In near-infrared (NIR) analysis of plant extracts, excessive background often exists in near-infrared spectra. The detection of active constituents is difficult because of excessive background, and correction of this problem remains difficult. In this work, the orthogonal signal correction (OSC) method was used to correct excessive background. The method was also compared with several classical background correction methods, such as offset correction, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variate (SNV) transformation, de-trending (DT), first derivative, second derivative and wavelet methods. A simulated dataset and a real NIR spectral dataset were used to test the efficiency of different background correction methods. The results showed that OSC is the only effective method for correcting excessive background.
Background correction; Plant extracts; Orthogonal signal correction; Near-infrared spectroscopy
Targeted gene correction employs a site-specific DNA lesion to promote homologous recombination that eliminates mutation in a disease gene of interest. The double-strand break typically used to initiate correction can also result in genomic instability if deleterious repair occurs rather than gene correction, possibly compromising the safety of targeted gene correction. Here we show that single-strand breaks (nicks) and double-strand breaks both promote efficient gene correction. However, breaks promote high levels of inadvertent but heritable genomic alterations both locally and elsewhere in the genome, while nicks are accompanied by essentially no collateral local mutagenesis, and thus provide a safer approach to gene correction. Defining efficacy as the ratio of gene correction to local deletion, nicks initiate gene correction with 70-fold greater efficacy than do double-strand breaks (29.0±6.0% and 0.42±0.03%, respectively). Thus nicks initiate efficient gene correction, with limited local mutagenesis. These results have clear therapeutic implications, and should inform future design of meganucleases for targeted gene correction.
Practitioners are often asking if the treatment successfully improved performance. Many times this question is directed towards the outcome of a single individual. In this article, we develop a method to assess the improvement of a single individual who is administered a test of percent correct at pre-treatment and post-treatment. A Bayesian approach is taken where the number correct is modelled as a binomial random variable and the percent correct is set to a beta prior distribution. The first model assumes percent correct at pre-test is equal to the percent correct at post-test and the posterior predictive distribution is used to evaluate the change in the number correct. We subsequently model the proportions correct at pre-test and post-test as unequal. The second model then assumes independent proportions and the third assumes correlated beta distributions for the two proportions. 95% credible intervals are calculated for the various methods for number of correct at post-test given a particular level at pre-test. An example using data from a cochlear implant clinical trial is presented where clinicians recorded percent correct in a consonant-nucleus-consonant test.
To propose a method to correct Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images of posterior surface of the crystalline lens incorporating its gradient index (GRIN) distribution and explore its possibilities for posterior surface shape reconstruction in comparison to existing methods of correction.
2-D images of 9 human lenses were obtained with a time-domain OCT system. The shape of the posterior lens surface was corrected using the proposed iterative correction method. The parameters defining the GRIN distribution used for the correction were taken from a previous publication. The results of correction were evaluated relative to the nominal surface shape (accessible in vitro) and compared to the performance of two other existing methods (simple division, refraction correction: assuming a homogeneous index). Comparisons were made in terms of posterior surface radius, conic constant, root mean square, peak to valley and lens thickness shifts from the nominal data.
Differences in the retrieved radius and conic constant were not statistically significant across methods. However, GRIN distortion correction with optimal shape GRIN parameters provided more accurate estimates of the posterior lens surface, in terms of RMS and peak values, with errors less than 6μm and 13μm respectively, on average. Thickness was also more accurately estimated with the new method, with a mean discrepancy of 8μm.
The posterior surface of the crystalline lens and lens thickness can be accurately reconstructed from OCT images, with the accuracy improving with an accurate model of the GRIN distribution. The algorithm can be used to improve quantitative knowledge of the crystalline lens from OCT imaging in vivo. Although the improvements over other methods are modest in 2-D, it is expected that 3-D imaging will fully exploit the potential of the technique. The method will also benefit from increasing experimental data of GRIN distribution in the lens of larger populations.
optical coherence tomography; optical distortion correction; gradient index distribution; crystalline lens
Motion-induced artefacts in magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging are much harder to recognize than in imaging experiments and can therefore lead to erroneous interpretation. A method for prospective motion correction based on an optical tracking system has recently been proposed and has already been successfully applied to single voxel spectroscopy. In this work, the utility of prospective motion correction in combination with retrospective phase correction is evaluated for spectroscopic imaging in the human brain. Retrospective phase correction, based on the interleaved reference scan method, is used to correct for motion-induced frequency shifts and ensure correct phasing of the spectra across the whole spectroscopic imaging slice. It is demonstrated that the presented correction methodology can reduce motion-induced degradation of spectroscopic imaging data.
spectroscopic imaging; SI; prospective motion correction; interleaved reference scan
Dynamic registration uncertainty of a wavefront-guided correction with respect to underlying wavefront error (WFE) inevitably decreases retinal image quality. A partial correction may improve average retinal image quality and visual acuity in the presence of registration uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to (a) develop an algorithm to optimize wavefront-guided correction that improves visual acuity given registration uncertainty and (b) test the hypothesis that these corrections provide improved visual performance in the presence of these uncertainties as compared to a full-magnitude correction or a correction by Guirao, Cox, and Williams (2002). A stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm was used to optimize the partial-magnitude correction for three keratoconic eyes based on measured scleral contact lens movement. Given its high correlation with logMAR acuity, the retinal image quality metric log visual Strehl was used as a predictor of visual acuity. Predicted values of visual acuity with the optimized corrections were validated by regressing measured acuity loss against predicted loss. Measured loss was obtained from normal subjects viewing acuity charts that were degraded by the residual aberrations generated by the movement of the full-magnitude correction, the correction by Guirao, and optimized SPGD correction. Partial-magnitude corrections optimized with an SPGD algorithm provide at least one line improvement of average visual acuity over the full magnitude and the correction by Guirao given the registration uncertainty. This study demonstrates that it is possible to improve the average visual acuity by optimizing wavefront-guided correction in the presence of registration uncertainty.
optical design; wavefront-guided correction; stochastic parallel gradient descent; keratoconus; registration uncertainty
The treatment of hyponatraemia is controversial because of the risk of causing central or extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM). Rapid correction with hypertonic saline to a low normal sodium level has its proponents; others feel that slow correction to below normal sodium values is preventative. Most investigators feel that overcorrection should be avoided. It is not known whether the magnitude of serum sodium change is more important than the actual rate of correction. We present three patients with hyponatraemia ranging from 103 to 105 mmol/l who were corrected slowly with normal saline, corrected quickly with hypertonic saline, or rapidly overcorrected with hypertonic saline. All became comatose and died; all had EPM with or without central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). The rate of correction, the solution used, or the magnitude of correction did not seem to protect against demyelination. In a review of 67 reported CPM cases since 1983, no patients documented as having CPM or EPM by radiological studies or necropsy were treated with water restriction only. A group of 27 hyponatraemic patients treated only with water restriction and 35 with diuretic cessation alone did not develop CPM or EPM. This may be a reasonable approach to patients with symptomatic hyponatraemia and normal renal function.
Aim: To evaluate the acceptability, effectivity, and side effects of a monovision spectacle correction designed to reduce accommodation and myopia progression in schoolchildren.
Methods: Dominant eyes of 11 year old children with myopia (−1.00 to −3.00 D mean spherical equivalent) were corrected for distance; fellow eyes were uncorrected or corrected to keep the refractive imbalance ⩽2.00 D. Myopia progression was followed with cycloplegic autorefraction and A-scan ultrasonography measures of vitreous chamber depth (VCD) for up to 30 months. Dynamic retinoscopy was used to assess accommodation while reading.
Results: All children accommodated to read with the distance corrected (dominant) eye. Thus, the near corrected eye experienced myopic defocus at all levels of accommodation. Myopia progression in the near corrected eyes was significantly slower than in the distance corrected eyes (inter-eye difference = 0.36 D/year (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.19, p = 0.0015, n = 13); difference in VCD elongation = 0.13 mm/year (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.08, p = 0.0003, n = 13)). After refitting with conventional spectacles, the resultant anisometropia returned to baseline levels after 9–18 months.
Conclusions: Monovision is not effective in reducing accommodation in juvenile myopia. However, myopia progression was significantly reduced in the near corrected eye, suggesting that sustained myopic defocus slows axial elongation of the human eye.
ametropia; eyeglasses; refraction; accommodation; children
A systematic sequence of prompt and probe trials was used to teach picture names to three severely retarded children. On prompt trials the experimenter presented a picture and said the picture name for the child to imitate; on probe trials the experimenter did not name the picture. A procedure whereby correct responses to prompts and probes were nondifferentially reinforced was compared with procedures whereby correct responses to prompts and probes were differentially reinforced according to separate and independent schedules of primary reinforcement. In Phase 1, correct responses to prompts and probes were reinforced nondifferentially on a fixed ratio (FR) 6 or 8 schedule; in Phase 2, correct responses to prompts were reinforced on the FR schedule and correct responses to probes were reinforced on an FR schedule of the same value; in Phase 3, correct responses to prompts were reinforced on the FR schedule and correct responses to probes were reinforced on a continuous reinforcement (CRF; every correct response reinforced) schedule; in Phase 4, correct responses to prompts were reinforced on a CRF schedule and correct responses to probes were reinforced on the FR schedule; in Phase 5, a reversal to the conditions of Phase 3 was conducted. For all three children, the FR schedule for correct responses to prompts combined with the CRF schedule for correct responses to probes (Phases 3 and 5) generated the highest number of correct responses to probes, the highest accuracy (correct responses relative to correct responses plus errors) on probe trials, and the highest rate of learning to name pictures.
The development of position and stimulus biases often occurs during initial training on matching-to-sample tasks. Furthermore, without intervention, these biases can be maintained via intermittent reinforcement provided by matching-to-sample contingencies. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a correction procedure designed to eliminate both position and stimulus biases. Following key-peck training, a group of 6 pigeons had extended exposure to matching-to-sample contingencies without a correction procedure, a group of 4 pigeons was briefly exposed to a simultaneous matching-to-sample procedure to assess biases prior to exposure to the correction procedure, and a group of 5 pigeons was exposed directly to the correction procedure. The correction procedure arranged that every time an incorrect match was made, the trial configuration was repeated on the subsequent trial until a correct match was made. Extended exposure to matching-to-sample contingencies without a correction procedure was associated with reduced biases eventually for most subjects, but rapid development of near-perfect accuracy and bias-free performance was observed upon the implementation of the correction procedure regardless of the type of bias. Bias-free performance was maintained following subsequent exposure to a zero-delay MTS procedure.
position bias; stimulus bias; correction procedure; matching-to-sample; pigeons
Several methods have been proposed for motion correction of High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) data. There have been few comparisons of these methods, partly due to a lack of quantitative metrics of performance. We compare two motion correction strategies using two figures of merit: displacement introduced by the motion correction and the 95% confidence interval of the cone of uncertainty of voxels with prolate tensors. What follows is a general approach for assessing motion correction of HARDI data that may have broad application for quality assurance and optimization of postprocessing protocols. Our analysis demonstrates two important issues related to motion correction of HARDI data: 1) although neither method we tested was dramatically superior in performance, both were dramatically better than performing no motion correction, and 2) iteration of motion correction can improve the final results. Based on the results demonstrated here, iterative motion correction is strongly recommended for HARDI acquisitions.
Quantitative myocardial PET perfusion imaging requires partial volume corrections.
Patients underwent ECG-gated, rest-dipyridamole, myocardial perfusion PET using Rb-82 decay corrected in Bq/cc for diastolic, systolic, and combined whole cycle ungated images. Diastolic partial volume correction relative to systole was determined from the systolic/diastolic activity ratio, systolic partial volume correction from phantom dimensions comparable to systolic LV wall thicknesses and whole heart cycle partial volume correction for ungated images from fractional systolic-diastolic duration for systolic and diastolic partial volume corrections.
For 264 PET perfusion images from 159 patients (105 rest-stress image pairs, 54 individual rest or stress images), average resting diastolic partial volume correction relative to systole was 1.14 ± 0.04, independent of heart rate and within ±1.8% of stress images (1.16 ± 0.04). Diastolic partial volume corrections combined with those for phantom dimensions comparable to systolic LV wall thickness gave an average whole heart cycle partial volume correction for ungated images of 1.23 for Rb-82 compared to 1.14 if positron range were negligible as for F-18.
Quantitative myocardial PET perfusion imaging requires partial volume correction, herein demonstrated clinically from systolic/diastolic absolute activity ratios combined with phantom data accounting for Rb-82 positron range.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12350-010-9327-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PET-CT imaging; partial volume correction; myocardial perfusion
Increased type I error resulting from multiple statistical comparisons remains a common problem in the scientific literature. This may result in the reporting and promulgation of spurious findings. One approach to this problem is to correct groups of P-values for “family-wide significance” using a Bonferroni correction or the less conservative Bonferroni-Holm correction or to correct for the “false discovery rate” with a Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Although several solutions are available for performing this correction through commercially available software there are no widely available easy to use open source programs to perform these calculations. In this paper we present an open source program written in Python 3.2 that performs calculations for standard Bonferroni, Bonferroni-Holm and Benjamini-Hochberg corrections.
Bonferroni correction; software program; type I error
The inconsistency of k-space trajectories results in Nyquist artifacts in echo-planar imaging (EPI). Traditional techniques often only correct for phase errors along the frequency-encoding direction (1D correction), which may leave significant residual artifacts, particularly for oblique-plane EPI or in the presence of cross-term eddy currents. As compared with 1D correction, two-dimensional (2D) phase correction can be much more effective in suppressing Nyquist artifacts. However, most existing 2D correction methods require reference scans and may not be generally applicable to different imaging protocols. Furthermore, EPI reconstruction with 2D phase correction is susceptible to error amplification due to subject motion. To address these limitations, we report an inherent and general 2D phase correction technique for EPI Nyquist removal. First, a series of images are generated from the original dataset, by cycling through different possible values of phase errors using a 2D reconstruction framework. Second, the image with the lowest artifact level is identified from images generated in the first step using criteria based on background energy in sorted and sigmoid-weighted signals. In this report, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our new method in removing Nyquist ghosts in single-shot, segmented and parallel EPI without acquiring additional reference scans and the subsequent error amplifications.
A large variability in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) correction objectives and instrumentation strategies was documented. The hypothesis was that different correction objectives will lead to different instrumentation strategies. The objective of this study was to develop a numerical model to optimize the instrumentation configurations under given correction objectives.
Eleven surgeons from the Spinal Deformity Study Group independently provided their respective correction objectives for the same patient. For each surgeon, 702 surgical configurations were simulated to search for the most favourable one for his particular objectives. The influence of correction objectives on the resulting surgical strategies was then evaluated.
Fusion levels (mean 11.2, SD 2.1), rod shapes, and implant patterns were significantly influenced by correction objectives (p < 0.05). Different surgeon-specified correction objectives produced different instrumentation strategies for the same patient.
Instrumentation configurations can be optimized with respect to a given set of correction objectives.
Scoliosis; Instrumentation; Simulation; Modeling; Optimization; 3-D correction
Between 1984 and 1993 we treated 21 consecutive patients who had progressive thoracic kyphosis due to ankylosing spondylitis by polysegmental posterior lumbar wedge osteotomies. In 19 patients we used the Universal Spinal Instrumentation System and in the last 2 patients the H-frame. The average correction in 20 of 21 patients at follow-up was 25.6° (range 0°–52°), with a mean segmental correction of 9.5° and a mean loss of correction after operation of 10.7° (range 0°–36°). There were no fatal complications, but in one patient no correction could be obtained during surgery and another patient was reoperated due to lack of correction. Breaking out of screws through the pedicle during compressive correction was seen in seven patients. Implant failure, such as breakage of the threaded rods and/or loosening of the junction between the pedicle screw and the rod, occurred in 9 out of 21 patients. Two patients required reoperation at long-term follow-up. Five out of seven deep wound infections required removal of the implant. Polysegmental lumbar wedge osteotomies for correction of progressive thoracic kyphosis in ankylosing spondylitis is only recommended in patients at a mild stage of the disease with mobile discs and in combination with strong instrumentation.
Key words Ankylosing spondylitis; Osteotomies; Lumbar spine; Complications
Spinal deformity surgery is historically associated with significant blood loss and medical complications. Minimally invasive deformity correction is a promising approach to spinal deformity surgery where deformity correction and fusion can be achieved with less tissue trauma, reduced blood loss and potentially less complications.
Materials and methods
We discuss technical aspects of minimally invasive deformity correction, review the transpsoas and presacral approaches for discectomy and fusion, and review multilevel posterior percutaneous pedicle instrumentation and rod placement for deformity correction. We also review our results using these techniques and review the literature regarding outcomes in this emerging area of spinal surgery.
Minimally invasive deformity correction is a promising method of spinal deformity correction. Early clinical results are similar to open techniques, with reduced blood loss and less complications than traditional approaches. Meticulous technique and careful patient selection are required for good results and to avoid complications.
Adult deformity; Minimally invasive
External tibial torsion causes an abnormal axis of joint motion relative to the line of progression with resultant abnormal coronal plane knee moments and affects lever arm function of the foot in power generation at the ankle. However, it is unclear whether surgical correction of the tibial torsion corrects the moments and power.
We evaluated whether surgical correction of external tibial torsion in patients with cerebral palsy would correct the abnormal coronal plane knee moments and improve ankle power generation.
We studied 22 patients (26 limbs) with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System Level I or II) who underwent distal internal rotation osteotomies for correction of external tibial torsion as part of a multilevel surgical intervention. There were 10 males and 12 females with a mean age at surgery of 14 years (range, 6.8–20.9 years). All patients had pre- and postoperative standardized clinical evaluation and computerized three-dimensional gait analysis. Minimum followup was 9 months (average, 13 months; range, 9–19 months).
On physical examination, the mean (± SD) transmalleolar axis improved from 43° ± 10° preoperatively to 20° ± 7° postoperatively. Mean knee rotation improved kinematically from 40° ± 9° preoperatively to 21° ± 9° postoperatively. Twenty-two of 26 limbs (88%) improved in one or both peaks of the abnormal coronal plane knee moments. Ankle power generation did not change from preoperative (1.6 ± 0.7 W/kg) to postoperative (1.6 W/kg).
Correction of external tibial torsion in ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy improves the kinematic and kinetic deviations identified by gait analysis.
Levels of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Medicine & Public Health; Conservative Orthopedics; Orthopedics; Sports Medicine; Surgery; Surgical Orthopedics; Medicine/Public Health, general
This study was designed to determine how visual feedback mediates error corrections during reaching. We used visuomotor rotations to dissociate a cursor, representing finger position, from the actual finger location. We then extinguished cursor feedback at different distances from the start location to determine whether corrections were based on error extrapolation from prior cursor information. Results indicated that correction amplitude varied with the extent of cursor feedback. A second experiment tested specific aspects of error information that might mediate corrections to visuomotor rotations: rotation angle, distance between the finger and cursor positions and the duration of cursor exposure. Results showed that corrections did not depend on the amplitude of the rotation angle or the amount of time the cursor was shown. Instead, participants corrected for the cursor–finger distance, at the point where cursor feedback was last-seen. These findings suggest that within-trial corrections and inter-trial adaptation might employ different mechanisms.
Motor control; Vision; Visuomotor rotation; Feedback
Previous studies of different methods of testing mediation models have consistently found two anomalous results. The first result is elevated Type I error rates for the bias-corrected and accelerated bias-corrected bootstrap tests not found in nonresampling tests or in resampling tests that did not include a bias correction. This is of special concern as the bias-corrected bootstrap is often recommended and used due to its higher statistical power compared with other tests. The second result is statistical power reaching an asymptote far below 1.0 and in some conditions even declining slightly as the size of the relationship between X and M, a, increased. Two computer simulations were conducted to examine these findings in greater detail. Results from the first simulation found that the increased Type I error rates for the bias-corrected and accelerated bias-corrected bootstrap are a function of an interaction between the size of the individual paths making up the mediated effect and the sample size, such that elevated Type I error rates occur when the sample size is small and the effect size of the nonzero path is medium or larger. Results from the second simulation found that stagnation and decreases in statistical power as a function of the effect size of the a path occurred primarily when the path between M and Y, b, was small. Two empirical mediation examples are provided using data from a steroid prevention and health promotion program aimed at high school football players (Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids; Goldberg et al., 1996), one to illustrate a possible Type I error for the bias-corrected bootstrap test and a second to illustrate a loss in power related to the size of a. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Respiratory motion affects cardiac PET-computed tomography (CT) imaging by reducing attenuation correction (AC) accuracy and by introducing blur. The aim of this study was to compare three approaches for reducing motion-induced AC errors and evaluate the inclusion of respiratory motion correction.
Materials and methods
AC with a helical CT was compared with averaged cine and gated cine CT, as well as with a pseudo-gated CT, which was produced by applying PET-derived motion fields to the helical CT. Data-driven gating was used to produce respiratory-gated PET and CT images, and 60 NH3 PET scans were attenuation corrected with each of the CTs. Respiratory motion correction was applied to the gated and pseudo-gated attenuation-corrected PET images.
Anterior and lateral wall intensity measured in attenuation-corrected PET images generally increased when PET-CT alignment improved and decreased when alignment degraded. On average, all methods improved PET-CT liver and cardiac alignment, and increased anterior wall intensity by more than 10% in 36, 33 and 25 cases for the averaged, gated and pseudo-gated CTAC PET images, respectively. However, cases were found where alignment worsened and severe artefacts resulted. This occurred in more cases and to a greater extent for the averaged and gated CT, where the anterior wall intensity reduced by more than 10% in 21 and 24 cases, respectively, compared with six cases for the pseudo-gated CT. Application of respiratory motion correction increased the average anterior and inferior wall intensity, but only 13% of cases increased by more than 10%.
All methods improved average respiratory-induced AC errors; however, some severe artefacts were produced. The pseudo-gated CT was found to be the most robust method.
PET-computed tomography; respiratory motion; respiratory motion correction
The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) can relieve pain and restore function in patients with symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Accurate acetabular correction is fundamental to achieving these clinical goals and presumably enhancing survivorship of the reconstruction. Fluoroscopy is used by some surgeons to assess intraoperative acetabular correction but it is unclear whether the features observed by fluoroscopy accurately reflect those on postoperative radiographs.
We therefore determined whether the parameters of acetabular correction of PAO correlated on intraoperative fluoroscopic imaging and postoperative radiography.
We retrospectively reviewed the imaging of 48 patients (50 hips) who underwent PAO. Intraoperative fluoroscopic AP and false profile images were obtained after final PAO correction. The intraoperative deformity correction as measured on the two fluoroscopy views was compared with the correction determined with postoperative standing plain AP pelvis and false profile radiographs using common measurements of acetabular position.
Of all radiographic parameters, lateral center-edge angle had the highest correlation between intraoperative fluoroscopy and the postoperative radiograph with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.80 (0.68–0.88). Similarly, acetabular inclination and anterior center-edge angle also correlated with ICCs of 0.76 (0.61–0.85) and 0.71 (0.54–0.82), respectively. Extrusion index and medial offset distance had lower correlations with ICCs of 0.66 (0.46–0.79) and 0.46 (0.21–0.65), respectively.
Intraoperative fluoroscopic assessment of PAO correction correlated with that from the postoperative radiographic assessment. Measurement of lateral center-edge angle shows the highest correlation with the fewest outliers. Acetabular inclination and anterior center-edge angle also correlated; extrusion index and medial offset distance should be used with more caution.
In concurrent EEG/fMRI recordings, EEG data are impaired by the fMRI gradient artifacts which exceed the EEG signal by several orders of magnitude. While several algorithms exist to correct the EEG data, these algorithms lack the flexibility to either leave out or add new steps. The here presented open-source MATLAB toolbox FACET is a modular toolbox for the fast and flexible correction and evaluation of imaging artifacts from concurrently recorded EEG datasets. It consists of an Analysis, a Correction and an Evaluation framework allowing the user to choose from different artifact correction methods with various pre- and post-processing steps to form flexible combinations. The quality of the chosen correction approach can then be evaluated and compared to different settings.
FACET was evaluated on a dataset provided with the FMRIB plugin for EEGLAB using two different correction approaches: Averaged Artifact Subtraction (AAS, Allen et al., NeuroImage 12(2):230–239, 2000) and the FMRI Artifact Slice Template Removal (FASTR, Niazy et al., NeuroImage 28(3):720–737, 2005). Evaluation of the obtained results were compared to the FASTR algorithm implemented in the EEGLAB plugin FMRIB. No differences were found between the FACET implementation of FASTR and the original algorithm across all gradient artifact relevant performance indices.
The FACET toolbox not only provides facilities for all three modalities: data analysis, artifact correction as well as evaluation and documentation of the results but it also offers an easily extendable framework for development and evaluation of new approaches.
This study aims to determine what effect correcting melphalan dosing for ideal body weight (IBW) has on toxicity and response in isolated limb infusion (ILI) in patients with advanced extremity melanoma.
This was an open observational study examining whether correcting the melphalan dose for IBW will influence response and toxicity in patients undergoing ILI for advanced extremity melanoma in 41 patients undergoing 42 procedures (13 without correction for IBW; and 29 with correction for IBW). Melphalan pharmacokinetics, limb toxicity, serologic toxicity, and response at 3 months were compared.
The corrected group had a lower estimated limb volume (Vesti) to melphalan volume at steady state (Vss) (P < .0001) ratio as well as lower incidence of grade ≥3 regional toxicity, serologic toxicity, and compartment syndrome (P = .0249, P = .027, P = .02). There was a positive correlation of Vesti/Vss to toxicity (P = .0127, r = .382). No significant difference in response (P = .3609) between the groups was found, although there was a trend of association between Vesti/Vss and response (P = .051, r = .3383).
Correcting for IBW in ILI lowers toxicity without significantly altering response rates.
In this study we tried to achieve a better understanding of the biodynamic mechanism of balance in the scoliotic spine. Therefore we focused on the pre- and postoperative spine of patients with idiopathic scoliosis with a primary thoracic curve and a secondary lumbar curve. Several studies showed that the lumbar curve spontaneously corrects and improves after selective thoracic fusion. We try to understand and describe this spontaneous compensatory lumbar curve correction after selective thoracic correction and fusion. We performed a retrospective examination of pre- and postoperative radiographs of the spine of 38 patients with idiopathic scoliosis King type II and III. Frontal Cobb angles of the thoracic and lumbar curves were assessed on pre- and postoperative antero-posterior and side bending radiographs. We determined the postoperative corrections of the thoracic and lumbar curves. Relative (%) corrections and correlations of the postoperative corrections were calculated. The group was divided in three subgroups, depending on lumbar curve modifier, according to Lenkes classification system. The calculations were done for the whole group as for each subgroup. As expected, significant correlations were present between the relative correction of the main thoracic and the lumbar curve (mean R = 0.590; P = 0.001). The relation between relative thoracic and lumbar correction decreased with the lumbar modifier type. This study shows a highly significant correlation between the relative corrections of the main thoracic curve and the lumbar curve after selective thoracic fusion in idiopathic scoliosis. This correlation depends on lumbar curve modifier type. This new classification system seems to be of great predictable value for the spontaneous correction of the lumbar curve. Depending on the curve-type, a different technique for predicting the outcome should be used. The lumbar curve correction does not occur throughout the whole lumbar curve. Most correction is achieved in the upper part of the curve. The distal lumbar curve seems to be more rigid and less important in the spontaneous curve correction.
Idiopathic scoliosis; Surgical correction; Selective thoracic fusion; Spontaneous correction; Biomechanics