We examined speech intelligibility in typically developing (TD) children and three groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were classified into speech / language profile groups following Hustad et al. (2010). Questions addressed differences in transcription intelligibility scores among groups, the effects of utterance length on intelligibility, the relationship between ordinal ratings of intelligibility and orthographic transcription intelligibility scores, and the difference between parent and naïve listener ordinal ratings.
Speech samples varying in length from 1–7 words were elicited from 23 children with CP (mean age 54.3 months) and 20 typically developing children (mean age 55.1 months). 215 naïve listeners made orthographic transcriptions and ordinal ratings of intelligibility. Parent ordinal ratings of intelligibility were obtained from a previous study (Hustad et al., 2010).
Intelligibility varied with speech / language profile group and utterance length, with different patterns observed by profile group. Ratings of intelligibility by parents and naïve listeners did not differ and were both highly correlated with transcription intelligibility scores.
Intelligibility was reduced for all groups of children with CP relative to TD children, suggesting the importance of speech-language intervention and the need for research investigating variables associated with changes in intelligibility in children.
cerebral palsy; dysarthria; speech development; speech intelligibility; typical speech
While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized.
A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation).
Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher.
Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts.
The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare cognitive functioning at age 5 years in prenatal drug-exposed children with nondrug-exposed children from a comparable inner-city environment. Children with prenatal drug exposure scored significantly lower on measures of language, school readiness skills, impulse control, and visual attention span/sequencing than controls matched for age and socioeconomic status. Intelligence, visual-motor, manual dexterity, and sustained attention scores were not significantly different between groups. The total sample scored significantly below the normative mean on standardized measures of intelligence, language, school readiness, visual-motor skills, impulse control, and sustained attention, with 40% scoring at least 1 standard deviation below the mean (IQ <85) on a measure of intelligence. Findings suggest that children with prenatal drug exposure are at increased risk for learning and attention problems and are in need of close developmental surveillance and possible intervention to support school success and improve behavioral outcome.
prenatal drug exposure; intelligence; impulsivity; attention
Speech intelligibility of 24 prelingually deaf pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients with 84 months of device experience was investigated. Each CI participant's speech samples were judged by a panel of 3 listeners. Intelligibility scores were calculated as the average of the 3 listeners' responses. The average write-down intelligibility score was 71.54% (SD = 29.89), and the average rating-scale intelligibility score was 3.03 points (SD = 1.01). Write-down and rating-scale intelligibility scores were highly correlated (r = .91, p < .001). Linear regression analyses revealed that both age at implantation and different speech-coding strategies contribute to the variability of CI participants' speech intelligibility. Implantation at a younger age and the use of the spectral-peak speech-coding strategy yielded higher intelligibility scores than implantation at an older age and the use of the multipeak speech-coding strategy. These results serve as indices for clinical applications when long-term advancements in spoken-language development are considered for pediatric CI recipients.
cochlear implants; speech intelligibility; speech development; speech production
This study used a multi-talker database containing intelligibility scores for 2000 sentences (20 talkers, 100 sentences), to identify talker-related correlates of speech intelligibility. We first investigated “global” talker characteristics (e.g., gender, F0 and speaking rate). Findings showed female talkers to be more intelligible as a group than male talkers. Additionally, we found a tendency for F0 range to correlate positively with higher speech intelligibility scores. However, F0 mean and speaking rate did not correlate with intelligibility. We then examined several fine-grained acoustic-phonetic talker-characteristics as correlates of overall intelligibility. We found that talkers with larger vowel spaces were generally more intelligible than talkers with reduced spaces. In investigating two cases of consistent listener errors (segment deletion and syllable affiliation), we found that these perceptual errors could be traced directly to detailed timing characteristics in the speech signal. Results suggest that a substantial portion of variability in normal speech intelligibility is traceable to specific acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the talker. Knowledge about these factors may be valuable for improving speech synthesis and recognition strategies, and for special populations (e.g., the hearing-impaired and second-language learners) who are particularly sensitive to intelligibility differences among talkers.
Intelligibility; Talker characteristics; Acoustic-phonetics
The purpose of this study was to compare men with women in terms of speech intelligibility, to investigate the validity of objective acoustic parameters related with speech intelligibility, and to try to set up the standard data for the future study in various field in prosthodontics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Twenty men and women were served as subjects in the present study. After recording of sample sounds, speech intelligibility tests by three speech pathologists and acoustic analyses were performed. Comparison of the speech intelligibility test scores and acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, formant frequency, formant ranges, vowel working space area, and vowel dispersion were done between men and women. In addition, the correlations between the speech intelligibility values and acoustic
variables were analyzed.
Women showed significantly higher speech intelligibility scores than men and there were significant difference between men and women in most of acoustic parameters used in the present study. However, the correlations between the speech intelligibility scores and acoustic parameters were low.
Speech intelligibility test and acoustic parameters used in the present study were effective in differentiating male voice from female voice and their values might be used in the future studies related patients involved with maxillofacial prosthodontics. However, further studies are needed on the correlation between speech intelligibility tests and objective acoustic parameters.
Vowel; Formant; Vowel working space; Speech intelligibility
It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups differ in mean ability, the functioning of items at different ability levels may result in group differences in the heritability of items, even when these items function equivalently across groups and the heritability of the underlying ability is equal across groups. We illustrate this graphically, by computer simulation, and by focusing on several problems associated with a recent study by Rushton et al. who argued that the heritability estimates of items of Raven's Progressive Matrices test in North-American twin samples generalized to other population groups, and hence that the population group differences on this test of general mental ability (or intelligence) had a substantial genetic component. Our results show that item heritabilities are strongly dependent on the group on which the heritabilities were based. Rushton et al.'s results were artefactual and do not speak to the nature of population group differences in intelligence test performance.
behaviour genetics; heritability; intelligence; psychometrics; nature versus nurture
2007;70(19 0 2):10.1212/01.wnl.0000295506.58497.7e.
To examine the association of job characteristics and intelligence to cognitive status in members of the National Academy of Sciences–National Research Council Twins Registry of World War II veterans.
Participants (n = 1,036) included individuals with an assessment of intelligence based on Armed Services testing in early adulthood. In late adulthood, these individuals completed the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) and occupational history as part of an epidemiologic study of aging and dementia. Occupational history was coded to produce a matrix of job characteristics. Based on factor analysis, job characteristics were interpreted as reflecting general intellectual demands (GI), human interaction and communication (HC), physical activity (PA), and visual attention (VA).
Based on regression analysis of TICS-m score covarying for age, intelligence, and years of education, higher levels of GI and HC were independently associated with higher TICS-m performance, whereas higher PA was independently associated with lower performance. There was an interaction of GI and intelligence, indicating that individuals at the lower range of intellectual aptitude in early adulthood derived greater cognitive benefit from intellectually demanding work.
Intellectually demanding work was associated with greater benefit to cognitive performance in later life independent of related factors like education and intelligence. The fact that individuals with lower intellectual aptitude demonstrated a stronger positive association between work and higher cognitive performance during retirement suggests that behavior may enhance intellectual reserve, perhaps even years after peak intellectual activity.
Differences in the clinical and ecological manifestations of reduced intelligibility for individuals with dysarthria related to Parkinson disease (PD) have been reported in the literature. The current study explored whether a dual-task paradigm could be used during intelligibility testing to collect speech samples that were representative of functional performance. Intelligibility was calculated for four speakers with PD and four age-matched controls (CG) based on single-word, sentences, and monologue tasks recorded in single-and dual-task conditions and a spontaneous speech sample. In the dual-task condition, speakers produced the target speech sample and performed a simultaneous motor task, turning a nut on a bolt. No significant differences in intelligibility were found for the CG. For speakers with PD, differences between conditions were statistically significant for all speech tasks. Intelligibility scores in the dual-task condition were lower, with variability between tasks and speakers noted. There was a significant difference between scores for the monologue in the single-task condition and the spontaneous sample; however, there was no significant difference between the monologue in the dual-task condition and the spontaneous sample. Findings suggest that including a simple motor task during a clinical assessment may help elicit speech samples that are representative of a speaker's typical speech production.
The neural efficiency hypothesis postulates an inverse relationship between intelligence and brain activation. Previous research suggests that gender and task modality represent two important moderators of the neural efficiency phenomenon. Since most of the existing studies on neural efficiency have used ERD in the EEG as a measure of brain activation, the central aim of this study was a more detailed analysis of this phenomenon by means of functional MRI. A sample of 20 males and 20 females, who had been screened for their visuo-spatial intelligence, was confronted with a mental rotation task employing an event-related approach. Results suggest that less intelligent individuals show a stronger deactivation of parts of the default mode network, as compared to more intelligent people. Furthermore, we found evidence of an interaction between task difficulty, intelligence and gender, indicating that more intelligent females show an increase in brain activation with an increase in task difficulty. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the neural efficiency hypothesis, and possibly also of gender differences in the visuo-spatial domain.
Prevailing psychometric theories of intelligence posit that individual differences in cognitive performance are attributable to three main sources of variance: the general factor of intelligence (g), cognitive ability domains, and specific test requirements and idiosyncrasies. Cortical thickness has been previously associated with g. In the present study, we systematically analyzed associations between cortical thickness and cognitive performance with and without adjusting for the effects of g in a representative sample of children and adolescents (N = 207, Mean age = 11.8; SD = 3.5; Range = 6 to 18.3 years). Seven cognitive tests were included in a measurement model that identified three first-order factors (representing cognitive ability domains) and one second-order factor representing g. Residuals of the cognitive ability domain scores were computed to represent g-independent variance for the three domains and seven tests. Cognitive domain and individual test scores as well as residualized scores were regressed against cortical thickness, adjusting for age, gender and a proxy measure of brain volume. g and cognitive domain scores were positively correlated with cortical thickness in very similar areas across the brain. Adjusting for the effects of g eliminated associations of domain and test scores with cortical thickness. Within a psychometric framework, cortical thickness correlates of cognitive performance on complex tasks are well captured by g in this demographically representative sample.
General intelligence; cognitive abilities; cognitive performance; cognitive domains; factor analysis; cortical thickness
Cognitive impairment associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has been recognized in multiple studies. We designed this study to find a specific cognitive profile in patients with TLE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery. We also sought to find if neuropsychological assessment could differentiate left TLE, right TLE and normal subjects.
The sample of this study consisted of 29 patients with right TLE, 31 with left TLE, and 32 subjects without history of seizure as the control group. For all recruited patients and controls, demographic questionnaire, Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-R (WAIS-R) were administered. Multivariate analysis of variance was carried out to reveal differences in memory and intelligence performance between the three groups.
All of the mean scores of the WMS-III indexes were significantly higher in the control group in comparison with the right or the left TLE groups (p < 0.001). There were not any significant differences between mean scores of WMS-III indexes of the right and the left. The WAIS-R also showed significantly better mean scores of full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) in the control groups than both of the right and left TLE patients (p < 0.001). Although the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) mean scores were significantly different between the left TLE and the control group (p = 0.037), there were not any significant differences between the right TLE patients and the control group.
These findings indicated that WMS-III and WAIS-R can differentiate patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy from normal subjects. However, the obtained cognitive profile could not differentiate between the right and the left TLE.
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy; Cognitive Impairment; Memory; Wechsler Memory Scale
We compared two different types of hearing-aid fitting procedures in a double-blind randomized clinical study. Hearing aid fittings based on a purely prescriptive procedure (the NAL-RP formula) were compared to a comparative fitting procedure based on optimizing speech intelligibility scores. Main outcome measures were improvement of speech intelligibility scores in quiet and in noise. Data were related to the real-ear insertion responses that were measured after fitting. For analysis purposes subgroups were composed according to degree of hearing loss, characterized by unaided speech intelligibility in quiet, previous experience with hearing aids, unilateral or bilateral fittings and type of hearing aid. We found equal improvement of speech intelligibility in quiet, while fitting according to the prescriptive formula resulted in a somewhat better performance as expressed by the speech-to-noise ratio in comparison to the comparative procedure. Both procedures resulted in comparable real-ear insertion responses.
Fitting hearing aids; Hearing impairment; Speech intelligibility; Speech-in-noise test
Objective To compare the intelligence and grip strength of orthopaedic surgeons and anaesthetists.
Design Multicentre prospective comparative study.
Setting Three UK district general hospitals in 2011.
Participants 36 male orthopaedic surgeons and 40 male anaesthetists at consultant or specialist registrar grade.
Main outcome measures Intelligence test score and dominant hand grip strength.
Results Orthopaedic surgeons had a statistically significantly greater mean grip strength (47.25 (SD 6.95) kg) than anaesthetists (43.83 (7.57) kg). The mean intelligence test score of orthopaedic surgeons was also statistically significantly greater at 105.19 (10.85) compared with 98.38 (14.45) for anaesthetists.
Conclusions Male orthopaedic surgeons have greater intelligence and grip strength than their male anaesthetic colleagues, who should find new ways to make fun of their orthopaedic friends.
This study presents data on the factor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and sex and cultural differences in WPPSI test scores among 5- and 6-year-olds from China, Japan, and the United States. Results show the presence of a verbal and nonverbal factor structure across all three countries. Sex differences on the 10 subtests were generally consistent, with a male advantage on a subtest of spatial abilities (Mazes). Males in the Chinese sample obtained significantly higher Full Scale IQ scores than females and had lower variability in their test scores. These observations were not present in the Japan and United States samples. Mean Full Scale IQ score in the Chinese sample was 104.1, representing a 4-point increase from 1988 to 2004.
IQ; intelligence; cultural differences; factor structure; sex differences; WPPSI; China; Japan; United States
There is no consensus opinion on whether or not cognitive impairments are found in the Silver-Russell syndrome. An investigation of a substantial sample was undertaken, using standardised assessments, in 20 boys and five girls aged 6.0 years to 11.8 years. Mean (SD) birth weights were -2.65 (0.95) SD scores, corrected for gestation. At evaluation the children had a mean (SD) age of 8.8 (1.8) years and a mean height of -2.26 (1.5) SD scores. Tests of cognitive abilities included assessments of general intelligence, reading and arithmetic attainments, and a cognitive processing task. Most had some degree of developmental delay: mean (SD) full scale IQ was 86 (24); 32% scored within the learning disability range (that is, IQ < 70); 40% were reading at least 24 months below their chronological age. Current head circumference correlated highly with full scale IQ. Assessments of special educational needs had been completed on 36%; 48% were receiving speech therapy. Approximately half of children with the Silver-Russell syndrome have significant impairment of their cognitive abilities.
► Structural model of the inter-relations of inhibition, intelligence and creativity. ► Cognitive inhibition was measured by means of the random motor generation task. ► Inhibition generally shows a positive relation with creativity measures. ► Inhibition is specifically related to ideational fluency. ► Intelligence is specifically related to ideational originality.
There are different conceptions about how cognitive inhibition is related to creativity. Creativity has either been associated with effective inhibition, or with disinhibition, or with an adaptive engagement of inhibition. In this study, we examined the relationship of cognitive inhibition, assessed by means of the random motor generation task, with different measures of creativity. We also analyzed whether this relation is mediated by intelligence. We generally found a positive correlation of inhibition and creativity measures. Moreover, latent variable analyses indicate that inhibition may primarily promote the fluency of ideas, whereas intelligence specifically promotes the originality of ideas. These findings support the notion that creative thought involves executive processes and may help to better understand the differential role of inhibition and intelligence in creativity.
Creativity; Inhibition; Intelligence; Random sequence generation; Structural equation model
Groups of individuals with headache, unilateral headache, and migraine, and a fourth group who had not had a headache in the previous year, were identified by questionnaire from a random sample of adults in the general population. Intelligence and social class were assessed in about 400 individuals. There was no evidence that individuals with migraine were more intelligent or of higher social class. There was, however, a suggestion that the more intelligent individuals with migraine, and those in social classes I and II, were more likely to consult a doctor for their headaches. This trend might explain the origin of the hypotheses associating migraine with intelligence and with social class.
Random samples of individuals with migraine with headache and without headache in the previous year were the probands for a family study. There were 524 first-degree relatives over 21 years of age who lived in South Wales. Headache histories, obtained “blindly” from over 99% of these relatives with a standard questionnaire, were classified as migraine, possible migraine, headache, or without headache in the previous year. The prevalence of migraine in the families of the migrainous probands was nearly twice as high as the prevalence in the other families, but this difference was not statistically significant. It is suggested that family history should not be included in the definition of migraine and that heredity is much less important in migraine than is usually supposed.
The aim of our study was to examine the memory functions of pistol sport shooters using powder charges when exposure to lead is expected to be considerably lower than in occupational circumstances.
A neuropsychological battery of memory and intelligence tests was administered to 20 sport shooters and 20 controls whose mean ages (SDs) were 55 (9.6) and 54 (9.3) years respectively. Memory functions were evaluated with three subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R) and an incidental memory test. Intelligence was assessed with four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised (WAIS-R). The level of alcohol consumption and depression were examined in both groups. Blood lead level was determined among the shooters.
The shooters performed worse than the controls in the tests of incidental and logical memory. The groups did not differ in intelligence, mood or alcohol consumption. The mean (SD) blood lead level of the sport shooters was 0.52 μmol/L (0.40), responding 10.76 μg/dl (8.28).
Low lead exposure in recreational shooting conditions may impair verbal memory. Therefore it is important to ensure that lead exposure is prevented among those shooting for sport.
cognitive function; lead exposure; sport shooting
The possibility that some of the common childhood infections lead to unrecognized impairments of neurological function was examined in 43 820 Birmingham children whose intelligence was assessed in the 11-plus examination. Mean verbal reasoning scores were lower for children who had had measles or pertussis than for those who had had neither of these diseases. However, since attack rates and measured intelligence are related inversely to social class, the lower scores of children with measles and pertussis may be due to class differences which are not eliminated completely by standardization for maternal age and birth order. Mean scores were a little higher for children who had had rubella than for those who had not, and it is suggested that this difference may be due to more frequent reporting of the disease by the more intelligent mothers.
The pronounced convolution of the human cortex may be a morphological substrate that supports some of our species’ most distinctive cognitive abilities. Therefore, individual intelligence within humans might be modulated by the degree of folding in certain cortical regions. We applied advanced methods to analyze cortical convolution at high spatial resolution and correlated those measurements with intelligence quotients. Within a large sample of healthy adult subjects (n = 65), we detected the most prominent correlations in the left medial hemisphere. More specifically, intelligence scores were positively associated with the degree of folding in the temporo-occipital lobe, particularly in the outermost section of the posterior cingulate gyrus (retrosplenial areas). Thus, this region might be an important contributor toward individual intelligence, either via modulating pathways to (pre)frontal regions or by serving as a location for the convergence of information. Prominent gender differences within the right frontal cortex were observed; females showed uncorrected significant positive correlations and males showed a nonsignificant trend toward negative correlations. It is possible that formerly described gender differences in regional convolution are associated with differences in the underlying architecture. This might lead to the development of sexually dimorphic information processing strategies and affect the relationship between intelligence and cortical convolution.
cortex; curvature; folding; IQ; MRI; sex
Firefighting is a unique job with contradictious demands that expose firefighters to many well documented causal factors of sleep debt, but no studies in Iran and only a few worldwide studies have investigated their sleep quality while sleep problems may lead to catastrophes especially in critical service workers. The aim of this study is to evaluate sleep quality and its related factors among a sample of professional Iranian firefighters.
Using simple random sampling method in a cross-sectional study, 427 personnel of fire and rescue service were invited. They completed the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a data collection sheet about their demographic and occupational features during an individual face to face interview in central office and firehouses throughout Tehran. Response rate was 88.7%.
The mean ± SD global PSQI score was 7.97 ± 3.77. Sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality. 69.9% of participants were poor sleepers. Interestingly, we found no significant differences between sleep quality of shift workers and non shift workers. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, only having another job, smoking and years of job experience were predictors of poor sleep.
In comparison with adult population of Tehran, sleep quality deterioration is notably more common in Tehran firefighters which require health promotion interventions to prevent its serious adverse outcomes.
Firefighters; pittsburgh sleep quality index; shift working; sleep quality
Intelligence tests were carried out on 34 boys with muscular dystrophy. The 16 who were mildly physically disabled scored significantly lower on the verbal scale (mean 85·3) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) than on the performance scale (mean 97·6). The 18 who were moderately or markedly physically disabled showed no significant difference between their mean verbal (87·6) and performance (89·7) scores. The results are interpreted as suggesting an early and nonprogressive impairment of verbal intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Emotional intelligence has a major role in mental health and life skills training, and could be viewed as a bridge relating to emotional intelligence and mental health.
The present study is aimed at determining the effect of life skills training on the emotional intelligence among the first year students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods:
In this experimental study, the subjects were selected by random sampling and allocated into two groups: Case group (n=20) and control group (n=19); they matched for gender, experience of stressful life events in the past six months, level of interest in the field of study, and level of emotional intelligence. The two groups responded to Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory before starting the experiment. Subsequently, the case group underwent life skills training. After the training, Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory was responded by the case and control groups again. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including Chi-square test, paired and independent t-tests, using SPSS software version 15.
Results and Conclusion:
In the case group, the scores of emotional intelligence after life skills training were significantly improved (t=11.703 df=19 P=0.001), while no significant difference was observed in the control group (t=0.683 df =18 P=0.503). By performing programs such as life skills training, the levels of emotional intelligence of the students could be increased, which itself could lead to academic success, reduced substance abuse, and increased stress tolerance in the students.
Emotional intelligence; life skills training; students
Among 12 468 legitimate single births in the first week of March 1946, 163 weighed 200 g or less (LBW group) and of these 80 survived to 18 years. 6 of the LBW survivors emigrated with their families and 5 have not been traced since birth. The remaining 69 were followed up to the age of 15 at which time two early school leavers were lost to the study. There is evidence that none of the survivors who emigrated or left the sample and serious physical or mental impairment. Compared with individually matched controls, the LBW children showed similar proportions with severe physical, mental, or behavioural handicaps. There are small and statistically nonsignificant differences in favour of the controls in ability and attainment scores at 15 years and in the level of academic qualifications gained by the age of 18. If the mean ability and attainment scores are expressed as an "intelligence quotient" with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, the LBW group has an average IQ of 93 and the controls of 97. Hospital stay after childbirth was much longer in 1946 than today and many LBW children spent more than 3 weeks in hospital. There is no evidence that long hospital stay was associated with problems of behaviour or learning in adolescence.