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1.  Annual report on status of cancer in China, 2011 
Objective
The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected population-based cancer registration data in 2011 from all cancer registries. National cancer incidence and mortality were compiled and cancer incident new cases and cancer deaths were estimated.
Methods
In 2014, there were 234 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2011. All datasets were checked and evaluated based on the criteria of data quality from NCCR. Total 177 registries’ data were qualified and compiled for cancer statistics in 2011. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+) and cancer type. Cancer incident cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and national population in 2011. All incidence and death rates are age-standardized to the 2000 Chinese standard population and Segi’s population expressed per 100,000 persons.
Results
All 177 cancer registries (77 in urban and 100 in rural areas) covered 175,310,169 populations (98,341,507 in urban and 76,968,662 in rural areas). The morphology verified cases (MV%) accounting for 70.14% and 2.44% of incident cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%) with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.63. The estimates of new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 3,372,175 and 2,113,048 in 2011, respectively. The incidence rate was 250.28/100,000 (males 277.77/100,000, females 221.37/100,000), and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 186.34/100,000 and 182.76/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old) of 21.20%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC in urban areas were 261.38/100,000 and 189.89/100,000 compared to 238.60/100,000 and 182.10/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality was 156.83/100,000 (194.88/100,000 in males and 116.81/100,000 in females), the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 112.88/100,000 and 111.82/100,000, and the cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) was 12.69%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC were 154.37/100,000 and 108.20/100,000 in urban areas, and 159.42/100,000 and 117.97/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. Cancers of lung, female breast, stomach, liver, colon and rectum, esophageal, cervix, uterus, prostate and ovary were the most common cancers, accounting for about 75% of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, female breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, brain tumor, cervical cancer and leukemia were the leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 80% of all cancer deaths. The cancer incidence, mortality and spectrum showed difference between urban and rural areas, males and females.
Conclusions
The coverage of cancer registration population had a greater increase than that in the last year. The data quality and representativeness are gradually improved. As the basic work of cancer prevention and control, cancer registry is playing an irreplaceable role. The disease burden of cancer is increasing, and the health department has to take effective measures to contain the increased cancer burden in China.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2015.01.06
PMCID: PMC4329176  PMID: 25717220
Cancer registry; incidence; mortality; epidemiology; China
2.  Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009 
Objective
The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012, and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China.
Methods
On basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR, data submitted from 104 registries were checked and evaluated. There were 72 registries’ data qualified and accepted for cancer registry annual report in 2012. Descriptive analysis included incidence and mortality stratified by area (urban/rural), sex, age group and cancer site. The top 10 common cancers in different groups, proportion and cumulative rates were also calculated. Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates.
Results
All 72 cancer registries covered a total of 85,470,522 population (57,489,009 in urban and 27,981,513 in rural areas). The total new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310, respectively. The morphology verified cases accounted for 67.23%, and 3.14% of incident cases only had information from death certifications. The crude incidence rate in Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (males 317.97/100,000, females 253.09/100,000), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 22.08%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 303.39/100,000 and 150.31/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas, they were 249.98/100,000 and 139.68/100,000, respectively. The cancer mortality in Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.94%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC were 181.86/100,000 and 80.86/100,000 in urban areas, whereas in rural areas, they were 177.83/100,000 and 94.40/100,000 respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreas cancer, encephaloma, lymphoma, female breast cancer and cervical cancer, were the most common cancers, accounting for 75% of all cancer cases in urban and rural areas. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephaloma, leukemia and lymphoma accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum showed difference between urban and rural areas, males and females. The main cancers in rural areas were cancers of the stomach, followed by esophageal cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer and colorectal cancer, whereas the main cancer in urban areas was lung cancer, followed by liver cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.
Conclusions
The coverage of cancer registration population has been increasing and data quality is improving. As the basis of cancer control program, cancer registry plays an important role in making anti-cancer strategy in medium and long term. As cancer burdens are different between urban and rural areas in China, prevention and control should be implemented based on practical situation.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2012.12.04
PMCID: PMC3555299  PMID: 23372337
Cancer registry; incidence; mortality; epidemiology; China
3.  National cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2012 
Background
Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries were collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). NCCR estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in China with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates.
Methods
In 2015, there were 261 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the NCCR criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 193 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as national estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group [0, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, …, 85+] and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding national population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year.
Results
Qualified 193 cancer registries (74 urban and 119 rural registries) covered 198,060,406 populations (100,450,109 in urban and 97,610,297 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 69.13% and 2.38%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.62. A total of 3,586,200 new cancer cases and 2,186,600 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2012. The incidence rate was 264.85/100,000 (289.30/100,000 in males, 239.15/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 191.89/100,000 and 187.83/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0–74 age years old) of 21.82%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 277.17/100,000, 195.56/100,000 and 190.88/100,000 compared to 251.20/100,000, 187.10/100,000 and 183.91/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality was 161.49/100,000 (198.99/100,000 in males, 122.06/100,000 in females), the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 112.34/100,000 and 111.25/100,000, and the cumulative mortality rate (0–74 years old) was 12.61%. The cancer mortality, ASMRC and ASMRW were 159.00/100,000, 107.231/100,000 and 106.13/100,000 in urban areas, 164.24/100,000, 118.22/100,000 and 117.06/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. Cancers of lung, stomach, liver, colorectum, esophagus, female breast, thyroid cervix, brain tumor and pancreas were the most common cancers, accounting for about 77.4% of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, female breast cancer, brain tumor, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 84.5% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum showed difference between urban and rural, males and females both in incidence and mortality rates.
Conclusions
Cancer surveillance information in China is making great progress with the increasing number of cancer registries, population coverage and the improving data quality. Cancer registration plays a fundamental role in cancer control by providing basic information on population-based cancer incidence, mortality, survival and time trend. The disease burden of cancer is serious in China, so that, cancer prevention and control, including health education, health promotion, cancer screening and cancer care services in China, should be enhanced.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2016.02.08
PMCID: PMC4779764  PMID: 27041922
Cancer registry; incidence; mortality; epidemiology; China
4.  Annual report on status of cancer in China, 2010 
Objective
Population-based cancer registration data in 2010 were collected, evaluated and analyzed by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China. Cancer incident new cases and cancer deaths were estimated.
Methods
There were 219 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and death data in 2010. All data were checked and evaluated on basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR. Total 145 registries’ data were qualified and accepted for cancer statistics in 2010. Pooled data were stratified by urban/rural, area, sex, age group and cancer site. Cancer incident cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and national population. The top ten common cancers in different groups, proportion and cumulative rate were also calculated. Chinese census in 2000 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates.
Results
All 145 cancer registries (63 in urban and 82 in rural) covered a total of 158,403,248 population (92,433,739 in urban and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The estimates of new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The morphology verified cases (MV%) accounted for 67.11% and 2.99% of incident cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%) with mortality to incidence ratio (M/I) of 0.61. The crude incidence rate was 235.23/100,000 (268.65/100,000 in males, 200.21/100,000 in females), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 184.58/100,000 and 181.49/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old) of 21.11%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 256.41/100,000 and 187.53/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas, they were 213.71/100,000 and 181.10/100,000, respectively. The crude cancer mortality in China was 148.81/100,000 (186.37/100,000 in males and 109.42/100,000 in females), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC, 2000) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 113.92/100,000 and 112.86/100,000, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old) was 12.78%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC were 156.14/100,000 and 109.21/100,000 in urban areas, whereas in rural areas, they were 141.35/100,000 and 119.00/100,000 respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreas cancer, encephaloma, lymphoma, female breast cancer and cervical cancer, were the most common cancers, accounting for 75% of all cancer cases in urban and rural areas. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephaloma, leukemia and lymphoma accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths.
Conclusions
The coverage of cancer registration population had a rapid increase and could reflect cancer burden in each area and population. As the basis of cancer control program, cancer registry plays an irreplaceable role in cancer epidemic surveillance, evaluation of cancer control programs and making anti-cancer strategy. China is facing serious cancer burden and prevention and control should be enhanced.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2014.01.08
PMCID: PMC3937758  PMID: 24653626
Cancer registry; incidence; mortality; epidemiology; China
5.  Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008 
Objective
Annual cancer incidence and mortality in 2008 were provided by National Central Cancer Registry in China, which data were collected from population-based cancer registries in 2011.
Methods
There were 56 registries submitted their data in 2008. After checking and evaluating the data quality, total 41 registries’ data were accepted and pooled for analysis. Incidence and mortality rates by area (urban or rural areas) were assessed, as well as the age- and sex-specific rates, age-standardized rates, proportions and cumulative rate.
Results
The coverage population of the 41 registries was 66,138,784 with 52,158,495 in urban areas and 13,980,289 in rural areas. There were 197,833 new cancer cases and 122,136 deaths in cancer with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.62. The morphological verified rate was 69.33%, and 2.23% of cases were identified by death certificate only. The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 299.12/100,000 (330.16/100,000 in male and 267.56/100,000 in female) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and world standard population (ASIRW) were 148.75/100,000 and 194.99/100,000, respectively. The cumulative incidence rate (0–74 years old) was of 22.27%. The crude incidence rate in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas. However, after adjusted by age, the incidence rate in urban was lower than that in rural. The crude cancer mortality was 184.67/100,000 (228.14/100,000 in male and 140.48/100,000 in female), and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world population were 84.36/100,000 and 114.32/100,000, respectively. The cumulative mortality rate (0–74 years old) was of 12.89%. Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas. The most common cancer sites were lung, stomach, colon-rectum, liver, esophagus, pancreas, brain, lymphoma, breast and cervix which accounted for 75% of all cancer incidence. Lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer death, followed by gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreas cancer, which accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths. The cancer spectrum varied by areas and sex in rural areas, cancers from digestive system were more common, such as esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and liver cancer, while incidence rates of lung cancer and colorectal cancer were much higher in urban areas. In addition, breast cancer was the most common cancer in urban women followed by liver cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.
Conclusion
Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer and female breast cancer contributed to the increased incidence of cancer, which should be paid more attention to in further national cancer prevention and control program. Different cancer control strategies should be carried out due to the varied cancer spectrum in different groups.
doi:10.1007/s11670-012-0171-2
PMCID: PMC3555287  PMID: 23359321
Cancer registry; Incidence; Mortality; Epidemiology, China
6.  Report of cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2010 
Purpose
To estimate the cancer incidences and mortalities in China in 2010.
Methods
On basis of the evaluation procedures and data quality criteria described in the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR), data from 219 cancer registries were evaluated. Data from 145 registries were identified as qualified and then accepted for the 2010 cancer registry report. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers and the overall incidence and mortality were stratified by residency (urban or rural), areas (eastern, middle, and western), gender, and age. The cancer cases and deaths were estimated based on age-specific rate and national population in 2010. The China 2010 Population Census data and Segi’s world population data were used for calculating the age-standardized cancer incidence/mortality rates.
Results
Data were obtained from a total of 145 cancer registries (63 in urban areas and 82 in rural areas) covering 158,403,248 people (92,433,739 in urban areas and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases (MV%) were 67.11%; 2.99% of incident cases were identified through proportion of death certification only (DCO%), with the mortality to incidence ratio of (M/I) 0.61. The estimates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The crude incidence was 235.23/105 (268.65/105 in males and 200.21/105 in females), the age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 184.58/105 and 181.49/105, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 21.11%. The cancer incidence and ASR China were 256.41/105 and 187.53/105 in urban areas and 213.71/105 and 181.10/105 in rural areas. The crude cancer mortality in China was 148.81/105 (186.37/105 in males and 109.42/105 in females), the age-standardized mortalities by Chinese standard population and by world standard population were 113.92/105 and 112.86/105, and the cumulative mortality rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.78%. The cancer mortality and ASR China were 156.14/105 and 109.21/105 in urban areas 141.35/105 and 119.00/105 in rural areas, respectively. Lung cancer, female breast cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, and cervical cancer were the most common cancers. Lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and pancreatic cancer were the leading causes of cancer deaths.
Conclusions
The coverage of cancer registration has rapidly increased in China in recent years and may reflect more accurate cancer burdens among populations living in different areas. As the basis of cancer control program, cancer registration plays an irreplaceable role in cancer surveillance, intervention evaluation, and policy-making. Given the increasing cancer burden in the past decades, China should strengthen its cancer prevention and control.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2014.04.05
PMCID: PMC4202458  PMID: 25333036
Cancer registry; malignant tumor; incidence; mortality; China
7.  Risk of Several Cancers is Higher in Urban Areas after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status. Results from a Two-Country Population-Based Study of 18 Common Cancers 
Some studies suggest that there are urban–rural variations in cancer incidence but whether these simply reflect urban–rural socioeconomic variation is unclear. We investigated whether there were urban–rural variations in the incidence of 18 cancers, after adjusting for socioeconomic status. Cancers diagnosed between 1995 and 2007 were extracted from the population-based National Cancer Registry Ireland and Northern Ireland Cancer Registry and categorised by urban–rural status, based on population density of area of residence at diagnosis (rural <1 person per hectare, intermediate 1–15 people per hectare, urban >15 people per hectare). Relative risks (RR) were calculated by negative binomial regression, adjusting for age, country and three area-based markers of socioeconomic status. Risks were significantly higher in both sexes in urban than rural residents with head and neck (males RR urban vs. rural = 1.53, 95 % CI 1.42–1.64; females RR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.15–1.45), esophageal (males 1.21, 1.11–1.31; females 1.21, 1.08–1.35), stomach (males 1.36, 1.27–1.46; females 1.19, 1.08–1.30), colorectal (males 1.14, 1.09–1.18; females 1.04, 1.00–1.09), lung (males 1.54, 1.47–1.61; females 1.74, 1.65–1.84), non-melanoma skin (males 1.13, 1.10–1.17; females 1.23, 1.19–1.27) and bladder (males 1.30, 1.21–1.39; females 1.31, 1.17–1.46) cancers. Risks of breast, cervical, kidney and brain cancer were significantly higher in females in urban areas. Prostate cancer risk was higher in rural areas (0.94, 0.90–0.97). Other cancers showed no significant urban–rural differences. After adjusting for socioeconomic variation, urban–rural differences were evident for 12 of 18 cancers. Variations in healthcare utilization and known risk factors likely explain some of the observed associations. Explanations for others are unclear and, in the interests of equity, warrant further investigation.
doi:10.1007/s11524-013-9846-3
PMCID: PMC4074316  PMID: 24474611
Urbanisation; Cancer; Incidence; Inequalities; Socioeconomic status
8.  Population-based cancer incidence analysis in Beijing, 2008-2012 
Objective
To analyze the incidence of cancer during 2008-2012 in Beijing, China, and compare the cancer spectrum with that during 1998-1999.
Methods
Data from the Beijing Cancer Registry (BCR), which covered 12 million residents and 16 administrative regions in Beijing, were checked and evaluated on basis of the criteria of data quality from the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China. Incidences were calculated stratified by cancer type, sex, areas (urban/rural), and age. The Chinese census population in 1982 and the world Segi’s population were used for calculating the age-standardized incidences.
Results
A total of 177,101 new cancer cases were diagnosed in Beijing between 2008 and 2012. The crude incidence rate (CR) of all cancers was 282.64/100,000 (290.71/100,000 in males and 274.45/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR-China) and by world standard population (ASR-world) were 124.46/100,000 and 161.18/100,000, respectively. Female breast cancer was the most common cancer, followed by lung cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, and stomach cancer, with the CR of 59.87/100,000, 59.21/100,000, 32.49/100,000, 19.81/100,000 and 17.96/100,000, respectively. In urban areas, female breast cancer (68.50/100,000) was still the most common cancer, followed by lung cancer (61.23/100,000), colorectal cancer (37.23/100,000), prostate cancer (20.49/100,000) and stomach cancer (20.07/100,000). In rural areas, lung cancer (55.94/100,000) was the most common cancer, followed by female breast cancer (45.87/100,000), colorectal cancer (24.77/100,000), liver cancer (20.68/100,000) and stomach cancer (14.52/100,000). Great changes of the cancer spectrum were found from the period of 1998-1999 to the period of 2011-2012 in Beijing.
Conclusions
The cancer burden in Beijing was heavier than the national average level. Cancer prevention and control strategies, especially for lung, colorectal, prostate and female thyroid cancers, should be enhanced.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2015.01.07
PMCID: PMC4329184  PMID: 25717221
Cancer registry; incidence; epidemiology; Beijing
9.  Cancer Incidence And Mortality in China, 2006 
Objective
To describe the cancer incidence and mortality rates in 2006 and evaluate the cancer burden in China.
Methods
Cancer registration data in 2006 from 34 cancer registries were collected, evaluated and pooled to calculate cancer incidence and mortality rates. The data analyses included mortality to incidence ratio (MI), morphological verification percentage (MV%) and proportion of death certification only (DCO%). Cumulative incidence and mortality rates were calculated using crude data, age-standardized data, and specific data for cancer site, age, sex and area (urban or rural).
Results
In 2006, 34 registries with qualified registration data covered a total population of 59,567,322 (46,558,108 in urban areas and 13,009,214 in rural areas). The crude and age-standardized cancer incidence rates were 273.66 per 100,000 and 190.54 per 100,000, respectively. The crude and age-standardized cancer mortality rates were 175.70 per 100,000 and 117.67 per 100,000, respectively. Cancers of lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, and breast in female were the five most common forms of cancer in China, which accounted for 58.99% of all new cancer cases. Lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer death, followed by stomach cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer.
Conclusion
Cancer is still an important public health issue in China with an increasing disease burden. Specifically, the incidence rates for lung cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer were increasing, but those for stomach cancer and esophageal cancer were decreasing. However, age-specific incidence rate remained stable, indicating that the aging population was the major source of the increasing cancer burden.
doi:10.1007/s11670-011-0003-9
PMCID: PMC3587531  PMID: 23467577
Cancer; Cancer registration; Incidence; Mortality
10.  Chronic disease mortality in rural and urban residents in Hubei Province, China, 2008–2010 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:713.
Background
Chronic non-communicable diseases have become the major cause of death in China. This study describes and compares chronic disease mortality between urban and rural residents in Hubei Province, central China.
Methods
Death records of all individuals aged 15 years and over who died from 2008 through 2010 in Hubei were obtained from the Disease Surveillance Points system maintained by the Hubei Province Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Average annual mortality, standardized death rates, years of potential life lost (YLL), average years of potential life lost (AYLL) and rates of life lost were calculated for urban and rural residents. Standardized rate ratios (SRR) were calculated to compare the death rates between urban and rural areas.
Results
A total of 86.2% of deaths were attributed to chronic non-communicable diseases in Hubei. Cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart disease and neoplasms were the main leading causes in both urban and rural areas, and the mortality rates were higher among rural residents. Lung cancer was the principal cause of mortality from cancer among urban and rural residents, and stomach cancer and liver cancer were more common in rural than urban areas. Breast cancer mortality among women in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (SRR=0.73, 95% CI=0.63–0.85). The standardized mortality for chronic lower respiratory disease among men in rural areas was higher than in urban areas (SRR=4.05, 95% CI=3.82–4.29). Among men, total AYLL from liver cancer and other diseases of liver were remarkably higher than other causes in urban and rural areas. Among women the highest AYLL were due to breast cancer in both urban and rural areas.
Conclusions
Chronic diseases were the major cause of death in Hubei Province. While circulatory system diseases were the leading causes in both urban and rural areas, our study highlights that attention should also be paid to breast cancer among women and chronic lower respiratory disease among rural residents. It is important that governments focus on this public health issue and develop preventive strategies to reduce morbidity and premature mortality from chronic non-communicable diseases.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-713
PMCID: PMC3751110  PMID: 23915378
11.  Incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in China, 2011 
Objective
Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. This article provides the most up-to-date overview of colorectal cancer burden in China.
Methods
Totally 234 cancer registries submitted data of 2011 to the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Qualified data from 177 registries was pooled and analyzed. The crude incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer were calculated by age, gender and geographic area. The numbers of new cases and deaths were estimated using the 5-year age-specific cancer incidence/mortality rates and the corresponding populations. China census in 2000 and Segi’s world population were applied for age standardized rates.
Results
The estimate of new cases diagnosed with colorectal cancer of China in 2011 was 310,244 (178,404 for males and 131,840 for females, 195,117 in urban areas and 115,128 in rural areas), accounting for 9.20% of overall new cancer cases. The crude incidence of colorectal cancer ranked fourth in all cancer sites with rate of 23.03/100,000 (25.83/100,000 for males and 20.08/100,000 for female, 28.25/100,000 in urban areas and 17.54/100,000 in rural areas). The age-standardized rates by China population and by World population were 16.79/100,000 and 16.52/100,000, respectively. The estimated number of colorectal cancer deaths of China in 2011 was 149,722 (86,427 for males and 63,295 for females, 91,682 in urban areas and 58,040 in rural areas), accounting for 7.09% of overall cancer deaths. The crude mortality rate for colorectal cancer ranked fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in all cancer sites with rate of 11.11/100,000 (12.51/100,000 for males and 9.64/100,000 for female, 13.27/100,000 in urban areas and 8.84/100,000 in rural areas). The age-standardized rates by China population and by World population for mortality were 7.77/100,000 and 7.66/100,000, respectively. For both of incidence and mortality, the rates of colorectal cancer were much higher in males than in females, and in rural areas than in urban areas. The rate of colorectal cancer increased greatly with age, especially after 40 or 45 years old.
Conclusions
Colorectal cancer is a relative common cancer in China, especially for males in urban areas. Targeted prevention and early detection programs should be carried out.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2015.02.01
PMCID: PMC4329182  PMID: 25717222
Colorectal cancer; incidence; mortality; cancer registry; China
12.  Female breast cancer incidence and mortality in 2011, China 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2015;7(7):1221-1226.
Background
Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in women. During the past 30 years, mortality of breast cancer in Chinese women showing a gradual upward trend, it has become the crucial death reasons of female.
Methods
In 2014, there were 234 population-based cancer registries submitting their data of 2011 to the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China and 177 cancer registries’ data were selected after quality evaluation. The selected cancer registries were classified as urban areas and rural areas, in each level. The crude incidence and mortality rates of female breast cancer were calculated by age-groups. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World standard population. And the national population data of China was used to combine with the cancer registries’ data to estimate the female breast cancer burden in 2011 in China.
Results
The estimated number of female breast cancer cases was 248,620. The crude incidence rate, age-standardized rate by China and World population were 37.86 per 100,000, 28.51 per 100,000 and 26.65 per 100,000, respectively. The estimated number of female breast cancer death in 2011 of China was about 60,473. The crude, age-standardized mortalities by China population and World population were 9.21 per 100,000, 6.57 per 100,000 and 6.38 per 100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality rates were both higher in urban areas than rural areas. Trend of age-specific incidence rates in urban and rural was similar, reaching peak at 55-59 years old. The trend of age-specific mortality rates was very similar before 60 between urban and rural areas, but after that, the urban areas curve was rapidly mounting as the age growing and much higher than rural.
Conclusions
Breast cancer is still a major health burden for Chinese women especially in urban areas. Prevention strategies such as weight control, high-quality screening, diagnosis and treatment may help control the disease.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.05.15
PMCID: PMC4522476  PMID: 26380738
Breast cancer; cancer registry; incidence; mortality; China
13.  The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2009 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2013;32(3):106-112.
In 2012, the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China collected cancer registration information for the year 2009 from local cancer registries and analyzed it to describe the incidences and mortalities of cancers in China. Based on the data quality criteria from NCCR, data from 104 registries covering 85,470,522 people (57,489,009 in urban areas and 27,981,513 in rural areas) were checked and evaluated. The data from 72 registries were qualified and accepted for the cancer registry annual report in 2012. The total cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310, respectively. The morphologically verified cases accounted for 67.23%, and 3.14% of the incident cases only had information from death certifications. The crude incidence in the Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (317.97/100,000 in males and 253.09/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates for incidences based on the Chinese standard population (ASRIC) and the world standard population (ASRIW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence of 22.08%. The cancer mortality in the Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates for mortalities based on the Chinese standard population (ASRMC) and the world standard population (ASRMW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000, respectively, and the cumulative mortality was 12.94%. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, encephaloma, lymphoma, female breast cancer, and cervical cancer were the most common cancers, accounting for 75% of all cancer cases. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephaloma, leukemia, and lymphoma accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths. The cancer registration's population coverage has been increasing, and its data quality is improving. As the basis of the cancer control program, the cancer registry plays an important role in directing anticancer strategies in the medium and long term. Because cancer burdens are different in urban and rural areas in China, prevention and control efforts should be based on practical situations.
doi:10.5732/cjc.013.10018
PMCID: PMC3845591  PMID: 23452393
Cancer registry; incidence; mortality; epidemiology; China
14.  Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007 
Objective
Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007.
Methods
In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population.
Results
The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths.
Conclusion
Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers.
doi:10.1007/s11670-012-0001-6
PMCID: PMC3555260  PMID: 23359628
Cancer registry; Incidence; Mortality; China
15.  Widening Rural–Urban Disparities in All-Cause Mortality and Mortality from Major Causes of Death in the USA, 1969–2009 
This study examined trends in rural–urban disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA between 1969 and 2009. A rural–urban continuum measure was linked to county-level mortality data. Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by sex, race, cause-of-death, area-poverty, and urbanization level for 13 time periods between 1969 and 2009. Cause-of-death decomposition and log-linear and Poisson regression were used to analyze rural–urban differentials. Mortality rates increased with increasing levels of rurality overall and for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Despite the declining mortality trends, mortality risks for both males and females and for blacks and whites have been increasingly higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas, particularly since 1990. In 2005–2009, mortality rates varied from 391.9 per 100,000 population for Asians/Pacific Islanders in rural areas to 1,063.2 for blacks in small-urban towns. Poverty gradients were steeper in rural areas, which maintained higher mortality than urban areas after adjustment for poverty level. Poor blacks in non-metropolitan areas experienced two to three times higher all-cause and premature mortality risks than affluent blacks and whites in metropolitan areas. Disparities widened over time; excess mortality from all causes combined and from several major causes of death in non-metropolitan areas was greater in 2005–2009 than in 1990–1992. Causes of death contributing most to the increasing rural–urban disparity and higher rural mortality include heart disease, unintentional injuries, COPD, lung cancer, stroke, suicide, diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Residents in metropolitan areas experienced larger mortality reductions during the past four decades than non-metropolitan residents, contributing to the widening gap.
doi:10.1007/s11524-013-9847-2
PMCID: PMC3978153  PMID: 24366854
Mortality; Cause of death; Rural–urban; Metropolitan; Decomposition; Race; Poverty; Inequality; Trend; USA
16.  Socioeconomic, Rural-Urban, and Racial Inequalities in US Cancer Mortality: Part I—All Cancers and Lung Cancer and Part II—Colorectal, Prostate, Breast, and Cervical Cancers 
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology  2012;2011:107497.
We analyzed socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US mortality from all cancers, lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. A deprivation index and rural-urban continuum were linked to the 2003–2007 county-level mortality data. Mortality rates and risk ratios were calculated for each socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial group. Weighted linear regression yielded relative impacts of deprivation and rural-urban residence. Those in more deprived groups and rural areas had higher cancer mortality than more affluent and urban residents, with excess risk being marked for lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers. Deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to cancer mortality, with deprivation showing stronger impacts. Socioeconomic inequalities existed for both whites and blacks, with blacks experiencing higher mortality from each cancer than whites within each deprivation group. Socioeconomic gradients in mortality were steeper in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. Mortality disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking and other cancer-risk factors, screening, and treatment.
doi:10.1155/2011/107497
PMCID: PMC3307012  PMID: 22496688
17.  Pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality patterns in China, 2011 
Objective
The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected population-based cancer registration data in 2011 from all cancer registries in China. The incidence and mortality rates for pancreatic cancer were compiled and pancreatic cancer incident new cases and deaths were estimated.
Methods
A total of 234 cancer registries submitted cancer data to NCCR. Data from 177 cancer registries were qualified and compiled for cancer statistics in 2011. Pancreatic cancer cases were extracted and analyzed from the national database. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender and age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+). Pancreatic cancer incident cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and national population in 2010. The national census in 2000 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized rates.
Results
All 177 cancer registries (77 in urban and 100 in rural areas) covered 175,310,169 populations (98,341,507 in urban and 76,968,662 in rural areas). The morphology verified pancreatic cancer cases (MV%) accounting for 40.52% and 4.33% of pancreatic cancer incident cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%) with mortality to incidence ratio (M/I) of 0.91. The estimated number of newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer cases and deaths were 80,344 and 72,723 in 2011, respectively. The crude incidence rate was 5.96/100,000 (males 6.57/100,000, females 5.32/100,000). The age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 4.27/100,000 and 4.23/100,000 respectively, ranking 10th among all cancers. Pancreatic cancer incidence rate and ASIRC were 7.03/100,000 and 4.94/100,000 in urban areas whereas they were 4.84/100,000 and 3.56/100,000 in rural areas. The incidence rate of pancreatic cancer of 33 cancer registries increased from 3.24/100,000 in 2003 to 3.59/100,000 in 2011 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 1.44. The pancreatic cancer mortality rate was 5.40/100,000 (males 5.88/100,000, females 4.89/100,000), ranking 6th among all cancers. The age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 3.81/100 000 and 3.79/100 000. The pancreatic cancer mortality and ASMRC were 6.47/100,000 and 4.48/100,000 in urban areas, and 4.27/100,000 and 3.08/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The mortality rates of pancreatic cancer showed an approximately 1.14-fold increase, from 2.85/100,000 in 2003 to 3.26/100,000 in 2011, with an APC of 1.68.
Conclusions
The burden of pancreatic cancer is increasing in China. Identification of high-risk population and adequate treatment and prevention are important.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2015.02.05
PMCID: PMC4329173  PMID: 25717223
Pancreatic cancer; cancer registry; incidence; mortality; China
18.  The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2010 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(8):402-405.
To estimate the cancer incidences and mortalities in China in 2010, the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China evaluated data for the year of 2010 from 145 qualified cancer registries covering 158,403,248 people (92,433,739 in urban areas and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The estimates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The percentage of morphologically verified cases were 67.11%; 2.99% of incident cases were identified through death certification only, with the mortality to incidence ratio of 0.61. The crude incidence was 235.23/100,000 (268.65/100,000 in males and 200.21/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 184.58/100,000 and 181.49/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence (0-74 years old) of 21.11%. The crude cancer mortality was 148.81/100,000 (186.37/100,000 in males and 109.42/100,000 in females). The ASR China and ASR world were 113.92/100,000 and 112.86/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality of 12.78%. Lung, breast, gastric, liver, esophageal, colorectal, and cervical cancers were the most common cancers. Lung, liver, gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast, and pancreatic cancers were the leading causes of cancer deaths. The coverage of cancer registration has rapidly increased in China in recent years and may reflect more accurate cancer burdens among populations living in different areas. Given the increasing cancer burden in the past decades, China should strengthen its cancer prevention and control.
doi:10.5732/cjc.014.10084
PMCID: PMC4135370  PMID: 25011459
Cancer registry; malignant tumor; incidence; mortality; China
19.  Esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2009 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2013;5(1):19-26.
Objective
Esophageal cancer incident cases and deaths in 2009 were retrieved from national database of population based cancer registry to describe esophageal cancer burden in registration areas.
Methods
In 2012, 104 population-based cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2009 to Chinese National Central Cancer Registry. Total 72 registries’ data met the national criteria to be pooled and analyzed. The crude incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer were calculated by age, gender and area. China sensus in 1982 and Segi’s world population were applied for age standardized rates.
Results
The crude incidence of esophageal cancer ranked fifth in all cancer sites with rate of 22.14/100,000 (30.44/100,000 for male and 13.64/100,000 for female, 14.21/100,000 in urban and 38.44/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized rates by China population (CASR) and World population (WASR) for incidence were 10.88/100,000 and 14.81/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality of esophageal cancer ranked fourth in all cancer sites with rate of 16.77/100,000 (23.29/100,000 for male and 10.11/100,000 for female, 10.59/100,000 in urban and 29.47/100,000 in rural). The CASR and WASR for mortality were 7.75/100,000 and 10.76/100,000 respectively. For both of incidence and mortality, the rates of esophageal cancer were much higher in males than in females, in rural areas than in urban areas. The overall age-specific incidence and mortality rates showed that both rates were relatively low before 45 years old, and then gradually increased, reaching peak in age group of 80-84.
Conclusions
The burden of esophageal cancer remained high in China, especially for males in rural areas. Effective prevention and control action, such as health education, nutrition intervention and screening should be enhanced in the future.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.01.04
PMCID: PMC3547988  PMID: 23372946
Esophageal cancer; incidence; mortality; cancer registry; China
20.  Incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer in China, 2011 
Objective
Laryngeal cancer is the common cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract. We aimed to use the national cancer registration data in 2011 to estimate the incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer within China.
Methods
Comparable, high-quality data from 177 population-based cancer registries were qualified for analysis. The pooled data were stratified by area, sex and age group. National new cases and deaths of laryngeal cancer were estimated using age-specific rates and national population in 2010. All incidence and death rates were age-standardized to the 2000 Chinese standard population and Segi’s population, which were expressed per 100,000 populations.
Results
All 177 cancer registries covered a total of 175,310,169 population (98,341,507 in urban and 76,968,662 in rural areas), accounting for 13.01% of the national population. The data quality indicators of proportion of morphological verification (MV%), percentage of cancer cases identified with death certification only (DCO%) and mortality to incidence ratio (M/I) were 77.98%, 2.62% and 0.55, respectively. Estimated 20,875 new cases of laryngeal cancer were diagnosed and 11,488 deaths from laryngeal cancer occurred in China in 2011. The crude incidence rate of laryngeal cancer was 1.55/100,000 (2.69/100,000 in males and 0.35/100,000 in females). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 1.13/100,000 and 1.14/100,000, respectively. Laryngeal cancer is much rarer in females than in males. The incidence rate was higher in urban areas than that in rural areas. The crude mortality rate of laryngeal cancer was 0.85/100,000 (1.42/100,000 in males and 0.25/100,000 in females). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were both 0.61/100,000. The mortality rate in males was much higher than that in females. There was no definite difference in mortality rates of laryngeal cancer between urban and rural areas.
Conclusions
Larynx is a specialized area and cancer of larynx significantly affects the quality of life for the patients. Comprehensive measures should be carried out to prevent the ascent of laryngeal cancer.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2015.02.02
PMCID: PMC4329172  PMID: 25717226
Laryngeal cancer; cancer registry; incidence; mortality; epidemiology; China
21.  Cancer burden in China from 2006 to 2010 
Objective: To investigate the incidence, mortality, and disease burden of cancer in China to provide a reference for cancer prevention and control. Methods: Cancer registry data (2006-2010) were collected from the Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report by the National Center for Cancer Registries. Cancer incidence and mortality, potential years of life lost (PYLL), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated. Results: The cancer incidence rate was 267.13/100,000 overall, 299.13/100,000 in men, and 234.06/100,000 in women (1.2 times higher in men than in women). The cancer mortality rate was 176.32/100,000 overall, 220.54/100,000 in men, and 130.60/100,000 in women (1.6 times higher in men than in women). The incidence rate was higher in urban areas (285.97/100,000) than in rural areas (250.91/100,000), whereas the mortality rate was higher in rural areas (179.25/100,000) than in urban areas (172.91/100,000). The rural: urban incidence ratio decreased from 0.89 in 2006 to 0.69 in 2010, and the rural: urban mortality ratio decreased from 1.10 to 0.91 in the same years. PYLL rates and DALY rates were higher in men (16.45 and 22.19, respectively) than in women (11.22 and 13.87, respectively) and in rural areas (17.6 and 22.17, respectively) than in urban areas (12.6 and 17.09, respectively). The male: female ratios for PYLL and DALY rates were 1.46 and 1.6, respectively. The rural: urban ratios for PYLL and DALY rates decreased from 1.63 in 2006 to 1.22 in 2010 and from 1.51 in 2006 to 1.08 in 2010, respectively. Conclusion: The disease burden of cancer in China in 2006-2010 was substantial, particularly for men and residents of rural districts.
PMCID: PMC4680481  PMID: 26722536
Incidence; mortality; cancer; burden of disease; China
22.  Nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence and mortality in China in 2009 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2013;32(8):453-460.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare globally but common in China and exhibits a distinct ethnic and geographic distribution. In 2009, the National Central Cancer Registry in China provided real-time surveillance information on NPC. Individual NPC cases were retrieved from the national database based on the ICD-10 topography code C11. The crude incidence and mortality of NPC were calculated by sex and location (urban/rural). China's population in 1982 and Segi's world population structures were used to determine age-standardized rates. In regions covered by the cancer registries in 2009, the crude incidence of NPC was 3.61/100,000 (5.08/100,000 in males and 2.10/100,000 in females; 4.19/100,000 in urban areas and 2.42/100,000 in rural areas). Age-standardized incidences by Chinese population (ASIC) and Segi's world population (ASIW) were 2.05/100,000 and 2.54/100,000, respectively. The crude mortality of NPC was 1.99/100,000 (2.82/100,000 in males and 1.14/100,000 in females; 2.30/100,000 in urban areas and 1.37/100,000 in rural areas). The age-standardized mortalities by Chinese population (ASMC) and world population (ASMW) were 1.04/100,000 and 1.35/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality of NPC were higher in males than in females and higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Both age-specific incidence and mortality were relatively low in persons younger than 30 years old, but these rates dramatically increased. Incidence peaked in the 60-64 age group and mortality peaked in the over 85 age group. Primary and secondary prevention, such as lifestyle changes and early detection, should be carried out in males and females older than 30 years of age.
doi:10.5732/cjc.013.10118
PMCID: PMC3845582  PMID: 23863562
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; cancer registry; incidence; mortality; China
23.  Urban/Rural disparities in Oregon pediatric traumatic brain injury 
Injury Epidemiology  2015;2:32.
Background
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) greatly contributes to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. We examined potential urban/rural disparities in mortality amongst Oregon pediatric patients with TBI treated in trauma hospitals.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study of children ages 0–19 using the Oregon Trauma Registry for years 2009–2012. Geographic location of injury was classified using the National Center for Health Statistics Urban/Rural Classification Scheme. Incidence rates were calculated using Census data for denominators. Associations between urban/rural injury location and mortality were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. Generalized estimating equations were used to help account for clustering of data within hospitals.
Results
Of 2794 pediatric patients with TBI, 46.6 % were injured in large metropolitan locations, 24.8 % in medium/small metropolitan locations, and 28.6 % in non-metropolitan (rural) locations. Children with rural locations of injury had a greater annualized TBI incidence rate, at 107/100,000 children per year, than those from large metropolitan areas (71/100,000 per year). Compared to children injured in urban locations, those in rural locations had more than twice the crude odds of mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95 % CI, 1.6–4.0). This association remained significant (OR, 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.04–3.3) while adjusting for age, gender, race, insurance status, injury severity, and type of TBI (blunt vs. penetrating).
Conclusion
We observed higher rates of TBI and greater proportions of severe injury in rural compared to urban areas in Oregon. Rural children treated in the trauma system for TBI were more likely to die than urban children after controlling for demographic and injury factors associated with urban/rural residence. Further research is needed to examine treatment disparities by urban/rural location. Future work should also identify interventions that can reduce risk of TBI and TBI-related mortality among children, particularly those who live in rural areas.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40621-015-0063-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s40621-015-0063-2
PMCID: PMC4676786  PMID: 26697290
Traumatic brain injury; Pediatric; Urban; Rural; Health disparities
24.  The gap in injury mortality rates between urban and rural residents of Hubei province, China 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:180.
Background
Injury is a growing public health concern in China. Injury death rates are often higher in rural areas than in urban areas in general. The objective of this study is to compare the injury mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Hubei Province in central China by age, sex and mechanism of injury.
Methods
Using data from the Disease Surveillance Points (DSP) system maintained by the Hubei Province Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 2006 to 2008, injury deaths were classified according to the International Classification of Disease-10th Revision (ICD-10). Crude and age-adjusted annual mortality rates were calculated for rural and urban residents of Hubei Province.
Results
The crude and age-adjusted injury death rates were significantly higher for rural residents than for urban residents (crude rate ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.8-2.0; adjusted rate ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 2.3-2.4). The age-adjusted injury death rate for males was 81.6/100,000 in rural areas compared with 37.0/100 000 in urban areas; for females, the respective rates were 57.9/100,000 and 22.4/100 000. Death rates for suicide (32.4 per 100 000 vs 3.9 per 100 000), traffic-related injuries (15.8 per 100 000 vs 9.5 per 100 000), drowning (6.9 per 100 000 vs 2.3 per 100 000) and crushing injuries (2.0 per 100 000 vs 0.7 per 100 000) were significantly higher in rural areas. Overall injury death rates were much higher in persons over 65 years, with significantly higher rates in rural residents compared with urban residents for suicide (279.8 per 100 000 vs 10.7 per 100 000), traffic-related injuries, and drownings in this age group. Death rates for falls, poisoning, and suffocation were similar in the two geographic groups.
Conclusions
Rates of suicide, traffic-related injury deaths and drownings are demonstrably higher in rural compared with urban locations and should be targeted for injury prevention activity. There is a need for injury prevention policies targeted at elderly residents, especially with regard to suicide prevention in rural areas in Central China.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-180
PMCID: PMC3338362  PMID: 22409978
25.  Rural-urban differences of neonatal mortality in a poorly developed province of China 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:477.
Background
The influence of rural-urban disparities in children's health on neonatal death in disadvantaged areas of China is poorly understood. In this study of rural and urban populations in Gansu province, a disadvantaged province of China, we describe the characteristics and mortality of newborn infants and evaluated rural-urban differences of neonatal death.
Methods
We analyzed all neonatal deaths in the data from the Surveillance System of Child Death in Gansu Province, China from 2004 to 2009. We calculated all-cause neonatal mortality rates (NMR) and cause-specific death rates for infants born to rural or urban mothers during 2004-09. Rural-urban classifications were determined based on the residence registry system of China. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences of infant characteristics and cause-specific deaths by rural-urban maternal residence.
Results
Overall, NMR fell in both rural and urban populations during 2004-09. Average NMR for rural and urban populations was 17.8 and 7.5 per 1000 live births, respectively. For both rural and urban newborn infants, the four leading causes of death were birth asphyxia, preterm or low birth weight, congenital malformation, and pneumonia. Each cause-specific death rate was higher in rural infants than in urban infants. More rural than urban neonates died out of hospital or did not receive medical care before death.
Conclusions
Neonatal mortality declined dramatically both in urban and rural groups in Gansu province during 2004-09. However, profound disparities persisted between rural and urban populations. Strategies that address inequalities of accessibility and quality of health care are necessary to improve neonatal health in rural settings in China.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-477
PMCID: PMC3144461  PMID: 21682907

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