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1.  Urban-rural variation in mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional injury in Ireland 
Injury Prevention  2005;11(1):38-42.
Objective: To explore urban-rural differences in the mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional injuries in the Republic of Ireland.
Design: Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in residents of urban and non-city areas (called rural areas) from all causes of unintentional injury were calculated using Central Statistics Office mortality data from 1980–2000. Hospital admission data (Hospital In-Patient Enquiry) from 1993–2000 were used to calculate standardised hospital admission ratios (SARs) in urban and rural residents. Population data were obtained from the 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996 censuses.
Results: The rate of unintentional injury mortality was significantly higher in rural residents for all-cause unintentional injury mortality (SMR 103.0, 95% confidence interval 101 to 105), and specifically for deaths related to motor vehicle trauma (MVT), drowning, machinery, and firearms. There were significantly higher SMRs in urban residents for falls and poisoning. The rate of unintentional injury hospital admission was significantly higher in rural residents for all-cause unintentional injury (SAR 104.6, 95% confidence interval 104 to 105) and specifically for injuries from falls, MVT, being struck by or against an object, injuries in pedal cyclists, fire/burn injuries, and machinery injuries. SARs were significantly higher in residents of urban areas for poisoning and injuries in pedestrians.
Conclusions: There are urban-rural differences in mortality and admissions for injuries in Ireland. Possible reasons for the higher rural mortality rates are higher case fatality in MVT and rural exposure to hazardous farm machinery, firearms, and open areas of water. This information could assist in targeting prevention programmes under the proposed National Injury Prevention Strategy.
PMCID: PMC1730177  PMID: 15691988
2.  Socioeconomic, Rural-Urban, and Racial Inequalities in US Cancer Mortality: Part I—All Cancers and Lung Cancer and Part II—Colorectal, Prostate, Breast, and Cervical Cancers 
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology  2012;2011:107497.
We analyzed socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US mortality from all cancers, lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. A deprivation index and rural-urban continuum were linked to the 2003–2007 county-level mortality data. Mortality rates and risk ratios were calculated for each socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial group. Weighted linear regression yielded relative impacts of deprivation and rural-urban residence. Those in more deprived groups and rural areas had higher cancer mortality than more affluent and urban residents, with excess risk being marked for lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers. Deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to cancer mortality, with deprivation showing stronger impacts. Socioeconomic inequalities existed for both whites and blacks, with blacks experiencing higher mortality from each cancer than whites within each deprivation group. Socioeconomic gradients in mortality were steeper in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. Mortality disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking and other cancer-risk factors, screening, and treatment.
PMCID: PMC3307012  PMID: 22496688
3.  Trends in suicide in a Lithuanian urban population over the period 1984–2003 
BMC Public Health  2006;6:184.
Throughout the last decade of the twentieth century, Lithuania had the highest suicide rates in Europe among both men and women aged 25–64 years. The rates increased from 1986 until 1995, but later there was a slight decrease. This paper describes the trends in suicide deaths in urban population in Lithuania by gender, dates and suicide method over the period 1984–2003.
Data from the regional mortality register were used to analyze suicide deaths among all men and women aged 25–64 years in Kaunas city, Lithuania over the period 1984–2003. Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 persons (using European standard population) were calculated by gender, suicide method and dates. A joinpoint regression method was used to estimate annual percentage changes (EPACs) and to detect points where the trends changed significantly.
The frequency of death by suicide among males was 48% higher in 1994–2003 than in 1984–1993. The corresponding increase among females was 28%. The most common methods of suicide among men were hanging, strangulation and suffocation (87.4% among all suicide deaths). The proportions of hanging, strangulation and suffocation in males increased by 6.9% – from 83.9% to 89.7% – compared to a 24.2% increase in deaths from handgun, rifle and shotgun firearm discharges and a 216.7% increase in deaths from poisoning with solvents, gases, pesticides and vapors. Among females, the most common methods of suicide were hanging, strangulation and suffocation (68.3% of all suicide deaths). The proportion of hanging deaths among females increased during the time period examined, whereas the proportion of poisonings with solid or liquid substances decreased.
Suicide rates increased significantly among urban men aged 25–64 years in Lithuania throughout the period 1984–2003, whereas among women an increasing but statistically insignificant trend was observed. There were changes in the suicide methods used by both men and women. Changes in the choice of method may have contributed to the changes in suicide rates.
PMCID: PMC1540427  PMID: 16836765
4.  Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China 
Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan.
Years of life lost (YLL) rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis.
Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2–8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results.
Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.
PMCID: PMC1617105  PMID: 17040573
5.  Rural-urban differences of neonatal mortality in a poorly developed province of China 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:477.
The influence of rural-urban disparities in children's health on neonatal death in disadvantaged areas of China is poorly understood. In this study of rural and urban populations in Gansu province, a disadvantaged province of China, we describe the characteristics and mortality of newborn infants and evaluated rural-urban differences of neonatal death.
We analyzed all neonatal deaths in the data from the Surveillance System of Child Death in Gansu Province, China from 2004 to 2009. We calculated all-cause neonatal mortality rates (NMR) and cause-specific death rates for infants born to rural or urban mothers during 2004-09. Rural-urban classifications were determined based on the residence registry system of China. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences of infant characteristics and cause-specific deaths by rural-urban maternal residence.
Overall, NMR fell in both rural and urban populations during 2004-09. Average NMR for rural and urban populations was 17.8 and 7.5 per 1000 live births, respectively. For both rural and urban newborn infants, the four leading causes of death were birth asphyxia, preterm or low birth weight, congenital malformation, and pneumonia. Each cause-specific death rate was higher in rural infants than in urban infants. More rural than urban neonates died out of hospital or did not receive medical care before death.
Neonatal mortality declined dramatically both in urban and rural groups in Gansu province during 2004-09. However, profound disparities persisted between rural and urban populations. Strategies that address inequalities of accessibility and quality of health care are necessary to improve neonatal health in rural settings in China.
PMCID: PMC3144461  PMID: 21682907
6.  An Examination of Urban Versus Rural Mortality in China Using Community and Individual Data 
Urban/rural residence is a critical health determinant and one researchers have historically found to distinguish health experiences. In this study, we investigated variations in older adult mortality across urban and rural areas of China and assessed mechanisms driving an urban advantage through a series of socioeconomic and health service covariates measured at individual and community levels.
We employed 15 years of mortality data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. We calculated average annual age-specific death rates and used combinations of covariates to examine Cox proportional hazards models. We employed the 2000 Chinese Census and the 2002 Demographic Yearbook descriptively to assess reliability and provide an alternative source for mortality variation.
Hazard ratios and standardized death rates showed rural mortality to be about 30% higher than urban mortality. Cadre status, amenities within the community, and average wage within the community are important determinants of mortality, and adjusting for these covariates reduced the urban advantage.
There is great differentiation in economic and social life between urban and rural China, and this appears to be negatively influencing survival chances of older adults in rural areas. The policy implications are fairly clear: Investment in rural China is needed to reduce health inequalities.
PMCID: PMC2920340  PMID: 17906179
7.  Cancer Incidence And Mortality in China, 2006 
To describe the cancer incidence and mortality rates in 2006 and evaluate the cancer burden in China.
Cancer registration data in 2006 from 34 cancer registries were collected, evaluated and pooled to calculate cancer incidence and mortality rates. The data analyses included mortality to incidence ratio (MI), morphological verification percentage (MV%) and proportion of death certification only (DCO%). Cumulative incidence and mortality rates were calculated using crude data, age-standardized data, and specific data for cancer site, age, sex and area (urban or rural).
In 2006, 34 registries with qualified registration data covered a total population of 59,567,322 (46,558,108 in urban areas and 13,009,214 in rural areas). The crude and age-standardized cancer incidence rates were 273.66 per 100,000 and 190.54 per 100,000, respectively. The crude and age-standardized cancer mortality rates were 175.70 per 100,000 and 117.67 per 100,000, respectively. Cancers of lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, and breast in female were the five most common forms of cancer in China, which accounted for 58.99% of all new cancer cases. Lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer death, followed by stomach cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer.
Cancer is still an important public health issue in China with an increasing disease burden. Specifically, the incidence rates for lung cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer were increasing, but those for stomach cancer and esophageal cancer were decreasing. However, age-specific incidence rate remained stable, indicating that the aging population was the major source of the increasing cancer burden.
PMCID: PMC3587531  PMID: 23467577
Cancer; Cancer registration; Incidence; Mortality
8.  Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008 
Annual cancer incidence and mortality in 2008 were provided by National Central Cancer Registry in China, which data were collected from population-based cancer registries in 2011.
There were 56 registries submitted their data in 2008. After checking and evaluating the data quality, total 41 registries’ data were accepted and pooled for analysis. Incidence and mortality rates by area (urban or rural areas) were assessed, as well as the age- and sex-specific rates, age-standardized rates, proportions and cumulative rate.
The coverage population of the 41 registries was 66,138,784 with 52,158,495 in urban areas and 13,980,289 in rural areas. There were 197,833 new cancer cases and 122,136 deaths in cancer with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.62. The morphological verified rate was 69.33%, and 2.23% of cases were identified by death certificate only. The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 299.12/100,000 (330.16/100,000 in male and 267.56/100,000 in female) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and world standard population (ASIRW) were 148.75/100,000 and 194.99/100,000, respectively. The cumulative incidence rate (0–74 years old) was of 22.27%. The crude incidence rate in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas. However, after adjusted by age, the incidence rate in urban was lower than that in rural. The crude cancer mortality was 184.67/100,000 (228.14/100,000 in male and 140.48/100,000 in female), and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world population were 84.36/100,000 and 114.32/100,000, respectively. The cumulative mortality rate (0–74 years old) was of 12.89%. Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas. The most common cancer sites were lung, stomach, colon-rectum, liver, esophagus, pancreas, brain, lymphoma, breast and cervix which accounted for 75% of all cancer incidence. Lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer death, followed by gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreas cancer, which accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum varied by areas and sex in rural areas, cancers from digestive system were more common, such as esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and liver cancer, while incidence rates of lung cancer and colorectal cancer were much higher in urban areas. In addition, breast cancer was the most common cancer in urban women followed by liver cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.
Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer and female breast cancer contributed to the increased incidence of cancer, which should be paid more attention to in further national cancer prevention and control program. Different cancer control strategies should be carried out due to the varied cancer spectrum in different groups.
PMCID: PMC3555287  PMID: 23359321
Cancer registry; Incidence; Mortality; Epidemiology, China
9.  Nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence and mortality in China in 2009 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2013;32(8):453-460.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare globally but common in China and exhibits a distinct ethnic and geographic distribution. In 2009, the National Central Cancer Registry in China provided real-time surveillance information on NPC. Individual NPC cases were retrieved from the national database based on the ICD-10 topography code C11. The crude incidence and mortality of NPC were calculated by sex and location (urban/rural). China's population in 1982 and Segi's world population structures were used to determine age-standardized rates. In regions covered by the cancer registries in 2009, the crude incidence of NPC was 3.61/100,000 (5.08/100,000 in males and 2.10/100,000 in females; 4.19/100,000 in urban areas and 2.42/100,000 in rural areas). Age-standardized incidences by Chinese population (ASIC) and Segi's world population (ASIW) were 2.05/100,000 and 2.54/100,000, respectively. The crude mortality of NPC was 1.99/100,000 (2.82/100,000 in males and 1.14/100,000 in females; 2.30/100,000 in urban areas and 1.37/100,000 in rural areas). The age-standardized mortalities by Chinese population (ASMC) and world population (ASMW) were 1.04/100,000 and 1.35/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality of NPC were higher in males than in females and higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Both age-specific incidence and mortality were relatively low in persons younger than 30 years old, but these rates dramatically increased. Incidence peaked in the 60-64 age group and mortality peaked in the over 85 age group. Primary and secondary prevention, such as lifestyle changes and early detection, should be carried out in males and females older than 30 years of age.
PMCID: PMC3845582  PMID: 23863562
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; cancer registry; incidence; mortality; China
10.  Liver cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2009 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2013;32(4):162-169.
Liver cancer is a common cancer and a leading cause of cancer deaths in China. To aid the government in establishing a control plan for this disease, we provided real-time surveillance information by analyzing liver cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2009 reported by the National Central Cancer Registry. Liver cancer incidence and cases of death were retrieved from the national database using the ICD-10 topography code “C22”. Crude incidence and mortality were calculated and stratified by sex, age, and location (urban/rural). China's population in 1982 and Segi (world) population structures were used for age-standardized rates. In cancer registration areas in 2009, the crude incidence of liver cancer was 28.71/100,000, making it the fourth most common cancer in China, third most common in males, and fifth most common in females. The crude mortality of liver cancer was 26.04/100,000, making it the second leading cause of cancer death in China and urban areas and the third leading cause in rural areas. Incidence and mortality were higher in males than in females and were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. The age-specific incidence and mortality were relatively low among age groups under 30 years but dramatically increased and peaked in the 80–84 years old group. These findings confirm that liver cancer is a common and fatal cancer in China. Primary and secondary prevention such as health education, hepatitis B virus vaccination, and early detection should be carried out both in males and females, in urban and rural areas.
PMCID: PMC3845572  PMID: 23489585
Liver cancer; cancer registry; incidence; mortality; China
11.  The gap in injury mortality rates between urban and rural residents of Hubei province, China 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:180.
Injury is a growing public health concern in China. Injury death rates are often higher in rural areas than in urban areas in general. The objective of this study is to compare the injury mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Hubei Province in central China by age, sex and mechanism of injury.
Using data from the Disease Surveillance Points (DSP) system maintained by the Hubei Province Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 2006 to 2008, injury deaths were classified according to the International Classification of Disease-10th Revision (ICD-10). Crude and age-adjusted annual mortality rates were calculated for rural and urban residents of Hubei Province.
The crude and age-adjusted injury death rates were significantly higher for rural residents than for urban residents (crude rate ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.8-2.0; adjusted rate ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 2.3-2.4). The age-adjusted injury death rate for males was 81.6/100,000 in rural areas compared with 37.0/100 000 in urban areas; for females, the respective rates were 57.9/100,000 and 22.4/100 000. Death rates for suicide (32.4 per 100 000 vs 3.9 per 100 000), traffic-related injuries (15.8 per 100 000 vs 9.5 per 100 000), drowning (6.9 per 100 000 vs 2.3 per 100 000) and crushing injuries (2.0 per 100 000 vs 0.7 per 100 000) were significantly higher in rural areas. Overall injury death rates were much higher in persons over 65 years, with significantly higher rates in rural residents compared with urban residents for suicide (279.8 per 100 000 vs 10.7 per 100 000), traffic-related injuries, and drownings in this age group. Death rates for falls, poisoning, and suffocation were similar in the two geographic groups.
Rates of suicide, traffic-related injury deaths and drownings are demonstrably higher in rural compared with urban locations and should be targeted for injury prevention activity. There is a need for injury prevention policies targeted at elderly residents, especially with regard to suicide prevention in rural areas in Central China.
PMCID: PMC3338362  PMID: 22409978
12.  Fracture rates lower in rural than urban communities: the Geelong Osteoporosis Study 
Background: Urban and rural communities differ in the incidence of several diseases including coronary heart disease and some cancers. Lower hip fracture rates among rural than urban populations have been reported but few studies have compared rural and urban fractures at sites other than the hip.
Objective: To compare total and site specific fracture rates among adult residents of rural and urban communities within the same population.
Design and setting: This is a population based study on osteoporosis in Australia. All fractures occurring in adult residents over a two year period were ascertained using radiological reports. The rural and urban areas are in close proximity, with the same medical, hospital, and radiological facilities permitting uniform fracture ascertainment.
Main outcome measures: All fracture rates were age adjusted and sex adjusted to the Australian population according to the 1996 census of the Australian Bureau of Statistics and described as the rate per 10 000 person years. The p values refer to the adjusted rate difference.
Results: The hip fracture rate (incidence per 10 000 person years) was 32% lower (39 v 57, p<0.001), and the total fracture rate 15% lower (160 v 188, p=0.004) among rural than urban residents, respectively. The lower fracture rates in the rural population were also apparent for pelvic fractures.
Conclusion: In the older rural population, lower fracture rates at sites typically associated with osteoporosis suggest environmental factors may have a different impact on bone health in this community. If the national rate of hip fracture could be reduced to that of the rural population, the projected increase in hip fracture number attributable to aging of the population could be prevented.
PMCID: PMC1732164  PMID: 12011207
13.  Excess black mortality in the United States and in select black or white high-poverty areas, 1980–2000 
American journal of public health  2011;101(4):720-729.
Black working-aged residents of urban poverty areas suffered severe excess mortality in 1980 and 1990, but whether this trend persisted in 2000 is unknown.
We analyzed death certificate and census data to estimate age-standardized all cause and cause-specific mortality for blacks and whites, ages 16 through 64, nationwide, and in select urban and rural poverty populations.
Urban men’s mortality rates peaked in 1990 and declined between 1990 and 2000 back to or below 1980 levels. Evidence of excess mortality decline for urban or rural women and for rural men was modest, with some increases. Between 1980 and 2000, men and women in most areas experienced little decline in chronic disease mortality, and some saw increases.
In 2000, despite improved areal economic characteristics, working-age residents of study areas still died disproportionately from the early onset of chronic disease, suggesting an entrenched burden of disease and unmet healthcare needs. Evidence of mortality improvement in 2000 depends on whether comparisons are: to 1990 or 1980; absolute or relative; urban or rural; in homicide or chronic disease, and whether the focus is on men or women.
PMCID: PMC3052342  PMID: 21389293
14.  Chronic disease mortality in rural and urban residents in Hubei Province, China, 2008–2010 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:713.
Chronic non-communicable diseases have become the major cause of death in China. This study describes and compares chronic disease mortality between urban and rural residents in Hubei Province, central China.
Death records of all individuals aged 15 years and over who died from 2008 through 2010 in Hubei were obtained from the Disease Surveillance Points system maintained by the Hubei Province Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Average annual mortality, standardized death rates, years of potential life lost (YLL), average years of potential life lost (AYLL) and rates of life lost were calculated for urban and rural residents. Standardized rate ratios (SRR) were calculated to compare the death rates between urban and rural areas.
A total of 86.2% of deaths were attributed to chronic non-communicable diseases in Hubei. Cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart disease and neoplasms were the main leading causes in both urban and rural areas, and the mortality rates were higher among rural residents. Lung cancer was the principal cause of mortality from cancer among urban and rural residents, and stomach cancer and liver cancer were more common in rural than urban areas. Breast cancer mortality among women in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (SRR=0.73, 95% CI=0.63–0.85). The standardized mortality for chronic lower respiratory disease among men in rural areas was higher than in urban areas (SRR=4.05, 95% CI=3.82–4.29). Among men, total AYLL from liver cancer and other diseases of liver were remarkably higher than other causes in urban and rural areas. Among women the highest AYLL were due to breast cancer in both urban and rural areas.
Chronic diseases were the major cause of death in Hubei Province. While circulatory system diseases were the leading causes in both urban and rural areas, our study highlights that attention should also be paid to breast cancer among women and chronic lower respiratory disease among rural residents. It is important that governments focus on this public health issue and develop preventive strategies to reduce morbidity and premature mortality from chronic non-communicable diseases.
PMCID: PMC3751110  PMID: 23915378
15.  Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008 
The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result.
PMCID: PMC3945567  PMID: 24503974
urbanization; avoidable mortality; health disparities; Taiwan; breast cancer; lung cancer; ischemic heart disease
16.  Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009 
The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012, and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China.
On basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR, data submitted from 104 registries were checked and evaluated. There were 72 registries’ data qualified and accepted for cancer registry annual report in 2012. Descriptive analysis included incidence and mortality stratified by area (urban/rural), sex, age group and cancer site. The top 10 common cancers in different groups, proportion and cumulative rates were also calculated. Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates.
All 72 cancer registries covered a total of 85,470,522 population (57,489,009 in urban and 27,981,513 in rural areas). The total new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310, respectively. The morphology verified cases accounted for 67.23%, and 3.14% of incident cases only had information from death certifications. The crude incidence rate in Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (males 317.97/100,000, females 253.09/100,000), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 22.08%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 303.39/100,000 and 150.31/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas, they were 249.98/100,000 and 139.68/100,000, respectively. The cancer mortality in Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.94%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC were 181.86/100,000 and 80.86/100,000 in urban areas, whereas in rural areas, they were 177.83/100,000 and 94.40/100,000 respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreas cancer, encephaloma, lymphoma, female breast cancer and cervical cancer, were the most common cancers, accounting for 75% of all cancer cases in urban and rural areas. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephaloma, leukemia and lymphoma accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum showed difference between urban and rural areas, males and females. The main cancers in rural areas were cancers of the stomach, followed by esophageal cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer and colorectal cancer, whereas the main cancer in urban areas was lung cancer, followed by liver cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.
The coverage of cancer registration population has been increasing and data quality is improving. As the basis of cancer control program, cancer registry plays an important role in making anti-cancer strategy in medium and long term. As cancer burdens are different between urban and rural areas in China, prevention and control should be implemented based on practical situation.
PMCID: PMC3555299  PMID: 23372337
Cancer registry; incidence; mortality; epidemiology; China
17.  Birth Outcomes and Infant Mortality by the Degree of Rural Isolation Among First Nations and Non-First Nations in Manitoba, Canada 
It is unknown whether rural isolation may affect birth outcomes and infant mortality differentially for Indigenous versus non-Indigenous populations. We assessed birth outcomes and infant mortality by the degree of rural isolation among First Nations (North American Indians) and non-First Nations populations in Manitoba, Canada, a setting with universal health insurance.
A geocoding-based birth cohort study of 25,143 First Nations and 125,729 non-First Nations live births to Manitoban residents, 1991–2000. Degree of rural isolation was defined by an indicator of urban influence (no, weak, moderate/strong) based on the percentage of the workforce commuting to urban areas.
Preterm birth and low birth weight rates were somewhat lower in all rural areas regardless of the degree of isolation as compared to urban areas for both First Nations and non-First Nations. Infant mortality rates were not significantly different across areas for First Nations (10.7, 9.9, 7.9, and 9.7 per 1,000 in rural areas with no, weak, moderate/strong urban influence, and urban areas, respectively), but rates were significantly lower in less isolated areas for non-First Nations (7.4, 6.0, 5.6, and 4.6 per 1,000, respectively). Adjusted odds ratios showed similar patterns.
Living in less isolated areas was associated with lower infant mortality only among non-First Nations. First Nations infants do not seem to have similarly benefited from the better health care facilities in urban centers, suggesting a need to improve urban First Nations’ infant care in meeting the challenges of increasing urban migration.
PMCID: PMC3035640  PMID: 20447004 CAMSID: cams1530
birth outcomes; infant mortality; North American Indians; rural and urban; rural isolation
18.  Rural-Urban Disparities in Health Status among US Cancer Survivors 
Cancer  2012;119(5):1050-1057.
While rural residents are more likely to be diagnosed with more advanced cancers and die of cancer, little is known about rural-urban disparities in self-reported health among survivors.
We identified adults with a self-reported cancer history from the National Health Interview Survey (2006–2010). Rural-urban residence was defined using US census definitions. Logistic regression with weighting to account for complex sampling was used to assess rural-urban differences in health status after accounting for differences in demographic characteristics.
Of the 7,804 identified cancer survivors, 20.8% were rural residents. This translates to a population of 2.8 million rural cancer survivors in the US. Rural survivors were more likely than urban survivors to be non-Hispanic white (p<.001), have less education (p<.001) and lack health insurance (p<.001). Rural survivors reported worse health in all domains. After adjustment for sex, race/ethnicity, age, marital status, education, insurance, time since diagnosis, and number of cancers, rural survivors were more likely to report fair/poor health [OR=1.39, 95%CI=1.20–1.62, psychological distress [OR=1.23, 1.00–1.50], ≥2 non-cancer comorbidities [OR=1.15, 1.01–1.32], and health-related unemployment [OR=1.66, 1.35–2.03].
We provide the first estimate of the proportion and number of US adult cancer survivors who reside in rural areas. Rural cancer survivors are at greater risk for a variety of poor health outcomes, even many years after their cancer diagnosis, and should be a target for interventions to improve their health and well-being.
PMCID: PMC3679645  PMID: 23096263
cancer; survivors; rural health; health status; mental health; unemployment; comorbidity; health status disparities
19.  Geographic correlation between mortality from primary hepatic carcinoma and prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in Greece. 
British Journal of Cancer  1976;34(1):83-87.
Average annual age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 from primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) among males for 1971-1973 in the urban and rural areas of the 9 geographical regions of Greece were estimated. Hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence by region and area was evaluated in a sample of 22,844 Greek Air Force recruits from all parts of the country. Mortality from PHC was found significantly higher in urban areas (28-30 vs. 18-81) whereas prevalence of HBsAg was higher in rural areas (5-3% vs. 3-90%). Nevertheless further statistical analysis showed that there is a strong correlation between HBsAg prevalence and mortality from PHC, which is higher in rural (r = + 0-88) than in urban (+ 0-57) areas. The latter findings indicate that hepatitis B infection and PHC may be causally related.
PMCID: PMC2025123  PMID: 952717
20.  Projected Impact of Urbanization on Cardiovascular Disease in China 
The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model-China, a national scale cardiovascular disease computer simulation model, was used to project future impact of urbanization.
Populations and cardiovascular disease incidence rates were stratified into four submodels: North-Urban, South-Urban, North-Rural, and South-Rural. 2010 was the base year, and high and low urbanization rate scenarios were used to project 2030 populations.
Rural-to-urban migration, population growth, and aging were projected to more than double cardiovascular disease events in urban areas and increase by 27.0–45.6% in rural areas. Urbanization is estimated to raise age-standardized coronary heart disease incidence by 73–81 per 100,000 and stroke incidence only slightly.
Rural-to-urban migration will likely be a major demographic driver of the cardiovascular disease epidemic in China.
PMCID: PMC3465962  PMID: 22918518
urbanization; migration; cardiovascular disease; China
21.  Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007 
Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007.
In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population.
The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths.
Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers.
PMCID: PMC3555260  PMID: 23359628
Cancer registry; Incidence; Mortality; China
22.  Stroke in urban and rural populations in north-east Bulgaria: incidence and case fatality findings from a 'hot pursuit' study 
BMC Public Health  2002;2:24.
Bulgaria's official stroke mortality rates are higher for rural than urban areas. Official mortality data has indicated that these rates are amongst the highest in Europe. There has been a lack of studies measuring stroke incidence in urban and rural populations.
We established intensive notification networks covering 37791 residents in Varna city and 18656 residents (55% of them village-dwellers), all aged 45 to 84, in 2 rural districts. From May 1, 2000 to April 30, 2001 frequent contact was maintained with notifiers and death registrations were scanned regularly. Suspected incident strokes were assessed by study neurologists within a median of 8 days from onset.
742 events were referred for neurological assessment and 351 of these, which met the WHO criteria for stroke, were in persons aged 45 to 84 and were first ever in a lifetime. Incidence rates, standardised using the world standard weights for ages 45 to 84, were 909 (/100000/year) (95% CI 712–1105) and 597 (482–712) for rural and urban males and 667 (515–818) and 322 (248–395) for rural and urban females. Less than half were admitted to hospital (15% among rural females over 65). Twenty-eight day case fatality was 35% (123/351) overall and 48% (46/96) in village residents. The excess case fatality in the villages could not be explained by age or severity.
Rural incidence rates were over twice those reported for western populations but the rate for urban females was similar to other western rates. The high level and marked heterogeneity in both stroke incidence and case fatality merit further investigation.
PMCID: PMC130018  PMID: 12323079
23.  Urban-rural differences in breast cancer incidence in Egypt (1999–2006) 
Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)  2010;19(5):417-423.
To describe urban-rural differences in breast cancer incidence in Gharbiah, Egypt and to investigate if these differences could be explained by known risk factors of breast cancer.
We used data from the population-based cancer registry of Gharbiah, Egypt to assess breast cancer incidence from 1999 through 2006. The Egyptian census provided data on district-specific population, age, and urban-rural classification. Incidence patterns of breast cancer by district and age-specific urban-rural differences were analyzed.
Overall, incidence rate of breast cancer was three to four times higher in urban areas than in rural areas (60.9/105/year for urban areas versus 17.8/105/year for rural areas; IRR = 3.73, 95% CI = 3.30, 4.22). Urban areas had consistently higher incidence of breast cancer across all age-groups for all years. Higher incidence of breast cancer was also seen in the more developed districts of Tanta and El-Mehalla.
Higher incidence of breast cancer in urban and more developed populations might be related to higher xenoestrogens, as well as other endocrine disruptors and genotoxic substances.
PMCID: PMC3209663  PMID: 20452771
Breast cancer; incidence; urban-rural; xenoestrogens; Egypt
24.  Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania in 1978–2003 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:284.
The aim of this paper is to analyze changes in thyroid cancer incidence trends in Lithuania during the period 1978–2003 using joinpoint regression models, with special attention to the period 1993–2003.
The study was based on all cases of thyroid cancer reported to the Lithuanian Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2003. Age group-specific rates and standardized rates were calculated for each gender, using the direct method (world standard population). The joinpoint regression model was used to provide estimated annual percentage change and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occur.
During the study period the age-standardized incidence rates increased in males from 0.7 to 2.5 cases per 100 000 and in females from 1.5 to 11.4 per 100 000. Annual percentage changes during this period in the age-standardized rates were 4.6% and 7.1% for males and females, respectively. Joinpoint analysis showed two time periods with joinpoint in the year 2000. A change in the trend occurred in which a significant increase changed to a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates. Papillary carcinoma and stage I thyroid cancer increases over this period were mainly responsible for the pattern of changes in trend in recent years.
A moderate increase in thyroid cancer incidence has been observed in Lithuania between the years 1978 and 2000. An accelerated increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates took place in the period 2000–2003. It seems that the increase in thyroid cancer incidence can be attributed mainly to the changes in the management of non palpable thyroid nodules with growing applications of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC1764427  PMID: 17156468
25.  Knowledge and attitude on maternal health care among rural-to-urban migrant women in Shanghai, China 
BMC Women's Health  2009;9:5.
In China, with the urbanization, women migrated from rural to big cities presented much higher maternal mortality rates than local residents. Health knowledge is one of the key factors enabling women to be aware of their rights and health status in order to seek appropriate health services. This study aims to assess the knowledge and attitude on maternal health care and the contributing factors to being knowledgeable among rural-to-urban migrant women in Shanghai.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in a district center hospital in Shanghai where migrants gathered. Totally 475 rural-to-urban migrant pregnant women were interviewed and completed the self-administered questionnaire after obtaining informed consent.
The mean score of knowledge on maternal health care was 8.28 out of 12. However, only 36.6% women had attended the required 5 antenatal checks, and 58.3% of the subjects thought financial constrains being the main reason for not attending antenatal care. It was found that higher level of education (OR = 3.3, 95%CI: 1.8–3.8), husbands' Shanghai residence (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.1) and better family income (OR = 3.3, 95%CI: 1.4–8.2) were associated with better knowledge.
Rural-to-urban migrant women's unawareness of maternal health service, together with their vulnerable living status, influences their utilization of maternal health care. Tailored maternal health education and accessible services are in demands for this population.
PMCID: PMC2674037  PMID: 19298681

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