculus score was found to be significantly high (43.8%). The percentage of professional students with DMFT>4 was 14.1% and the percentage of students with decayed teeth was 46.2%. The regression analysis showed that the oral health behavior of the students was dependent on the attitude (P <0.001), but showed no significant linear relation with the knowledge. Also, that the mean DMFT score was dependent on the oral health behavior (P <0.05), but showed no significant relationship with the knowledge and attitude of the students. The periodontal status was independent on the knowledge, but showed a significant relationship with attitude and behavior of the students.
A positive attitude and adherence to good oral hygiene behaviors is associated with better oral health.
PMCID: PMC3733598  PMID: 20690423
oral health knowledge; attitude; oral health behavior; professional students
23.  Feasibility and sustainability of an interactive team-based learning method for medical education during a severe faculty shortage in Zimbabwe 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:63.
In 2010, in the midst of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Zimbabwe, 69% of faculty positions in the Department of Medicine of the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZ-CHS) were vacant. To address the ongoing need to train highly skilled HIV clinicians with only a limited number of faculty, we developed and implemented a course for final-year medical students focused on HIV care using team-based learning (TBL) methods.
A competency-based HIV curriculum was developed and delivered to final-year medical students in 10 TBL sessions as part of a 12 week clinical medicine attachment. A questionnaire was administered to the students after completion of the course to assess their perception of TBL and self-perceived knowledge gained in HIV care. Two cohorts of students completed the survey in separate academic years, 2011 and 2012. Descriptive analysis of survey results was performed.
Ninety-six of 120 students (80%) completed surveys. One hundred percent of respondents agreed that TBL was an effective way to learn about HIV and 66% strongly agreed. The majority of respondents agreed that TBL was more stimulating than a lecture course (94%), fostered enthusiasm for the course material (91%), and improved teamwork (96%). Students perceived improvements in knowledge gained across all of the HIV subjects covered, especially in challenging applied clinical topics, such as management of HIV antiretroviral failure (88% with at least a “large improvement”) and HIV-tuberculosis co-infection (80% with at least a “large improvement”).
TBL is feasible as part of medical education in an African setting. TBL is a promising way to teach challenging clinical topics in a stimulating and interactive learning environment in a low-income country setting with a high ratio of students to teachers.
PMCID: PMC3972960  PMID: 24678606
Team-based learning; TBL; Resource-limited; Medical education; NECTAR; MEPI; HIV
24.  Knowledge and attitude of ICU nurses, students and patients towards the Austrian organ donation law 
BMC Medical Ethics  2013;14:32.
A survey on the knowledge and attitudes towards the Austrian organ donation legislation (an opt-out solution) of selected groups of the Austrian population taking into account factors such as age, gender, level of education, affiliation to healthcare professions and health related studies was conducted.
An online survey among 3 target groups (ICU nurses, health science students and non health science students) was performed and results were compared to the answers from transplantation patients to a paper questionnaire. A total of 8415 persons were asked to participate in the survey and 2025 (24%) persons correctly completed the questionnaire. 1945 online responses (ICU nurses n = 185; students of health sciences n = 1277; students of non-health science related courses n = 483) were analysed and data were compared to 80 manually filled-in responses from patients from a previous study.
84% of participants state that they know the Austrian organ donation legislation; this percentage varies significantly (p < 0.05) within the target groups and is influenced by demographic variables of the participants. 74% think that the law is good and 79% do not favour a change. Opinions and attitudes towards the legal situation are positively influenced by the affiliation to healthcare professions and health-related fields of study. Interviewed persons who were aware of the legislation before the survey had a more positive attitude towards the existing legislation (77% versus 74%, p < 0.05).
The information level on Austrian organ donation legislation is high. ICU nurses and those who did not know the law before were most critical towards the existing legislation. Therefore education to increase knowledge in the general population and goal-oriented efforts to increase awareness in the target groups should be emphasized.
PMCID: PMC3751746  PMID: 23948068
Organ donation; Legislation; Knowledge and attitude; ICU nurses; Students; Patients
25.  The association between academic engagement and achievement in health sciences students 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:33.
Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging student engagement, being necessary to know how engaged are students at university and if this factor is involved in student success point and followed.
To explore the association between academic engagement and achievement.
Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 304 students of Health Sciences. They were asked to fill out an on-line questionnaire. Academic achievements were calculated using three types of measurement.
Positive correlations were found in all cases. Grade point average was the academic rate most strongly associated with engagement dimensions and this association is different for male and female students. The independent variables could explain between 18.9 and 23.9% of the variance (p < 0.05) in the population of university students being analyzed.
Engagement has been shown to be one of the many factors, which are positively involved, in the academic achievements of college students.
PMCID: PMC3599896  PMID: 23446005
Academic achievement; Academic engagement; Health sciences students; University education; Cross sectional study

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