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1.  Effect of book reviewing workshop on awareness of, aptitude for and attitude toward book reviews in faculty members of faculty of management and medical information 
Works evaluation and critique is one of the most important phases in scientific production cycle. Reviewers need some aptitude about rules and principles of writing good review. Considering the important role of books for storage and transferring the scientific findings, book reviewing is vital to scientific progress. Despite this fact, investigation of Isfahan University of Medical Science's journal, demonstrated the number of published book reviews to be very small. This study aims to investigate the influence of reviewing training courses on participants’ book reviewing awareness, attitude, and aptitude.
Materials and Methods:
The study method is experimental with two group design (with pre-test and post-test) and applied. Statistical population is of all faculty members of the faculty of management and medical information of Isfahan University of Medical Science, including both hired and contracted employees, which, according to faculty's department of Education, consists of 86 people. The sampling method used in this study is random. Number of samples in case and control groups was calculated using the following equation of n= (z1 + z2) 2 (2s2)/d2 and is 15 people. One checklist and two questionnaires were the means of data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software and two level of descriptive (mean and SD) and inferential statistics (t-test and t-paired).
Findings showed that the mean score of awareness of book reviews in case group increased meaningfully after the training course (55.7) compared to the score prior to the intervention (33.1), P < 0.001. On the other hand, the mean score of awareness of book reviews in control group remained mostly the same before (31.6) and after intervention (35.1), P = 0.35. The mean score of attitude toward book reviews showed no significant difference before and after intervention in both case group (71.4 before intervention and 74.4 after intervention, P = 0.11) and control group (70.9 before intervention and 74.4 after intervention, P = 0.91). The mean score of book reviewing aptitude in case group showed a significant increase from 10.2 ± 6.7 before intervention to 53.6 ± 26.3, showing a 43.4 increase (P < 0.001), while the control group's mean score showed no significant difference (8.5 before intervention and 8.6 after intervention, P = 0.996). Conclusion: This study showed a significant influence of training course on participants’ book reviewing aptitude and awareness. But attitude toward book reviews was in good level from the beginning to the end and remained mostly unchanged.
PMCID: PMC4165106  PMID: 25250344
Awareness; attitude; aptitude; book review; faculty; Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; workshop
2.  Current Status of Biomedical Book Reviewing: Part III. Duplication Patterns in Biomedical Book Reviewing 
This is the third part of a comprehensive, quantitative study of biomedical book reviewing. The data base of the total project was built from statistics of 3,347 reviews of 2,067 biomedical books appearing in all 1970 issues of fifty-four reviewing journals. This part of the study explores the duplication patterns in book reviewing among these media. It is found that 35.17% (727 books) of the 2,067 titles were reviewed more than once in 1970, these titles accounting for 2,007 of the total of 3,347 reviews. For the most part, reviews of the most frequently reviewed titles appeared in such journals as British Medical Journal, Annals of Internal Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, and New England Journal of Medicine. These five journals covered 93.53% of the 727 books reviewed more than once in 1970.
PMCID: PMC198797  PMID: 4471577
3.  Current Status of Biomedical Book Reviewing: Part IV. Major American and British Biomedical Book Publishers 
This is the fourth part of a comprehensive, quantitative study of biomedical book reviews. The data base of the total project was built from statistics of 3,347 reviews of 2,067 biomedical books taken from all 1970 issues of fifty-four reviewing journals. This part of the study identifies the major American and British biomedical book publishers in terms of their quantitative production of book titles reviewed, and determines the relationships among these publishers. It is found that Williams & Wilkins, Charles C Thomas, Academic Press, and Springer Verlag are the most productive biomedical book publishers in terms of books reviewed in 1970. These four publishers accounted for 32% of the 1,674 books available in the United States and reviewed in the reviewing media in 1970. Williams & Wilkins is especially significant by virtue of reprint activity. The present study also explores the price trend of biomedical books. It is found that the mean price for 1,077 books studied was $16.20 per volume, with a standard deviation of $9.42.
PMCID: PMC198798  PMID: 4466508
4.  Current Status of Biomedical Book Reviewing: Part II. Time Lag in Biomedical Book Reviewing 
This part of the study explores the effectiveness of the review media in terms of speed of reviewing, comprehensiveness of review treatment, and authority. The time lags for the fifty-four journals varied widely, the mean ranging from 5.8 months to forty-two months. The time lags for all 3,347 reviews varied even more widely, ranging from less than a month to 108 months after a book was off the press. The 3,347 reviews had a mean time lag of 10.43 months and a standard deviation of 6.63 months.
PMCID: PMC198771  PMID: 4826480
5.  Current Status of Biomedical Book Reviewing: Part V. Most Frequently Reviewed Biomedical Books in 1970 
This final part in a series of five articles on biomedical book reviewing consists of a list of 145 biomedical monographs which were reviewed four or more times in the year 1970.
PMCID: PMC198799  PMID: 4466509
6.  How to Write a Scholarly Book Review for Publication in a Peer-Reviewed Journal 
To describe and discuss the processes used to write scholarly book reviews for publication in peer-reviewed journals and to provide a recommended strategy and book appraisal worksheet to use when conducting book reviews.
A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Index to Chiropractic Literature was conducted in June 2009 using a combination of controlled vocabulary and truncated text words to capture articles relevant to writing scholarly book reviews for publication in peer-reviewed journals.
The initial search identified 839 citations. Following the removal of duplicates and the application of selection criteria, a total of 78 articles were included in this review including narrative commentaries (n = 26), editorials or journal announcements (n = 25), original research (n = 18), and journal correspondence pieces (n = 9).
Recommendations for planning and writing an objective and quality book review are presented based on the evidence gleaned from the articles reviewed and from the authors' experiences. A worksheet for conducting a book review is provided.
The scholarly book review serves many purposes and has the potential to be an influential literary form. The process of publishing a successful scholarly book review requires the reviewer to appreciate the book review publication process and to be aware of the skills and strategies involved in writing a successful review.
PMCID: PMC2870990  PMID: 20480015
Authorship; Book Reviews; Book Reviews as Topic; Manuscripts as Topic; Publishing; Writing
7.  Book reviews in medical journals. 
In a study of book reviews published in four general medical journals over a six-month period, 480 reviews were analyzed. Twenty-five features that reviewers address when evaluating a text were identified, and the frequency of commentary for each feature was determined. The mean number of features addressed per review was 9.0. Reviews averaged 389 words, but review length did not correlate with the length or scope of the book, with the number of features addressed, nor with the reviewer's assessment of the text. Extraneous commentary by the reviewer occurred in 16% of the reviews. This editorializing appeared in lengthier reviews that addressed fewer features. Favorable reviews were far more common than unfavorable ones (88.5% vs. 11.5%). Consequently, for the fifty-five books reviewed in more than one journal, agreement regarding rating of the text was high (86%). Results of this study may provide useful guidelines for reviewers of medical texts.
PMCID: PMC227756  PMID: 3947772
8.  Life review and life story books for people with mild to moderate dementia: a randomised controlled trial 
Aging & Mental Health  2013;18(3):363-375.
To evaluate the effect of different pathways for developing a life story book (LSB) for people with dementia.
Preliminary randomised control trial; 23 people with dementia in care homes (mean age 86) randomly assigned to receive either 12 individual life review sessions and co-creating a LSB or a personal LSB created by their relatives as a ‘gift’
No difference in quality of life (quality of life–Alzheimer's disease (QOL–AD)) was observed between the two groups, six weeks after having received the LSB (F(1,20) = 0.08, p = 0.77). At this point, QOL–AD had improved for both groups, but there was a significant between-group difference at an intermediate assessment immediately after the life review sessions had been completed, before the LSBs were received (F(1, 20) = 5.11, p = 0.035), in favour of life review. A similar pattern was observed on autobiographical memory (extended autobiographical memory interview), with the life review group improving significantly more than the gift group during the life review sessions, but no difference was observed once all participants had had their LSB for six weeks. After the LSBs were produced – by either pathway – quality of relationship as rated by relatives improved significantly (F(2, 39) = 19.37, p < 0.001) and staff knowledge regarding the resident and attitudes to dementia improved.
The creation of LSBs – either through a life review process or by relatives without involving the person with dementia – has benefits for people with dementia, relatives and staff in care homes. However, undertaking a life review requires training and supervision.
PMCID: PMC4017276  PMID: 24063317
reminiscence; care home; older adult; staff and relatives
9.  Current Status of Biomedical Book Reviewing: Part I. Key Biomedical Reviewing Journals with Quantitative Significance 
This is the first part of a comprehensive, quantitative study of biomedical book reviewing. The data base of the total project was built from statistics taken from all 1970 issues of biomedical journals held in the Science Library of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Of 285 so-called “life sciences” journals held by that library, fifty-four English journals (excluding Science and Nature) were found to contain bona fide book reviews (as contrasted with mere author-title lists) and were therefore selected for close study. The statistical results reveal that there were 3,347 reviews of 2,067 biomedical books in these fifty-four selected journals in 1970. Part I of the study identifies key biomedical reviewing journals of quantitative significance. The top ten journals, British Medical Journal, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Archives of Internal Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine, Quarterly Review of Biology, Bioscience, Canadian Medical Association Journal,* and American Journal of the Medical Sciences, accounted for 63.03% of the total number of reviews in 1970.
PMCID: PMC198770  PMID: 4826479
10.  The Hip and Knee Book: developing an active management booklet for hip and knee osteoarthritis 
The pain and disability of hip and knee osteoarthritis can be improved by exercise, but the best method of encouraging this is not known.
To develop an evidence-based booklet for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis, offering information and advice on maintaining activity.
Design of study
Systematic review of reviews and guidelines, then focus groups.
Four general practices in North East Wales.
Evidence-based messages were developed from a systematic review, synthesised into patient-centred messages, and then incorporated into a narrative. A draft booklet was examined by three focus groups to improve the phrasing of its messages and discuss its usefulness. The final draft was examined in a fourth focus group.
Six evidence-based guidelines and 54 systematic reviews were identified. The focus groups found the draft booklet to be informative and easy to read. They reported a lack of clarity about the cause of osteoarthritis and were surprised that the pain could improve. The value of exercise and weight loss beliefs was accepted and reinforced, but there was a perceived contradiction about heavy physical work being causative, while moderate exercise was beneficial. There was a fear of dependency on analgesia and misinterpretation of the message on hyaluranon injections. The information on joint replacement empowered patients to discuss referral with their GP. The text was revised to accommodate these issues.
The booklet was readable, credible, and useful to end-users. A randomised controlled trial is planned, to test whether the booklet influences beliefs about osteoarthritis and exercise.
PMCID: PMC2814291  PMID: 20132695
focus groups; osteoarthritis, hip; osteoarthritis, knee; patient education handout; primary health care; systematic review
11.  Medical Book Reviewing 
The large number of medical books published complicates selection by medical librarians. Book reviews are a potentially useful aid to selection. How available medical book reviews are to medical librarians, as well as how timely and accessible they are, were studied. Book reviews appearing in 1981 in a select group of medical journals were studied, and questionnaires sent to book publishers and the book review editors of the journals in the study.
PMCID: PMC227141  PMID: 6860827
12.  BRIEF REPORT: Nutrition and Weight Loss Information in a Popular Diet Book: Is It Fact, Fiction, or Something in Between? 
Diet books dominate the New York Times Advice Best Seller list and consumers cite such books as an important source of nutrition information. However, the scientific support for nutrition claims presented as fact (nutrition facts) in diet books is not known.
We assessed the quality of nutrition facts in the best-selling South Beach Diet using support in peer-reviewed literature as a measure of quality. We performed structured literature searches on nutrition facts located in the books' text, and then assigned each fact to 1 of 4 categories (1) fact supported, (2) fact not supported, (3) fact both supported and not supported, and (4) no related papers. A panel of expert reviewers adjudicated the findings.
Forty-two nutrition facts were included. Fourteen (33%) facts were supported, 7 (17%) were not supported, 18 (43%) were both supported and not supported, and 3 (7%) had no related papers, including the fact that the diet had been “scientifically studied and proven effective.”
Consumers obtain nutrition information from diet books. We found that over 67% of nutrition facts in a best-seller diet book may not be supported in the peer-reviewed literature. These findings have important implications for educating consumers about nutrition information sources.
PMCID: PMC1924692  PMID: 16808780
health information; nutrition; weight loss
13.  Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco 
Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco.
We searched Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme.
Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase.
Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective.
PMCID: PMC3038894  PMID: 21261991
14.  Frequency and Content Analysis of CFS in Medical Text Books 
Textbooks are a cornerstone in the training of medical staff and students, and they are an important source of references and reviews for these professionals. The objective of this study was to determine both the quantity and quality of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) information included in medical texts. After reviewing 119 medical textbooks from various medical specialties, we found that 48 (40.3%) of the medical textbooks included information on CFS. However, among the 129,527 total pages within these medical textbooks, the CFS content was presented on only 116.3 (.090%) pages. Other illnesses that are less prevalent, such as Multiple Sclerosis and Lyme disease, were more frequently represented in medical textbooks. These findings suggest that the topic of CFS is under-reported in published medical textbooks.
PMCID: PMC3691015  PMID: 21128580
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; medical textbooks; Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
15.  Book review of “Joining and assembly of medical materials and devices” edited by Y. (Norman) Zhou and Mark D. Breyen 
This article is a review of the book “Joining and assembly of medical materials and devices” edited by Y. (Norman) Zhou and Mark D. Breyen. This book (hardcover) was published by Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK in 2013. The contents of the book and its relevance to medical device design and education are discussed in this invited review.
PMCID: PMC3846588
Biomaterials; Medical device assembly; Medical device joining; Welding; Bonding; Tissue adhesives
16.  Book Reviews 
Physiotherapy Canada  2013;65(2):195-196.
Brian C. Leutholtz and Ignacio Ripoll, Exercise and Disease Management, reviewed by Laura Desveaux
Barbara L. Kornblau, Ann Burkhardt, Ethics in Rehabilitation: A Clinical Perspective, reviewed by Maude Laliberté
PMCID: PMC3673803
17.  Book review of “Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering” edited by Y Hanry Yu and Nur Aida Abdul Rahim 
This article is a review of the book “Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering” (ISBN-13: 978-1439848036, $149.95, 298 Pages, 114 Illustrations) edited by Y Hanry Yu and Nur Aida Abdul Rahim published by the CRC Press (Taylor&Francis) in 2013. The contents of the book and its relevance to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are discussed in this invited review.
PMCID: PMC4079917
Tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; Imaging; Biomaterials; Assessment
18.  Book Reviews 
Physiotherapy Canada  2013;65(4):399-400.
Michelle M. Lusardi, Milagros Jorge, Caroline C. Nielsen, Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation, reviewed by Dellene Sakaguchi
John M. Saxton (editor), Exercise and Chronic Disease: An Evidence-Based Approach, reviewed by Lisa Wickerson
PMCID: PMC3817877
19.  Book Reviews 
Physiotherapy Canada  2014;66(1):109-110.
Laurita M. Hack, Jan Gwyer, Evidence into Practice: Integrating Judgment, Values, and Research, reviewed by Evelyne Durocher
Peter Brukner, Karim Khan, Brukner & Khan's Clinical Sports Medicine, reviewed by Mireille Landry
PMCID: PMC3941135
20.  Outcomes for births booked under an independent midwife and births in NHS maternity units: matched comparison study 
Objective To compare clinical outcomes between women employing an independent midwife and comparable pregnant women using NHS services.
Design Anonymised matched cohort analysis. Cases from the database of the Independent Midwives’ Association (IMA) matched up to 1:5 with Scottish National Health Service (NHS) records for age, parity, year of birth, and socioeconomic status. Multivariable logistic regression models used to explore the relation between explanatory variables and outcomes; analyses controlled for potential confounding factors and adjusted for stratification.
Setting UK databases 2002-5.
Participants Anonymised records for 8676 women (7214 NHS; 1462 IMA).
Main outcome measures Unassisted vertex delivery, live birth, perinatal death, onset of labour, gestation, use of analgesia, duration of labour, perineal trauma, Apgar scores, admission to neonatal intensive care, infant feeding.
Results IMA cohort mothers were significantly more likely to achieve an unassisted vertex delivery than NHS cohort mothers (77.9% (1139) v 54.3% (3918); odds ratio 3.49, 95% confidence interval 2.99 to 4.07) but also significantly more likely to experience a stillbirth or a neonatal death (1.7% (25) v 0.6% (46); 5.91, 3.27 to 10.7). All odds ratios are adjusted for confounding factors. Exclusion of “high risk” cases from both cohorts showed a non-significant difference (0.5% (5) v 0.3% (18); 2.73, 0.87 to 8.55); the “low risk” IMA perinatal mortality rate is comparable with other studies of low risk births. Women in the IMA cohort had a higher incidence of pre-existing medical conditions (1.5% (22) v 1.0% (72) in the NHS cohort) and previous obstetric complications (21.0% (307) v 17.8% (1284)). The incidence of twin pregnancy was also higher (3.4% (50) v 3.1% (224)). In the IMA cohort, 66.0% of mothers (965/1462) had home births, compared with only 0.4% of NHS cohort mothers (27/7214). Spontaneous onset of labour was more common in the IMA group (96.6% (1405) v 74.5% (5365); 10.43, 7.74 to 14.0), and fewer mothers used pharmacological analgesia (40.2% (588) v 60.6% (4370); 0.42, 0.38 to 0.47). Mothers in the IMA cohort were much more likely to breast feed (88.0% (1286) v 64.0% (2759); 3.46, 2.84 to 4.20). Prematurity (4.3% (63) v 6.9% (498); 0.49, 0.35 to 0.69), low birth weight (4.0% (60) v 7.1%) (523); 0.93, 0.62 to 1.38), and rate of admission to neonatal intensive care (4.4% (65) v 9.3% (667); 0.43, 0.32 to 0.59) were all higher in the NHS dataset.
Conclusions Healthcare policy tries to direct patient choice towards clinically appropriate and practicable options; nevertheless, pregnant women are free to make decisions about birth preferences, including place of delivery and staff in attendance. While clinical outcomes across a range of variables were significantly better for women accessing an independent midwife, the significantly higher perinatal mortality rates for high risk cases in this group indicate an urgent need for a review of these cases. The significantly higher prematurity and admission rates to intensive care in the NHS cohort also indicate an urgent need for review.
PMCID: PMC2695511  PMID: 19520729
21.  Forty Years of Mitchell’s Proton Circuit: from Little Grey Books to Little Grey Cells 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2008;1777(7-8):550-556.
It is more than forty years since Peter Mitchell published his first ‘little grey book’ laying out his chemiosmotic hypothesis. Although ideas about the molecular mechanisms of the proton pumps have evolved considerably since then, his concept of ‘coupling through proton circuits’ remains remarkably prescient, and has provided the inspiration for the research careers of this author and many others. This review is a personal account of how the proton circuit has been followed from the little grey book, via brown fat and calcium transport to investigations into the life and death of neurons, Hercule Poirot’s ‘little grey cells’.
PMCID: PMC2475803  PMID: 18423395
mitochondria; protons; calcium; brown fat; membrane potential; uncoupling
22.  PC GI board review. A ToolBook application for postgraduate review of Gastroenterology. 
"Hypertext" applications have become an important educational resource for medical teaching. ToolBook version 1.5 allows the import of SVGA 256 color, 640 x 480 pixel images. We developed a program for the review of Gastroenterology by Subspecialty Board applicants which included digitized pathology, endoscopy, dermatology, and radiology images interfaced with textual description. 5 cases were presented with 6 questions per case to test the user's comprehension of the material. A scoring function was included to give feedback to the users. An evaluation questionnaire was also completed to survey user satisfaction with the program. A similar "shell" could be applied to other teaching programs.
PMCID: PMC2248093  PMID: 1482934
23.  Book review of applied medical image processing: A basic course 
This article is a review of the book: 'Applied Medical Image Processing: A Basic Course', by Wolfgang Birkfellner, which is published by CRC Press. Basic information that should be helpful in deciding whether to read the book and whether to use it as a course textbook is presented. This includes an introduction, the suitability of the book for use in coursework, its coverage of medical imaging and image processing, discussion and conclusions, and an appendix with a relevant computer program for extracting medical images.
PMCID: PMC3056831
24.  The Little Book of Viruses 
PLoS Biology  2011;9(9):e1001139.
Michael Emerman reviews science writer Carl Zimmer's latest book.
PMCID: PMC3167778
25.  Book review of: "Clinical aspects of electroporation" by Stephen T Kee, Julie Gehl, Edward W Lee 
This article is a review of the book: Clinical aspects of electroporation, by Stephen T. Kee, Julie Gehl, Edward W Lee, which is published by Springer Press. Basic information that should be helpful in deciding whether to read the book and whether to use it as a reference book is presented. This includes an introduction, a description of all the sections of the book, and a comparison with recently published books on the topic.
PMCID: PMC3196734
electroporation; electrochemotherapy; irreversible electroporation

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