To report results from a national survey of coordinators and managers of clinical research studies in the US on their perceptions of and experiences with scientific misconduct.
Data were collected using the Scientific Misconduct Questionnaire‐Revised. Eligible responses were received from 1645 of 5302 (31%) surveys sent to members of the Association of Clinical Research Professionals and to subscribers of Research Practitioner, published by the Center for Clinical Research Practice, between February 2004 and January 2005.
Overall, the perceived frequency of misconduct was low. Differences were noted between workplaces with regard to perceived pressures on investigators and research coordinators, and on the effectiveness of the regulatory environment in reducing misconduct. First‐hand experience with an incident of misconduct was reported by 18% of respondents. Those with first‐hand knowledge of misconduct were more likely to report working in an academic medical setting, and to report that a typical research coordinator would probably do nothing if aware that a principal investigator or research staff member was involved in an incident of misconduct.
These findings expand the knowledge on scientific misconduct by adding new information from the perspective of research coordinators. The findings provide some data supporting the influence of workplace climate on misconduct and also on the perceived effectiveness of institutional policies to reduce scientific misconduct.
The learning environment of a medical school has a significant impact on students' achievements and learning outcomes. The importance of equitable learning environments across programme sites is implicit in distributed undergraduate medical programmes being developed and implemented.
To study the learning environment and its equity across two classes and three geographically separate sites of a distributed medical programme at the University of British Columbia Medical School that commenced in 2004.
The validated Dundee Ready Educational Environment Survey was sent to all students in their 2nd and 3rd year (classes graduating in 2009 and 2008) of the programme. The domains of the learning environment surveyed were: students' perceptions of learning, students' perceptions of teachers, students' academic self-perceptions, students' perceptions of the atmosphere, and students' social self-perceptions. Mean scores, frequency distribution of responses, and inter- and intrasite differences were calculated.
The perception of the global learning environment at all sites was more positive than negative. It was characterised by a strongly positive perception of teachers. The work load and emphasis on factual learning were perceived negatively. Intersite differences within domains of the learning environment were more evident in the pioneer class (2008) of the programme. Intersite differences consistent across classes were largely related to on-site support for students.
Shared strengths and weaknesses in the learning environment at UBC sites were evident in areas that were managed by the parent institution, such as the attributes of shared faculty and curriculum. A greater divergence in the perception of the learning environment was found in domains dependent on local arrangements and social factors that are less amenable to central regulation. This study underlines the need for ongoing comparative evaluation of the learning environment at the distributed sites and interaction between leaders of these sites.
distributed programme; satellite sites; learning environment; technology enabled learning; evaluation
Purpose: To examine academically dishonest behaviours based on physical therapy (PT) students' current practices and educators' prior behaviours as PT students. Method: A Web-based questionnaire was sent to 174 students and 250 educators from the PT programme at the University of Toronto. The questionnaire gathered data on demographics as well as on the prevalence of, seriousness of, and contributing factors to academic dishonesty (AD). Results: In all, 52.4% of educators and 44.3% of students responded to the questionnaire over a 6-week data-collection period. Scenarios rated the most serious were the least frequently performed by educators and students. The impact of generation on attitudes and prevalence of AD was not significant. The factors most commonly reported as contributing to AD were school-related pressure, disagreement with evaluation methods, and the perception that “everyone else does it.” Conclusion: This study parallels the findings of similar research conducted in other health care programmes: AD does occur within the PT curriculum. AD was more prevalent in situations associated with helping peers than in those associated with personal gain. The consistency in behaviours reported across generations suggests that some forms of cheating are accepted as the social norm and may be a function of the environment.
education; professional; plagiarism; attitude; curriculum; physiothérapie; formation professionnelle; plagiat; comportement; contenu de cours; curriculum
AIM: To compare the attitudes of students towards the necropsy at different stages of their undergraduate career. METHOD: Students in the first, fourth and sixth academic years (n = 283) were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire comprised of 26 attitude statements. These statements dealt with the importance of the necropsy in medicine, rapport with the bereaved family and emotional reactions to the necropsy. RESULTS: Of the students, 226 (80%) completed the questionnaire. Overall, the students agreed on/the importance of the necropsy. The three groups differed in 10 statements on the approach to the bereaved family and emotional reactions to the necropsy. First year students showed more personal involvement and would have more difficulties in approaching the family of the deceased as well as in attending a necropsy. These reactions were increasingly less noticeable with fourth and sixth year students. The latter group was also more inclined to accept cremation, organ donation and necropsy of their own corpses. CONCLUSION: The changes in attitudes towards the necropsy throughout undergraduate study may reflect both the influence of psychological defense mechanisms and the viewing of necropsy as a relevant tool in medical practice. Necropsy should be carefully and sensitively incorporated into programmes designed to teach students about death and dying. This might reduce both their reluctance to seek permission for necropsy and their difficulty in looking after the dying patient.
OBJECTIVES: To study and describe how a group of senior researchers and a group of postgraduate students perceived the so-called "grey zone" between normal scientific practice and obvious misconduct. DESIGN: A questionnaire concerning various practices including dishonesty and obvious misconduct. The answers were obtained by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS). The central (two quarters) of the VAS were designated as a grey zone. SETTING: A Swedish medical faculty. SURVEY SAMPLE: 30 senior researchers and 30 postgraduate students. RESULTS: Twenty of the senior researchers and 25 of the postgraduate students answered the questionnaire. In five cases out of 14 the senior researchers' median was found to be clearly within the interval of the grey zone, compared with three cases for the postgraduate students. Three examples of experienced misconduct were provided. Compared with postgraduate students, established researchers do not call for more research ethical guidelines and restrictions. CONCLUSION: Although the results indicate that consensus exists regarding certain obvious types of misconduct the response pattern also indicates that there is no general consensus on several procedures.
Most reports of scientific misconduct have been focused on principal investigators and other scientists (e.g., biostatisticians) involved in the research enterprise. However, by virtue of their position, research coordinators are often closest to the research field where much of misconduct occurs.
To describe research coordinators’ experiences with scientific misconduct in their clinical environment.
The descriptive design was embedded in a larger, cross-sectional national survey. A total of 266 respondents, predominately registered nurses, who answered yes to having first hand knowledge of scientific misconduct in the past year provided open-ended question responses.
Content analysis was conducted by the research team, ensuring agreement of core categories and subcategories of misconduct.
Research coordinators most commonly learned about misconduct via first-hand witness of the event, with the principal investigator being the person most commonly identified as the responsible party. Five major categories of misconduct were identified: protocol violations, consent violations, fabrication, falsification, and financial conflict of interest. In 70% of cases, the misconduct was reported. In the majority of instances where misconduct was reported, some action was taken. However, in approximately 14% of cases, no action or investigation ensued; in 6.5% of cases the coordinator was either fired or resigned.
The study demonstrates the need to expand definitions of scientific misconduct beyond fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism to include other practices. The importance of the ethical climate in the institution in ensuring a safe environment to report and an environment where evidence is reviewed cannot be overlooked.
scientific misconduct; research coordinators; institutional climate
The increase in overall rates of cesarean sections (CS) in Brazil causes concern and it appears that multiple factors are involved in this fact. In 2009, undergraduate students in the first and final years of medical school at the University of Santa Catarina answered questionnaires regarding their choice of mode of delivery. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the education process affects decision-making regarding the waay of childbirth preferred by medical students.
A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted based on data obtained from questionnaires applied to medical students. The questions addressed four different scenarios in childbirth, as follows: under an uneventful pregnancy; the mode of delivery for a pregnant woman under their care; the best choice as a healthcare manager and lastly, choosing the birth of their own child. For each circumstance, there was an open question to explain their choice.
A total of 189 students answered the questionnaires. For any uneventful pregnancy and for a pregnant woman under their care, 8.46% of the students would opt for CS. As a healthcare manager, only 2.64% of the students would recommend CS. For these three scenarios, the answers of the students in the first year did not differ from those given by students in the sixth year. In the case of the student’s own or a partner’s pregnancy, 41.4% of those in the sixth year and 16.8% of those in the first year would choose a CS. A positive association was found between being a sixth year student and a personal preference for CS according to logistic regression (OR = 2.91; 95%CI: 1.03–8.30). Pain associated with vaginal delivery was usually the reason for choosing a CS.
A higher number of sixth year students preferred a CS for their own pregnancy (or their partner’s) compared to first year students. Pain associated with vaginal delivery was the most common reason given for haven chosen a CS. The students’ preference for childbirth changed over time during their graduation in favor of cesarean sections. This finding deserves considerable attention when structuring medical education in Obstetrics.
Cesarean section; Women’s healthcare; Medical education; Obstetrics
Obesity, an increasing problem worldwide, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Management principally requires lifestyle (i.e. behavioural) changes. An evidence-base exists of behaviour change techniques for weight loss; however, in routine practice doctors are often unsure about effective treatments and commonly use theoretically-unfounded communication strategies (e.g. information-giving). It is not known if communication skills teaching during undergraduate training adequately prepares future doctors to engage in effective behaviour change talk with patients. The aim of the study was to examine which behaviour change techniques medical undergraduates use to facilitate lifestyle adjustments in obese patients.
Forty-eight medical trainees in their clinical years of a UK medical school conducted two simulated consultations each. Both consultations involved an obese patient scenario where weight loss was indicated. Use of simulated patients (SPs) ensured standardisation of key variables (e.g. barriers to behaviour change). Presentation of scenario order was counterbalanced. Following each consultation, students assessed the techniques they perceived themselves to have used. SPs rated the extent to which they intended to make behavioural changes and why. Anonymised transcripts of the audiotaped consultations were coded by independent assessors, blind to student and SP ratings, using a validated behaviour change taxonomy.
Students reported using a wide range of evidence-based techniques. In contrast, codings of observed communication behaviours were limited. SPs behavioural intention varied and a range of helpful elements of student’s communication were revealed.
Current skills-based communication programmes do not adequately prepare future doctors for the growing task of facilitating weight management. Students are able to generalise some communication skills to these encounters, but are over confident and have limited ability to use evidence-based theoretically informed techniques. They recognise this as a learning need. Educators will need to tackle the challenges of integrating theoretically informed and evidence based behaviour change talk within medical training.
Behaviour change; Obesity; Undergraduate
Despite recommendations that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) familiarization should be offered to UK medical students, in Wales little such teaching was offered. We decided to assess medical students’ knowledge of CAMs, perceived training needs in CAMs, their view of its role in the National Health Service (NHS) and current teaching given. Analysis of data from a questionnaire given to medical students and direct questioning of senior academic medical school staff in Cardiff and Swansea Medical Schools was carried out. The participants comprised 78 first year medical students in the undergraduate entry program in Cardiff and 58 first year medical students from the graduate entry program in Swansea. Senior academic medical school staff at Cardiff and Swansea Medical Schools were asked about current CAM teaching. Results revealed that 32% of undergraduate entry students (UGES) had previous knowledge of CAMs compared with 51% of graduate entry students (GES). Of the UGES, 62% believed they should be taught about CAM's compared with 94% of GES. Of UGES 31% felt that CAMs have a role in the NHS compared with 50% of GES. None of the students had received teaching about CAMs and little formal CAM teaching is currently included in the curricula at each site. The majority of medical students in Wales would like to receive CAM teaching and significant numbers support a role for CAMs in the NHS. Little formal teaching is currently provided.
CAM teaching; medical students; integrated healthcare
OBJECTIVE--To assess the knowledge and attitudes of medical students to HIV/AIDS and whether attitudes correlate with knowledge and clinical experience. To determine if students felt adequately prepared to deal with medical and psychological aspects of HIV/AIDS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS--The subjects consisted of 190 London and 99 Cambridge medical students at the end of their genitourinary medicine attachment, plus 230 Cambridge medical students at the end of their second pre-clinical year. Between March 1991 and February 1992 all were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire, covering factual knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. MAIN RESULTS--Cambridge genitourinary medicine students, despite spending less time studying HIV infection than their London counterparts gave more correct answers to the factual questions, although this difference did not reach significance (52.4% vs. 47.5%, p = 0.14). One third of students believed that many health care workers were at high risk of acquiring HIV at work and one fifth thought doctors should have the right to refuse to treat people with HIV. Fourteen percent of Cambridge genitourinary medicine students indicated that most British people with HIV have only themselves to blame, by comparison with 4% of London students (p = 0.003). Thirty-nine per cent of Cambridge genitourinary medicine students expressed reluctance to care for someone with AIDS by comparison with 10% of London students (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS--It is important that medical educators convey accurate information about HIV, including the actual risks posed by occupational exposure and try to ensure that medical students spend sufficient time seeing patients with HIV/AIDS during their training.
To evaluate self-assessed level of clinical skills of graduating medical students at Zagreb University School of Medicine and compare them with clinical skill levels expected by their teachers and those defined by a criterion standard.
The study included all medical students (n = 252) graduating from the Zagreb University School of Medicine in the 2004-2005 academic year and faculty members (n = 129) teaching clinical skills. The participants completed anonymous questionnaire listing 99 clinical skills divided into nine groups. Students were asked to assess their clinical skills on a 0-5 scale, and faculty members were asked to assess the minimum necessary level of clinical skills expected from graduating medical students, using the same 0-5 scale. We compared the assessment scores of faculty members with students’ self-assessment scores. Participants were grouped according to their descriptive characteristics for further comparison.
The response rate was 91% for students and 70% for faculty members. Students’ self-assessment scores in all nine groups of clinical skills ranged from 2.2 ± 0.8 to 3.8 ± 0.5 and were lower than those defined by the criterion standard (3.0-4.0) and those expected by teachers (from 3.1 ± 1.0 to 4.4 ± 0.5) (P<0.001 for all). Students who had additional clinical skills training had higher scores in all groups of skills, ranging from 2.6 ± 0.9 to 4.0 ± 0.5 (P<0.001 for all). Male students had higher scores than female students in emergency (P<0.001), neurology (P = 0.017), ear, nose, and throat (P = 0.002), urology (P = 0.003), and surgery skills (P = 0.002). Teachers’ expectations did not vary according to their sex, academic position, or specialty.
Students’ self-assessed level of clinical skills was lower than that expected by their teachers. Education during clinical rotations is not focused on acquiring clinical skills, and additional clinical skills training has a positive influence on students’ self-assessed level of clinical skills. There was no consensus among teachers on the required level of students’ clinical skills.
Measuring professionalism in undergraduate medical students is a difficult process, and no one method has currently emerged as the definitive means of assessment in this field. Student skills in reflection have been shown to be highly important in the development of professional behaviours. By studying student reflections on lapses in professional judgement, recorded as 'critical incidents', it is possible to explore themes which are significant for the development of professional behaviour in an undergraduate setting.
We examined critical incident reporting combined with optional written student reflection as a method for exploring professionalism in undergraduate medical students. 228 students split between Year 1 and 2 of one academic year of undergraduate medicine were studied retrospectively and a grounded theory approach to analysis was employed.
This year generated 16 critical incident reports and corresponding student reflections, all of which were considered. In addition to identifying the nature of the critical incidents, 3 principal themes emerged. These were the impact and consequences of the report having been made, student reactions to the events (both positive and negative), and student responses regarding future actions.
This study indicates that unprofessional behaviour can be identified and challenged by both the faculty and the students involved, and suggests that positive behavioural changes might be made with the aim of preventing future occurrences. We provide a low cost approach of measuring and recording professional behaviour.
During the last decades research has disclosed gender differences and gender bias in different fields of academic and clinical medicine. Consequently, a gender perspective has been asked for in medical curricula and medical education. However, in reports about implementation attempts, difficulties and reluctance have been described. Since teachers are key persons when introducing new issues we surveyed physician teachers' attitudes towards the importance of gender in professional relations. We also analyzed if gender of the physician is related to these attitudes.
Questionnaires were sent to all 468 senior physicians (29 % women), at the clinical departments and in family medicine, engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on five visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of physician and student gender in clinical tutoring, and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
The response rate was 65 %. The physicians rated gender more important in consultation than in clinical tutoring. There were significant differences between women and men in all investigated areas also when adjusting for speciality, age, academic degree and years in the profession. A higher proportion of women than men assessed gender as important in professional relationships. Those who assessed very low were all men while both men and women were represented among those with high ratings.
To implement a gender perspective in medical education it is necessary that both male and female teachers participate and embrace gender aspects as important. To facilitate implementation and to convince those who are indifferent, this study indicates that special efforts are needed to motivate men. We suggest that men with an interest in gender issues should be involved in this work. Further research is needed to find out how such male-oriented endeavours should be outlined.
gender attitudes; gender differences; medical education; medical curricula; physicians.
How medical students learn and develop the characteristics associated with good teaching in medicine is not well known. Information about this process can improve the academic preparation of medical students for teaching responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to determine how different experiences contributed to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of medical school graduates and students regarding medical teaching.
A questionnaire was developed, addressing reliability and validity considerations, and given to first year residents and third year medical students (taught by those residents). Completed questionnaires were collected from 76 residents and 110 students (81% of the sample group). Item responses were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Most residents (n = 54; 71%) positively viewed opportunities they had to practice teaching when they were seniors. Residents rated three activities for learning to teach highest: (1) observing teachers as they teach; (2) reviewing the material to be taught; and (3) directly teaching students; representing both individual and participatory ways of learning. Residents' self ratings of teaching behaviours improved over time and this self assessment by the residents was validated by the students' responses. Comparison between residents' self ratings and students' views of typical resident teaching behaviours showed agreement on levels of competence, confidence, and motivation. The students rated characteristics of enthusiasm, organisation, and fulfilment lower (p<0.002) than residents rated themselves.
The residents and students in this study viewed academic preparation for teaching responsibilities positively and showed agreement on characteristics of good teaching that may be helpful indicators in the process of developing medical teachers.
medical education, undergraduate; medical education, internship and residency; teaching methods; experiential learning; educational techniques
An observed decrease of physician scientists in medical practice has generated much recent interest in increasing the exposure of research programs in medical school. The aim of this study was to review the experience and attitudes regarding research by medical students in Canada.
An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire was administered to second and fourth year students in three medical schools in Ontario between February and May of 2005. Questions were primarily closed-ended and consisted of Likert scales. Descriptive and correlative statistics were used to analyze the responses between students of different years and previous research experience.
There was a 47% (327/699) overall response rate to the questionnaire. Despite 87% of respondents reporting that they had been involved in some degree of research prior to medical school, 43% report that they have not been significantly involved in research activity during medical school and 24% had no interest in any participation. There were significant differences in the attitudes towards research endeavors during medical school between students in their fourth year compared to second year. The greatest barriers to involvement in research in medical school appear to be time, availability of research mentors, formal teaching of research methodology and the perception that the student would not receive appropriate acknowledgement for work put towards a research project.
The results of this self-report survey outline the significant differences in attitudes towards mandatory research as a component of critical inquiry and scholarship in the undergraduate curriculum in Ontario medical schools.
To study the attitudes of preclinical and clinical medical students toward the importance of telling patients they are students, and to compare their attitudes with those of patients.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of medical students from five Philadelphia medical schools, and a longitudinal follow-up in one medical school, to assess the importance students place on telling patients they are medical students before interacting with them. We asked similar questions of 100 general medical outpatients from two academically affiliated hospitals.
In total, 2,603 students (58%) responded to the cross-sectional survey, 74 (50%) responded to the longitudinal survey, and 100 patients responded to our interview survey (94% response rate). In the cross-sectional survey, there were negligible differences in the importance that patients and medical students placed on informing alert patients that they are interacting with students in nonsurgical settings. In surgical settings involving anesthetized patients, patients placed significantly more importance on being informed of students' roles in their surgery than did students, and preclinical students placed more importance on this than did clinical students. Results from the cross-sectional survey were supported by the longitudinal survey, in which fourth-year medical students placed significantly less importance on informing patients of their student status than the same cohort had done 2 years previously.
Medical students place less importance on informing patients about their student status than patients desire, especially in surgical settings in which the patient is to be anesthetized. Medical students already having completed a clinical rotation stray further from patient ideals than preclinical medical students. These findings suggest that, as medical students advance in their training, they suffer an erosion in their attitudes about telling patients they are students.
informed consent; education; medical ethics; survey; patients; medical students
We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics.
In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences) were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65%) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship.
Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3% and 18.3% before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7%) students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49), and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57).
It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future career.
Attitude; Career choice; Medical Students; Psychiatry; Psychiatry clerkship
This study investigated the use of a Web-based community health simulation as a problem-based learning (PBL) experience for undergraduate students majoring in public health. The study sought to determine whether students who participated in the online simulation achieved differences in academic and attitudinal outcomes compared with students who participated in a traditional PBL exercise.
Using a nonexperimental comparative design, 21 undergraduate students enrolled in a health-behavior course were each randomly assigned to one of four workgroups. Each workgroup was randomly assigned the semester-long simulation project or the traditional PBL exercise. Survey instruments were used to measure students' attitudes toward the course, their perceptions of the learning community, and perceptions of their own cognitive learning. Content analysis of final essay exams and group reports was used to identify differences in academic outcomes and students' level of conceptual understanding of health-behavior theory.
Findings indicated that students participating in the simulation produced higher mean final exam scores compared with students participating in the traditional PBL (p=0.03). Students in the simulation group also outperformed students in the traditional group with respect to their understanding of health-behavior theory (p=0.04). Students in the simulation group, however, rated their own level of cognitive learning lower than did students in the traditional group (p=0.03).
By bridging time and distance constraints of the traditional classroom setting, an online simulation may be an effective PBL approach for public health students. Recommendations include further research using a larger sample to explore students' perceptions of learning when participating in simulated real-world activities. Additional research focusing on possible differences between actual and perceived learning relative to PBL methods and student workgroup dynamics is also recommended.
The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school.
A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale.
2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and indirect effects upon the factors. Helping People was particularly related to agreeableness; Indispensability to a strategic approach to learning; Respect to a surface approach to learning; and Science to openness to experience. Sex had many indirect influences upon generic motivations. Ethnic origin also had indirect influences via neuroticism and surface learning, and social class only had indirect influences via lower academic achievement. Coming from a medical family had no influence upon generic motivations.
Generic motivations for medicine as a career can be assessed using the Medical Situations Questionnaire, without undue response bias due to demand characteristics. The validity of the motivational factors is suggested by the meaningful and interpretable correlations with background factors such as demographics, personality, and learning styles. Further development of the questionnaire is needed if it is to be used at an individual level, either for counselling or for student selection.
The purpose of this study was to conduct an online survey of chiropractic students in the 2011/12 academic year at CMCC in order to determine their attitudes toward vaccination, their history of vaccination and their opinions towards their level of preparedness and confidence to discuss vaccination with patients.
All students enrolled in the program at CMCC were eligible to participate in this anonymous survey modeled after a similar survey administered in 1999/2000.
The response rate was 43%. Over 90% of all students reported they had been vaccinated. Roughly half of students felt they were well prepared to discuss vaccination with their patients and two-thirds felt they were confident to do so. Between 83.9% and 90% of students in various years of the program expressed a positive attitude toward vaccination.
Separate Welsh t-test for each year of study indicated statistically significant differences between our survey and the survey published in 1999/2000, with students in our study expressing a more positive attitude toward vaccination.
Students enrolled in the chiropractic program at CMCC in the 2011/12 expressed a positive attitude toward vaccination.
vaccination; chiropractic; survey; attitudes; vaccination; chiropratique; enquête; attitudes
To study the attitudes of both medical and non‐medical students towards the do‐not‐resuscitate (DNR) decision in a university in Hong Kong, and the factors affecting their attitudes.
A questionnaire‐based survey conducted in the campus of a university in Hong Kong. Preferences and priorities of participants on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in various situations and case scenarios, experience of death and dying, prior knowledge of DNR and basic demographic data were evaluated.
A total of 766 students participated in the study. There were statistically significant differences in their DNR decisions in various situations between medical and non‐medical students, clinical and preclinical students, and between students who had previously experienced death and dying and those who had not. A prior knowledge of DNR significantly affected DNR decision, although 66.4% of non‐medical students and 18.7% of medical students had never heard of DNR. 74% of participants from both medical and non‐medical fields considered the patient's own wish as the most important factor that the healthcare team should consider when making DNR decisions. Family wishes might not be decisive on the choice of DNR.
Students in medical and non‐medical fields held different views on DNR. A majority of participants considered the patient's own wish as most important in DNR decisions. Family wishes were considered less important than the patient's own wishes.
The study aimed to assess medical students' attitudes toward mental illness following a 4-week psychiatry clerkship. All fifth-year medical students from three academic centers in Tehran were asked to participate in the study. They completed the questionnaire on the last day of their 4-week psychiatry clerkship. A self-administered questionnaire was used to examine participants' Attitudes Toward Mental Illness (ATMI). One hundred and sixty eight students completed the questionnaires (88.9% response rate). In general, the students had favorable attitudes toward mental illness at the end of their clerkship, with mean (± SD) ATMI total score of 78.6 (± 8.1) (neutral score, 66.0). The students showed the most favorable opinion (95.2%) about Category 5 (stereotypic attitude toward people with mental illness) whilst they revealed the least favorable opinion (64.3%) regarding Category 1 (social relations with people affected by mental illness). In addition, the students thought that movies were on the top of influential media on shaping the attitudes toward mental illness. Overall, most of Iranian medical students had generally favorable attitudes toward people with mental illness at the end of their clerkship. Therefore, it may be expected next generation of medical doctors show more favorable attitude toward mental illness.
Attitude; health personnel; medical students; mental disorders; public opinion; population.
To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty.
A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed.
Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common.
The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty.
academic honesty; plagiarism; cheating; Australia
The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the university population at high-risk of developing an eating disorder and the prevalence of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours amongst groups at risk; gender, school or academic year differences were also explored.
A cross-sectional study based on self-report was used to screen university students at high-risk for an eating disorder. The sample size was of 2551 university students enrolled in 13 schools between the ages of 18 and 26 years. The instruments included: a social-demographic questionnaire, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R), and the Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). The sample design is a non-proportional stratified sample by academic year and school. The prevalence rate was estimated controlling academic year and school. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate adjusted associations between gender, school and academic year.
Female students presented unhealthy weight-control behaviours as dieting, laxatives use or self-induced vomiting to lose weight than males. A total of 6% of the females had a BMI of 17.5 or less or 2.5% had amenorrhea for 3 or more months. In contrast, a higher proportion of males (11.6%) reported binge eating behaviour. The prevalence rate of students at high-risk for an eating disorder was 14.9% (11.6–18) for males and 20.8% (18.7–22.8) for females, according to an overall cut-off point on the EDI questionnaire. Prevalence rates presented statistically significant differences by gender (p < 0.001) but not by school or academic year.
The prevalence of eating disorder risk in university students is high and is associated with unhealthy weight-control practices, similar results have been found in previous studies using cut-off points in questionnaires. These results may be taken into account to encourage early detection and a greater awareness for seeking treatment in order to improve the diagnosis, among students on university campuses.
In this paper we sought to explore undergraduate medical students’ views about their professional development during their studies that are considered to be related to medical professionalism.
A descriptive cross-sectional study using interpretative analysis of anonymous 10-item questionnaires was conducted at the University of Patras Medical School (UPMS), Greece. The study sample consisted of 134 undergraduate students in their fifth and sixth year of study at UPMS.
Undergraduate students emphasized the great significance of daily clinically-oriented practice in the wards in the group of behaviors consistent with medical professionalism. The integrated curriculum and informal discussions with members of the academic staff in the form of role models were also regarded as valuable approaches strongly enhancing professionalism. Students’ personal statements contained attributes regarding premium professional skills, including constancy and perfectionism throughout a lifelong learning process, so as to be able to provide high quality medical care to patients.
According to our undergraduate medical students themselves, the last 2 years of their studies are important to understand the essence of professionalism and develop their professional medical attitudes. Clinically-oriented teaching activities together with the informal curriculum of enhanced role modeling promote medical professional behaviors and increase standards of health care provided to patients.
undergraduate students; medicine; professionalism; medical education; Greece