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1.  Interactions between Non-Physician Clinicians and Industry: A Systematic Review 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(11):e1001561.
In a systematic review of studies of interactions between non-physician clinicians and industry, Quinn Grundy and colleagues found that many of the issues identified for physicians' industry interactions exist for non-physician clinicians.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
With increasing restrictions placed on physician–industry interactions, industry marketing may target other health professionals. Recent health policy developments confer even greater importance on the decision making of non-physician clinicians. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the types and implications of non-physician clinician–industry interactions in clinical practice.
Methods and Findings
We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science from January 1, 1946, through June 24, 2013, according to PRISMA guidelines. Non-physician clinicians eligible for inclusion were: Registered Nurses, nurse prescribers, Physician Assistants, pharmacists, dieticians, and physical or occupational therapists; trainee samples were excluded. Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria. Data were synthesized qualitatively into eight outcome domains: nature and frequency of industry interactions; attitudes toward industry; perceived ethical acceptability of interactions; perceived marketing influence; perceived reliability of industry information; preparation for industry interactions; reactions to industry relations policy; and management of industry interactions. Non-physician clinicians reported interacting with the pharmaceutical and infant formula industries. Clinicians across disciplines met with pharmaceutical representatives regularly and relied on them for practice information. Clinicians frequently received industry “information,” attended sponsored “education,” and acted as distributors for similar materials targeted at patients. Clinicians generally regarded this as an ethical use of industry resources, and felt they could detect “promotion” while benefiting from industry “information.” Free samples were among the most approved and common ways that clinicians interacted with industry. Included studies were observational and of varying methodological rigor; thus, these findings may not be generalizable. This review is, however, the first to our knowledge to provide a descriptive analysis of this literature.
Conclusions
Non-physician clinicians' generally positive attitudes toward industry interactions, despite their recognition of issues related to bias, suggest that industry interactions are normalized in clinical practice across non-physician disciplines. Industry relations policy should address all disciplines and be implemented consistently in order to mitigate conflicts of interest and address such interactions' potential to affect patient care.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Making and selling health care goods (including drugs and devices) and services is big business. To maximize the profits they make for their shareholders, companies involved in health care build relationships with physicians by providing information on new drugs, organizing educational meetings, providing samples of their products, giving gifts, and holding sponsored events. These relationships help to keep physicians informed about new developments in health care but also create the potential for causing harm to patients and health care systems. These relationships may, for example, result in increased prescription rates of new, heavily marketed medications, which are often more expensive than their generic counterparts (similar unbranded drugs) and that are more likely to be recalled for safety reasons than long-established drugs. They may also affect the provision of health care services. Industry is providing an increasingly large proportion of routine health care services in many countries, so relationships built up with physicians have the potential to influence the commissioning of the services that are central to the treatment and well-being of patients.
Why Was This Study Done?
As a result of concerns about the tension between industry's need to make profits and the ethics underlying professional practice, restrictions are increasingly being placed on physician–industry interactions. In the US, for example, the Physician Payments Sunshine Act now requires US manufacturers of drugs, devices, and medical supplies that participate in federal health care programs to disclose all payments and gifts made to physicians and teaching hospitals. However, other health professionals, including those with authority to prescribe drugs such as pharmacists, Physician Assistants, and nurse practitioners are not covered by this legislation or by similar legislation in other settings, even though the restructuring of health care to prioritize primary care and multidisciplinary care models means that “non-physician clinicians” are becoming more numerous and more involved in decision-making and medication management. In this systematic review (a study that uses predefined criteria to identify all the research on a given topic), the researchers examine the nature and implications of the interactions between non-physician clinicians and industry.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 15 published studies that examined interactions between non-physician clinicians (Registered Nurses, nurse prescribers, midwives, pharmacists, Physician Assistants, and dieticians) and industry (corporations that produce health care goods and services). They extracted the data from 16 publications (representing 15 different studies) and synthesized them qualitatively (combined the data and reached word-based, rather than numerical, conclusions) into eight outcome domains, including the nature and frequency of interactions, non-physician clinicians' attitudes toward industry, and the perceived ethical acceptability of interactions. In the research the authors identified, non-physician clinicians reported frequent interactions with the pharmaceutical and infant formula industries. Most non-physician clinicians met industry representatives regularly, received gifts and samples, and attended educational events or received educational materials (some of which they distributed to patients). In these studies, non-physician clinicians generally regarded these interactions positively and felt they were an ethical and appropriate use of industry resources. Only a minority of non-physician clinicians felt that marketing influenced their own practice, although a larger percentage felt that their colleagues would be influenced. A sizeable proportion of non-physician clinicians questioned the reliability of industry information, but most were confident that they could detect biased information and therefore rated this information as reliable, valuable, or useful.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These and other findings suggest that non-physician clinicians generally have positive attitudes toward industry interactions but recognize issues related to bias and conflict of interest. Because these findings are based on a small number of studies, most of which were undertaken in the US, they may not be generalizable to other countries. Moreover, they provide no quantitative assessment of the interaction between non-physician clinicians and industry and no information about whether industry interactions affect patient care outcomes. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that industry interactions are normalized (seen as standard) in clinical practice across non-physician disciplines. This normalization creates the potential for serious risks to patients and health care systems. The researchers suggest that it may be unrealistic to expect that non-physician clinicians can be taught individually how to interact with industry ethically or how to detect and avert bias, particularly given the ubiquitous nature of marketing and promotional materials. Instead, they suggest, the environment in which non-physician clinicians practice should be structured to mitigate the potentially harmful effects of interactions with industry.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001561.
This study is further discussed in a PLOS Medicine Perspective by James S. Yeh and Aaron S. Kesselheim
The American Medical Association provides guidance for physicians on interactions with pharmaceutical industry representatives, information about the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, and a toolkit for preparing Physician Payments Sunshine Act reports
The International Council of Nurses provides some guidance on industry interactions in its position statement on nurse-industry relations
The UK General Medical Council provides guidance on financial and commercial arrangements and conflicts of interest as part of its good medical practice website, which describes what is required of all registered doctors in the UK
Understanding and Responding to Pharmaceutical Promotion: A Practical Guide is a manual prepared by Health Action International and the World Health Organization that schools of medicine and pharmacy can use to train students how to recognize and respond to pharmaceutical promotion.
The Institute of Medicine's Report on Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice recommends steps to identify, limit, and manage conflicts of interest
The University of California, San Francisco, Office of Continuing Medical Education offers a course called Marketing of Medicines
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001561
PMCID: PMC3841103  PMID: 24302892
2.  International partnerships in telehealth: healthcare, industry and education 
Project background
In 2010 an internationally renowned American healthcare organisation partnered with Irish industry and higher education in Waterford with the goal to expand their telehealth services. Combining the skills and expertise of Nurse Consultants, Nurse Educators, IT Specialists and Healthcare Executives, these collaborative partnerships led to the delivery of telehealth services to North America from an Irish base, and to the development of new European telehealth programmes and telehealth training in Ireland. The telehealth service includes the provision of telephone triage, health information and advice, disease management and hospital discharge programmes to clients in Ireland, the UK and the USA. Telehealth nursing is an evolving specialty that requires the development of competence in key areas of information and communication technologies, assessment, triage and critical thinking in clinical decision-making within an environment where distance separates the nurse from the client.
Aims and objectives
The aim of this paper is to report on the development, implementation and evaluation of the telehealth service with a focus on the telephone triage and advice service and the hospital discharge programmes. Objectives of this paper include describing this telehealth initiative with reference to the changing nature of global healthcare provision; discuss the educational strategy and accredited programme for training competent telehealth nurses; report the results of the evaluation of nurse performance in telephone triage and present the data relating to the impact of hospital discharge programmes on patient satisfaction and readmission rates.
Methods and results
The evaluation of the telehealth training programme was undertaken six months post initial training and service commencement. One hundred triage and health information calls were reviewed, against best practice standards and programme learning outcomes, during a four-month period. Quantitative and qualitative data that demonstrates evidence of learning transfer from training to practice and the development of nurse competence from advanced beginner to levels of proficiency will be presented. The hospital discharge programmes have undergone continuous monitoring and reporting since commencement. This has enabled the collection of evidence that supports this brief telephone intervention as a method of reducing hopsital re-admissions and increasing patient satisfcation. Quantitative results will be presented and analysed in relation to the impact on patient satisfaction and readmission rates for patients discharged from cardiovascular, renal and digestive disease services.
Conclusions
This project has demonstrated the effectiveness of partnerships in healthcare, industry and education in achieving the development, implementation and evaluation of international telehealth services. Initial education, training and ongoing support and development of nurses is essential for quality telehealth provision. Weekly call review, constructive feedback and reflection on practice are effective strategies for performance assurance and improvement. As a growing element of integrated healthcare, telehealth modules should be included in pre and post-registration nursing education curricula. Further collaboration between industry, healthcare and education are necessary in moving the telehealth agenda forward for the benefit of integrating services that impact positively on service users.
PMCID: PMC3571125
telephone triage; hospital discharge programmes; partnerships
3.  Practice nurses' workload and consultation patterns. 
BACKGROUND. There are calls for the role of the practice nurse to be developed and extended. Before areas for further training and education can be identified, baseline data are needed on practice nurses' current activity and workload. AIM. A study was undertaken to analyse the activity of practice nurses in two large inner city general practices and to assess the skills mix of the nursing staff required to meet the needs of the practices. METHOD. The study practices had a combined list of 26,000 patients, 80% of patients attracting a deprivation allowance. Each practice employed three practice nurses. A nurse activity index with 45 codes was constructed to describe patient-nurse consultations. Activity codes were categorized into traditional treatment tasks, extended role tasks or diagnosis and management tasks. For eight months, practice nurses in practices Y and Z recorded activity index codes for each patient consultation. Practice Y also recorded the source of referral and the age and sex of the patient. RESULTS. There were 13,898 practice nurse consultations during the study period, equivalent to an annual nurse consultation rate of 0.8 per patient. Compared with the practice population as a whole, the patients attending the practice nurses in practice Y were older (mean age 43 years versus 37 years, P < 0.001). Those attending the practice nurses in practice Y were also more likely to be female (61% of consultations were with female patients compared with 50% of the practice population as a whole, P < 0.001). In practice Y, patients referred themselves to the practice nurse in 42% of consultations, 32% were follow-up consultations and in 25% of cases the patient had been referred by a doctor. The most common reasons for nurse consultation were blood tests (15% of procedures in practice Y and 18% in practice Z) and dressings (13% in both practices). Most procedures in practices Y and Z were in the traditional treatment category (61%), 26% were in the extended role category and 9% in the diagnosis and management category (3% coded 'other', 1% uncoded). Between practices, the greatest difference in recorded procedures was for asthma check ups (7% of procedures in practice Y compared with 2% in practice Z). CONCLUSION. This study describes the workload of practice nurses in two inner city practices over eight months. Other practices could use the activity index to make comparisons over time and between practices. Up to 60% of nurses' work in the study practices could be done by a nurse without extended training and up to 30% could be done by a health care assistant, but with some loss of quality. It is suggested that half the nursing hours available to a practice should be offered by a nurse with extended training in order to undertake and develop extended role tasks and diagnosis and management tasks.
PMCID: PMC1239335  PMID: 7576846
4.  Nurse work engagement impacts job outcome and nurse-assessed quality of care: model testing with nurse practice environment and nurse work characteristics as predictors 
Frontiers in Psychology  2014;5:1261.
Aim: To explore the mechanisms through which nurse practice environment dimensions, such as nurse–physician relationship, nurse management at the unit level and hospital management and organizational support, are associated with job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care. Mediating variables included nurse work characteristics of workload, social capital, decision latitude, as well as work engagement dimensions of vigor, dedication and absorption.
Background: Understanding how to support and guide nurse practice communities in their daily effort to answer complex care most accurate, alongside with the demand of a stable and healthy nurse workforce, is challenging.
Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Method: Based on earlier empirical findings, a structural equation model, designed with valid measurement instruments, was tested. The study population included registered acute care hospital nurses (N = 1201) in eight hospitals across Belgium.
Results: Nurse practice environment dimensions predicted nurses’ ratings of job outcome variables as well as quality of care. Features of nurses’ work characteristics, e.g., perceived workload, decision latitude, social capital, and the three dimension of work engagement, played mediating roles between nurse practice environment and outcomes. A revised model, using various fit measures, explained 60% of job outcomes and 47% of nurse-assessed quality of care.
Conclusion: The findings in this study show that nurse work characteristics as workload, decision latitude, and social capital, alongside with nurse work engagement (e.g., vigor, dedication, and absorption) influence nurses’ perspective of their nurse practice environment, job outcomes, and quality of care. The results underline aspects to considerate for various stakeholders, such as executives, nurse managers, physicians, and staff nurses, in setting up and organizing health care services.
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01261
PMCID: PMC4230203  PMID: 25431563
burnout; job satisfaction; nurse retention; nurse practice environment; quality of care; structural equation modeling
5.  Practice nurses' workload, career intentions and the impact of professional isolation: A cross-sectional survey 
BMC Nursing  2010;9:2.
Background
Practice nurses have a key role within UK general practice, especially since the 2004 GMS contract. This study aimed to describe that role, identify how professionally supported they felt and their career intentions. An additional aim was to explore whether they felt isolated and identify contributory factors.
Methods
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey in one large urban Scottish Health Board, targeted all practice nurses (n = 329). Domains included demographics, workload, training and professional support. Following univariate descriptive statistics, associations between categorical variables were tested using the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend; associations between dichotomous variables were tested using Fisher's Exact test. Variables significantly associated with isolation were entered into a binary logistic regression model using backwards elimination.
Results
There were 200 responses (61.0% response rate). Most respondents were aged 40 or over and were practice nurses for a median of 10 years. Commonest clinical activities were coronary heart disease management, cervical cytology, diabetes and the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although most had a Personal Development Plan and a recent appraisal, 103 (52.3%) felt isolated at least sometimes; 30 (15.5%) intended leaving practice nursing within 5 years.
Isolated nurses worked in practices with smaller list sizes (p = 0.024) and nursing teams (p = 0.003); were less likely to have someone they could discuss a clinical/professional (p = 0.002) or personal (p < 0.001) problem with; used their training and qualifications less (p < 0.001); had less productive appraisals (p < 0.001); and were less likely to intend staying in practice nursing (p = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that nurses working alone or in teams of two were 6-fold and 3.5-fold more likely to feel isolated. Using qualifications and training to the full, having productive appraisals and planning to remain in practice nursing all mitigated against feeling isolated.
Conclusions
A significant proportion of practice nurses reported feeling isolated, at least some of the time. They were more likely to be in small practices and more likely to be considering leaving practice nursing. Factors contributing to their isolation were generally located within the practice environment. Providing support to these nurses within their practice setting may help alleviate the feelings of isolation, and could reduce the number considering leaving practice nursing.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-9-2
PMCID: PMC2823612  PMID: 20205777
6.  Guidelines, Editors, Pharma And The Biological Paradigm Shift 
Mens Sana Monographs  2007;5(1):27-30.
Private investment in biomedical research has increased over the last few decades. At most places it has been welcomed as the next best thing to technology itself. Much of the intellectual talent from academic institutions is getting absorbed in lucrative positions in industry. Applied research finds willing collaborators in venture capital funded industry, so a symbiotic growth is ensured for both.
There are significant costs involved too. As academia interacts with industry, major areas of conflict of interest especially applicable to biomedical research have arisen. They are related to disputes over patents and royalty, hostile encounters between academia and industry, as also between public and private enterprise, legal tangles, research misconduct of various types, antagonistic press and patient-advocate lobbies and a general atmosphere in which commercial interest get precedence over patient welfare.
Pharma image stinks because of a number of errors of omission and commission. A recent example is suppression of negative findings about Bayer's Trasylol (Aprotinin) and the marketing maneuvers of Eli Lilly's Xigris (rhAPC). Whenever there is a conflict between patient vulnerability and profit motives, pharma often tends to tilt towards the latter. Moreover there are documents that bring to light how companies frequently cross the line between patient welfare and profit seeking behaviour.
A voluntary moratorium over pharma spending to pamper drug prescribers is necessary. A code of conduct adopted recently by OPPI in India to limit pharma company expenses over junkets and trinkets is a welcome step.
Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are considered important as they guide the diagnostic/therapeutic regimen of a large number of medical professionals and hospitals and provide recommendations on drugs, their dosages and criteria for selection. Along with clinical trials, they are another area of growing influence by the pharmaceutical industry. For example, in a relatively recent survey of 2002, it was found that about 60% of 192 authors of clinical practice guidelines reported they had financial connections with the companies whose drugs were under consideration. There is a strong case for making CPGs based not just on effectivity but cost effectivity. The various ramifications of this need to be spelt out. Work of bodies like the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Collaboration and Guidelines Advisory Committee (GAC) are also worth a close look.
Even the actions of Foundations that work for disease amelioration have come under scrutiny. The process of setting up ‘Best Practices’ Guidelines for interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and clinicians has already begun and can have important consequences for patient care. Similarly, Good Publication Practice (GPP) for pharmaceutical companies have also been set up aimed at improving the behaviour of drug companies while reporting drug trials
The rapidly increasing trend toward influence and control by industry has become a concern for many. It is of such importance that the Association of American Medical Colleges has issued two relatively new documents - one, in 2001, on how to deal with individual conflicts of interest; and the other, in 2002, on how to deal with institutional conflicts of interest in the conduct of clinical research. Academic Medical Centers (AMCs), as also medical education and research institutions at other places, have to adopt means that minimize their conflicts of interest.
Both medical associations and research journal editors are getting concerned with individual and institutional conflicts of interest in the conduct of clinical research and documents are now available which address these issues. The 2001 ICMJE revision calls for full disclosure of the sponsor's role in research, as well as assurance that the investigators are independent of the sponsor, are fully accountable for the design and conduct of the trial, have independent access to all trial data and control all editorial and publication decisions. However the findings of a 2002 study suggest that academic institutions routinely participate in clinical research that does not adhere to ICMJE standards of accountability, access to data and control of publication.
There is an inevitable slant to produce not necessarily useful but marketable products which ensure the profitability of industry and research grants outflow to academia. Industry supports new, not traditional, therapies, irrespective of what is effective. Whatever traditional therapy is supported is most probably because the company concerned has a product with a big stake there, which has remained a ‘gold standard’ or which that player thinks has still some ‘juice’ left.
Industry sponsorship is mainly for potential medications, not for trying to determine whether there may be non-pharmacological interventions that may be equally good, if not better. In the paradigm shift towards biological psychiatry, the role of industry sponsorship is not overt but probably more pervasive than many have realised, or the right thinking may consider good, for the health of the branch in the long run.
An issue of major concern is protection of the interests of research subjects. Patients agree to become research subjects not only for personal medical benefit but, as an extension, to benefit the rest of the patient population and also advance medical research.
We all accept that industry profits have to be made, and investment in research and development by the pharma industry is massive. However, we must also accept there is a fundamental difference between marketing strategies for other entities and those for drugs.
The ultimate barometer is patient welfare and no drug that compromises it can stand the test of time. So, how does it make even commercial sense in the long term to market substandard products? The greatest mistake long-term players in industry may make is try to adopt the shady techniques of the upstart new entrant. Secrecy of marketing/sales tactics, of the process of manufacture, of other strategies and plans of business expansion, of strategies to tackle competition are fine business tactics. But it is critical that secrecy as a tactic not extend to reporting of research findings, especially those contrary to one's product.
Pharma has no option but to make a quality product, do comprehensive adverse reaction profiles, and market it only if it passes both tests.
Why does pharma adopt questionable tactics? The reasons are essentially two:
What with all the constraints, a drug comes to the pharmacy after huge investments. There are crippling overheads and infrastructure costs to be recovered. And there are massive profit margins to be maintained. If these were to be dependent only on genuine drug discoveries, that would be taking too great a risk.Industry players have to strike the right balance between profit making and credibility. In profit making, the marketing champions play their role. In credibility ratings, researchers and paid spokes-persons play their role. All is hunky dory till marketing is based on credibility. When there is nothing available to make for credibility, something is projected as one and marketing carried out, in the calculated hope that profits can accrue, since profit making must continue endlessly. That is what makes pharma adopt even questionable means to make profits.
Essentially, there are four types of drugs. First, drugs that work and have minimal side-effects; second, drugs which work but have serious side-effects; third, drugs that do not work and have minimal side-effects; and fourth, drugs which work minimally but have serious side-effects. It is the second and fourth types that create major hassles for industry. Often, industry may try to project the fourth type as the second to escape censure.
The major cat and mouse game being played by conscientious researchers is in exposing the third and fourth for what they are and not allowing industry to palm them off as the first and second type respectively. The other major game is in preventing the second type from being projected as the first. The third type are essentially harmless, so they attract censure all right and some merriment at the antics to market them. But they escape anything more than a light rap on the knuckles, except when they are projected as the first type.
What is necessary for industry captains and long-term players is to realise:
Their major propelling force can only be producing the first type. 2. They accept the second type only till they can lay their hands on the first. 3. The third type can be occasionally played around with to shore up profits, but never by projecting them as the first type. 4. The fourth type are the laggards, real threat to credibility and therefore do not deserve any market hype or promotion.
In finding out why most pharma indulges in questionable tactics, we are lead to some interesting solutions to prevent such tactics with the least amount of hassles for all concerned, even as both profits and credibility are kept intact.
doi:10.4103/0973-1229.32176
PMCID: PMC3192391  PMID: 22058616
Academia; Pharmaceutical Industry; Clinical Practice Guidelines; Best Practice Guidelines; Academic Medical Centers; Medical Associations; Research Journals; Clinical Research; Public Welfare; Pharma Image; Corporate Welfare; Biological Psychiatry; Law Suits Against Industry
7.  The relationship between hospital work environment and nurse outcomes in Guangdong, China: a nurse questionnaire survey 
Journal of clinical nursing  2012;21(9-10):1476-1485.
Aims and objectives
This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China.
Background
The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China.
Design
This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China.
Methods
Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05.
Results
Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses’ work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses.
Conclusion
Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China.
Relevance to clinical practice
The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work environments of hospital nurses in China.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03991.x
PMCID: PMC3392025  PMID: 22380003
burnout; job satisfaction; nursing; retention; work environment
8.  Poor Work Environments and Nurse Inexperience Are Associated with Burnout, Job Dissatisfaction, and Quality Deficits in Japanese Hospitals 
Journal of clinical nursing  2008;17(24):3324-3329.
Aims
To describe nurse burnout, job dissatisfaction, and quality of care in Japanese hospitals, and to determine how these outcomes are associated with work environment factors.
Background
Nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction are associated with poor nurse retention and uneven quality of care in other countries but comprehensive data have been lacking on Japan.
Design
Cross-sectional survey of 5,956 staff nurses on 302 units in 19 acute hospitals in Japan.
Methods
Nurses provided information about years of experience, completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and reported on resource adequacy and working relations with doctors using the Nursing Work Index-Revised.
Results
56% of nurses scored high on burnout, 60% were dissatisfied with their jobs, and 59% ranked quality of care as only fair or poor. About one-third had fewer than 4 years of experience, and more than two-thirds had less than 10. Only one in five nurses reported there were enough RNs to provide quality care and more than half reported that teamwork between nurses and physicians was lacking. The odds on high burnout, job dissatisfaction and poor-fair quality of care were twice as high in hospitals with 50% inexperienced nurses than with 20% inexperienced nurses, and 40% higher in hospitals where nurses had less satisfactory relations with physicians. Nurses in poorly staffed hospitals were 50% more likely to exhibit burnout, twice as likely to be dissatisfied, and 75% more likely to report poor or fair quality care than nurses in better staffed hospitals.
Conclusions
Improved nurse staffing and working relationships with physicians may reduce nurse burnout, job dissatisfaction, and low nurse-assessed quality of care.
Relevance to clinical practice
Staff nurses should engage supervisors and medical staff in discussions about retaining more experienced nurses at the bedside, implementing strategies to enhance clinical staffing, and identifying ways to improve nurse-physician working relations.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02639.x
PMCID: PMC2632807  PMID: 19146591
Nursing Research; Burnout; Nursing Practice; Quality of Care
9.  Practice environments and their associations with nurse-reported outcomes in Belgian hospitals: Development and preliminary validation of a Dutch adaptation of the Revised Nursing Work Index 
Aim
To study the relationship between nurse work environment, job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care in the Belgian context.
Background
Work environment characteristics are important for attracting and retaining professional nurses in hospitals. The Revised Nursing Work Index (NWI-R) was originally designed to describe the professional nurse work environment in U.S. Magnet Hospitals and subsequently has been extensively used in research internationally.
Method
The NWI-R was translated into Dutch to measure the nurse work environment in 155 nurses across 13 units in three Belgian hospitals. Factor analysis was used to identify a set of coherent subscales. The relationship between work environments and job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care was investigated using logistic and linear regression analyses. Results: Three reliable, consistent and meaningful subscales of the NWI-R were identified: nurse–physician relations, nurse management at the unit level and hospital management and organizational support. All three subscales had significant associations with several outcome variables. Nurse–physician relations had a significant positive association with nurse job satisfaction, intention to stay the hospital, the nurse-assessed unit level quality of care and personal accomplishment. Nurse management at the unit level had a significant positive association with the nurse job satisfaction, nurse-assessed quality of care on the unit and in the hospital, and personal accomplishment. Hospital management and organizational support had a significant positive association with the nurse-assessed quality of care in the hospital and personal accomplishment. Higher ratings of nurse–physician relations and nurse management at the unit level had significant negative associations with both the Maslach Burnout Inventory emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions, whereas hospital management and organizational support was inversely associated only with depersonalization scores.
Conclusion
A Dutch version of the NWI-R questionnaire produced comparable subscales to those found by many other researchers internationally. The resulting measures of the professional practice environment in Belgian hospitals showed expected relationships with nurse self-reports of job outcomes and perceptions of hospital quality.
doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.07.009
PMCID: PMC2845973  PMID: 18789437
Burnout; Job satisfaction; Nurse retention; Nurse management; Nurse work environment; Quality of care
10.  Involvement of the primary health care team in coronary heart disease prevention. 
BACKGROUND. Recent years have seen a vast increase in the amount of health promotion activity undertaken in general practice. AIM. This study set out to identify the level of general practitioner and nurse involvement in activities aimed at coronary heart disease prevention and to examine variations in involvement. METHOD. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of a sample of general practitioners across England and the nurses who worked in their practices. RESULTS. Of 1696 randomly selected general practitioners 64% completed a questionnaire, of 928 practice nurses 71% responded and of 682 health visitors and 679 district nurses 52% and 40% responded, respectively. Of the general practitioners 94% reported that they were involved in assessing lifestyle risk factors in the routine consultation and regular assessments most commonly involved blood pressure testing and inquiry about smoking status. Eighty six per cent of practices were reported by the practice nurse as having well person clinics; these clinics were usually run by the practice nurse. Clinics for the management of specific lifestyle risk factors were also usually run by practice nurses, although many doctors were involved in hypertension clinics and cholesterol clinics. Health visitors and district nurses had a low level of involvement in this practice based clinic activity. Involvement of general practitioners and practice nurses in coronary heart disease prevention was associated with training in health promotion and positive attitudes towards prevention and health promotion. The level of involvement of practice nurses in health promotion was associated with the support received from primary health care facilitators, family health services authorities and district health authorities. CONCLUSION. Members of the primary health care team appeared to have their own distinct area of preventive activity. However, this division did not appear to be a result of organized teamwork and deployment of skills and expertise according to a clearly defined management protocol. Instead it seemed to be a product of general practitioner contract and management arrangements which tended to encourage an approach to general practice health promotion which revolved around the practice nurse and which hindered the development of a broader team based approach to planning and delivery of health promotion in relation to the needs of the practice population.
PMCID: PMC1238871  PMID: 8204337
11.  Variations in Nursing Care Quality across Hospitals 
Journal of advanced nursing  2009;65(11):2299-2310.
Aims
The aim of the study was to describe Registered Nurses’ reports of unmet nursing care needs and examine the variation of nursing care quality across hospitals.
Background
Large proportions of Registered Nurses have reported leaving necessary care activities undone because they lacked the time to complete the activities. Nursing care left undone can be expected to adversely affect the quality of care. However, little is known about the degree of variation in the quality of nursing care across hospitals.
Methods
In 2008, a secondary analysis of a 1999 survey of Registered Nurses (N=10,184) was conducted using descriptive and comparative statistics. Data were derived from inpatient staff nurses working in acute care hospital settings (N=168). A hospital-level measure (i.e. unmet nursing care needs) of the quality of nursing care was developed from care needs left undone among all nurses.
Results
Across hospitals there was a wide range in the proportion of Registered Nurses who reported leaving each nursing care need undone. They reported leaving 2 out of 7 necessary nursing care activities undone during their last shift. After controlling for nurses’ demographic information, we found statistically significant variations in the quality of nursing care across hospitals.
Conclusion
Differences in nursing care quality across hospitals appear to be closely associated with variations in the quality of care environments. Understanding the determinants of unmet nursing care needs can support policy decisions on systems and human resources management to enhance nurses’ awareness of their care practices and the care environment.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05090.x
PMCID: PMC2763049  PMID: 19737326
Variations; Nursing Care; Quality; Hospitals; secondary analysis
12.  Transformative impact of Magnet designation: England case study 
Journal of clinical nursing  2008;17(24):3330-3337.
Aims
To test the impact of the implementation of Magnet principles of improving nurses’ work environments.
Background
Magnet hospital designation developed in the United States in the 1980s to recognise hospitals that had created excellent patient care environments and supported the professional practice of nursing. A pilot initiative in England was the first test of the applicability of Magnet standards outside the US.
Methods
Research methods included surveys of nurses in the demonstration hospital in a predesign and postdesign and comparisons to survey results of nurses practicing in a national sample of 30 National Health Service Trusts.
Results
Prior to beginning the Magnet journey, the demonstration hospital had a nurse work environment that was somewhat less positive than the national sample NHS hospitals. Nurses practicing in the demonstration hospital were somewhat less satisfied with their jobs than nurses in other NHS hospitals. Following a two-year period during which the evidence-based Magnet standards were implemented and Magnet Designation was awarded, the quality of the nurse practice environment had improved significantly, as had job satisfaction of nurses and their appraisals of the quality of patient care. The quality of the nurse practice environment after Magnet designation was better than that of a national sample of NHS trusts. Improved nurse outcomes were because of the improved practice environment rather than staffing enhancements.
Conclusions
Implementation of the Magnet hospital intervention was associated with a significantly improved nursing work environment as well as improved job-related outcomes for nurses and markers for quality of patient care. Relevance to clinical practice. Nurses can use Magnet principles to improve the quality of their work environments.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02640.x
PMCID: PMC2629393  PMID: 19146592
Magnet hospitals; nurses; nursing
13.  Practice area and work demands in nurses' aides: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2006;6:97.
Background
Knowledge of how work demands vary between different practice areas could give us a better understanding of the factors that influence the working conditions in the health services, and could help identify specific work-related challenges and problems in the different practice areas. In turn, this may help politicians, and healthcare administrators and managers to develop healthy work units. The aim of this study was to find out how nurses' aides' perception of demands and control at work vary with the practice area in which the aides are working.
Methods
In 1999, 12 000 nurses' aides were drawn randomly from the member list of the Norwegian Union of Health – and Social Workers, and were mailed a questionnaire. 7478 (62.3 %) filled in the questionnaire. The sample of the present study comprised the 6485 nurses' aides who were not on leave. Respondents working in one practice area were compared with respondents not working in this area (all together). Because of multiple comparisons, 0.01 was chosen as statistical significance level.
Results
Total quantitative work demands were highest in somatic hospital departments, nursing homes, and community nurse units. Physical demands were highest in somatic hospital departments and nursing homes. Level of positive challenges was highest in hospital departments and community nurses units, and lowest in nursing homes and homes or apartment units for the aged. Exposure to role conflicts was most frequent in nursing homes, homes or apartment units for the aged, and community nurse units. Exposure to threats and violence was most frequent in psychiatric departments, nursing homes, and institutions for mentally handicapped. Control of work pace was highest in psychiatric departments and institutions for mentally handicapped, and was lowest in somatic hospital departments and nursing homes. Participation in decisions at work was highest in psychiatric departments and community nurse units, and was lowest in somatic hospital departments and nursing homes.
Conclusion
The demands and control experienced by Norwegian nurses' aides at work vary strongly with the practice area. Preventive workplace interventions should be tailored each area.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-97
PMCID: PMC1458330  PMID: 16613606
14.  “Near misses” in a cataract theatre: how do we improve understanding and documentation? 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2005;89(12):1565-1568.
Aim: Near miss event reporting is widely used in industry to highlight potentially unsafe areas or practice. The aim of this study was to see if a descriptive method of recording near misses was an appropriate method for use in an ophthalmic operating theatre and to quantify how many untoward events were recorded using this system.
Methods: The study was wholly conducted in a cataract theatre in the United Kingdom. The theatre nurse assigned to the patient in their journey through the operating theatre was asked to note any untoward events. As, at present, there is no consensus definition of near misses in ophthalmology the nurses recorded, in free text, any events that they considered to be a deviation from the normal routine in that theatre.
Results: Of the 500 cases randomly chosen, 96 “deviations from normal routine” were described in 93 patients—that is, 19% of cases. All forms distributed to the nurses were returned (100% response rate). The commonest abnormal events were intraoperative (69), with a lesser number being recorded preoperatively (27). When these events were further classified, it was thought that 25 could be classified as near misses. One true adverse event was recorded during the study.
Conclusions: The results suggest that experienced nursing staff in an ophthalmic theatre are a reliable source for collecting data regarding near misses. A consensus is now required to define near misses in ophthalmology and to devise a user friendly input system that can use these definitions to consistently record these potentially vital events.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2005.072850
PMCID: PMC1772975  PMID: 16299130
cataract
15.  The evolution of nursing in Australian general practice: a comparative analysis of workforce surveys ten years on 
BMC Family Practice  2014;15:52.
Background
Nursing in Australian general practice has grown rapidly over the last decade in response to government initiatives to strengthen primary care. There are limited data about how this expansion has impacted on the nursing role, scope of practice and workforce characteristics. This study aimed to describe the current demographic and employment characteristics of Australian nurses working in general practice and explore trends in their role over time.
Methods
In the nascence of the expansion of the role of nurses in Australian general practice (2003–2004) a national survey was undertaken to describe nurse demographics, clinical roles and competencies. This survey was repeated in 2009–2010 and comparative analysis of the datasets undertaken to explore workforce changes over time.
Results
Two hundred eighty four nurses employed in general practice completed the first survey (2003/04) and 235 completed the second survey (2009/10). Significantly more participants in Study 2 were undertaking follow-up of pathology results, physical assessment and disease specific health education. There was also a statistically significant increase in the participants who felt that further education/training would augment their confidence in all clinical tasks (p < 0.001). Whilst the impact of legal implications as a barrier to the nurses’ role in general practice decreased between the two time points, more participants perceived lack of space, job descriptions, confidence to negotiate with general practitioners and personal desire to enhance their role as barriers. Access to education and training as a facilitator to nursing role expansion increased between the two studies. The level of optimism of participants for the future of the nurses’ role in general practice was slightly decreased over time.
Conclusions
This study has identified that some of the structural barriers to nursing in Australian general practice have been addressed over time. However, it also identifies continuing barriers that impact practice nurse role development. Understanding and addressing these issues is vital to optimise the effectiveness of the primary care nursing workforce.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-15-52
PMCID: PMC3987204  PMID: 24666420
Practice nurse; Nursing workforce; Survey; Office nurse; General practice; Primary care, Australia
16.  The nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units 
Journal of nursing management  2009;17(8):994-1001.
Aim
The aim of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in hospital characteristics, nursing unit characteristics, the nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units.
Background
Research in urban hospitals has found an association between the nurse work environment and job satisfaction and turnover rates, but this association has not been examined in rural hospitals.
Method
Rural and urban nursing units were compared in a national random sample of 97 United States hospitals (194 nursing units) with between 99 and 450 beds.
Results
Significant differences were found between hospital and nursing unit characteristics and the nurse work environment in rural and urban nursing units. Both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment were found to have a significant influence on nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates.
Conclusion
Job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units are associated with both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment.
Implications for nursing management
Both rural and urban hospitals can improve nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates by changing unit characteristics, such as creating better support services and a work environment that supports autonomous nursing practice. Rural hospitals can also improve the work environment by providing nurses with more educational opportunities.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2009.01027.x
PMCID: PMC3607628  PMID: 19941573
job satisfaction; nurse work environment; rural/urban; turnover rates
17.  The training and development needs of nurses in Indonesia: paper 3 of 3 
Background
Indonesia's recent economic and political history has left a legacy of widespread poverty and serious health problems, and has contributed to marked inequalities in health care. One means of responding to these challenges has been through a reconsideration of the professional roles of nurses, to enable them to deal with the range and complexity of health problems. However, there are currently a number of obstacles to achieving these aims: there is a serious shortfall in trained nurses; the majority of nurses have only limited education and preparation for the role; and there is no central registration of nurses, which means that it is impossible to regulate either the profession or the standards of care. This study aimed to establish the occupational profiles of each grade of nurse, identify their training and development needs and ascertain whether any differences existed between nurses working in different regions or within hospital or community settings.
Methods
An established and psychometrically valid questionnaire was administered to 524 nurses, covering three grades and coming from five provinces.
Results
Significant differences in job profile were found in nurses from different provinces, suggesting that the nature of the role is determined to some degree by the geographical location of practice. The roles of hospital and community nurses, and the different grades of nurse, were fairly similar. All nurses reported significant training needs for all 40 tasks, although these did not vary greatly between grade of nurse. The training needs of nurses from each of the provinces were quite distinct, while those of hospital nurses were greater than those of community nurses.
Conclusion
The results suggest that the role of the nurse is not as diverse as might be expected, given the different levels of preparation and training and the diversity of their work environments. This may reflect the lack of a central registration system and quality framework, which would normally regulate clinical activities according to qualifications. The differences in training needs between subsections of the sample highlight the importance of identifying skills deficits and using this information to develop customized post-registration education programmes. Together, these results provide a rigorous and reliable approach to defining the occupational roles and continuing education needs of Indonesian nurses.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-4-10
PMCID: PMC1524804  PMID: 16630363
18.  Education and implementing evidence-based nursing practice for diabetic patients 
Background:
Foot ulceration is one of the most common complications associated with diabetes that needs to be managed. In Iran, prevalence of diabetes foot ulcer is 3%. According to studies, evidence-based nursing (EBN) is an effective alternative to facilitate clinical decision making in patient care and may lead to quality improvement in nursing practice. The aims of this study are to assess the effects of EBN education on the knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurses who take care of patient with diabetes foot ulcer.
Materials and Methods:
A quasi-experimental study (based on IOWA model as a framework to improve nursing practice) was conducted using a before-and-after design. All of nurses (consisted of 19 baccalaureate nurses) who are working in an endocrinology ward were chosen and taught using EBN approach through different workshops. Before and after educational intervention, the data about nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and practice were gathered by questionnaire and then compared. The nurses’ performance in patient care was evaluated in 3 months by one checklist. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results:
There were statistically significant differences in knowledge, attitude, and practice of nurses before and after intervention (P = 0.001). The nurses’ performance in caring for patient with diabetes foot ulcer, based on clinical guideline, showed the improvement in clinical practice.
Conclusion:
Education of EBN can improve the nurse's knowledge and attitude to EBN, and be used as a basis on which to influence the professional practice of nursing.
PMCID: PMC3748547  PMID: 23983764
Clinical nursing; diabetes foot ulcer; evidence-based nursing practice; IOWA model of evidence based practice; Iran
19.  Practicing nurses perspectives of clinical scholarship: a qualitative study 
BMC Nursing  2013;12:21.
Background
There is a scarcity of research published on clinical scholarship. Much of the conceptualisation has been conducted in the academy. Nurse academics espouse that the practice of nursing must be built within a framework of clinical scholarship. A key concept of clinical scholarship emerging from discussions in the literature is that it is an essential component of enabling evidence–based nursing and the development of best practice standards to provide for the needs of patients/clients. However, there is no comprehensive definition of clinical scholarship from the practicing nurses. The aim of this study was to contribute to this definitional discussion on the nature of clinical scholarship in nursing.
Methods
Naturalistic inquiry informed the method. Using an interpretative approach 18 practicing nurses from Australia, Canada and England were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed and the text coded for emerging themes. The themes were sorted into categories and the components of clinical scholarship described by the participants compared to the scholarship framework of Boyer [JHEOE 7:5-18, 2010].
Results
Clinical scholarship is difficult to conceptualise. Two of the essential elements of clinical scholarship are vision and passion. The other components of clinical scholarship were building and disseminating nursing knowledge, sharing knowledge, linking academic research to practice and doing practice-based research.
Conclusion
Academic scholarship dominated the discourse in nursing. However, in order for nursing to develop and to impact on health care, clinical scholarship needs to be explored and theorised. Nurse educators, hospital-based researchers and health organisations need to work together with academics to achieve this goal.
Frameworks of scholarship conceptualised by nurse academics are reflected in the findings of this study with their emphasis on reading and doing research and translating it into nursing practice. This needs to be done in a nonthreatening environment.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-12-21
PMCID: PMC3849609  PMID: 24066801
Clinical scholarship; Nursing; Research; Practicing nurses
20.  How can the practice nurse be more involved in the care of the chronically ill? The perspectives of GPs, patients and practice nurses 
BMC Family Practice  2006;7:14.
Background
A well established "midlevel" of patient care, such as nurse practitioners and/or physician assistants, exits in many countries like the US, Canada, and Australia.
In Germany, however there is only one kind of profession assisting the physician in practices, the practice nurse. Little is known about the present involvement of practice nurses in patients' care in Germany and about the attitudes of GPs, assistants and patients concerning an increased involvement. The aim of our study was to get qualitative information on the extent to which practice nurses are currently involved in the treatment of patients and about possibilities of increased involvement as well as on barriers of increased involvement.
Methods
We performed qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 20 GPs, 20 practice nurses and 20 patients in the Heidelberg area. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and content-analysed with ATLAS.ti.
Results
Practice nurses are only marginally involved in the treatment of patients. GPs as well as patients were very sceptical about increased involvement in care. Patients were sceptical about nurses' professional background and feared a worsening of the patient doctor relationship. GPs also complained about the nurses' deficient education concerning medical knowledge. They feared a lack of time as well as a missing reimbursement for the efforts of an increased involvement. Practice nurses were mostly willing to be more involved, regarding it as an appreciation of their role. Important barriers were lack of time, overload with administrative work, and a lack of professional knowledge.
Conclusion
Practice nurses were only little involved in patient care. GPs were more sceptical than patients regarding an increased involvement. One possible area, accepted by all interviewed groups, was patient education as for instance dietary counselling. New treatment approaches as the chronic care model will require a team approach which currently only marginally exists in the German health care system. Better medical education of practice nurses is indispensable, but GPs also have to accept that they cannot fulfil the requirement of future care alone.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-7-14
PMCID: PMC1475585  PMID: 16515692
21.  Use of the consultation satisfaction questionnaire to examine patients' satisfaction with general practitioners and community nurses: reliability, replicability and discriminant validity. 
BACKGROUND: Primary health care services are the most frequently used in the health care system. Consumer feedback on these services is important. Research in this area relates mainly to doctor-patient relationships which fails to reflect the multidisciplinary nature of primary health care. AIM: A pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of using a patient satisfaction questionnaire designed for use with general practitioner consultations as an instrument for measuring patient satisfaction with community nurses. METHOD: The questionnaire measuring patient satisfaction with general practitioner consultations was adapted for measuring satisfaction with contacts with a nurse practitioner, district nurses, practice nurses and health visitors. A total of 1575 patients in three practices consulting general practitioners or community nurses were invited to complete a questionnaire. Data were subjected to principal components analysis and the dimensions identified were tested for internal reliability and replicability. To establish discriminant validity, patients' mean satisfaction scores for consultations with general practitioners, the nurse practitioner, health visitors and nurses (district and practice nurses) were compared. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned relating to 400 general practitioner, 54 nurse practitioner, 191 district/practice nurse and 83 health visitor consultations (overall response rate 46%). Principal components analysis demonstrated a factor structure similar to that found in an earlier study of the consultation satisfaction questionnaire. Three dimensions of patient satisfaction were identified: professional care, depth of relationship and perceived time spent with the health professional. The dimensions were found to have acceptable levels of reliability. Factor structures obtained from data relating to general practitioner and community nurse consultations were found to correlate significantly. Comparison between health professionals showed that patients rated satisfaction with professional care significantly more highly for nurses than for general practitioners and health visitors. Patients' rating of satisfaction with the depth of relationships with health visitors was significantly lower than their ratings of this relationship with the other groups of health professionals. There were so significant differences between health professional groups regarding patients' ratings of satisfaction with the perceived amount of time spent with health professionals. CONCLUSION: The pilot study showed that it is possible to use the consultation satisfaction questionnaire for both general practitioners and community nurses. Comparison between health professional groups should be undertaken with caution as data were available for only a small number of consultations with some of the groups of health professionals studied.
PMCID: PMC1239507  PMID: 8745848
22.  Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC) nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.
Methods
A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585) was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows.
Results
Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area). Other essential factors include the community’s view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging in their workplaces. Significant differences were found according to gender, age, marital status, dependent children, dependent adults, nationality, nursing tenure, organizational tenure, positional tenure, and payment per month. No significant differences were found according to education level of PHC nurses and location of PHC.
Conclusions
These findings can be used by PHC managers and policy makers for developing and appropriately implementing successful plans to improve the QWL. This will help to enhance the home and work environments, improve individual and organization performance and increase the commitment of nurses.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-10-30
PMCID: PMC3543175  PMID: 22971150
Nurse; Nursing workforce; Primary health care; Quality of work life (QWL); Saudi Arabia
23.  New quality regulations versus established nursing home practice: a qualitative study 
BMC Nursing  2012;11:7.
Background
Western governments have initiated reforms to improve the quality of care for nursing home residents. Most of these reforms encompass the use of regulations and national quality indicators. In the Norwegian context, these regulations comprise two pages of text that are easy to read and understand. They focus particularly on residents’ rights to plan their day-to-day life in nursing homes. However, the research literature indicates that the implementation of the new regulations, particularly if they aim to change nursing practice, is extremely challenging. The aim of this study was to further explore and describe nursing practice to gain a deeper understanding of why it is so hard to implement the new regulations.
Methods
For this qualitative study, an ethnographic design was chosen to explore and describe nursing practice. Fieldwork was conducted in two nursing homes. In total, 45 nurses and nursing aides were included in participant observation, and 10 were interviewed at the end of the field study.
Results
Findings indicate that the staff knew little about the new quality regulations, and that the quality of their work was guided by other factors rooted in their nursing practice. Further analyses revealed that the staff appeared to be committed to daily routines and also that they always seemed to know what to do. Having routines and always knowing what to do mutually strengthen and enhance each other, and together they form a powerful force that makes daily nursing care a taken-for-granted activity.
Conclusion
New regulations are challenging to implement because nursing practices are so strongly embedded. Improving practice requires systematic and deeply rooted practical change in everyday action and thinking.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-11-7
PMCID: PMC3407522  PMID: 22676435
Qualitative methods; Nursing homes; Nursing practice; Regulations; And routines
24.  The illusion of righteousness: corporate social responsibility practices of the alcohol industry 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:630.
Background
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become an integral element of how the alcohol industry promotes itself. The existing analyses of CSR in the alcohol industry point to the misleading nature of these CSR practices. Yet, research has been relatively sparse on how the alcohol industry advances CSR in an attempt to facilitate underlying business interests, and in what ways the ongoing display of industry CSR impacts public health. This paper aims to investigate the alcohol industry’s recent CSR engagements and explain how CSR forms part of the industry’s wider political and corporate strategies.
Methods
Our study used qualitative methods to collect and analyse data. We searched for materials pertaining to CSR activities from websites of three transnational alcohol corporations, social media platforms, media reports and other sources. Relevant documents were thematically analysed with an iterative approach.
Results
Our analysis identified three CSR tactics employed by the alcohol companies which are closely tied in with the industry’s underlying corporate intents. First, the alcohol manufacturers employ CSR as a means to frame issues, define problems and guide policy debates. In doing this, the alcohol companies are able to deflect and shift the blame from those who manufacture and promote alcoholic products to those who consume them. Second, the alcohol corporations promote CSR initiatives on voluntary regulation in order to delay and offset alcohol control legislation. Third, the alcohol corporations undertake philanthropic sponsorships as a means of indirect brand marketing as well as gaining preferential access to emerging alcohol markets.
Conclusions
The increasing penetration and involvement of the alcohol industry into CSR highlights the urgent needs for public health counter actions. Implementation of any alcohol control measures should include banning or restricting the publicity efforts of the industry’s CSR and informing the public of the alcohol industry’s notion of social responsibility. More significantly, an internationally binding instrument should be called for to enable countries to differentiate between genuine concerns and spurious altruism, and in doing so, resist the industry’s attempt to erode alcohol control.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-630
PMCID: PMC3706248  PMID: 23822724
Alcohol industry; Corporate social responsibility; Politics; Alcohol policies; Framework convention
25.  The Relationship Among Evidence-Based Practice and Client Dyspnea, Pain, Falls, and Pressure Ulcer Outcomes in the Community Setting 
Background
There are gaps in knowledge about the extent to which home care nurses’ practice is based on best evidence and whether evidence-based practice impacts patient outcomes.
Aim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between evidence-based practice and client pain, dyspnea, falls, and pressure ulcer outcomes in the home care setting. Evidence-based practice was defined as nursing interventions based on best practice guidelines.
Methods
The Nursing Role Effectiveness model was used to guide the selection of variables for investigation. Data were collected from administrative records on percent of visits made by Registered Nurses (RN), total number of nursing visits, and consistency of visits by principal nurse. Charts audits were used to collect data on nursing interventions and client outcomes. The sample consisted of 338 nurses from 13 home care offices and 939 de-identified client charts. Hierarchical generalized linear regression approaches were constructed to explore which variables explain variation in client outcomes.
Results
The study found documentation of nursing interventions based on best practice guidelines was positively associated with improvement in dyspnea, pain, falls, and pressure ulcer outcomes. Percent of visits made by an RN and consistency of visits by a principal nurse were not found to be associated with improved client outcomes, but the total number of nursing visits was.
Linking Evidence to Action
Implementation of best practice is associated with improved client outcomes in the home care setting. Future research needs to explore ways to more effectively foster the documentation of evidence-based practice interventions.
doi:10.1111/wvn.12051
PMCID: PMC4240472  PMID: 25099877

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