Poor oral health is still a major burden for populations throughout the world, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was investigate oral health behaviour (tooth brushing and dental attendance) and associated factors in low, middle and high income countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19,560 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Results indicate that 67.2% of students reported to brush their teeth twice or more times a day, 28.8% about once a day and 4.0% never. Regarding dental check-up visit, 16.3% reported twice a year, 25.6% once a year, 33.9% rarely and 24.3% never. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, being a male, coming from a wealthy or quite well off family background, living in low income or lower middle income, weak beliefs in the importance of regular tooth brushing, depression and PTSD symptoms, tobacco use and frequent gambling, low physical activity, and low daily meal and snacks frequency were associated with inadequate tooth brushing (
ocial determinants; mental health; university students; 26 countries
In order to promote new human papillomavirus (HPV) prevention and detection methods effectively in Mexico, it is important to understand how much the population knows about the virus. This study aimed to determine the demographic and behavioural factors associated with HPV awareness and knowledge in a population of Mexican college students. With a response rate of 77%, data were collected from 1,109 college students aged 17 to 25 years old at the Autonomous University of the State of Morelos in 2006. Students completed a questionnaire that assessed demographic and behavioural characteristics along with questions about HPV. A small percentage (16.9%) of the college students had never heard about HPV. Characteristics associated with not having heard about HPV included being male, not having running water, not having health insurance and not having sexual experience. Students had a median score of 5 out of 10 on an HPV knowledge index based on 10 yes/no questions about HPV developed for this study. Students had higher HPV knowledge scores if they studied health science, or science and engineering, were a 4th year student, had running water at home, had health insurance, or were a female who had had a previous Pap smear. Although most of these Mexican college students had heard of HPV, they had limited knowledge about the virus and prevention strategies. Further research in Mexican college students is needed to explain the variations in HPV knowledge to create appropriate health education programmes.
Cervical Screening; Cancer; Young People; Knowledge and Attitudes to Cancer; Marginalised Communities
The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community.
Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women). Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older.
Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98), having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11), smoking (OR = 2.71) and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03) were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67). Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97), having a family dentist (OR = 2.34) and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74) were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females), swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females) and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR = 3.52, females).
Behavioral factors that were associated with tooth retention were frequency of eating snacks between meals, tooth brushing frequency, having one's own toothbrush, smoking and drinking habits, having hobbies, having a family dentist and when they had dental treatment. Clinical factors included bleeding gums, swollen gums, and toothache.
Background: School teachers by virtue of their training can influence a large number of children thereby play major role in the planning and implementation of oral health preventive programs. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of school teachers towards oral health.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among school teachers of the city of Pondicherry. A structured questionnaire was used and 212 teachers were assessed on their knowledge on oral health, attitude and practice regarding their personal oral health, attitude regarding oral health of children and status of oral health education at the schools. All data collected was entered into SPSS version 21.0.
Results: Around 47% of the participants felt that bacteria and sugar are the main causes of dental caries, while 42% felt that plaque and calculus are the main agents for periodontal disease. Around 82.5% teachers brushed twice daily. However, only 32% felt it is necessary to visit dentist regularly. While 86% of the teachers felt that children’s teeth should be checked by dentist, only 51% agreed that it is their duty to impart oral health education to the students.
Conclusion: The knowledge regarding oral health among school teachers was fair. Oral Health education must be imparted to preschool and primary school teachers as a part of National Oral Health care Program on a regular basis and further studies must be done to assess their awareness levels and make the necessary changes in further education modules.
Attitude; Knowledge; Oral health education; Practice; School teachers
To compare the attitudes of preclinical and clinical dental students toward their own oral health using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI).
The English-language version of the 20-item HU-DBI was distributed to all preclinical and clinical students at the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Dichotomized (agree/disagree) responses to 12 HU-DBI items were used in this study, with a maximum possible score of 12. Responses to the remaining eight statements reflected general oral health attitudes and were excluded from the analysis. Data were analyzed statistically.
The overall response rate was 72.2% (preclinical, 72.5%; clinical, 72%). The mean HU-DBI score was significantly higher among clinical than among preclinical dental students (7 vs. 5.8; P < 0.05). Higher proportions of preclinical than clinical students did not worry about visiting the dentist but postponed dental visits until they experienced toothache. Furthermore, more preclinical than clinical students reported that their gums bled upon brushing, used a child-sized toothbrush, had observed white, sticky deposits on their teeth, and used strong strokes for toothbrushing. More clinical than preclinical students reported that they did not feel that the condition of their teeth was worsening despite brushing, worried about the color of their teeth, brushed each of their teeth carefully, and checked their teeth in the mirror after brushing.
Dental health awareness programs should be implemented and information about positive oral health attitudes should be provided to the students at an initial stage of dental training.
Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory; HU-DBI; Dental students; Oral health attitudes; Oral health behaviors
Honesty and integrity are key attributes of an ethically competent physician. However, academic misconduct, which includes but is not limited to plagiarism, cheating, and falsifying documentation, is common in medical colleges across the world. The purpose of this study is to describe differences in the self-reported attitudes and behaviours of medical students regarding academic misconduct depending on gender, year of study and type of medical institution in Pakistan.
A cross sectional study was conducted with medical students from one private and one public sector medical college. A pre-coded questionnaire about attitudes and behaviours regarding plagiarism, lying, cheating and falsifying documentation was completed anonymously by the students.
A total of 465 medical students filled the questionnaire. 53% of private medical college students reported that they recognize copying an assignment verbatim and listing sources as references as wrong compared to 35% of public medical college students. 26% of private medical college students self-report this behaviour as compared to 42% of public medical college students. 22% of private versus 15% of public medical college students and 21% of students in clinical years compared to 17% in basic science years admit to submitting a fake medical certificate to justify an absence. 87% of students at a private medical college believe that cheating in an examination is wrong as compared to 66% of public medical college students and 24% self-report this behaviour in the former group as compared to 41% in the latter. 63% of clinical year students identify cheating as wrong compared to 89% of their junior colleagues. 71% of male versus 84% of female respondents believe that cheating is wrong and 42% of males compared to 23% of females admit to cheating.
There are significant differences in medical students’ attitudes and behaviours towards plagiarism, lying, cheating and stealing by gender, seniority status and type of institution. The ability to identify acts of academic misconduct does not deter students from engaging in the behaviour themselves, as evidenced by self-reporting.
Lying; Cheating; Stealing; Academic misconduct; Academic integrity; Medical students
The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among the health care professionals working at KFMC, Riyadh.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study of 161 health professionals consisting of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and medical students was carried out using a structured, self-administered, close-ended questionnaire. Responses were collected and descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Chi square tests and z-tests were performed.
Doctors showed a high mean knowledge score as compared with other health professionals. Comparison of oral health knowledge scores among the different types of health professionals yielded statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). The attitude toward visit to the dentist varied; 52.7% of nurses and 50% of technicians said that they would like to visit the dentist regularly. 66.7% of the medical students visit the dentist whenever they get pain in their tooth. 54.5% doctors and 45.8% pharmacists are likely to visit the dentist occasionally. For 60% medical students, tooth ache was the driving factor for their last visit. Majority of the health professionals said that the fear of drilling was the main reason for avoiding the dentist. Almost all the health professionals said that they cleaned their tooth by toothbrush and toothpaste. Less than 50% of the health professionals used mouth wash and dental floss. Less than 10% used Miswak and toothpick as part of their oral hygiene.
Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.
Attitude; health professionals; knowledge; oral health; practices
The compartmentalization involved in viewing the mouth separately from the rest of the body must cease. This is because oral health affects general health by causing considerable pain and suffering; and, by changing what people eat and their speech, can bring about a change in their quality of life and well-being. There are several instruments for measuring oral health related quality of life, and, OIDP (Oral Impact on Daily Performance) is one among them.
The aim of this study is to assess the OIDP among dental students and to know whether students in different stages of the dental course had any difference in impact on their daily performance.
Materials and Methods:
372 students of Bachelor of Dental Sciences’ (BDS) course at Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka, India, from the first to final year, and interns answered a structured questionnaire recording their demographic characteristics, behavioral characteristics and eight items of OIDP.
The mean OIDP Additive scores (ADD) and OIDP Simple count scores (SC) scores were 7.02 (sd = 3.3, range 8 - 40) and 2.16 (sd = 1.55, range 0 - 8), repectively. A total of 36.6%, 12.9% and 12.9% of the dental students confirmed difficulties with eating, enjoying contact with other people and carrying out major college work, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that compared with the first BDS dental students, the Odds ratio (OR) for the second, third, fourth year and intern dental students for being without oral impacts, despite reporting poor oral health, were 0.21 (95% CI: 0.24 – 1.9), 0.61 (95% CI: 0.06 – 6.2), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.61 – 8.2) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.3 – 9.3), respectively.
The study reported the OIPD among dental students and provided evidence of importance of social and behavioral characteristics in shaping the response by dental students.
Dental students; oral health; oral health related quality of life; Oral Impact on Daily Performance; socio – demographic factors
Limited health literacy among adults is one of the many barriers to better oral health outcomes. It is not uncommon to find people who consider understanding oral health information a challenge. Therefore, the present study assessed oral health literacy among clients visiting Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, Rajpura.
Materials and Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 450participants who visited the Out Patient Department (OPD) of Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital for a period of two months (Nov–Dec, 2013). A questionnaire was given to each of the participants. Oral health literacy was graded on a 12-point Likert scale based on the total score. Oral Health Literacy of the participants was assessed as low, medium and high on the basis of responses. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15 statistical package. ANOVA and Student t-test were used to do comparisons between groups.
Low oral health literacy scores were reported in 60.2% (271) participants. More than 60% of the study participants had knowledge about dental terms such as ‘dental caries,’ and ‘oral cancer.’ Only 22% of the graduates had a high literacy score. Mean oral health literacy score according to educational qualification was statistically significant (p<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in terms of age and gender (p>0.05).
The majority of the participants had low literacy scores. There is a need to address these problems especially among rural population by health care providers and the government.
Oral health; literacy; clients; knowledge; education
The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of male students at the Health Science College in Abha, towards road traffic regulations.
Material and Methods:
This study was carried out during the second semester of the academic year 2002G among the students studying at the Health Science College for Boys in Abha, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire of 28 different questions was distributed to all available students and responded to under the direct supervision of the heads of the six departments of the college. The questionnaire consisted of three main parts; the first was about the socio-demographic and scientific data of the students; the second on the knowledge of road traffic regulations and the third dealt with attitudes and practice of driving and the use of seat belts.
Two hundred thirty eight out of 297 students (80%) responded to the questionnaire in this study. The mean age of the participants was 21 years, 47% lived in cities, 70% and 72% had cars and driving licenses respectively. More than half of the students had been involved in road traffic accidents (RTAs), 22% of these had been injured in these RTAs and 13% admitted to hospital for an average of nine days. High speed was the main cause of their RTAs. The mean speed at which the students drove their cars within and outside the city boundaries were 81 KM/h and 127 KM/h respectively.
The degree of knowledge of road traffic regulation was moderate to high in more than 75% of the students, while more than 90% of them believed in the importance of the use of seat belts. More than 75% of the participants mentioned that they had problems with the use of seat belts, the most common of which were forgetfulness and anxiety.
This study revealed that many students had been involved in RTAs as a result of driving at high speed. Most of the students had good attitudes towards the use of seat belts. The rate of compliance to the use of seat belts increased with the legislation on its use. Continuing health education and the monitoring of compliance to road traffic regulations is necessary if the incidence of RTAs is to be reduced.
Attitudes; Practice; Road Traffic Regulations; Students
Despite the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome among young adults, little is known about the awareness level of college students about this condition. The purpose of this study was to assess students’ level of awareness and knowledge about conditions relevant to metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A self-reported online questionnaire was administered to 243 students attending Central Michigan University. Questions were divided into seven conditions: diabetes, adiposity, hypertension, high serum cholesterol, arteriosclerosis, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Students’ responses were scored and interpreted as follows: poor knowledge if ≤50% of students answered the question correctly; fair knowledge if between 51-80% of students answered the question correctly; and good knowledge if between 81-100% of students answered the question correctly. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, waist circumference, percentage body fat, and visceral fat score were measured. Fisher’s exact test was used to test the differences in students’ responses. A p value <0.05 was considered a statistically significant difference.
More than 80% of students correctly identified symptoms and complications of diabetes, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke, and 92% identified adiposity as a risk factor for heart disease. There were few false beliefs held by students on questionnaire items. For example, 58% of male students falsely believed that individuals with diabetes may only eat special kinds of sweets compared to 39% of females (p < 0.01) and more than half of the students falsely identified liposuction as the best possible treatment in adiposity therapy. Gender, Health Science major, and year in school were found to be positively associated with more knowledge.
The findings in this study suggest that students’ knowledge about conditions relevant to metabolic syndrome can be improved. In this essence, raising awareness about MetS based on students’ pre-existing knowledge is essential to enhance students’ wellness.
Metabolic syndrome; Cardiovascular risk factors; Adiposity; College students; Lay knowledge
With the growing number of transnational marriages in Taiwan, oral health disparities have become a public health issue. This study assessed immigrant-native differences in oral health behaviors of urban mothers and their children.
We used the baseline data of an oral health promotion program to examine the immigrant-native differences in caries-related knowledge, attitude, and oral health behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from mothers in urban area, Taiwan. A total of 150 immigrant and 440 native mothers completed the self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models analyzed the racial differences in oral health behaviors.
Approximately 37% of immigrant mothers used dental floss, 25% used fluoride toothpaste, and only 13.5% of them regularly visited a dentist. Less that 40% of immigrant mothers brush their children’s teeth before aged one year, 45% replaced child’s toothbrush within 3 months, and only half of the mothers regularly took their child to the dentist. Immigrant mothers had lower level of caries-related knowledge and attitudes than native mothers (p < .001). Compared to native group, the immigrant mothers were less likely to use of dental floss ([Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =0.35], fluoride toothpaste (aOR = 0.29), visit a dentist in the past 2 years (aOR = 0.26), and take their children to regular dental check-up (aOR = 0.38); whereas, they were more likely to not consume sweeten beverages (aOR = 3.13).
The level of caries-related knowledge, attitudes and oral health behaviors were found lower in immigrant mothers than native ones. The findings suggested cross-cultural caries prevention programs aimed at reducing immigrant-native disparities in child oral health care must be developed for these immigrant minorities.
Attitudes; Behavior; Dental caries; Immigrants; Health care
“Grand challenges” in global health have focused on discovery and development of technologies to save lives. The “grander challenge” involves building institutions, systems, capacity and demand to effectively deliver strategies to improve health. In 2008, Makerere University began a radical institutional change to bring together four schools under one College of Health Sciences. This paper’s objective is to demonstrate how its leadership in training, research, and services can improve health in Uganda and internationally, which lies at the core of the College’s vision.
A comprehensive needs assessment involved five task forces that identified MakCHS’s contribution to the Ugandan government health priorities. Data were collected through analysis of key documents; systematic review of MakCHS publications and grants; surveys of patients, students and faculty; and key informant interviews of the College’s major stakeholders. Four pilot projects were conducted to demonstrate how the College can translate research into policy and practice, extend integrated outreach community-based education and service, and work with communities and key stakeholders to address their priority health problems.
MakCHS inputs to the health sector include more than 600 health professionals graduating per year through 23 degree programs, many of whom assume leadership positions. MakCHS contributions to processes include strengthened approaches to engaging communities, standardized clinical care procedures, and evidence-informed policy development. Outputs include the largest number of outpatients and inpatient admissions in Uganda. From 2005-2009, MakCHS also produced 837 peer-reviewed research publications (67% in priority areas). Outcomes include an expanded knowledge pool, and contributions to coverage of health services and healthy behaviors. Impacts include discovery and applications of global significance, such as the use of nevirapine to prevent HIV transmission in childbirth and male circumcision for HIV prevention. Pilot projects have applied innovative demand and supply incentives to create a rapid increase in safe deliveries (3-fold increase after 3 months), and increased quality and use of HIV services with positive collateral improvements on non-HIV health services at community clinics.
MakCHS has made substantial contributions to improving health in Uganda, and shows great potential to enhance this in its new transformational role – a model for other Universities.
Climate change affects human health in various ways. Health planners and policy makers are increasingly addressing potential health impacts of climate change. Ethiopia is vulnerable to these impacts. Assessing students’ knowledge, understanding and perception about the health impact of climate change may promote educational endeavors to increase awareness of health impacts linked to climate change and to facilitate interventions.
A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire was carried out among the health science students at Haramaya University. Quantitative methods were used to analyze the results.
Over three quarters of the students were aware of health consequences of climate change, with slightly higher rates in females than males and a range from 60.7% (pharmacy students) to 100% (environmental health and post-graduate public health students). Electronic mass media was reportedly the major source of information but almost all (87.7%) students stated that their knowledge was insufficient to fully understand the public health impacts of climate change. Students who knew about climate change were more likely to perceive it as a serious health threat than those who were unaware of these impacts [OR: 17.8, 95% CI: 8.8-32.1] and also considered their departments to be concerned about climate change (OR: 7.3, 95% CI: 2.8-18.8), a perception that was also significantly more common among students who obtained their information from the electronic mass media and schools (p < 0.05). Using electronic mass media was also significantly associated with knowledge about the health impacts of climate change.
Health sciences students at Haramaya University may benefit from a more comprehensive curriculum on climate change and its impacts on health.
Climate change; Ethiopia; Climate related human health impacts; Knowledge and perception
About 1.3 billion people are regular smokers world wide and every day between 8,200 and 9,900 young people start to smoke, risking rapid addiction to nicotine. Transition from high school to college is a critical period to adopt healthy habits and life style. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that might influence their smoking habit. Our study aims to assess the influence of factors that encourage college students to smoke cigarettes.
The data used in this survey were obtained from a representative sample of registered colleges of Karachi. A random sample of 576 male college students of ages ranging from 15–30 years was interviewed using a questionnaire administered by survey officers, by applying multi stage cluster sampling during the academic year 2004–2005.
In this study, we found 26.7% of students had ever tried smoking, whereas 24%(95% CI: 21.0%–28.0%) of college students reported current smoking (that is whether one had smoked a cigarette in past 30 days). Among different age groups, prevalence of current smoking was 19.2% in 15–17 years, 26.5% in 18–20 years and 65% in 21 years and above. After adjusting for age of respondent, students in public schools were more likely to smoke as compared to students in private schools (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3–4.2). Students whose friends are smokers were 5 times more likely to smoke compared to those whose friends are non-smokers (adjusted OR = 4.8; 95%CI: 3.1 – 7.4). Those students having fathers with no formal schooling were more likely to smoke (adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.2) as compared to those whose fathers had some degree of education. Students having non-working mothers were more likely to smoke as compared to students with working mothers (adjusted OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 0.9–9.1). Students belonging to Bin Qasim (adjusted OR = 2.1; 95% C.I: 1.1–4.1) and Gadap town (adjusted OR = 2.1; 95%C.I) were more likely to smoke as compared to students residing in other towns.
This study shows that smoking is strongly associated with age, which may suggest social tolerance to smoking in this setting and that social and educational variables appear to play a significant role in smoking among college students. Our study suggests that such factors should be taken into account when designing effective tobacco control programs among college students. This is an effort which has been done to reduce tobacco consumption among college students and introduce awareness programs to amend their health risk behavior.
A vaccination programme targeted against human papillomavirus (HPV) types16 and 18 was introduced in the UK in 2008, with the aim of decreasing incidence of cervical disease. Vaccine roll out to 12–13 year old girls with a catch-up programme for girls aged up to 17 years and 364 days was accompanied by a very comprehensive public health information (PHI) campaign which described the role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer.
A brief questionnaire, designed to assess acquisition of knowledge of HPV infection and its association to cervical cancer, was administered to two different cohorts of male and female 1st year medical students (school leavers: 83% in age range 17–20) at a UK university. The study was timed so that the first survey in 2008 immediately followed a summer's intensive PHI campaign and very shortly after vaccine roll-out (150 students). The second survey was exactly one year later over which time there was a sustained PHI campaign (213 students).
We addressed three research questions: knowledge about three specific details of HPV infection that could be acquired from PHI, whether length of the PHI campaign and/or vaccination of females had any bearing on HPV knowledge, and knowledge differences between men and women regarding HPV. No female student in the 2008 cohort had completed the three-dose vaccine schedule compared to 58.4% of female students in 2009. Overall, participants’ knowledge regarding the sexually transmitted nature of HPV and its association with cervical cancer was high in both year groups. However, in both years, less than 50% of students correctly identified that HPV causes over 90% of cases of cervical cancer. Males gave fewer correct answers for these two details in 2009. In 2008 only around 50% of students recognised that the current vaccine protects against a limited subset of cervical cancer-causing HPV sub-types, although there was a significant increase in correct response among female students in the 2009 cohort compared to the 2008 cohort.
This study highlights a lack of understanding regarding the extent of protection against cervical cancer conferred by the HPV vaccine, even among an educated population in the UK who could have a vested interest in acquiring such knowledge. The intensive PHI campaign accompanying the first year of HPV vaccination seemed to have little effect on knowledge over time. This is one of the first studies to assess detailed knowledge of HPV in both males and females. There is scope for continued improvements to PHI regarding the link between HPV infection and cervical cancer.
Human papillomavirus; Knowledge; Vaccine; Medical students; Public health
Most universities offer human sexuality courses, although they are not required for graduation. While students in health-related majors may receive sexuality education in formal settings, majority of college students never receive formal sexual health or HIV/AIDS-related education, which may lead to elevated engagement in high-risk sexual behaviors. This study examines perceived knowledge about HIV/AIDS, perceived risk, and perceived consequences among college students by two distinct classifications of academic majors. Data were collected from 510 college students. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed to compare HIV-related covariates by academic major category. Limited differences were observed by science, technology, engineering, and mathematics categorization. Relative to health and kinesiology majors, those who self-reported being “completely knowledgeable” about HIV were less likely to be physical sciences, mathematics, engineering, and business (PMEB) (OR = 0.41, P = 0.047) or education, humanities, and social sciences majors (OR = 0.25, P = 0.004). PMEB majors were less likely to report behavioral factors as a risk for contracting HIV (OR = 0.86, P = 0.004) and perceived acquiring HIV would be more detrimental to their quality of life (OR = 2.14, P = 0.012), but less detrimental to their mental well-being (OR = 0.58, P = 0.042). Findings can inform college-wide campaigns and interventions to raise HIV/AIDS awareness and improve college health.
HIV; AIDS; college students; academic major; perceived risk
Dental treatment needs are commonly unmet among adolescents. It is therefore important to clarify the determinants of poor utilization of dental services among adolescents.
A total of 9,203 Chilean students aged 12–21 years provided information on dental visits, oral health related behavior, perceived oral health status, and socio-demographic determinants. School headmasters provided information on monthly tuition and annual fees. Based on the answers provided, three outcome variables were generated to reflect whether the respondent had visited the dentist during the past year or not; whether the last dental visit was due to symptoms; and whether the responded had ever been to a dentist. Aged adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the influence of the covariates gender; oral health related behaviors (self-reported tooth brushing frequency & smoking habits); and measures of social position (annual education expenses; paternal income; and achieved parental education) on each outcome.
Analyses showed that students who had not attended a dentist within the past year were more likely to be male (OR = 1.3); to report infrequent tooth brushing (OR = 1.3); to have a father without income (OR = 1.8); a mother with only primary school education (OR = 1.5); and were also more likely to report a poor oral health status (OR = 2.0), just as they were more likely to attend schools with lower tuition and fees (OR = 1.4). Students who consulted a dentist because of symptoms were more likely to have a father without income (OR = 1.4); to attend schools with low economic entry barriers (OR = 1.4); and they were more likely to report a poor oral health status (OR = 2.9). Students who had never visited a dentist were more likely to report infrequent tooth brushing (OR = 1.9) and to have lower socioeconomic positions independently of the indicator used.
The results demonstrate that socioeconomic and behavioral factors are independently associated with the frequency of and reasons for dental visits in this adolescent population and that self-perceived poor oral health status is strongly associated with infrequent dental visits and symptoms.