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1.  Cultural Intelligence and Social Adaptability: A Comparison between Iranian and Non-Iranian Dormitory Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences 
Materia Socio-Medica  2013;25(1):40-43.
At the modern age, to acquire knowledge and experience, the individuals with their own specific culture have to enter contexts with cultural diversity, adapt to different cultures and have social interactions to be able to have effective inter-cultural relationships.To have such intercultural associations and satisfy individual needs in the society, cultural intelligence and social adaptability are deemed as inevitable requirements, in particular for those who enter a quite different culture. Hence, the present study tries to compare the cultural intelligence and its aspects and social adaptability in Iranian and non-Iranian dormitory students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012.
The study was of descriptiveanalytical nature. The research population consisted of Iranian and non-Iranian students resided in the dormitories of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences which are 2500, totally. For Iranian students, two-stage sampling method was adopted. At the first stage, classified sampling and at the second stage, systematic random sampling was conducted. In this way, 441 students were selected. To form non-Iranian students’ sample, consensus sampling method was applied and a sample of 37 students were obtained. The research data was collected by using Earley & Ang’s Cultural Intelligence Questionnaire with the Cronbach’s coefficient α of 76% and California Social Adaptability Standard Questionnaire with the Cronbach’s coefficient α of over 70%. Then, the data were put into SPSS software to be analyzed. Finally, the results were presented by descriptive and inferential statistics methods.
The study findings revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between cultural intelligence and cognitive aspect of cultural intelligence in Iranian and non-Iranian students (P≥0/05). However, Iranian and non-Iranian students statistically differed in terms of the following aspects of cultural intelligence: meta-cognitive aspect (61.8% for Iranian students vs. 47.6% for non-Iranians), motivational aspect (59.0% vs. 42.6%), behavioral aspect (31.8% vs. 41.2%) as well as social adaptability as the other variable in question ( 68.9% vs. 56.2%) (p<0.001).
The comparison of the mean scores gained for meta-cognitive and motivational aspects of cultural intelligence as well as social adaptability in Iranian and non-Iranian students resided in the dormitories of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences revealed that the Iranian students had the higher rank. On the other hand, the mean score acquired for the behavioral aspect in Iranian and non-Iranian students were comparable, with non-Iranian students having the higher mean scores. Therefore, it can be said that the meta-cognitive and motivational aspects of cultural intelligence and social adaptability of non-Iranian students and the behavioral aspect of Iranian students’ cultural intelligence may be promoted by educational planning, thereby, taking effective steps towards their achievement in contexts with inter-cultural interaction . In this way, their mental health will be enhanced, as well.
PMCID: PMC3633545  PMID: 23678339
culture; intelligence; cultural intelligence; social adaptability.
2.  Advanced Paternal Age Is Associated with Impaired Neurocognitive Outcomes during Infancy and Childhood 
PLoS Medicine  2009;6(3):e1000040.
Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood.
Methods and Findings
A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437) was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test). The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures.
The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.
Using a sample of children from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project, John McGrath and colleagues show that the offspring of older fathers exhibit subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood.
Editors' Summary
Over the last few decades, changes in society in the developed world have made it increasingly common for couples to wait until their late thirties to have children. In 1993, 25% of live births within marriage in England and Wales were to fathers aged 35–54 years, but by 2003 it was 40%. It is well known that women's fertility declines with age and that older mothers are more likely to have children with disabilities such as Down's syndrome. In contrast, many men can father children throughout their lives, and little attention has been paid to the effects of older fatherhood.
More recent evidence shows that a man's age does affect both fertility and the child's health. “Advanced paternal age” has been linked to miscarriages, birth deformities, cancer, and specific behavioral problems such as autism or schizophrenia.
Rates of autism have increased in recent decades, but the cause is unknown. Studies of twins and families have suggested there may be a complex genetic basis, and it is suspected that damage to sperm, which can accumulate over a man's lifetime, may be responsible. A woman's eggs are formed largely while she is herself in the womb, but sperm-making cells divide throughout a man's lifetime, increasing the chance of mutations in sperm.
Why Was This Study Done?
There is good evidence linking specific disorders with older fathers, but the link between a father's age and a child's more general intelligence is not as clear. A recent study suggested a link between reduced intelligence and both very young and older fathers. The authors wanted to use this large dataset to test the idea that older fathers have children who do worse on tests of intelligence. They also wanted to re-examine others' findings using this same dataset that older mothers have more intelligent children.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers gathered no new data but reanalyzed data on children from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), which had used a variety of tests given to children at ages 8 months, 4 years, and 7 years, to measure cognitive ability—the ability to think and reason, including concentration, memory, learning, understanding, speaking, and reading. Some tests included assessments of “motor skills”—physical co-ordination.
The CPP dataset holds information on children of 55,908 expectant mothers who attended 12 university-affiliated hospital clinics in the United States from 1959 to 1965. The researchers excluded premature babies and multiple births and chose one pregnancy at random for each eligible woman, to keep their analysis simpler. This approach reduced the number of children in their analysis to 33,437.
The researchers analyzed the data using two models. In one, they took into account physical factors such as the parents' ages. In the other, they also took into account social factors such as the parents' level of education and income, which are linked to intelligence. In addition, the authors grouped the children by their mother's age and, within each group, looked for a link between the lowest-scoring children and the age of their father.
The researchers found that children with older fathers had lower scores on all of the measures except one measure of motor skills. In contrast, children with older mothers had higher scores. They found that the older the father, the more likely was this result found.
What Do These Findings Mean?
This study is the first to show that children of older fathers perform less well in a range of tests when young, but cannot say whether those children catch up with their peers after the age of 7 years. Results may also be biased because information was more likely to be missing for children whose father's age was not recorded.
Previous researchers had proposed that children of older mothers may perform better in tests because they experience a more nurturing home environment. If this is the case, children of older fathers do not experience the same benefit.
However, further work needs to be done to confirm these findings. Especially in newer datasets, current trends to delay parenthood mean these findings have implications for individuals, couples, and policymakers. Individuals and couples need to be aware that the ages of both partners can affect their ability to have healthy children, though the risks for individual children are small. Policymakers should consider promoting awareness of the risks of delaying parenthood or introducing policies to encourage childbearing at an optimal age.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
Mothers 35+ is a UK Web site with resources and information for older mothers, mothers-to-be, and would-be mothers, including information on the health implications of fathering a child late in life
The American Society for Reproductive Medicine published a Patient Information Booklet on Age and Fertility in 2003, which is available online; it contains a small section called “Fertility in the Aging Male,” but otherwise focuses on women
The online encyclopedia Wikipedia has a short article on the “Paternal age effect” (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
In 2005, the UK Office of National Statistics published a booklet entitled “Perpetual postponers? Women's, men's and couple's fertility intentions and subsequent fertility behaviour” looking at data from the British Household Panel Survey
PMCID: PMC2653549  PMID: 19278291
3.  Predicting and retrodicting intelligence between childhood and old age in the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 
Intelligence  2015;50:1-9.
In studies of cognitive ageing it is useful and important to know how stable are the individual differences in cognitive ability from childhood to older age, and also to be able to estimate (retrodict) prior cognitive ability differences from those in older age. Here we contribute to these aims with new data from a follow-up study of the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (original N = 1208). The sample had cognitive, educational, social, and occupational data collected almost annually from age 11 to 27 years. Whereas previous long-term follow-up studies of the Scottish mental surveys are based upon group-administered cognitive tests at a mean age of 11 years, the present sample each had an individually-administered revised Binet test. We traced them for vital status in older age, and some agreed to take several mental tests at age 77 years (N = 131). The National Adult Reading Test at age 77 correlated .72 with the Terman–Merrill revision of the Binet Test at age 11. Adding the Moray House Test No. 12 score from age 11 and educational information took the multiple R to .81 between youth and older age. The equivalent multiple R for fluid general intelligence was .57. When the NART from age 77 was the independent variable (retrodictor) along with educational attainment, the multiple R with the Terman–Merrill IQ at age 11 was .75. No previous studies of the stability of intelligence from childhood to old age, or of the power of the NART to retrodict prior intelligence, have had individually-administered IQ data from youth. About two-thirds, at least, of the variation in verbal ability in old age can be captured by cognitive and educational information from youth. Non-verbal ability is less well predicted. A short test of pronunciation—the NART—and brief educational information can capture well over half of the variation in IQ scores obtained 66 years earlier.
•Results are presented on a new follow-up sample of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947.•Terman–Merrill Stanford–Binet intelligence test scores at age 11 years correlated .72 with verbal intelligence at age 77.•Adding another test from age 11 and educational took the multiple R to .81.•We also attempted to estimate prior ability from verbal ability scores in older age.•National Adult Reading Test scores at age 77 and educational had a multiple R of .75 with IQ scores at age 11.
PMCID: PMC4503817  PMID: 26207078
Intelligence; Ageing; IQ; Scottish Mental Survey; Longitudinal
4.  Intelligibility of 4 year old children with and without cerebral palsy 
We examined speech intelligibility in typically developing (TD) children and three groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were classified into speech / language profile groups following Hustad et al. (2010). Questions addressed differences in transcription intelligibility scores among groups, the effects of utterance length on intelligibility, the relationship between ordinal ratings of intelligibility and orthographic transcription intelligibility scores, and the difference between parent and naïve listener ordinal ratings.
Speech samples varying in length from 1–7 words were elicited from 23 children with CP (mean age 54.3 months) and 20 typically developing children (mean age 55.1 months). 215 naïve listeners made orthographic transcriptions and ordinal ratings of intelligibility. Parent ordinal ratings of intelligibility were obtained from a previous study (Hustad et al., 2010).
Intelligibility varied with speech / language profile group and utterance length, with different patterns observed by profile group. Ratings of intelligibility by parents and naïve listeners did not differ and were both highly correlated with transcription intelligibility scores.
Intelligibility was reduced for all groups of children with CP relative to TD children, suggesting the importance of speech-language intervention and the need for research investigating variables associated with changes in intelligibility in children.
PMCID: PMC3349823  PMID: 22232403
cerebral palsy; dysarthria; speech development; speech intelligibility; typical speech
5.  Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Critical and Emergency Nurses in South East of Iran 
Several factors including emotional intelligence affect the efficiency of people. It seems that organizational behavior of each person is strongly influenced by emotional intelligence. Therefore, the present study is aimed to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior in critical and emergency nurses in teaching hospitals supervised by Kerman Medical University in Southeast of Iran.
This study employed a descriptive cross sectional design. A census sample consisted of 150 critical and emergency nurses working in teaching hospitals supervised by Kerman Medical University participated in this study. Emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire was used to assess nurses' emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior by available sampling method.
The results showed that the mean age of the participants was 35 years. Most participants (94%) were females and belonged to the age group of 26–30 years. Overall mean score of organizational citizenship behavior scale was 88.21 (±10.4). In the organizational citizenship behavior categories, altruism mean score was higher than the other mean scores. Overall mean score of emotional intelligence was (121.08 ± 17.56). In the subgroups of emotional intelligence, mean score of the relationship management, was higher than the average of other factors. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior (p ≥ 0.05).
The study suggests that health care managers should organize systematic and dynamic policies and procedures in dealing with emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior to assist critical and emergency nurses.
PMCID: PMC4337087  PMID: 25733788
Emotional intelligence; Oorganizational citizenship behavior; nurse; critical ward; emergency ward
6.  The relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction: A comparative study 
Marriage is known as the most important incident in everyone's life after birth. The most important purpose of marriage is achieving a life followed with love and affection beside the spouse and providing mental comfort and general health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction among married people.
Materials and Methods:
The research method is descriptive- analytic and its design is comparative, done on 226 people including 114 persons (50 women and 64 men) having marital conflicts, and 112 people (58 women and 54 men) having marital satisfaction, by cluster random sampling from 13 districts of the city of Isfahan. Bar-on (with 90 questions) and Enrich marital satisfaction (115 questions) questionnaires were used for collecting the required information. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including independent t-tests, Pearson correlation, and linear regression analysis, using SPSS software version 19.
The results from the research showed that the scores of emotional intelligence in married people group having marriage conflicts who had referred to the administration of justice was 57.3 ± 13.2, and the random sample from the married people in the city of Isfahan as the comparing group had the score of 67.2 ± 9.5, and the difference of the average scores for the emotional intelligence for the two groups was significant (P < 0.001). The correlation analysis showed that there was a significant and positive relation between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction (P < 0.001, r = 0.529). The results of linear regression also showed that the general emotional intelligence predicts the quality of marital satisfaction. The emotion of the predicting line of the marital satisfaction score (y) is in the form of: y = 14.8 + 0.656x, by using the emotional intelligence score (x).
Regarding the close relations between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction, education centers such as universities, organizations and family clinics could use this variable in micro- and macro-social plans for improving the quality of the married people relations and promoting health of the families and the society.
PMCID: PMC3977397  PMID: 24741664
Emotional intelligence; general health; marital satisfaction; married people
7.  Computer-Mediated Assessment of Intelligibility in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech 
Aphasiology  2011;25(12):1600-1620.
Previous work indicates that single word intelligibility tests developed for dysarthria are sensitive to segmental production errors in aphasic individuals with and without apraxia of speech. However, potential listener learning effects and difficulties adapting elicitation procedures to coexisting language impairments limit their applicability to left hemisphere stroke survivors.
The main purpose of this study was to examine basic psychometric properties for a new monosyllabic intelligibility test developed for individuals with aphasia and/or AOS. A related purpose was to examine clinical feasibility and potential to standardize a computer-mediated administration approach.
Methods & Procedures
A 600-item monosyllabic single word intelligibility test was constructed by assembling sets of phonetically similar words. Custom software was used to select 50 target words from this test in a pseudo-random fashion and to elicit and record production of these words by 23 speakers with aphasia and 20 neurologically healthy participants. To evaluate test-retest reliability, two identical sets of 50-word lists were elicited by requesting repetition after a live speaker model. To examine the effect of a different word set and auditory model, an additional set of 50 different words was elicited with a pre-recorded model. The recorded words were presented to normal-hearing listeners for identification via orthographic and multiple-choice response formats. To examine construct validity, production accuracy for each speaker was estimated via phonetic transcription and rating of overall articulation.
Outcomes & Results
Recording and listening tasks were completed in less than six minutes for all speakers and listeners. Aphasic speakers were significantly less intelligible than neurologically healthy speakers and displayed a wide range of intelligibility scores. Test-retest and inter-listener reliability estimates were strong. No significant difference was found in scores based on recordings from a live model versus a pre-recorded model, but some individual speakers favored the live model. Intelligibility test scores correlated highly with segmental accuracy derived from broad phonetic transcription of the same speech sample and a motor speech evaluation. Scores correlated moderately with rated articulation difficulty.
We describe a computerized, single-word intelligibility test that yields clinically feasible, reliable, and valid measures of segmental speech production in adults with aphasia. This tool can be used in clinical research to facilitate appropriate participant selection and to establish matching across comparison groups. For a majority of speakers, elicitation procedures can be standardized by using a pre-recorded auditory model for repetition. This assessment tool has potential utility for both clinical assessment and outcomes research.
PMCID: PMC3246841  PMID: 22215933
speech intelligibility; articulation; aphasia; computer mediated testing
8.  Pervasiveness of the IQ Rise: A Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(12):e14406.
Generational IQ gains in the general population (termed the Flynn effect) show an erratic pattern across different nations as well as across different domains of intelligence (fluid vs crystallized). Gains of fluid intelligence in different countries have been subject to extensive research, but less attention was directed towards gains of crystallized intelligence, probably due to evidence from the Anglo-American sphere suggesting only slight gains on this measure. In the present study, development of crystallized intelligence in the German speaking general population is assessed.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To investigate whether IQ gains for crystallized intelligence are in progress in German-speaking countries, two independent meta-analyses were performed. By means of a cited reference search in ISI Web of Science, all studies citing test manuals and review articles of two widely-used salient measures of crystallized intelligence were obtained. Additionally, the electronic database for German academic theses was searched to identify unpublished studies employing these tests. All studies reporting participants mean IQ or raw scores of at least one of the two measures were included in the present analyses, yielding over 500 studies (>1,000 samples; >45,000 individuals). We found a significant positive association between years of test performance and intelligence (1971–2007) amounting to about 3.5 IQ points per decade.
This study clearly demonstrates that crystallized IQ gains are substantial and of comparable strength as Flynn effects typically observed for measures of fluid intelligence in Central Europe. Since mean IQ was assessed in a large number of small, non-representative samples, our evidence suggests a remarkable robustness of these gains. Moreover, in both meta-analyses strength of gains was virtually identical. On the whole, results of the present study demonstrate a pervasive and generalizing Flynn effect in German-speaking countries.
PMCID: PMC3008673  PMID: 21203545
9.  Auditory-Perceptual Speech Outcomes and Quality of Life after Total Laryngectomy 
i) To determine potential relationships between speech intelligibility, acceptability, and self-reported quality of life (QOL) after total laryngectomy; and ii) to determine whether relationships are stronger when QOL is measured by a head and neck cancer-specific or discipline-specific QOL scale.
University-based laboratory and speech clinic.
Twenty-five laryngectomized individuals completed disease-specific (University of Washington Quality of Life; UW-QOL) and discipline-specific (Voice Handicap Index-10; VHI-10) QOL scales. They also provided audio recordings that included the Sentence Intelligibility Test and a reading passage. Thirty-three listeners transcribed the SIT sentences to yield intelligibility scores. Fifteen additional listeners judged speech acceptability of the reading passage using rating scales.
QOL scores were moderate across the UW-QOL physical (mean = 77.63) and social-emotional (mean = 78.02) subscales, and VHI-10 (mean = 17.91). Speech acceptability and intelligibility varied across the samples, with acceptability only moderately related to intelligibility (r = 0.41, p < .05). Relationships were weak between ratings of intelligibility and self-reported QOL (range r = 0.00 – 0.22), and weak to moderate between acceptability with QOL (range r = 0.01 – 0.46). The only statistically significant, but moderate, relationship was found between speech acceptability with the UWQOL speech sub-score (r = 0.46, p < .05).
Listeners’ ratings of speech acceptability and intelligibility were not strongly predictive of disease-specific or voice-related QOL, suggesting that listener-rated and patient-reported outcomes are complementary.
PMCID: PMC4374351  PMID: 23008330
quality of life; total laryngectomy; speech outcomes; intelligibility
10.  Fluid Intelligence and Psychosocial Outcome: From Logical Problem Solving to Social Adaptation 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e24858.
While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized.
Methodology/Principal Findings
A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation).
Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher.
Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts.
PMCID: PMC3177863  PMID: 21957464
11.  Comparisons of intellectual capacities between mild and classic adult-onset phenotypes of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) 
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant genetic multisystem disorder and the commonest adult-onset form of muscular dystrophy. DM1 results from the expansion of an unstable trinucleotide cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeat mutation. CTG repeats in DM1 patients can range from 50 to several thousands, with a tendency toward increased repeats with successive generations (anticipation). Associated findings can include involvements in almost every systems, including the brain, and cognitive abnormalities occur in the large majority of patients. The objectives are to describe and compare the intellectual abilities of a large sample of DM1 patients with mild and classic adult-onset phenotypes, to estimate the validity of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) in DM1 patients with muscular weakness, and to appraise the relationship of intelligence quotient (IQ) to CTG repeat length, age at onset of symptoms, and disease duration.
A seven-subtest WAIS-R was administered to 37 mild and 151 classic adult-onset DM1 patients to measure their Full-Scale (FSIQ), Verbal (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ). To control for potential bias due to muscular weakness, Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), a motor-independent test of intelligence, were also completed.
Total mean FSIQ was 82.6 corresponding to low average IQ, and 82% were below an average intelligence. Mild DM1 patients had a higher mean FSIQ (U=88.7 vs 81.1, p<0.001), VIQ (U=87.8 vs 82.3, p=0.001), and PIQ (U=94.8 vs 83.6, p<0.001) than classic adult-onset DM1 patients. In both mild and classic adult-onset patients, all subtests mean scaled scores were below the normative sample mean. FSIQ also strongly correlate with SPM (rs=0.67, p<0.001), indicating that low intelligence scores are not a consequence of motor impairment. FSIQ scores decreased with both the increase of (CTG)n (rs=−0.41, p<0.001) and disease duration (rs=−0.26, p=0.003).
Results show that intellectual impairment is an extremely common and important feature in DM1, not only among the classic adult-onset patients but also among the least severe forms of DM1, with low IQ scores compared to general reference population. Health care providers involved in the follow-up of these patients should be aware of their intellectual capacities and should adapt their interventions accordingly.
PMCID: PMC4247010  PMID: 25424323
Myotonic dystrophy; Phenotype; Central nervous system; Neuropsychology; Intellectual disability; Dystrophie myotonique; Phénotype; Système nerveux central; Neuropsychologie; Déficience intellectuelle
12.  Cognitive impairments in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy 
Cognitive impairment associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has been recognized in multiple studies. We designed this study to find a specific cognitive profile in patients with TLE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery. We also sought to find if neuropsychological assessment could differentiate left TLE, right TLE and normal subjects.
The sample of this study consisted of 29 patients with right TLE, 31 with left TLE, and 32 subjects without history of seizure as the control group. For all recruited patients and controls, demographic questionnaire, Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-R (WAIS-R) were administered. Multivariate analysis of variance was carried out to reveal differences in memory and intelligence performance between the three groups.
All of the mean scores of the WMS-III indexes were significantly higher in the control group in comparison with the right or the left TLE groups (p < 0.001). There were not any significant differences between mean scores of WMS-III indexes of the right and the left. The WAIS-R also showed significantly better mean scores of full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) in the control groups than both of the right and left TLE patients (p < 0.001). Although the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) mean scores were significantly different between the left TLE and the control group (p = 0.037), there were not any significant differences between the right TLE patients and the control group.
These findings indicated that WMS-III and WAIS-R can differentiate patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy from normal subjects. However, the obtained cognitive profile could not differentiate between the right and the left TLE.
PMCID: PMC3430065  PMID: 22973349
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy; Cognitive Impairment; Memory; Wechsler Memory Scale
13.  The Effect of Life Skills Training on Emotional Intelligence of the Medical Sciences Students in Iran 
Emotional intelligence has a major role in mental health and life skills training, and could be viewed as a bridge relating to emotional intelligence and mental health.
The present study is aimed at determining the effect of life skills training on the emotional intelligence among the first year students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods:
In this experimental study, the subjects were selected by random sampling and allocated into two groups: Case group (n=20) and control group (n=19); they matched for gender, experience of stressful life events in the past six months, level of interest in the field of study, and level of emotional intelligence. The two groups responded to Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory before starting the experiment. Subsequently, the case group underwent life skills training. After the training, Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory was responded by the case and control groups again. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including Chi-square test, paired and independent t-tests, using SPSS software version 15.
Results and Conclusion:
In the case group, the scores of emotional intelligence after life skills training were significantly improved (t=11.703 df=19 P=0.001), while no significant difference was observed in the control group (t=0.683 df =18 P=0.503). By performing programs such as life skills training, the levels of emotional intelligence of the students could be increased, which itself could lead to academic success, reduced substance abuse, and increased stress tolerance in the students.
PMCID: PMC3662132  PMID: 23723543
Emotional intelligence; life skills training; students
14.  Reliability and Validity of a Computer Mediated Single-Word Intelligibility Test: Preliminary Findings for Children with Repaired Cleft Lip and Palate 
To determine the reliability and validity of a computer-mediated, 50 word intelligibility test designed to be a global measure of severity of speech disability in children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP).
A prospective between group design was used with convenience sampling of patients from a university craniofacial center.
Thirty-eight children between the ages of 4 and 9 years. Twenty-two had repaired CLP while 16 had no clefts. Twenty adults served as listeners.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Speech intelligibility scores were calculated for repeated administrations of a single-word test based upon the number of correct orthographically transcribed words by 4 groups of 5 listeners per child. Measures of parallel forms, inter-listener, and intra-listener reliability were estimated; measures of construct validity were also determined.
All measures of reliability were adequate. Parallel forms reliability of the test based upon mean scores from 5 listeners per child was high (r=.97). Thirty-seven of 38 children had differences between forms of 11 percentage points or less. Construct validity of the test was shown by a) significantly lower speech intelligibility scores for children with CLP than controls, and b) a moderately high correlation (r=.79) between intelligibility scores and percent consonants correct for all children.
A computerized, single-word intelligibility test was described which appears to be a reliable and valid measure of global speech deficits in children with CLP. Additional development of the test may further facilitate standardized assessment of children with CLP.
PMCID: PMC3145825  PMID: 20828293
speech intelligibility; articulation; cleft lip/palate; computerized testing
15.  A preliminary investigation of longitudinal changes in speech production over 18 months in young children with cerebral palsy 
This study examined longitudinal change in speech intelligibility, vowel space, and word duration over 18 months among children with cerebral palsy (CP) who varied in the severity of their speech motor involvement. The study also examined relationships among variables at each time point.
Twenty-two children with CP participated in the study (mean age = 50 months at the first time point). Speech samples were collected at four time points that were six months apart. Children were separated into four severity groups based on intelligibility scores.
Change over time varied by severity. Children with CP who did not have speech motor involvement and children in the mild group showed gains in intelligibility, but no changes in vowel space area or word duration. Children in the moderate group showed no significant change, and children in the severe group showed increased vowel space and decreased word durations. Significant positive correlations between intelligibility and vowel space were noted at each time point for data pooled across all children.
Children showed different patterns of change over time in intelligibility, vowel space, and word duration based on their speech motor abilities. The relationship between intelligibility and vowel space across severity groups was constant, suggesting a robust relationship between these variables.
PMCID: PMC3886637  PMID: 23711749
16.  Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings 
Molecular Psychiatry  2014;20(1):98-108.
Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for gene-hunting expeditions. (i) The heritability of intelligence increases from about 20% in infancy to perhaps 80% in later adulthood. (ii) Intelligence captures genetic effects on diverse cognitive and learning abilities, which correlate phenotypically about 0.30 on average but correlate genetically about 0.60 or higher. (iii) Assortative mating is greater for intelligence (spouse correlations ~0.40) than for other behavioural traits such as personality and psychopathology (~0.10) or physical traits such as height and weight (~0.20). Assortative mating pumps additive genetic variance into the population every generation, contributing to the high narrow heritability (additive genetic variance) of intelligence. (iv) Unlike psychiatric disorders, intelligence is normally distributed with a positive end of exceptional performance that is a model for ‘positive genetics'. (v) Intelligence is associated with education and social class and broadens the causal perspectives on how these three inter-correlated variables contribute to social mobility, and health, illness and mortality differences. These five findings arose primarily from twin studies. They are being confirmed by the first new quantitative genetic technique in a century—Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA)—which estimates genetic influence using genome-wide genotypes in large samples of unrelated individuals. Comparing GCTA results to the results of twin studies reveals important insights into the genetic architecture of intelligence that are relevant to attempts to narrow the ‘missing heritability' gap.
PMCID: PMC4270739  PMID: 25224258
17.  Genetics and Intelligence Differences: Five Special Findings 
Molecular psychiatry  2014;20(1):98-108.
Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for gene-hunting expeditions. (1) The heritability of intelligence increases from about 20% in infancy to perhaps 80% in later adulthood. (2) Intelligence captures genetic effects on diverse cognitive and learning abilities, which correlate phenotypically about 0.30 on average but correlate genetically about 0.60 or higher. (3) Assortative mating is greater for intelligence (spouse correlations ~0.40) than for other behavioural traits such as personality and psychopathology (~0.10) or physical traits such as height and weight (~0.20). Assortative mating pumps additive genetic variance into the population every generation, contributing to the high narrow heritability (additive genetic variance) of intelligence. (4) Unlike psychiatric disorders, intelligence is normally distributed with a positive end of exceptional performance that is a model for ‘positive genetics’. (5) Intelligence is associated with education and social class and broadens the causal perspectives on how these three inter-correlated variables contribute to social mobility, and health, illness and mortality differences. These five findings arose primarily from twin studies. They are being confirmed by the first new quantitative genetic technique in a century—Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA)— which estimates genetic influence using genome-wide genotypes in large samples of unrelated individuals. Comparing GCTA results to the results of twin studies reveals important insights into the genetic architecture of intelligence that are relevant to attempts to narrow the ‘missing heritability’ gap.
PMCID: PMC4270739  PMID: 25224258
18.  The Association between Intelligence Scores and Family History of Psychiatric Disorder in Schizophrenia Patients, Their Siblings and Healthy Controls 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77215.
The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of family history should be broadened. The association between family history for psychiatric disorder and intelligence scores was investigated in patients with non-affective psychosis, their unaffected siblings and controls.
A sample of 712 schizophrenia proband families (696 patients and 766 siblings) and 427 healthy control families (517 subjects) participated in this study. Family history of psychiatric disorder was determined while excluding the data of the participating schizophrenia patient. A dichotomous division was made between families with no first- or second degree relative with psychiatric disorder and families with one or more affected relatives. Total intelligence scores were estimated by admission of the short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III.
A significant interaction was found between family history of psychiatric disorder and clinical status (F(2,1086.87)= 4.17; p=.016). Patients with a positive family history of psychiatric disorder obtained higher intelligence scores compared to patients with no family history (mean IQ scores are 95.52 and 92.72) with an opposite effect in controls (mean IQ scores are 108.71 and 111.19). No significant difference was found between siblings of schizophrenia patients with or without a positive family history (mean IQ scores are 102.98 and 103.24).
In patients with schizophrenia, a negative family history of psychiatric disorder was associated with relatively low IQ suggesting that the etiology in these patients may involve environmental or genetic factors which are unique to the patient and are not observed in other relatives. Possible factors include severe environmental stressors containing premature birth or brain injury and genetic factors (e.g de novo Copy Number Variants).
PMCID: PMC3793952  PMID: 24130858
19.  Brain lesions, hypertension and cognitive ageing in the 1921 and 1936 Aberdeen birth cohorts 
Age  2011;34(2):451-459.
The objectives of this study are to model the relative effects of positive (childhood intelligence) and negative (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH)) predictors of late-life intelligence in two well-characterised normal cohorts aged 68 and 78 and to measure the influence of hypertension on WMH and lifelong cognitive change. The Scottish Mental Surveys of 1932 and 1947 tested the intelligence of almost all school children at age 11. One hundred and one participants born in 1921 and 233 participants born in 1936 had brain MRI, with measurement of WMH using Scheltens‘ scale, and tests of late-life fluid intelligence. Structural equation models of the effect of childhood intelligence and brain WMH on the general intelligence factor ‘g’ in late life in the two samples were constructed using AMOS 18. Similar models were constructed to test the effect of hypertension on WMH and lifelong cognitive change. Fluid intelligence scores were lower and WMH scores were higher in the older samples. Hypertensive participants in both samples had more WMH than normotensive participants. The positive influence of childhood intelligence on ‘g’ was greater in the younger sample. The negative effect of WMH on ‘g’ was linear and greater in the older sample due to greater WMH burden. The negative effect of hypertension on lifelong cognitive ageing was all mediated via MRI-derived brain WMH. The positive relationship between childhood and late-life intelligence decreases with age. The negative relationship between WMH and late-life intelligence is linear and increases with age.
PMCID: PMC3312630  PMID: 21424787
Ageing; White matter hyperintensity; Cohort study; Fluid intelligence; Cognitive decline; MRI
20.  Occupational level of the father and alcohol consumption during adolescence; patterns and predictors 
Study objective: This paper describes and attempts to explain the association between occupational level of the father and high alcohol consumption among a cohort of New Zealand adolescents from age 11 to 21.
Design: Data were obtained from the longitudinal Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. At each measurement wave, those who then belonged to the quartile that reported the highest usual amount of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion were categorised as high alcohol consumers. Potential predictors of high alcohol consumption included environmental factors, individual factors, and educational achievement measured at age 9, 11, or 13. Longitudinal logistic GEE analyses described and explained the relation between father's occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption.
Setting: Dunedin, New Zealand.
Participants: About 1000 children were followed up from birth in 1972 until adulthood.
Main results: A significant association between fathers' occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption emerged at age 15. Overall adolescents from the lowest occupational group had almost twice the odds of being a large consumer than the highest occupational group. The association between father's occupation and high alcohol consumption during adolescence was explained by the higher prevalence of familial alcohol problems and friends approving of alcohol consumption, lower intelligence scores, and lower parental attachment among adolescents from lower occupational groups.
Conclusions: Socioeconomic background affects adolescent alcohol consumption substantially. This probably contributes to cumulation of disadvantage. Prevention programmes should focus on adolescents from lower socioeconomic groups and make healthier choices the easier choices by means of environmental change.
PMCID: PMC1732575  PMID: 12933777
21.  Associations of Urine Excretion of Isoflavonoids with Cognition in Postmenopausal Women in the Women’s Isoflavone Soy Health Clinical Trial 
Results from randomized trials of soy supplements on cognition in postmenopausal women are equivocal. We sought to determine associations of change in urine excretion of isoflavonoids on cognitive change.
Post hoc analysis of isoflavonoid exposures (mean 2.7 years) during the randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind Women’s Isoflavone Soy Health trial.
General community.
350 healthy postmenopausal women.
25 g of isoflavone-rich soy protein (91 mg of aglycone weight isoflavones: 52 mg genistein, 36 mg daidzein, 3 mg glycitein) or milk protein-matched placebo, provided daily.
Overnight urine excretion and fasting plasma levels of isoflavonoids, and cognitive function, measured at baseline and endpoint.
300 women (mean age = 61 years, range 45-92 years) completed both cognitive assessments and did not use hormone replacement therapy during the trial. Mean on-trial change from baseline in urine excretion of isoflavonoids was not significantly associated with change in a composite score of global cognition (p=0.39). Secondary analyses indicated that change in urine excretion of isoflavonoids was inversely associated with change in a factor score representing general intelligence (p=0.02), but not with factor scores representing verbal or visual episodic memory. Mean differences in this general intelligence factor score among women in the first compared to highest quartile of isoflavonoid change are equivalent to an approximate 4.4 year age-associated decline. Analyses based on plasma isoflavonoid levels yielded similar but attenuated results.
Among healthy postmenopausal women, long-term changes in isoflavonoids are not associated with global cognition, supporting clinical trial results. Increasing isoflavonoid exposure from dietary supplements is, however, associated with decrements in general intelligence but not memory; this finding requires confirmation in future studies.
PMCID: PMC4226524  PMID: 24617349
Cognition; isoflavones; menopause; soy; women’s health
22.  Associations of Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy With Offspring Cognition in Childhood and Adolescence: Findings From the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2013;177(5):402-410.
An association of gestational weight gain (GWG) with offspring cognition has been postulated. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a United Kingdom prospective cohort (1990 through the present) with a median of 10 maternal weight measurements in pregnancy. These were used to allocate participants to 2009 Institute of Medicine weight-gain categories and in random effect linear spline models. Outcomes were School Entry Assessment score (age, 4 years; n = 5,832), standardized intelligence quotient assessed by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (age, 8 years; n = 5,191), and school final-examination results (age, 16 years; n = 7,339). Offspring of women who gained less weight than recommended had a 0.075 standard deviation lower mean School Entry Assessment score (95% confidence interval: −0.127, −0.023) and were less likely to achieve adequate final-examination results (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.99) compared with offspring of women who gained as recommended. GWG in early pregnancy (defined as 0–18 weeks on the basis of a knot point at 18 weeks) and midpregnancy (defined as 18–28 weeks on the basis of knot points at 18 and 28 weeks) was positively associated with School Entry Assessment score and intelligence quotient. GWG in late pregnancy (defined as 28 weeks onward on the basis of a knot point at 28 weeks) was positively associated with offspring intelligence quotient and with increased odds of offspring achieving adequate final-examination results in mothers who were overweight prepregnancy. Findings support small positive associations between GWG and offspring cognitive development, which may have lasting effects on educational attainment up to age 16 years.
PMCID: PMC3581073  PMID: 23388581
ALSPAC; cognition; gestational weight gain
23.  Effects of a physiotherapy and occupational therapy intervention on mobility and activity in care home residents: a cluster randomised controlled trial 
Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of a programme of physiotherapy and occupational therapy with standard care in care home residents who have mobility limitations and are dependent in performing activities of daily living.
Design Cluster randomised controlled trial, with random allocation at the level of care home.
Setting Care homes within the NHS South Birmingham primary care trust and the NHS Birmingham East and North primary care trust that had more than five beds and provided for people in the care categories “physical disability” and “older people.”
Participants Care home residents with mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (as screened by the Barthel index), and not receiving end of life care were eligible to take part in the study.
Intervention A targeted three month occupational therapy and physiotherapy programme.
Main outcome measures Scores on the Barthel index and the Rivermead mobility index.
Results 24 of 77 nursing and residential homes that catered for residents with mobility limitations and dependency for activities of daily living were selected for study: 12 were randomly allocated to the intervention arm (128 residents, mean age 86 years) and 12 to the control arm (121 residents, mean age 84 years). Participants were evaluated by independent assessors blind to study arm allocation before randomisation (0 months), three months after randomisation (at the end of the treatment period for patients who received the intervention), and again at six months after randomisation. After adjusting for home effect and baseline characteristics, no significant differences were found in mean Barthel index scores at six months post-randomisation between treatment arms (mean effect 0.08, 95% confidence interval −1.14 to 1.30; P=0.90), across assessments (−0.01, −0.63 to 0.60; P=0.96), or in the interaction between assessment and intervention (0.42, −0.48 to 1.32; P=0.36). Similarly, no significant differences were found in the mean Rivermead mobility index scores between treatment arms (0.62, −0.51 to 1.76; P=0.28), across assessments (−0.15, −0.65 to 0.35; P=0.55), or interaction (0.71, −0.02 to 1.44; P=0.06).
Conclusions The three month occupational therapy and physiotherapy programme had no significant effect on mobility and independence. On the other hand, the variation in residents’ functional ability, the prevalence of cognitive impairment, and the prevalence of depression were considerably higher in this sample than expected on the basis of previous work. Further research to clarify the efficacy of occupational therapy and physiotherapy is required if access to therapy services is to be recommended in this population.
Trial registration ISRCTN79859980
PMCID: PMC2736373  PMID: 19723707
24.  Association of Structural Global Brain Network Properties with Intelligence in Normal Aging 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86258.
Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60–85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.
PMCID: PMC3899224  PMID: 24465994
25.  Gender difference in speech intelligibility using speech intelligibility tests and acoustic analyses 
The purpose of this study was to compare men with women in terms of speech intelligibility, to investigate the validity of objective acoustic parameters related with speech intelligibility, and to try to set up the standard data for the future study in various field in prosthodontics.
Twenty men and women were served as subjects in the present study. After recording of sample sounds, speech intelligibility tests by three speech pathologists and acoustic analyses were performed. Comparison of the speech intelligibility test scores and acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, formant frequency, formant ranges, vowel working space area, and vowel dispersion were done between men and women. In addition, the correlations between the speech intelligibility values and acoustic variables were analyzed.
Women showed significantly higher speech intelligibility scores than men and there were significant difference between men and women in most of acoustic parameters used in the present study. However, the correlations between the speech intelligibility scores and acoustic parameters were low.
Speech intelligibility test and acoustic parameters used in the present study were effective in differentiating male voice from female voice and their values might be used in the future studies related patients involved with maxillofacial prosthodontics. However, further studies are needed on the correlation between speech intelligibility tests and objective acoustic parameters.
PMCID: PMC2994697  PMID: 21165272
Vowel; Formant; Vowel working space; Speech intelligibility

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