We present a series of monozygous multiple gestations achieved following in vitro fertilization (IVF): one case of monochorionic triplet pregnancy and six cases of dizygotic triplet pregnancy. From September 2000 to December 2006, all patients achieving clinical pregnancy by ART were reviewed (n = 2433). A 37 year-old woman who delivered a healthy singleton after IVF returned two years later for FET, and a single blastocyst was transferred. This also resulted in pregnancy, but TV-USG revealed a single gestational sac with three distinct amniotic sacs, each containing a distinct fetal pole with cardiac activity. This pregnancy was electively terminated at nine weeks' gestation. An additional six cases of dizygotic triplets established after fresh embryo transfer (no ICSI or assisted hatching) are also described. Of these, one resulted in a miscarriage at eight weeks' gestation and five patients have an ongoing pregnancy. This case series suggests the incidence of dizygotic/monochorionic triplets following IVF is approximately 10 times higher than the expected rate in unassisted conceptions, and underscores the importance of a conservative approach to lower the number of embryos at transfer. The role of embryo transfer technique and in vitro culture media in the twinning process requires further study.
To describe a unique case of MZ dichorionic twins and MZ monochorionic triplets in a quintuplet gestation after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) and blastocyst transfer.
Case report. A 24-year-old woman underwent ICSI and received two blastocysts transferred. A quintuplet gestation was established .Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed sequentially during early pregnancy.
Three intrauterine gestational sacs were revealed at about 5th week. At the 7th week, five gestational sacs presenting heart beats were detected and a quintuplet pregnancy consisting of two monozygotic (MZ) dichorionic twins and three MZ monochorionic triplets was determined. At the 10th week, a single gestational sac with heart beats was detected. The prenatal course was uneventful. A healthy baby was born at 36th week.
Few other reports have described the occurrence of a quintuplet gestation after the transfer of two blastocysts generated by ICSI. Our case is unique in that the two blastocysts underwent two different splitting processes, which occurred possibly at a similar time giving rise to MZ dichorionic twins and MZ monochorionic triplets.
Quintuplets; Monozygosity; ICSI; Blastocysts
Background. Assisted reproductive technology has been linked to the increased incidence of monozygotic twinning. It is of clinical importance due to the increased risk of complications in multiple pregnancies in general and in monozygotic twins in particular. Case. A 29-year-old female, nulligravida underwent her first IVF cycle. Three poor-quality cleavage stage embryos were transferred resulting in monochorionic triamniotic triplets and dichorionic diamniotic twins. Selective embryo reduction was performed at 12 weeks leaving dichorionic twins. The patient underwent emergency cesarean section due to preterm labor and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing at 30 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. Our case emphasizes that even embryos with significant morphological abnormalities should be considered viable and the possibility of simultaneous spontaneous embryo splitting must be factored into determining number of embryos to transfer.
Purpose: Our purpose was to examine the timing ofimplantation and early embryo development following uterinetransfer of oocytes/embryos previously subjected to zonapellucida micromanipulation.
Methods: A total of 68 singleton pregnancies resulting fromIVF and embryo transfer with/without micromanipulation.Patients were divided into four groups according to the typeof micromanipulation technique: assisted hatching, embryobiopsy, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and nomicromanipulation (control group). Serial serum β-hCG levels weremeasured between 10 and 25 days after fertilization andlog-transformed. Linear regression analyses were performedand extrapolated to hCG = 10 mIU/ml (hCG10) to estimatedetectable implantation. The slopes of the regression lineswere used to estimate the rising speed of hCG, an indirectsign of embryo development.
Results: There were no significant differences among groupswith respect to hCG10, the slopes or intercepts of theregression lines.
Conclusions: Various oocyte/embryo microsurgicalprocedures used in ART involving zona pellucida manipulationdo not appear to affect the timing of implantation or earlyembryo development.
hCG; implantation; micromanipulation; zona pellucida
Potassium chloride is reported to kill both monochorionic twins after injection into only one. In this study, two women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer were pregnant with triplets containing monochorionic twinning, which were detected by ultrasound with the presence of a “twin-peak” sign. Instead of potassium chloride, intrathoracic injection of amniotic fluid was employed to sacrifice one of the monochorionic fetuses in dichorionic triplets. Our aim was to sacrifice one of the monochorionic twins in order to prevent adverse perinatal outcomes and to avoid the harmful effect of potassium chloride on monochorionic cotwins. One twin pregnancy was terminated with preterm premature rupture of membranes at 25 weeks of gestation. In the second one, two healthy babies were delivered by cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. The female baby weighed 2100 gm and the male baby 2600 gm, respectively. Intrathoracic injection of amniotic fluid to create a tamponade is an alternative management for fetal reduction.
Amniotic fluid; fetal reduction; monochorionic twin; tamponade
Aim: To compare maternal, and neonatal outcomes in IVF/ICSI and spontaneously conceived dichorionic twin pregnancy. Method: We collected data regarding dichorionic twin pregnancies following in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI, n=162) with the transfer of fresh embryos as well as data regarding spontaneously conceived pregnancies (n=213) delivered after 28 weeks of gestation at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renmin Hospital in Wuhan in the years of 2010-2013. We then compared maternal and neonatal outcomes between IVF/ICSI and spontaneous dichorionic twin pregnancies, with a subgroup analysis separating traditional IVF from ICSI pregnancies. Odds ratios (OR) for associations between IVF/ICSI and pregnancy outcomes were adjusted for maternal factors. Results: The mean maternal age and the percentage of primiparous women were significantly higher in the IVF/ICSI group. Multivariate analysis revealed that maternal outcomes were comparable in both groups with/without adjustment for maternal age and parity. However, IVF/ICSI twins were less likely to have birth weight discordance than those spontaneously conceived (unadjusted OR=0.526, 95% CI 0.297-0.932; adjusted OR=0.486, 95% CI 0.255-0.856). In subgroup analyses, these associations were confirmed in the IVF (adjusted OR=0.496, 95% CI 0.265-0.926), but not in the ICSI group (adjusted OR=0.500, 95% CI 0.139-1.807). Conclusion: IVF/ICSI treatment was not a risk factor for adverse maternal neonatal outcomes, but the risk for birth weight discordance is lower among IVF/ICSI twins.
In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection; dichorionic twin pregnancy; maternal outcome; neonatal outcome
Purpose: To investigate whether ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection)results in decreased blastocyst formation and pregnancy compared to IVF (in vitro fertilization).
Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of blastocyst transfer (BT)offered routinely to patients under age 40 with ≥ three 8-cell embryos on day 3 and compared IVF to ICSI cycles. Sequential media were used with P1 until day 3, then Blastocyst Medium until day 5/6.
Results: There were 131 IVF and 75 ICSI cycles. There was no difference in age, number of oocytes, zygotes, 8-cell embryos, blastocysts on days 5 and 6, or embryos transferred. Progression to blastocyst was similar (78% for IVF and 73% for ICSI) as was the viable pregnancy rate (51.4% for IVF and 55% for ICSI). No cycles failed to form blastocysts.
Conclusions: The progression to blastocyst and the likelihood of conceiving aviable pregnancy were unaltered by ICSI. Thus it seems appropriate for programs to offer BT to patients undergoing ICSI using the same inclusion criteria applied to their IVF patients.
Blastocyst; ICSI; IVF; male factor infertility; pregnancy rate
Objective:Our objective was to analyze the outcome of cryopreserved embryos obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) in terms of survival rate, implantation rate (IR), total and clinical pregnancy rate (PR) in a retrospective, comparative study.
Methods:Three hundred seventy-five IVF and 463 ICSI surnumerary cleaved embryos, frozen on Day 2 with 1,2-propanediol, were thawed.
Results:Thirty-two percent of the thawed IVF embryos survived and 11 pregnancies (8 clinical) were obtained from 68 transfers (16.1%). Fourty-seven percent of the ICSI embryos survived, with 19 pregnancies (18 clinical) from 116 transfers (16.4%). The IR was 8.5% (8/94) in IVF cycles and 10.8% (20/185) in ICSI cycles.
Conclusions:A significantly better survival rate of ICSI embryos was observed but with no difference in PR, preclinical, and clinical abortion rate, or IR.
in vitro fertilization; intracytoplasmic sperm injection; cryopreservation; survival rate; pregnancy rate; implantation rate
Spontaneous monochorionic triamniotic pregnancy is rare and is at increased risk for pregnancy complications. The presence of an anomalous fetus further complicates the management.
We present a case of monochorionic triamniotic triplet pregnancy diagnosed at 15 weeks of gestation with one fetus having developed a multicystic lung lesion, suggestive of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM). At 24 weeks, the largest cyst measured 10 mm in diameter. We managed the pregnancy conservatively and delivered three live male fetuses with birth weights 1560 g, 1580 g and 1590 g at 35 weeks of gestation. Two newborns were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit with respiratory distress, the third one died due to sepsis 7 days postpartum. One of the newborns was discharged healthy at 24 days postpartum. The newborn with CCAM developed a pneumothorax on the right side, recovered after treatment, and was discharged after one month. Computerized tomography (CT) of the infant at 3 months demonstrated two cystic lesions in the middle lobe of the right lung measuring 25 mm and 15 mm. A repeat CT of the infant at 6 months showed a 30 mm solitary cystic mass.
Monochorionic triamniotic triplet pregnancy with a co-triplet fetus discordant for CCAM, present rarely and can be managed conservatively. These findings may help in decision making and counselling of parents.
The World Health Organization estimates that one in six couples experience some delay in conception and an increasing number require treatment by the assisted conception (AC) procedures of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).The implantation rate of embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization cycles is generally less than 20%. The exposure of oocytes and embryos to the artificial conditions of in vitro culture may have negative effects on the embryo’s ability to undergo normal hatching, resulting in low rates of implantation following IVF and embryo transfer. Human embryos resulting from superovulation develop more slowly in vitro compared to embryos in vivo, manifest a relatively high degree of cytogenetic abnormalities and undergo cellular fragmentation. Artificially disrupting the zona pellucida is known as assisted hatching (AH) and there is some evidence that embryos that have undergone zona manipulation for assisted hatching tend to implant one day earlier than unhatched embryos. A variety of techniques have since been employed to assist embryo hatching, including partial mechanical zona dissection, zona drilling and zona thinning, making use of acid tyrodes, proteinases, piezon vibrator manipulators and lasers. This review will consider the impact of IVF conditions on zona pellucida physiology, zona hardening, different techniques of assisted hatching, who may benefit from assisted hatching and potential hazards.
Assisted hatching; Zona pellucida; Implantation; LASER; Zona drilling; Tyrode’s solution
Purpose: To investigate if including evaluation of acrosome index (AI) in the semen analysis of teratozoospermic samples could help to predict for which patients intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is necessary.
Methods: The fertilization rate, pregnancy rate, and percentage of good quality embryos were compared after performing conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and ICSI, respectively, using sibling oocytes. The role of AI was evaluated by dividing patients into two groups; Group A (AI < 7%) and Group B (AI ≥ 7%).
Results: A significant difference in fertilization rate was observed between Group A and B after conventional IVF. In Group A, the fertilization rate, embryo transfer rate, and percentage of good quality embryos were higher after ICSI than after IVF. In Group B, the fertilization and pregnancy rates were numerically but not significantly higher after IVF compared to ICSI.
Conclusion: Evaluation of acrosome index will not accurately predict fertilization, although this study shows that a sperm sample with less than 5% normal forms and an AI greater than 7% may achieve a mean fertilization rate >70% after conventional IVF.
acrosome index; fertilization; ICSI; IVF; sibling oocytes; teratozoospermia
The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been used in the production of rhesus monkey offspring at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC) and that experience is summarized here. Additionally these technologies serve as a source of oocytes/embryos for monozygotic twinning, embryonic stem (ES) cell derivation and cloning. High fertilization efficiencies were realized with conventional insemination or following the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and approximately 50% of the resulting embryos grew in vitro to blastocysts. Both fresh and frozen sperm were employed in fertilization by ICSI and the resulting embryos could be low temperature stored for subsequent thawing and transfer when a synchronized recipient female was available or after shipment to another facility. Following the transfer of up to 3 embryos, an overall pregnancy rate of 30% was achieved with increasing rates dependent upon the number of embryos transferred. Singleton pregnancy outcomes following the transfer of ART produced embryos were similar to those observed in a control group of animals in the timed mated breeding colony at ONPRC. ICSI produced embryos were used in efforts to create monozygotic twins by blastomere separation or blastocyst splitting. While pregnancies were achieved following the transfer of demi-embryos, only one was a twin and it was lost to spontaneous abortion. ICSI produced embryos have also served as the source of blastocysts for the derivation of embryonic stem cells. These pluripotent cells hold potential for cell based therapies and we consider the monkey an important translational model in which to evaluate safety, efficacy and feasibility of regenerative medicine approaches based on the transplantation of stem cell-derived progeny. Finally, efforts to produce genetically-identical monkeys by nuclear transfer have been briefly summarized.
The objective of this study was to obtain expanded blastocysts following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and Verocell coculture, cryopreserve them at this stage, and transfer the frozenthawed blastocysts to obtain pregnancies.
Twentytwo couples with severe malefactor infertility or failed fertilization in a previous in vitro fertilization cycle were included in this study. ICSI was performed for all of them, and sperminjected oocytes were immediately subjected to Verocell coculture for varying intervals. Then 14 couples were treated by embryo transfer at the four to eightcell stage (Group I), whereas 8 couples were treated by transfer of frozenthawed blastocysts (Group II).
Percentages of cleaved embryos and term survival rates were 57.1 and 73.3% for Group I and 50.0 and 37.5% for Group II, respectively.
Blastocysts obtained after ICSI and Verocell coculture can retain developmental competence after cryopreservation and thawing. Transfer of frozenthawed blastocysts derived by these means holds promise for establishment of viable pregnancies.
blastocyst; co-culture; cryopreservation; intracytoplasmic sperm injection; pregnancy
Purpose: To investigate the outcome of IVF following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from ejaculate, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with subsequent blastocyst culture and single blastocyst transfer.
Methods: Single blastocyst transfer was performed after ejaculate ICSI (oligozoospermia) in 587 patients, TESE/PESA (azoospermia) in 31 patients, and standard IVF in 680 women.
Results: There were only minor differences in IVF characteristics between the standard IVF and the PESA-TESE couples. Couples where ejaculate ICSI were performed seemed to represent a slightly poorer prognostic group. A viable fetus after the 12th gestational week, i.e. ongoing pregnancy, was present in 41.4% after ICSI/ET, 51.6% after PESA-TESE/ET and in 40.4% after standard IVF/ET (no significant differences).
Conclusion: Single blastocyst transfer after ejaculate ICSI or after PESA/TESE appears to give similar results as conventional IVF blastocyst culture.
In vitro fertilization; Single embryo transfer; Blastocyst; Intracytoplasmic sperm injection; Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration; Testicular sperm extraction
Purpose: To develop inhouse made (IHM) embryo culture medium with a Multipurpose Isolator and compare the embryo development in a prospective randomized study with commercial media.
Methods: Fertilization by intracytoplasmic single sperm injection (ICSI) of Metaphase II oocytes obtained after 96 controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles in patients not older than 37 years. Transfer of zygotes to IHM or commercial Cook Sydney IVF Cleavage medium (SIC) immediately after pronucleus observation. Evaluation of embryo cleavage and score, pregnancy, and implantation rate.
Results: From 100 zygotes cultured in SIC, 61% were at the 4 cell stage 45 h after ICSI compared to 77% (78/101) in the IHM, P<0.05. The mean embryo score with IHM was 3.9±0.9 compared to 3.5±1.2 with SIC, P<0.05. The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer was 38.9% (37/95), the implantation rate was 23% (46/200), and no differences were observed between the groups.
Embryo score; hydrogen peroxide; inhouse media; Multipurpose Isolator; pregnancy rate
Purpose:Our purpose was to investigate the influence of semen quality on fertilization, embryo morphology, cleavage, and cryosurvival in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)programs.
Methods:A retrospective analysis of 513 couples undergoing IVF and 255 couples undergoing ICSI was done.
Results:Semen quality influenced fertilization in IVF and abnormal fertilization in IVF and ICSI, but no effects on the development, morphology, implantation capacity, or cryosurvival of embryos were found. Fertilization, embryo quality, and cryosurvival rates were similar after IVF and ICSI. The fertilization rate of mature oocytes in IVF was lower when cytoplasmic immaturity in the oocyte population was frequent. The speed of development of embryos was 2 hr faster after ICSI than after IVF. Two-cell–stage embryos survived best after cryopreservation with propanediol and sucrose on day 2.
Conclusions:After fertilization, semen parameters had no effect on the quality or cryosurvival of embryos in either IVF or ICSI.
cryopreservation; embryo quality; fertilization; in vitro fertilization; intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Background: To determine the efficacy of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, cetrorelix, in improving the quality of embryos and pregnancy outcome, we performed a study in patients with a history of multiple failures of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) long protocol.
Methods: Forty women with no live births after conventional IVF or ICSI embryo transfer (ET) and subsequent blastocyst transfer (BT) with a GnRHa long protocol entered this study. The treatment protocol consisted of a daily dose of clomiphene citrate 100 mg for 5 days and gonadotrophin injections daily from cycle day 4 onward. Cetrorelix, 0.25 mg/day, was started when the leading follicle reached 14 mm. Induction of ovulation was triggered with human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) (N=36) or GnRHa (N=4). It was possible to perform BT in 38 patients.
Results: Comparison of the results with the results for BT with the previous GnRHa protocol showed no significant differences in number of oocytes retrieved or the zygote- and blastocyst-development rate. With the cetrorelix protocol, however, number of patients whose embryos had developed to at least one expanded blastocyst on day 5 was significantly higher than with the GnRHa protocol (25 vs. 9) (p<0.001), and 16 of the women became pregnant (42.1%), with 7 delivering 9 infants, 4 ending in abortion (25%), and 5 in progressing.
Conclusions: The use of a GnRH antagonist in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation improves the outcome of pregnancy of patients with a history of multiple failure of IVF/ICSI–ET in a GnRHa protocol, most likely due to improvement of the quality of the blastocysts generated.
Blastocyst; GnRH agonist; GnRH antagonist; multiple ET failures
In in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment a large drop is present between embryo transfer and occurrence of pregnancy. The implantation rate per embryo transferred is only 30%. Studies have shown that minor intrauterine abnormalities can be found in 11–45% of infertile women with a normal transvaginal sonography or hysterosalpingography. Two randomised controlled trials have indicated that detection and treatment of these abnormalities by office hysteroscopy after two failed IVF cycles leads to a 9–13% increase in pregnancy rate. Therefore, screening of all infertile women for intracavitary pathology prior to the start of IVF/ICSI is increasingly advocated. In absence of a scientific basis for such a policy, this study will assess the effects and costs of screening for and treatment of unsuspected intrauterine abnormalities by routine office hysteroscopy, with or without saline infusion sonography (SIS), prior to a first IVF/ICSI cycle.
Multicenter randomised controlled trial in asymptomatic subfertile women, indicated for a first IVF/ICSI treatment cycle, with normal findings at transvaginal sonography. Women with recurrent miscarriages, prior hysteroscopy treatment and intermenstrual blood loss will not be included. Participants will be randomised for a routine fertility work-up with additional (SIS and) hysteroscopy with on-the-spot-treatment of predefined intrauterine abnormalities versus the regular fertility work-up without additional diagnostic tests. The primary study outcome is the cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate resulting in live birth achieved within 18 months of IVF/ICSI treatment after randomisation. Secondary study outcome parameters are the cumulative implantation rate; cumulative miscarriage rate; patient preference and patient tolerance of a SIS and hysteroscopy procedure. All data will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression and cox regression. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed to evaluate the costs of the additional tests as routine procedure. In total 700 patients will be included in this study.
The results of this study will help to clarify the significance of hysteroscopy prior to IVF treatment.
Hysteroscopy; Subfertility; IVF
Purpose: Our purpose was to determine if embryo cell stage at the time of intrauterine transfer correlates with pregnancy rate in patients treated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 455 embryo transfer cycles following ICSI and 304 conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer cycles in women aged 40 years or less. Abstracted information included grading of the embryo cell stage and quality at the time of transfer.
Results: The overall ICSI pregnancy rate was 30.8%, while that of conventional IVF was 29.3%. However, the ICSI pregnancy rate fell to 9.3% for embryo transfers taking place at the two-cell stage but increased to 35.8% when at least one embryo had more than two cells, and this difference was statistically significant (P≤0.0001). The pregnancy rate following conventional IVF was 22.0% when only two-cell embryos were transferred and 32.0% when at least one of the embryos had more than two cells, but this difference in pregnancy rates was not significant (P>0.05).
Conclusions: The stage of embryo development at transfer appears to exert a powerful influence on the successful establishment of pregnancy after ICSI.
embryo stage; embryo quality; intracytoplasmic sperm injection; in vitro fertilization; pregnancy rate
To determine if patients with a low response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF benefit from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
Retrospective analysis of 350 IVF cycles in which four or fewer oocytes were retrieved. Severe male factor cases were excluded from analysis. Conventional insemination (CI) and ICSI were compared, with primary outcome measures of fertilization rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer, and pregnancy loss rate.
Fertilization rates per oocyte retrieved for CI and ICSI were comparable (51.5% vs. 51.8%). Parallel implantation rates (22% vs. 25%), clinical pregnancy rates (32.8% vs. 33.3%), and loss rates (26.7% vs. 39.5%) were also noted. No difference in cancelled cycles was reported.
Our results demonstrate that in the presence of normal semen parameters, low egg number is not an indication to perform ICSI.
IVF; ICSI; Poor response; Oocyte retrieval
Objectives: To assess the effect of the phases of the moon on pregnancy rates in humans following in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment.
Design: Retrospective, observational study.
Setting: Reproductive Medicine Unit, Liverpool Women’s Hospital.
Patient: Complete data for all women undergoing assisted conception procedures over a period of 13 years (1995–2002).
Intervention: Assisted conception procedures-IVF and ICSI.
Main outcome measures: Biochemical pregnancy that is positive pregnancy test result following embryo transfer.
Results: There was no significant effect of any lunar phase on the incidence of biochemical pregnancy (p-value 0.71). Age of the woman significantly affects the chances of pregnancy, (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91, 0.998, and p-value 0.04). The chances of pregnancy rises significantly with increase in the number of embryos replaced from 1 to 2 (OR 2.97, CI 1.36, 6.48, and p-value 0.01).
Conclusion: Pregnancy rates in humans, following assisted conception, appears to be independent of the effect of the lunar phase during which embryo transfer is carried out.
Assisted conception; embryo transfer; lunar phase; new moon
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of a scoring system combining zygote and embryo morphology in predicting the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Methods: In a study group, 117 consecutive IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with embryo transfer were carried out and 312 embryos were scored using a combined scoring system (CSS) of zygote and embryo morphology before transplantation. In a control group, a total of 420 IVF or ICSI cycles were carried out and 1176 embryos were scored using a cumulative embryo score (CES). The effects of the combined scoring system on the embryo implantation rate and pregnancy rate per cycle were analyzed. Results: Using the combined scoring system, the embryo implantation rate (27.6%) and the clinical pregnancy rate (48.7%) were significantly higher than those in the control group (20.8% and 38.6%, respectively). Also, the implantation rate of embryos scoring ≥70 (38.5%: 82 sacs/213 embryos) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of embryos scoring <70 (4%: 4 sacs/99 embryos). The pregnancy rate of patients with embryos scoring ≥70 using the combined scoring system (66.7%) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of patients with embryos scoring ≥20 using the cumulative embryo score (59.0%). Conclusion: The results suggest that selecting embryos with a high score (≥70) using the combined scoring system could increase the implantation rate and pregnancy rate, and that using a scoring system combining assessments of human zygotes and pre-implantation embryos might predict IVF outcomes more accurately than using a cumulative embryo score.
Embryo score; Combined scoring system (CSS); Implantation; In vitro fertilization (IVF); Pregnancy
Frozen embryo transfer has been established as an indispensable ART procedure for both the effective use of surplus embryos and the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The frequency of frozen embryo transfer is increasing in our clinic, and we report that frozen embryo transfer is effective for patients with repeat failures. We present our clinical outcome of frozen blastocyst transfer (FBT).
In 2006, 470 patients received FBT (562 cycles (IVF: 354 cycles; ICSI: 208 cycles)). One frozen blastocyst was transferred in 412 cycles (335 patients) and two blastocysts were transferred in 150 cycles (135 patients). Assisted hatching was performed in all cases.
In 412 cycles (average age: 34.6 years) who received a single FBT, the rate of clinical pregnancy per cycle was 40.7%, the live birth rate was 29.1%, the abortion rate was 21.6%, the ectopic pregnancy rate was 1.2%, the frequency of monochorionic twins was 2.3%, and the cesarean section rate was 38.3%. In 150 cycles (average patient age 34.8 years) who received two FBTs, the clinical pregnancy rate was 46%, the live birth rate was 35.3%, the abortion rate was 16.3%, the ectopic pregnancy rate was 4.4%, the frequency of twins was 15.9% and the cesarean section rate was 39.6%. A significant difference in the ectopic pregnancy rate and the twinning rate was found between single transfers and double transfers (P < 0.05). When IVF and ICSI were compared, there was no statistically significant difference in the abortion rate, the ectopic pregnancy rate, and the cesarean section rate.
The clinical pregnancy rate was similar for the transfer of one and two blastocysts. Single FBT decreases obstetrical risk without reducing the pregnancy rate.
Blastocyst; Vitrification; In vitro fertilization; Pregnancy
To evaluate the combined effect of endometrial thickness and pattern on clinical outcome in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET).
Cycles of IVF/ICSI-ET conducted between January 2003 and December 2008 at a university-based reproductive center were reviewed retrospectively. Endometrial ultrasonographic characteristics were recorded on the day of hCG administration. In the combined analysis, endometrial thickness groups (group 1: equal or <7 mm; group 2: 7-14 mm; group 3: >14 mm) were subdivided into two endometrial patterns (pattern A: triple-line; pattern B: no-triple line). Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and early miscarriage rate in different groups were analyzed.
A total of 2896 cycles were reviewed. Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) was 24.4% in group1-A. There were no second trimester pregnancies in group 1-B. Miscarriage rate in group 2-A was significantly lower compared to group 2-B (P < 0.01), although CPR did not show any significant differences between the groups. A no-triple line endometrial pattern with moderate endometrial thickness (7-14 mm) had a detrimental effect on pregnancy outcome, but not the occurrence of pregnancy. In group 3, there was no difference in CPR and miscarriage rates between the two patterns; adequate endometrial thickness (>14 mm) seemed to mitigate the detrimental impact (high miscarriage rate) of pattern B.
Combined analysis of endometrial thickness and pattern on the day of hCG administration was a better predictor of the outcome of IVF/ICSI-ET and may be more helpful for patient counseling than the separate analyses.
Purpose: To report a successful pregnancy from cryopreserved sibling oocytes and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for an infertile couple with an unexpectedly low fertilization rate in the fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle.
Methods: The woman had bilateral tubal obstruction and polycystic ovarian syndrome. The man had normal semen parameters. The couple underwent a cycle of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in that 20 oocytes were retrieved. Twelve oocytes were conventionally inseminated and eight were cryopreserved using a slow freezing method. However, only one oocyte was fertilized, and no pregnancy was achieved. In the next cycle, the frozen oocytes were thawed and ICSI was performed.
Results: After thawing, seven oocytes (88%) survived and one was damaged. Six were at the metaphase II stage and were injected. Five (83%) achieved normal fertilization, and all of them cleaved (100%). After replacement of the embryos, a singleton pregnancy developed. A healthy female baby was delivered at term. Karyotyping revealed 46, XX.
Conclusions: In addition to well-known indications, cryopreservation of excess sibling oocytes for patients receiving IVF has a possible advantage of preventing unexpectedly low fertilization rate or fertilization failures.
Cryopreserved oocytes; intracytoplasmic sperm injection; unexpected fertilization failures