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1.  Chemical and biological characterization of emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants. 
Emission samples were obtained from two medium-sized power plants, one fired with oil and the other with pulverized coal. Particles obtained by a miniscale plume stack gas sampler (MIPSGAS), simulating the dilution process in the plume, were subjected to detailed physical, chemical and biological characterization. Studies by scanning electron microscopy and by Coulter counter demonstrated that the particles from the oil-fired boiler were considerably larger than the particles from the coal-fired boiler. Chemical analyses revealed more organic substances and more S, Ni, V, in the oil than in the coal particles. The latter contained a larger proportion of Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Se, Rb, Y, Zr, Ba and Pb. Biological testing revealed a greater acute and subacute toxicity by the intratracheal route in the hamster, a greater toxicity to alveolar macrophages and a greater lung retention of BaP coated on the particles from oil combustion than on those from coal combustion. In another sampling line, employed simultaneously with the MIPSGAS-particulate sampler, the total emissions were collected, i.e., both particle and gas phase. These samples were used for chemical analyses and Ames mutagenicity test. Analyses of specific PAHs in emissions from both plants demonstrated that concentrations were below the detection limit (less than 4 ng/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene), which is in accord with an efficient combustion of the fuel. The mutagenicity of the samples were below the detection limit of the mutagenicity assay.
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PMCID: PMC1569405  PMID: 6825622
2.  Efficacy versus health risks: An in vitro evaluation of power-driven scalers  
Background:
Power-driven instrumentation of root surfaces during supportive periodontal therapy is an alternative to hand instrumentation. The purpose of this pilot in vitro study was to investigate the efficacy of sub- and supragingival plaque removal with a sonic (AIR: Synea, W and H, Bürmoos, Austria) and two ultrasonic devices (TIG: Tigon+, W and H, Bürmoos, Austria; VEC: Vector, Dürr, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) as well as the health-risk for dental professionals during treatment.
Materials and Methods:
The power-driven devices were utilized to remove plaque from model teeth in dummy heads. The percentage of residual artificial plaque after 2 min of supra- or subgingival instrumentation was calculated by means of image-processing techniques at four sites (n = 576) of each tooth. The Health-Risk-Index (HRI: spatter/residual plaque quotient) with the different power-driven devices was assessed during treatment.
Results:
The smallest amounts of residual plaque were found for the sonic device AIR (8.89% ± 10.92%) and the ultrasonic scaler TIG (8.72% ± 12.02%) (P = 0.707). Significantly more plaque was remained after the use of the ultrasonic scaler VEC (18.76% ± 18.07%) (P < 0.001). Irrespectively of the scaler, efficacy was similar sub- (10.7% ± 11.6%) and supragingivally (13.5% ± 17.2%) (P = 0.901). AIR/TIG demonstrated equal residual amounts of plaque sub- (P = 0.831) as well as supragingivally (P = 0.510). However, AIR/VEC and TIG/VEC were significantly in favor of AIR and TIG (P < 0.001). In contrast, the lowest HRI was found after using VEC (0.0043) and differed considerably for AIR (0.2812) and TIG (0.0287).
Conclusion:
Sonic devices are as effective as ultrasonic devices in the removal of biofilm but bear a higher risk to the dental professional's health concerning the formation of spatter.
doi:10.4103/0972-124X.145796
PMCID: PMC4365149  PMID: 25810588
Aerosol; dental prophylaxis; plaque; scaling
3.  A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2011;11(2):1246-1260.
This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.
doi:10.3390/s110201246
PMCID: PMC3274055  PMID: 22319349
biomass boiler; web camera; photogrammetric processing; CFD analysis
4.  Comparison of the effect of hand instruments, an ultrasonic scaler, and an erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser on root surface roughness of teeth with periodontitis: a profilometer study 
Purpose
The present study aimed to measure root surface roughness in teeth with periodontitis by a profilometer following root planning with ultrasonic and hand instruments with and without erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation.
Methods
Sixty single-rooted maxillary and mandibular teeth, extracted because of periodontal disease, were collected. The crowns and apices of the roots were cut off using a diamond bur and water coolant. The specimens were mounted in an acrylic resin block such that a plain root surface was accessible. After primary evaluation and setting a baseline, the samples were divided into 4 groups. In group 1, the samples were root planned using a manual curette. The group 2 samples were prepared with an ultrasonic scaler. In group 3, after scaling with hand instrumentation, the roots were treated with a Smart 1240D plus Er:YAG laser and in group 4, the roots were prepared with ultrasonic scaler and subsequently treated with an Er:YAG laser. Root surface roughness was then measured by a profilometer (MahrSurf M300+RD18C system) under controlled laboratory conditions at a temperature of 25℃ and 41% humidity. The data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and a t-test (P<0.05).
Results
Significant differences were detected in terms of surface roughness and surface distortion before and after treatment. The average reduction of the surface roughness after treatment in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 1.89, 1.88, 1.40, and 1.52, respectively. These findings revealed no significant differences among the four groups.
Conclusions
An Er:YAG laser as an adjunct to traditional scaling and root planning reduces root surface roughness. However, the surface ultrastructure is more irregular than when using conventional methods.
doi:10.5051/jpis.2013.43.2.101
PMCID: PMC3651935  PMID: 23678394
Laser therapy; Periodontitis; Tooth; Ultrasonics
5.  Work-related COPD after years of occupational exposure 
Background
Cigarette smoking is known as the most important risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, occupational exposure to other substances can result in COPD.
Case report
A 76-year-old man with occupational exposures to mixtures of silica dust, gas, and fumes for 10 years and with a 25 pack-year smoking history was diagnosed with COPD. His computed tomogram scan revealed some hyperinflation with emphysematous change in both upper lobes. In the pulmonary function tests, his post-bronchodilator forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC% were 2.20 L (67% of the predicted value), 1.12 L (52% of the predicted value), and 51%, respectively, indicating moderate COPD. This case of COPD was confirmed as a work-related disease by the Occupational Lung Disease Research Institute in Korea Workers’ Compensation & Welfare Service.
Conclusion
Exposure to various substances such as silica dust, gas, and fumes from furnace and boiler installation was likely the cause of COPD in this patient. Thus, occupational exposure should be considered an important risk factor of COPD.
doi:10.1186/s40557-015-0056-1
PMCID: PMC4357143  PMID: 25767717
COPD; Occupational exposure; Fuel oils; Silica
6.  Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report 
Introduction
Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning.
Case presentation
A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned.
Conclusion
This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-118
PMCID: PMC2390579  PMID: 18430228
7.  Antioxidant airway responses following experimental exposure to wood smoke in man 
Background
Biomass combustion contributes to the production of ambient particulate matter (PM) in rural environments as well as urban settings, but relatively little is known about the health effects of these emissions. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize airway responses in humans exposed to wood smoke PM under controlled conditions. Nineteen healthy volunteers were exposed to both wood smoke, at a particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration of 224 ± 22 μg/m3, and filtered air for three hours with intermittent exercise. The wood smoke was generated employing an experimental set-up with an adjustable wood pellet boiler system under incomplete combustion. Symptoms, lung function, and exhaled NO were measured over exposures, with bronchoscopy performed 24 h post-exposure for characterisation of airway inflammatory and antioxidant responses in airway lavages.
Results
Glutathione (GSH) concentrations were enhanced in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after wood smoke exposure vs. air (p = 0.025), together with an increase in upper airway symptoms. Neither lung function, exhaled NO nor systemic nor airway inflammatory parameters in BAL and bronchial mucosal biopsies were significantly affected.
Conclusions
Exposure of healthy subjects to wood smoke, derived from an experimental wood pellet boiler operating under incomplete combustion conditions with PM emissions dominated by organic matter, caused an increase in mucosal symptoms and GSH in the alveolar respiratory tract lining fluids but no acute airway inflammatory responses. We contend that this response reflects a mobilisation of GSH to the air-lung interface, consistent with a protective adaptation to the investigated wood smoke exposure.
doi:10.1186/1743-8977-7-21
PMCID: PMC2936868  PMID: 20727160
8.  Comparative evaluation of roughness of titanium surfaces treated by different hygiene instruments 
Purpose
The use of appropriate instruments to clean surfaces with minimal change, is critical for the successful maintenance of a dental implant. However, there is no consensus about the type and methodology for such instruments. The aim of this study was to characterize changes in the roughness of titanium surfaces treated by various scaling instruments.
Methods
Thirty-seven identical disks (5 mm in diameter) were investigated in this study. The specimens were divided into eight groups according to the types of instrumentation and the angle of application. Ultrasonic scaling systems were applied on a titanium disk to simulate standard clinical conditions. The equipment included a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler with a newly developed metallic tip (NS group), a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler with a conventional tip (CS group), a piezoelectric root planer ultrasonic scaler with a conventional tip (PR group), and a plastic hand curette (PH group). In addition, the sites treated using piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler systems were divided two sub-groups: 15 and 45 degrees. The treated titanium surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the average surface roughness (Ra) and mean roughness profile depth (Rz) were measured with a profilometer.
Results
SEM no significant changes in the titanium surfaces in the NS group, regardless of the angle of application. The PH group also showed no marked changes to the titanium surface, although some smoothening was observed. All CS and PR sites lost their original texture and showed irregular surfaces in SEM analysis. The profilometer analysis demonstrated that the roughness values (Ra and Rz) of the titanium surfaces increased in all, except the PH and NS groups, which showed roughness decreases relative to the untreated control group. The Ra value differed significantly between the NS and PR groups (P<0.05).
Conclusions
The results of this study indicated that changes in or damage to titanium surfaces might be more affected by the hardness of the scaler tip than by the application method. Within the limitations of this study, the newly developed metallic scaler tip might be especially suitable for peri-implant surface decontamination, due to its limited effects on the titanium surface.
doi:10.5051/jpis.2012.42.3.88
PMCID: PMC3395000  PMID: 22803010
Dental implants; Dental instruments; Peri-implantitis; Periodontal debridement
9.  Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Flooding: Changes in Risk Before, During and After Flooding Require Appropriate Public Health Interventions 
PLoS Currents  2014;6:ecurrents.dis.2b2eb9e15f9b982784938803584487f1.
Introduction While many of the acute risks posed by flooding and other disasters are well characterised, the burden of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and the wide range of ways in which this avoidable poisoning can occur around flooding episodes is poorly understood, particularly in Europe. The risk to health from CO may continue over extended periods of time after flooding and different stages of disaster impact and recovery are associated with different hazards. Methods A review of the literature was undertaken to describe the changing risk of CO poisoning throughout flooding/disaster situations. The key objectives were to identify published reports of flood-related carbon monoxide incidents that have resulted in a public health impact and to categorise these according to Noji’s Framework of Disaster Phases (Noji 1997); to summarise and review carbon monoxide incidents in Europe associated with flooding in order to understand the burden of CO poisoning associated with flooding and power outages; and to summarise those strategies in Europe which aim to prevent CO poisoning that have been published and/or evaluated. The review identified 23 papers which met its criteria. The team also reviewed and discussed relevant government and non-government guidance documents. This paper presents a summary of the outcomes and recommendations from this review of the literature. Results Papers describing poisonings can be considered in terms of the appliance/source of CO or the circumstances leading to poisoning.The specific circumstances identified which lead to CO poisoning during flooding and other disasters vary according to disaster phase. Three key situations were identified in which flooding can lead to CO poisoning; pre-disaster, emergency/recovery phase and post-recovery/delayed phase. These circumstances are described in detail with case studies. This classification of situations is important as different public health messages are more appropriate at different phases of a disaster. The burden of disease from poisoning caused by each potential source and at each phase of a disaster is different. CO poisoning is not compulsory and deaths associated with a flood but delayed for a period of months, for example due to a damaged boiler, may never be attributed to the flood as surveillance often ends once the floodwaters recede. The problem of under–reporting is crucial to our understanding of flooding-related poisoning. The indoor use of portable generators, cooking and heating appliances designed for use outdoors during periods of loss of mains power or gas is a particular problem. In the recovery phase, equipment for pumping, dehumidifying and drying out of properties poses a new risk. In the long term, mortality and morbidity associated with the renewed use of boilers which may have suffered covert damage in flooding is recognised but very difficult to quantify. Papers evaluating interventions were not found and where literature exists on prevention of CO poisoning in disaster situations, it is from the USA. Conclusions This paper for the first time describes the different risks of CO poisoning posed by the different phases of a disaster. There is a specific need to recognise that any room in a building can harbour a CO emitting appliance in flooding; wood burners and rarely used chimney flues may become particularly problematic following a flood. Recommendations 1) Public health workers and policy makers should consider establishing toolkits using the CDC toolkit approach; the acceptability of any intervention must be evaluated further to guide informed policy. 2) CO poisoning must form part of syndromic and event based surveillance systems for flooding and should be included in measures of the health impact of flooding. 3) CO monitors in the domestic environment should be sited not only in proximity to known CO emitters but also in locations where mobile or short term CO emitting appliances may be placed, including woodburners and infrequently used fireplaces.
doi:10.1371/currents.dis.2b2eb9e15f9b982784938803584487f1
PMCID: PMC4096798  PMID: 25045587
10.  Surface topography of composite restorative materials following ultrasonic scaling and its Impact on bacterial plaque accumulation. An in-vitro SEM study 
Background: This is an in vitro study to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling on the surface roughness and quantitative bacterial count on four different types of commonly used composite restorative materials for class V cavities.
Materials & Methods: Nanofilled, hybrid, silorane and flowable composites were tested. Forty extracted teeth served as specimen and were divided into 4 groups of 10 specimens, with each group receiving a different treatment and were examined by a Field emission scanning electron microscope. Bacterial suspension was then added to the pellicle-coated specimens, and then bacterial adhesion was analyzed by using image analyzing program.
Results: Flowable and silorane-based composites showed considerably smoother surfaces and lesser bacterial count in comparison to other types, proving that bacterial adhesion is directly proportional to surface roughness.
Conclusion: The use of ultrasonic scalers affects the surfaces of composite restorative materials. Routine periodontal scaling should be carried out very carefully, and polishing of the scaled surfaces may overcome the alterations in roughness, thus preventing secondary caries, surface staining, plaque accumulation and subsequent periodontal inflammation.
How to cite this article: Eid H A, Togoo R A, Saleh A A, Sumanth C R. Surface Topography of Composite Restorative Materials following Ultrasonic Scaling and its Impact on Bacterial Plaque Accumulation. An In-Vitro SEM Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):13-19.
PMCID: PMC3769865  PMID: 24155597
Surface roughness; Composites; Ultrasonic Scaling.
11.  Survey of the use of personal protective equipment and prevalence of work related symptoms among dental staff. 
OBJECTIVES: Dental instruments such as the right angle or straight handpiece, air turbine, and ultrasonic scaler have the ability to produce dental aerosols containing water, saliva, microorganisms, blood, tooth particles, lubricating oil, and restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to find out whether personal protective equipment (mask, glasses) was used by dental personnel, and to investigate possible work related disease in the dental profession. METHODS: Cross sectional data were collected with a self administered questionnaire sent to 69 randomly chosen general dental practices in the West Midlands Region. All members of the dental team completed questionnaires (dentists (n = 122); nurses (n = 115); hygienists (n = 86); and receptionists (n = 74) and answered questions on use of personal protective equipment and the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory tract, eye, and skin symptoms (reported and work related). Reception staff were included as a low exposure, control group. Also, a longitudinal study of dental hygienists was carried out on 31 people who had taken part in a similar study five years earlier. RESULTS: Use of a face mask and glasses differed between clinical groups with hygienists and nurses being the most and least prevalent users respectively. Although several reported symptoms were significantly more prevalent among clinical staff, only one work related symptom (skin rashes or itchy or dry skin) was reported by the clinical staff more than by the non-clinical receptionists. Among female clinical staff, age < 35 years and atopy were the factors that predisposed to work related symptoms. Also, reported symptoms were related to duration of use of instruments that generated aerosols. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a low level of work related symptoms in dentistry, but highlights a group vulnerable to prolonged exposures to dental aerosols. It also supports the need for enforcement of the use of personal protective equipment among dental nurses.
PMCID: PMC1128662  PMID: 9072020
12.  Incidence of cancer among Norwegian boiler welders. 
OBJECTIVES: The cancer incidence among 2957 boiler welders was investigated. The subjects were registered electrical welders from 1942 to 1981. A subcohort of 606 stainless steel welders was studied separately. METHODS: The investigation was a historical prospective cohort study based on a national registry. The loss of follow up was 4.9%. RESULTS: There were 625 deaths (659 expected). There were 269 cancer cases (264 expected). An excess of lung cancer was found; 50 cases v 37.5 expected. There were three cases of pleural mesotheliomas v 1.1 expected. The subcohort of stainless steel welders had six cases of lung cancer v 5.8 expected, and one case of pleural mesothelioma v 0.2 expected. CONCLUSIONS: The welders in the study were assumed to represent a qualified work force. These welders had a small excess risk of lung cancer. The excess risk did not seem to be associated with stainless steel welding. Smoking and asbestos exposure were potential confounders.
PMCID: PMC1128455  PMID: 8664959
13.  Vehicle-Dependent Disposition Kinetics of Fluoranthene in Fisher-344 Rats 
The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a result of cigarette smoking, consumption of contaminated food and water, heating woods in stoves and boilers, industrial sources such as coal gasification, carbon and graphite electrode manufacturing. Adult male Fisher-344 rats were given single oral doses of 25 and 50 μg/kg FLA in tricaprylin, peanut oil, cod liver oil, Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5) and 2% Alkamuls-EL620 through gavage. After administration, the rats were housed individually in metabolic cages and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours post FLA exposure. Blood, lung, liver, small intestine, adipose tissue samples, urine, and feces were collected at each time point. Samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, chloroform, and water. The extracts were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC, equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed a dose-dependent increase in FLA concentrations in plasma and tissues for all the vehicles used. Plasma and tissue FLA concentrations were greater for peanut oil; cod liver oil, and tricaprylin vehicles compared to Alkamuls (p < 0.05), and Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5). Most of the FLA administered through peanut oil, cod liver oil and tricaprylin was cleared from the body by 8 hours (90%) and 12 hours (80%) post administration for the 25 μg/kg and 50 μg/kg dose groups, respectively. With both doses employed, the metabolism of FLA was highest when cod liver oil was used as a vehicle and lowest in vehicles containing detergent/water [cod liver oil > peanut oil > tricaprylin > alkamuls > Tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5)]. These findings suggest that uptake and elimination of FLA is accelerated when administered through oil-based vehicles. The low uptake of FLA from Alkamuls and Tween 80/isotonic saline may have been a result of the poor solubility of the chemical. In summary, our findings reiterate that absorption characteristics of FLA were governed by the dose as well as the dosing vehicle. The vehicle-dependent bioavailability of FLA suggests a need for the judicious selection of vehicles in evaluating oral toxicity studies for risk assessment purposes.
PMCID: PMC2760079  PMID: 18441404
Fluoranthene; pharmacokinetics; absorption; tricaprylin; peanut oil; cod liver oil; and Alkamuls
14.  Vehicle-Dependent Disposition Kinetics of Fluoranthene in Fisher-344 Rats 
The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a result of cigarette smoking, consumption of contaminated food and water, heating woods in stoves and boilers, industrial sources such as coal gasification, carbon and graphite electrode manufacturing. Adult male Fisher-344 rats were given single oral doses of 25 and 50 μg/kg FLA in tricaprylin, peanut oil, cod liver oil, tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5) and 2% Alkamuls-EL620 through gavage. After administration, the rats were housed individually in metabolic cages and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours post FLA exposure. Blood, lung, liver, small intestine, adipose tissue samples, urine, and feces were collected at each time point. Samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, chloroform, and water. The extracts were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC, equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed a dose-dependent increase in FLA concentrations in plasma and tissues for all the vehicles used. Plasma and tissue FLA concentrations were greater for peanut oil; cod liver oil, and tricaprylin vehicles compared to Alkamuls (p < 0.05), and tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5). Most of the FLA administered through peanut oil, cod liver oil and tricaprylin was cleared from the body by 8 hours (90%) and 12 hours (80%) post administration for the 25 μg/kg and 50 μg/kg dose groups, respectively. With both doses employed, the metabolism of FLA was highest when cod liver oil was used as a vehicle and lowest in vehicles containing detergent/water [cod liver oil > peanut oil > tricaprylin > alkamuls > tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5)]. These findings suggest that uptake and elimination of FLA is accelerated when administered through oil-based vehicles. The low uptake of FLA from alkamuls and tween 80/isotonic saline may have been a result of the poor solubility of the chemical. In summary, our findings reiterate that absorption characteristics of FLA were governed by the dose as well as the dosing vehicle. The vehicle-dependent bioavailability of FLA suggests a need for the judicious selection of vehicles in evaluating oral toxicity studies for risk assessment purposes.
PMCID: PMC2760079  PMID: 18441404
Fluoranthene; pharmacokinetics; absorption; tricaprylin; peanut oil; cod liver oil; and alkamuls
15.  Changes in lung function after exposure to vanadium compounds in fuel oil ash 
ABSTRACT Seventeen men were studied during the cleaning of bottom ash from the boiler of an oil-fired electricity generating station. The men were exposed to a time weighted average respirable dust (<10 μ) of 523 μg/m3, containing 15·3% vanadium. Sixteen of the men wore respirators, subsequently found to have peak leakages of up to 9%, while one volunteer had a one-hour exposure wearing only a compressed paper oronasal mask. Symptoms experienced by the men were recorded, urine samples were collected for assessment of vanadium concentration 24 hours after the first exposure, and spirometry was performed daily for four days and on the eight day. Pronounced reductions in forced vital capacity (mean 0·5 l), forced expiratory volume (mean 0·5 l), and forced mid-expiratory flow (mean 1·16 l/s) had occurred within 24 hours of first exposure to the dust, and had not returned to pre-exposure levels by the eight day. Four weeks after exposure no residual deficits were present. A urinary vanadium concentration of 280 μg/l was found in the volunteer, but none of the others had concentrations above the test-threshold of 40 μg/l. Symptoms and signs of airway irritation were noted. The timing, duration, and quality of changes in lung function, however, indicated that the response could not be attributed solely to a reflex bronchial reaction to irritation by an inert dust.
PMCID: PMC1008704  PMID: 7426476
16.  Effects of ultrasonic instrumentation with different scaler-tip angulations on the shear bond strength and bond failure mode of metallic orthodontic brackets 
Korean Journal of Orthodontics  2014;44(1):44-49.
Objective
To evaluate the effects of ultrasonic instrumentation with different scaler-tip angulations on the shear bond strength (SBS) and bond failure mode of metallic orthodontic brackets.
Methods
Adhesive pre-coated metallic brackets were bonded to 72 extracted human premolars embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 24 each) to undergo no treatment (control group) or ultrasonic instrumentation with a scaler-tip angulation of 45° (45°-angulation group) or 0° (0°-angulation group). SBS was tested in a universal testing machine, and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were recorded. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis.
Results
The control group had a significantly higher mean SBS value than the treated groups, which showed no significant differences in their mean SBS values. The ARI scores were not significantly different among the groups.
Conclusions
Ultrasonic instrumentation around the bracket base reduces the SBS of metallic orthodontic brackets, emphasizing the need for caution during professional oral hygiene procedures in orthodontic patients. The scaler-tip angulation does not influence the SBS reduction and bond failure mode of such brackets.
doi:10.4041/kjod.2014.44.1.44
PMCID: PMC3915176  PMID: 24511515
Bracket; Bonding; Oral hygiene; Ultrasonics
17.  Grand Rounds: Asbestos-Related Pericarditis in a Boiler Operator 
Context
Occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos remain a public health problem even in developed countries. Because of the long latency in asbestos-related pathology, past asbestos exposure continues to contribute to incident disease. Asbestos most commonly produces pulmonary pathology, with asbestos-related pleural disease as the most common manifestation. Although the pleurae and pericardium share certain histologic characteristics, asbestos-related pericarditis is rarely reported.
Case presentation
We present a 59-year-old man who worked around boilers for almost 30 years and was eventually determined to have calcific, constrictive pericarditis. He initially presented with an infectious exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Chest radiographs demonstrated pleural and pericardial calcifications. Further evaluation with cardiac catheterization showed a hemodynamic picture consistent with constrictive pericarditis. A high-resolution computerized tomography scan of the chest demonstrated dense calcification in the pericardium, right pleural thickening and nodularity, right pleural plaque without calcification, and density in the right middle lobe. Pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction and borderline low diffusing capacity.
Discussion
Based on the patient’s occupational history, the presence of pleural pathology consistent with asbestos, previous evidence that asbestos can affect the pericardium, and absence of other likely explanations, we concluded that his pericarditis was asbestos-related.
Relevance to clinical practice
Similar to pleural thickening and plaque formation, asbestos may cause progressive fibrosis of the pericardium.
doi:10.1289/ehp.10354
PMCID: PMC2199309  PMID: 18197304
asbestos; boiler operators; calcific pericarditis; constrictive pericarditis; extrapulmonary
18.  Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. 1. Thermal environment 
Collins, K. J., Eddy, T. P., Lee, D. E., and Swann, P. G. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 237-245. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. I. Thermal environment. Investigations were made on board a modern, air-conditioned oil tanker (S.S. Esso Newcastle) en route to the Persian Gulf in July to August 1967 in order to study thermal conditions in the working environment, and the nutritional status of the crew, and to examine the interrelationship between climate and nutritional balance. In this introductory paper an account is given of the aims and design of the experiments together with details of the environmental survey.
The voyage round Africa lasted one month, with high ambient temperatures of 37·7°C dry bulb, 30·8°C wet bulb (100/87°F) occurring only on the last few days into and out of the Persian Gulf. Mean accommodation temperature was maintained in the zone of comfort throughout, and at 23·9°C (75°F) Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) in the Gulf. On a previous voyage in a tanker without air-conditioning CETs up to 31·6°C (89°F) had been recorded in the accommodation in the same ambient conditions. With exposure to high solar radiation in the Gulf, the deck officer's cabins and bridge house in the upper superstructure became uncomfortably warm (CET exceeding 26·6°C (80°F)) and in these temperatures skilled performance is likely to deteriorate.
The main thermal problems in the working environment were associated with the engine and boiler rooms which were consistently 11 to 17°C (20 to 30°F) higher than ambient temperature. For personnel on watch, the levels of heat stress were high but not intolerable if advantage was taken of the air blowers. Conditions under which emergency or repair tasks were carried out in very hot engine-room spaces were examined and often found to allow only a small margin of safety. Predicted average tolerance times were deduced from the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) scale of heat stress. Additional safeguards in these work situations could include the use of a WBGT meter and self-contained air-conditioned protective clothing, and the provision of air-conditioned cubicles.
The CET and WBGT heat stress indices were compared in a wide range of climates with Predicted 4-hr Sweat Rates (P4SR) from 0·1 to 4·9. The regressions of WBGT on P4SR and CET on P4SR were best fitted by quadratic relationships, but the WBGT regression approximated more closely to linearity under the conditions of the present survey.
Images
PMCID: PMC1069500  PMID: 5557844
19.  Development of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for the Biomass Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Power Plant 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:989242.
This study makes use of this distinction to analyze the exhaust gas concentration and fuel of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler that mainly uses wood biomass, and to develop the emission factors of Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O). The fuels used as energy sources in the subject working sites are Wood Chip Fuel (WCF), RDF and Refused Plastic Fuel (RPF) of which heating values are 11.9 TJ/Gg, 17.1 TJ/Gg, and 31.2 TJ/Gg, respectively. The average concentrations of CH4 and N2O were measured to be 2.78 ppm and 7.68 ppm, respectively. The analyzed values and data collected from the field survey were used to calculate the emission factor of CH4 and N2O exhausted from the CFB boiler. As a result, the emission factors of CH4 and N2O are 1.4 kg/TJ (0.9–1.9 kg/TJ) and 4.0 kg/TJ (2.9–5.3 kg/TJ) within a 95% confidence interval. Biomass combined with the combustion technology for the CFB boiler proved to be more effective in reducing the N2O emission, compared to the emission factor of the CFB boiler using fossil fuel.
doi:10.1100/2012/989242
PMCID: PMC3540757  PMID: 23365540
20.  Calculation of Reaction Forces in the Boiler Supports Using the Method of Equivalent Stiffness of Membrane Wall 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:392048.
The values of reaction forces in the boiler supports are the basis for the dimensioning of bearing steel structure of steam boiler. In this paper, the application of the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall is proposed for the calculation of reaction forces. The method of equalizing displacement, as the method of homogenization of membrane wall stiffness, was applied. On the example of “Milano” boiler, using the finite element method, the calculation of reactions in the supports for the real geometry discretized by the shell finite element was made. The second calculation was performed with the assumption of ideal stiffness of membrane walls and the third using the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall. In the third case, the membrane walls are approximated by the equivalent orthotropic plate. The approximation of membrane wall stiffness is achieved using the elasticity matrix of equivalent orthotropic plate at the level of finite element. The obtained results were compared, and the advantages of using the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall for the calculation of reactions in the boiler supports were emphasized.
doi:10.1155/2014/392048
PMCID: PMC4052505  PMID: 24959612
21.  Mutagenicity in emissions from coal- and oil-fired boilers. 
The mutagenicity of emission samples from three oil-fired and four coal-fired boilers have been compared by using the Salmonella/microsome assay. Very little or no mutagenic activity was observed in samples from five of these boilers. The sample from one oil-fired boiler showed mutagenic activity of about 500 revertants/MJ, and the sample from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor had an activity of 58,000 revertants/MJ measured with strain TA 98 in the absence of metabolic activation. All samples contained substances that were cytotoxic to the test bacteria, thus making it difficult to obtain linear dose-response curves. Mutagenic activity at low levels may remain undetected due to this toxicity of the samples. Samples with mutagenic activity below the detection limit in the Salmonella test have also been tested for forward mutations at the HGPRT locus in V79 hamster cells. Weak mutagenic effects were detected in two of the samples, whereas the sample from one oil-fired boiler remained negative. In this test, as well as in the Salmonella test, a strong cytotoxic effect could be observed with all samples.
PMCID: PMC1569406  PMID: 6825617
22.  Efficacy of various cleansing techniques on dentin wettability and its influence on shear bond strength of a resin luting agent 
PURPOSE
To evaluate the shear bond strength of resin luting agent to dentin surfaces cleansed with different agents like pumice, ultrasonic scaler with chlorhexidine gluconate, EDTA and the influence of these cleansing methods on wetting properties of the dentin by Axisymmetric drop Shape Analysis - Contact Diameter technique (ADSA-CD).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Forty coronal portions of human third molar were prepared until dentin was exposed. Specimens were divided into two groups: Group A and Group B. Provisional restorations made with autopolymerizing resin were luted to dentin surface with zinc oxide eugenol in Group A and with freegenol cement in Group B. All specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hrs and provisional cements were mechanically removed with explorer and rinsed with water and cleansed using various methods (Control-air-water spray, Pumice prophylaxis, Ultrasonic scaler with 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate, 17% EDTA). Contact angle measurements were performed to assess wettability of various cleansing agents using the ADSA-CD technique. Bond strength of a resin luting agent bonded to the cleansed surface was assessed using Instron testing machine and the mode of failure noted. SEM was done to assess the surface cleanliness. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with Tukey HSD tests (α=.05).
RESULTS
Specimens treated with EDTA showed the highest shear bond strength and the lowest contact angle for both groups. SEM showed that EDTA was the most effective solution to remove the smear layer. Also, mode of failure seen was predominantly cohesive for both EDTA and pumice prophylaxis.
CONCLUSION
EDTA was the most effective dentin cleansing agent among the compared groups.
doi:10.4047/jap.2012.4.3.139
PMCID: PMC3439623  PMID: 22977721
EDTA; Dental bonding; Microscopy; Electron; Scanning; Wettability; Zinc-oxide Eugenol cement; Shear strength
23.  The effect of pretreating resorbable blast media titanium discs with an ultrasonic scaler or toothbrush on the bacterial removal efficiency of brushing 
Purpose
This in vitro study was performed to assess the adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis to a resorbable blast media (RBM) titanium surface pretreated with an ultrasonic scaler or toothbrush and to evaluate the effects of the treatment of the RBM titanium discs on the bacterial removal efficiency of brushing by crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy.
Methods
RBM titanium discs were pretreated with one of several ultrasonic scaler tips or cleaned with a toothbrush. Then the titanium discs were incubated with P. gingivalis and the quantity of adherent bacteria was compared. The disc surfaces incubated with bacteria were brushed with a toothbrush with dentifrice. Bacteria remaining on the disc surfaces were quantified.
Results
A change in morphology of the surface of the RBM titanium discs after different treatments was noted. There were no significant differences in the adherence of bacteria on the pretreated discs according to the treatment modality. Pretreatment with various instruments did not produce significant differences in the bacterial removal efficiency of brushing with dentifrice.
Conclusions
Within the limits of this study, various types of mechanical instrumentation were shown to cause mechanical changes on the RBM titanium surface but did not show a significant influence on the adherence of bacteria and removal efficiency of brushing.
doi:10.5051/jpis.2013.43.6.301
PMCID: PMC3891862  PMID: 24455443
Bacteria; Dental scaling; Scanning electron microscopy; Surface properties; Titanium; Toothbrushing
24.  Assessment of subjective intensity of pain during ultrasonic supragingival calculus removal: A comparative study 
Background:
The background of the following study is to measure the subjective intensity of pain using the verbal rating scale (VRS) during supragingival scaling in relation to mandibular anteriors, with an ultrasonic scaler, with 2 different inserts (Slimline and Focus spray)- split mouth study.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 30 subjects with a combination of 17 males and 13 females with the chronic generalized gingivitis with a minimum calculus score of 1 (CSSI – Ennever J 1961) who reported to Department of Periodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore were chosen for the study. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive scaler unit CAVITRON BOBCAT PRO®– (DENTSPLY) with maximum power setting at 130A and 25kHZ frequency with 2 different inserts i.e., Slim line insert and Focus spray (DENTSPLY) were used for supragingival scaling in the study. A VRS was used to assess the subjective intensity of pain.
Results:
There was no statistically significant difference in pain perception when the scores were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. VRS rating scores with slimline inserts showed a pain intensity of 2 in 43.3%, 1 in 53.3% and 0 in 3.3%, whereas the focus spray insert showed a pain intensity of 1 in 23.3% and 0 in 76.7%. Statistical analysis showed a P = 0.251 and a z - 1.147a.
Conclusions:
The use of both Slim line insert and Focus spray inserts when used at same settings of the scaling unit, showed no statistical significant difference in the intensity of pain perceived and it showed no correlation between patient acceptance and their pain perception.
doi:10.4103/0972-124X.138698
PMCID: PMC4158589  PMID: 25210262
Focus spray; slim line; verbal rating scale
25.  Ultramorphology of the root surface subsequent to hand-ultrasonic simultaneous instrumentation during non-surgical periodontal treatments. An in vitro study 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultramorphology of the root surfaces induced by mechanical instrumentation performed using conventional curettes or piezoelectric scalers when used single-handedly or with a combined technique.
Material and Methods
Thirty single-rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 groups: Group A, instrumentation with curettes; Group B instrumentation with titanium nitride coated periodontal tip mounted in a piezoelectric handpiece; Group C, combined technique with curette/ultrasonic piezoelectric instrumentation. The specimens were processed and analyzed using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Differences between the different groups of instrumentation were determined using Pearson’s χ 2 with significance predetermined at α=0.001.
Results
Periodontal scaling and root planing performed with curettes, ultrasonic or combined instrumentation induced several morphological changes on the root surface. The curettes produced a compact and thick multilayered smear layer, while the morphology of the root surfaces after ultrasonic scaler treatment appeared irregular with few grooves and a thin smear layer. The combination of curette/ultrasonic instrumentation showed exposed root dentin tubules with a surface morphology characterized by the presence of very few grooves and slender remnants of smear layer which only partially covered the root dentin. In some cases, it was also possible to observe areas with exposed collagen fibrils.
Conclusion
The curette-ultrasonic simultaneous instrumentation may combine the beneficial effects of each instrument in a single technique creating a root surface relatively free from the physical barrier of smear layer and dentin tubules orifices partial occlusion.
doi:10.1590/S1678-77572011000100015
PMCID: PMC4245868  PMID: 21437474
Cementum; Periodontics; Scaling; Smear layer; Microscopy electron scanning; Confocal laser scanning microscopy

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