Epidemiological evidence has implicated Chinese salted fish as a human nasopharyngeal carcinogen. In the present study, 221 Wistar-Kyoto rats aged 21 days were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. Rats in group 1 (high dose group) were fed a powder diet of one part Chinese salted fish to three parts certified rat chow during the first 18 months. Similarly, rats in group 2 (low dose group) were fed a powder diet of one part salted fish to five parts rat chow for 18 months. Rats in group 3 were given rat chow only throughout the 3-year experiment. Four malignant tumours of the nasal cavity were observed among rats fed the experimental diets (three and one respectively in the high and low dose groups). No comparable tumours were observed in controls, compatible with the historical control rate of zero. Our results, therefore, further strengthen the hypothesis that Chinese salted fish is a human nasopharyngeal carcinogen; they also establish Wistar rats as a viable animal model for carcinogenicity studies of this food in the laboratory.
In dialog settings, conversational partners converge on similar names for referents. These lexically entrained terms (Garrod & Anderson, 1987) are part of the common ground between the particular individuals who established the entrained term (Brennan & Clark, 1996), and are thought to be encoded in memory with a partner-specific cue. Thus far, analyses of the time-course of interpretation suggest that partner-specific information may not constrain the initial interpretation of referring expressions (Kronmüller & Barr, 2007; Barr & Keysar, 2002). However, these studies used non-interactive paradigms, which may limit the use of partner-specific representations. This article presents the results of three eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1a used an interactive conversation methodology in which the experimenter and participant jointly established entrained terms for various images. On critical trials, the same experimenter, or a new experimenter described a critical image using an entrained term, or a new term. The results demonstrated an early, on-line partner-specific effect for interpretation of entrained terms, as well as preliminary evidence for an early, partner-specific effect for new terms. Experiment 1b used a non-interactive paradigm in which participants completed the same task by listening to image descriptions recorded during Experiment 1a; the results showed that partner-specific effects were eliminated. Experiment 2 replicated the partner-specific findings of Experiment 1a with an interactive paradigm and scenes that contained previously unmentioned images. The results suggest that partner-specific interpretation is most likely to occur in interactive dialog settings; the number of critical trials and stimulus characteristics may also play a role. The results are consistent with a large body of work demonstrating that the language processing system uses a rich source of contextual and pragmatic representations to guide on-line processing decisions.
conceptual pact; entrainment; precedent; perspective; reference; common ground; conversation; eye-tracking
Quantifying the behavior of cells individually, and in clusters as part of a population, under a range of experimental conditions, is a challenging computational task with many biological applications. We propose a versatile algorithm for segmentation and tracking of multiple motile epithelial cells during wound healing using time-lapse video. The segmentation part of the proposed method relies on a level set-based active contour algorithm that robustly handles a large number of cells. The tracking part relies on a detection-based multiple-object tracking method with delayed decision enabled by multi-hypothesis testing. The combined method is robust to complex cell behavior including division and apoptosis, and to imaging artifacts such as illumination changes.
Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter “accidentally” dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system.
In this paper, we present a novel method for the classification of mammograms using a unique weighted association rule based classifier. Images are preprocessed to reveal regions of interest. Texture components are extracted from segmented parts of the image and discretized for rule discovery. Association rules are derived between various texture components extracted from segments of images, and employed for classification based on their intra- and inter-class dependencies. These rules are then employed for the classification of a commonly used mammography dataset, and rigorous experimentation is performed to evaluate the rules’ efficacy under different classification scenarios. The experimental results show that this method works well for such datasets, incurring accuracies as high as 89%, which surpasses the accuracy rates of other rule based classification techniques.
Image classification; association rule; mammograms
The performance of 2D digital imaging systems depends on several factors related with both optical and electronic processing. These concepts have originated standards, which have been conceived for photographic equipment and bi-dimensional scanning systems, and which have been aimed at estimating different parameters such as resolution, noise or dynamic range. Conversely, no standard test protocols currently exist for evaluating the corresponding performances of 3D imaging systems such as laser scanners or pattern projection range cameras. This paper is focused on investigating experimental processes for evaluating some critical parameters of 3D equipment, by extending the concepts defined by the ISO standards to the 3D domain. The experimental part of this work concerns the characterization of different range sensors through the extraction of their resolution, accuracy and uncertainty from sets of 3D data acquisitions of specifically designed test objects whose geometrical characteristics are known in advance. The major objective of this contribution is to suggest an easy characterization process for generating a reliable comparison between the performances of different range sensors and to check if a specific piece of equipment is compliant with the expected characteristics.
metrological characterization; 3D measurement; laser scanner; pattern projection; resolution; uncertainty; accuracy
Cineangiographic studies in patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD) have occasionally demonstrated that part of the blood across the defect is ejected immediately into the pulmonary artery (PA) passing through the outflow tract of the right ventricle (RV), but without being trapped in it. We attempted to make a quantitative evaluation of the flow of a partial shunt pathway (a direct VSD-PA pathway) that drains that part of the blood from the defect. Our method depended on a thermal dilution technique to obtain the ejection fraction of the RV and to observe a simultaneous pair of dilution curves at the roots of the aorta and PA after introduction of tracer into the left atrium. An analytical process was specially designed by incorporating a stable one-pass deconvolution technique. The method was applied to eight anesthetized dogs with acutely produced experimental VSD on the entrance of the outflow tract of the RV. The flow through the direct VSD-PA pathway was, in most cases, greater than 50 and up to 85% (mean of the eight, 57 +/- 5% SE) of the total left-to-right shunt flow. This would imply that less than 50%, and down to as little as 15%, of the total amount of shunt flow contributed to extra work of the RV in these cases. In addition, the impact on the pulmonary vasculature due to such a large amount of pulsatile flow through the direct VSD-PA pathway may accelerate the development of hypertrophy of the pulmonary vessel wall.
Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.
cultural psychology; visual language; comics; attention; manga
A Noh mask worn by expert actors when performing on a Japanese traditional Noh drama is suggested to convey countless different facial expressions according to different angles of head/body orientation. The present study addressed the question of how different facial parts of a Noh mask, including the eyebrows, the eyes, and the mouth, may contribute to different emotional expressions. Both experimental situations of active creation and passive recognition of emotional facial expressions were introduced.
In Experiment 1, participants either created happy or sad facial expressions, or imitated a face that looked up or down, by actively changing each facial part of a Noh mask image presented on a computer screen. For an upward tilted mask, the eyebrows and the mouth shared common features with sad expressions, whereas the eyes with happy expressions. This contingency tended to be reversed for a downward tilted mask. Experiment 2 further examined which facial parts of a Noh mask are crucial in determining emotional expressions. Participants were exposed to the synthesized Noh mask images with different facial parts expressing different emotions. Results clearly revealed that participants primarily used the shape of the mouth in judging emotions. The facial images having the mouth of an upward/downward tilted Noh mask strongly tended to be evaluated as sad/happy, respectively.
The results suggest that Noh masks express chimeric emotional patterns, with different facial parts conveying different emotions This appears consistent with the principles of Noh which highly appreciate subtle and composite emotional expressions, as well as with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western art. It was further demonstrated that the mouth serves as a diagnostic feature in characterizing the emotional expressions. This indicates the superiority of biologically-driven factors over the traditionally formulated performing styles when evaluating the emotions of the Noh masks.
We have set up an experimental system to map the primary transcription unit of the human alpha 2 globin gene. The duplicated human alpha globin genes (alpha 2-alpha 1) were linked to the alpha globin locus Positive Regulatory Element (PRE) and stably transfected into murine erythroleukaemia cells. We then developed a quantitative reverse transcriptase, polymerase chain reaction assay to map alpha 2 primary transcripts using primer pairs derived from different parts of the alpha 2 globin gene and its 3' flanking region. This approach has revealed the presence of steady state nuclear RNA past the poly(A) site of the alpha 2 globin gene at approximately 40% of the level of unspliced intron transcript. Furthermore, these 3' flanking transcripts diminish 500 bp into the 3' flanking region, identifying this part of the alpha 2 globin gene as the principal region of termination of transcription.
An attempt has been made to obtain information about the condition of the pulp of teeth, immediately below the bony incision, made in the lateral antral wall in radical antrotomy, and to investigate the conditions obtaining in the vascular supply of that neighbourhood.
The investigation has two parts: (1) Experimental; (2) Clinical.
Experimental.—(a) Injections of specimens of the superior maxillæ were made with lipiodol, then X-rayed. These showed vascular anastomoses along the antral floor.
(b) Sections of the lateral antral wall and floor were cut and stained to show nerves and blood spaces.
(c) The external carotid artery was injected with Prussian Blue and the maxilla then removed.
(d) Transverse sections of the teeth denervated were cut and their pulps examined. Clinical.—The patients who had been submitted to operation were taken, and their teeth examined by:—
(a) Transillumination. (b) Percussion. (c) Thermal tests. (d) Faradic currents. (e) Radiography. From these investigations it appears that the teeth are denervated but not devitalized by the trauma to the lateral antral wall above their apices. Their blood-supply is still present, and probably comes through a collateral anastomosis, along the antral floor and partly through the antral mucosa.
Recent randomised clinical trials have not confirmed the beneficial effects of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) infusion observed in experimental models of myocardial ischaemia and infarction.
We investigated glucose levels and insulin dose in 107 patients treated with reperfusion therapy and GIK for acute myocardial infarction.
Despite high insulin infusion rates, persistent hyperglycaemia occurred in 37% of the patients. These patients had significantly larger infarctions, as measured by enzyme release (p=0.006). In a multivariate model predicting high troponin levels, refractory hyperglycaemia remained a significant parameter (p=0.02).
These findings suggest that refractory hyperglycaemia caused by high-dose glucose infusion may, at least in part, explain the discrepancy between the experimental and clinical data.
myocardial infarction; glucose; hyperglycaemia; insulin
As a part of an ongoing effort to study the continuum mechanics effects associated with cryopreservation, the current report focuses on fracture formation in vitrified thin films of cryoprotectant agents. The current study combines experimental observations with continuum mechanics analysis. Experimental results have been developed using a new imaging device, termed a “cryomacroscope”, which has been recently presented by the current research team. A newly developed liquid nitrogen-based cooling stage is presented in this paper. The samples under investigation are 0.5 ml droplets of cryoprotective agents, having a characteristic diameter of 20 mm and a characteristic thickness of 1.5 mm. Tested samples included dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in a concentration range from 6M to 8.4M, and the cryoprotectant cocktails VS55 and DP6. Some samples contained small bovine muscle segments, having a characteristic dimension of 1 mm, in order to study stress concentration effects. Experimental results show that the onset of fracturing in vitrified films of cryoprotectants is very consistent, occurring over a small temperature range. Fracture pattern, however, was affected by the cooling rate. The presence of tissue segments did not affect the onset temperature of fracture, but affected the fracture pattern. The continuum mechanics analysis solidified the hypothesis that fracture is driven by thermal stress, not by temperature per se, and allowed fracture strain to be inferred from observed fracture temperature. In conjunction with the current report, additional photos of fracture formation in thin films are available at http://www.me.cmu.edu/faculty1/rabin/CryomacroscopyImages02.html.
Cryomacroscopy; vitrification; continuum mechanics; fracture; DMSO; VS55; DP6
The Human Proteome Organisation’s Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO-PSI) has developed the GelML data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for mass spectrometry data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications.
data standard; gel electrophoresis; database; ontology
The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, part of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, includes a laboratory devoted to High Content Analysis (HCA) of neurons. The goal of the laboratory is to uncover signalling pathways, genes, compounds, or drugs that can be used to promote nerve growth. HCA permits the quantification of neuronal morphology, including the lengths and numbers of axons. HCA screening of various libraries on primary neurons requires a team-based approach, a variety of process steps and complex manipulations of cells and libraries to obtain meaningful results. HCA itself produces vast amounts of information including images, well-based data and cell-based phenotypic measures. Managing experimental workflow and library data, along with the extensive amount of experimental results is challenging.
For academic laboratories generating large data sets from experiments using thousands of perturbagens, a laboratory information management system (LIMS) is the data tracking solution of choice. With both productivity and efficiency as driving rationales, the Miami Project has equipped its HCA laboratory with a Software As A Service (SAAS) LIMS to ensure the quality of its experiments and workflows. The article discusses this application in detail, and how the system was selected and integrated into the laboratory. The advantages of SaaS are described.
Good laboratory practice; High Content Analysis; Laboratory Information Management System; On demand; Software as a Service; Spinal cord injury
Chicken, rat and human U1A RNAs in solution, were examined for secondary structure, using several methods including hydrolysis by various nucleases, hybridization to DNA oligomers and analysis of fragment interactions. The experimental results showed that the three U1A RNAs have the same structure, stable over a wide range of pH and ionic conditions. They allowed the selection of one out of several possible models constructed from the data of primary structure. This model is characterized by 4 hairpins and two single-stranded regions, the two hairpins from the 3' part of the molecule bearing very stable stems. In addition, the experimental results showed that in contrast to the 5' half of the molecule, the 3' half has a compact conformation probably stabilized by tertiary interactions. The 5' end of U1A RNA is accessible and free of base-pairing so that it might base-pair with regions of other RNA molecules, for instance, with the extremities of introns as has been recently proposed in a model of splicing.
Sequence variants of the double-stranded form of satellite RNAs of cucumber mosaic virus (dsCARNA 5) were analyzed for the possibility to experimentally detect minor nucleotide sequence changes. Denaturation maps (helix-probability versus position of the nucleotide in the sequence versus temperature) were calculated applying the Poland algorithm. Optical denaturation curves and temperature-gradient gel mobility curves were simulated using the denaturation maps and were compared with experimental results from optical melting and temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (Tien Po et al., accompanying paper). Melting of the dsRNAs starts from both ends of the molecule in two transitions of low co-operativity, continues in the right part in a highly co-operative transition, and is finished in another highly co-operative transition including strand-separation. Whereas all parts of the molecule contribute uniformly to the optical melting curve, opening of the ends predominates in the retardation transition in gel electrophoresis. Detailed discussion of the influence of base pair changes in the sequence shows that a single base pair change may be detected by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis, if it is located in certain favorable locations, whereas its detection in optical melting curves is possible only in very special cases. The systematic differences found in the accompanying paper between necrogenic and non-necrogenic dsCARNA 5 could be interpreted on the basis of such nucleotide sequence differences.
A program is described which calculates the thermal stability and the denaturation behaviour of double-stranded DNAs and RNAs up to a length of 1000 base pairs. The algorithm is based on recursive generation of conditional and a priori probabilities for base stacking. Output of the program may be compared directly to experimental results; thus the program may be used to optimize the nucleic acid fragments, the primers and the experimental conditions prior to experiments like polymerase chain reactions, temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis, denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and hybridizations. The program is available in three versions; the first version runs interactively on VAXstations producing graphics output directly, the second is implemented as part of the HUSAR package at GENIUSnet, the third runs on any computer producing text output which serves as input to available graphics programs.
Brosbe, Edwin A. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Long Beach, Calif.), Jewell N. Kietzman, and Nathaniel B. Kurnick. Complement-fixation titers in experimental coccidioidomycosis. J. Bacteriol. 88:233–241. 1964.—The course of experimental coccicioidomycosis in rabbits was followed with complement-fixation (CF) tests. Uniformity of complement-fixing antibody response to large infective doses was observed, and levels as high as 1:4,096 in the New Zealand albino and 1:16,384 in the Dutch rabbit were attained. Mortality reflected the size of the inoculum rather than the level of CF titer. Animals receiving additional challenges displayed no marked elevation in titer, although high titers persisted. Nitrogen mustard, for the most part, did not influence the CF titer.
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method to delineate lung field boundaries in dual-energy chest x-ray images. The segmenting method uses soft-tissue images and spatial frequency–dependent, background-subtracted images. Large-scale chest anatomy features are located and used to select the lung apices, the lateral lung boundaries, and the lung–mediastinum and lung–diaphragm boundaries. Extraneous parts of the contours are removed and they are joined to form complete lung boundaries. The reliability measure uses a statistical shape model to estimate the probability of occurrence of a contour. The method was experimentally tested with 30 human subject images. It has higher accuracy and specificity and a sensitivity parameter equal to the best previously reported method. The reliability measure is able to detect contours with unusual lung outlines or errors in the processing. The method exploits the characteristics of dual-energy subtraction images to improve lung field segmenting performance.
Lung; segmenting; dual-energy subtraction; chest; x-ray
This paper proposes a novel method for computing linear basis images from tensor-valued image data. As a generalization of the nonnegative matrix factorization, the proposed method aims to approximate a collection of diffusion tensor images using nonnegative linear combinations of basis tensor images. An efficient iterative optimization algorithm is proposed to solve this factorization problem. We present two applications: the DTI segmentation problem and a novel approach to discover informative and common parts in a collection of diffusion tensor images. The proposed method has been validated using both synthetic and real data, and experimental results have shown that it offers a competitive alternative to current state-of-the-arts in terms of accuracy and efficiency.
We overview an approach to providing automated three-dimensional (3D) sensing and recognition of biological micro/nanoorganisms integrating Gabor digital holographic microscopy and statistical sampling methods. For 3D data acquisition of biological specimens, a coherent beam propagates through the specimen and its transversely and longitudinally magnified diffraction pattern observed by the microscope objective is optically recorded with an image sensor array interfaced with a computer. 3D visualization of the biological specimen from the magnified diffraction pattern is accomplished by using the computational Fresnel propagation algorithm. For 3D recognition of the biological specimen, a watershed image segmentation algorithm is applied to automatically remove the unnecessary background parts in the reconstructed holographic image. Statistical estimation and inference algorithms are developed to the automatically segmented holographic image. Overviews of preliminary experimental results illustrate how the holographic image reconstructed from the Gabor digital hologram of biological specimen contains important information for microbial recognition.
digital holography; 3D microscopy; cell analysis; statistical pattern recognition; medical imaging; bio-sensing
We propose and evaluate an automatic segmentation method for extracting striatal brain structures (caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum) from parametric 11C-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) brain images. We focus on the images acquired using a novel brain dedicated high-resolution (HRRT) PET scanner. The segmentation method first extracts the striatum using a deformable surface model and then divides the striatum into its substructures based on a graph partitioning algorithm. The weighted kernel k-means algorithm is used to partition the graph describing the voxel affinities within the striatum into the desired number of clusters. The method was experimentally validated with synthetic and real image data. The experiments showed that our method was able to automatically extract caudate, ventral striatum, and putamen from the images. Moreover, the putamen could be subdivided into anterior and posterior parts. An automatic method for the extraction of striatal structures from high-resolution PET images allows for inexpensive and reproducible extraction of the quantitative information from these images necessary in brain research and drug development.
Most recently, a novel data acquisition method has been proposed and experimentally implemented for x-ray differential phase contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT), in which a conventional x-ray tube and a Talbot-Lau type interferometer were utilized in data acquisition. The divergent nature of the data acquisition system requires a divergent-beam image reconstruction algorithm for DPC-CT. This paper focuses on addressing this image reconstruction issue. We developed a filtered backprojection algorithm to directly reconstruct the DPC-CT images from acquired projection data. The developed algorithm allows one to directly reconstruct the decrement of the real part of the refractive index from the measured data. In order to accurately reconstruct an image, the data need to be acquired over an angular range of at least 180° plus the fan-angle. Different from the parallel beam data acquisition and reconstruction methods, a 180° rotation angle for data acquisition system does not provide sufficient data for an accurate reconstruction of the entire filed of view. Numerical simulations have been conducted to validate the image reconstruction algorithm.
differential phase contrast CT; filtered backprojection
Aiming to improve the anatomical resolution of electrical impedance tomography images, we developed a fuzzy model based on electrical impedance tomography’s high temporal resolution and on the functional pulmonary signals of perfusion and ventilation.
Electrical impedance tomography images carry information about both ventilation and perfusion. However, these images are difficult to interpret because of insufficient anatomical resolution, such that it becomes almost impossible to distinguish the heart from the lungs.
Electrical impedance tomography data from an experimental animal model were collected during normal ventilation and apnea while an injection of hypertonic saline was administered. The fuzzy model was elaborated in three parts: a modeling of the heart, the pulmonary ventilation map and the pulmonary perfusion map. Image segmentation was performed using a threshold method, and a ventilation/perfusion map was generated.
Electrical impedance tomography images treated by the fuzzy model were compared with the hypertonic saline injection method and computed tomography scan images, presenting good results. The average accuracy index was 0.80 when comparing the fuzzy modeled lung maps and the computed tomography scan lung mask. The average ROC curve area comparing a saline injection image and a fuzzy modeled pulmonary perfusion image was 0.77.
The innovative aspects of our work are the use of temporal information for the delineation of the heart structure and the use of two pulmonary functions for lung structure delineation. However, robustness of the method should be tested for the imaging of abnormal lung conditions.
These results showed the adequacy of the fuzzy approach in treating the anatomical resolution uncertainties in electrical impedance tomography images.
EIT; Ventilation; Perfusion; Hypertonic saline; Segmentation; Fuzzy logic