VanYn, encoded by the dbv7 gene (also known as vanYn) of the biosynthetic cluster devoted to A40926 production, is a novel protein involved in the mechanism of self-resistance in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. This filamentous actinomycete is an uncommon microorganism, difficult-to-handle but biotechnologically valuable since it produces the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926, which is the precursor of the second-generation dalbavancin in phase III of clinical development. In order to investigate VanYn role in glycopeptide resistance in the producer actinomycete an appropriate host-vector expression system is required.
The cloning strategy of vanYn gene (G-C ratio 73.3%) in the expression vector pIJ86 yielded a recombinant protein with a tag encoding for a histidine hexamer added at the C-terminus (C-His6-vanYn) or at the N-terminus (N-His6-vanYn). These plasmids were used to transform three Streptomyces spp., which are genetically-treatable high G-C content Gram-positive bacteria taxonomically related to the homologous producer Nonomuraea sp.. Highest yield of protein expression and purification (12 mg of protein per liter of culture at 3 L bioreactor-scale) was achieved in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10595, that is a fast growing streptomyces susceptible to glycopeptides. VanYn is a transmembrane protein which was easily detached and recovered from the cell wall fraction. Purified C-His6-VanYn showed d,d-carboxypeptidase and d,d-dipeptidase activities on synthetic analogs of bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) precursors. C-His6-VanYn over-expression conferred glycopeptide resistance to S. venezuelae. On the contrary, the addition of His6-tag at the N-terminus of the protein abolished its biological activity either in vitro or in vivo assays.
Heterologous expression of vanYn from Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 in S. venezuelae was successfully achieved and conferred the host an increased level of glycopeptide resistance. Cellular localization of recombinant VanYn together with its enzymatic activity as a d,d-peptidase/d,d-carboxypeptidase agree with its role in removing the last d-Ala from the pentapeptide PG precursors and reprogramming cell wall biosynthesis, as previously reported in glycopeptide resistant pathogens.
Streptomyces; Heterologous protein production; d,d-carboxypeptidases; Glycopeptide production; Glycopeptide resistance; Dalbavancin
In glycopeptide-resistant enterococci and staphylococci, high-level resistance is achieved by replacing the C-terminal d-alanyl-d-alanine of lipid II with d-alanyl-d-lactate, thus reducing glycopeptide affinity for cell wall targets. Reorganization of the cell wall in these organisms is directed by the vanHAX gene cluster. Similar self-resistance mechanisms have been reported for glycopeptide-producing actinomycetes. We investigated glycopeptide resistance in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, the producer of the glycopeptide A40926, which is the precursor of the semisynthetic antibiotic dalbavancin, which is currently in phase III clinical trials. The MIC of Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 toward A40926 during vegetative growth was 4 μg/ml, but this increased to ca. 20 μg/ml during A40926 production. vanHAX gene clusters were not detected in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 by Southern hybridization or by PCR with degenerate primers. However, the dbv gene cluster for A40926 production contains a gene, vanY (ORF7), potentially encoding an enzyme capable of removing the terminal d-Ala residue of pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursors. Analysis of UDP-linked peptidoglycan precursors in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 revealed the predominant presence of the tetrapeptide UDP-MurNAc-l-Ala-d-Glu-meso-Dap-d-Ala and only traces of the pentapeptide UDP-MurNAc-l-Ala-d-Glu-meso-Dap-d-Ala-d-Ala. This suggested a novel mechanism of glycopeptide resistance in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 that was based on the d,d-carboxypeptidase activity of vanY. Consistent with this, a vanY-null mutant of Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 demonstrated a reduced level of glycopeptide resistance, without affecting A40926 productivity. Heterologous expression of vanY in a sensitive Streptomyces species, Streptomyces venezuelae, resulted in higher levels of glycopeptide resistance.
In the course of a search for glycopeptide antibiotics having novel biological properties, we isolated A40926. Produced by an actinomycete of the genus Actinomadura, A40926 is a complex of four main factors which contain a fatty acid as part of a glycolipid attached to the peptide backbone. Its activity was, in most respects, similar to that of other glycopeptides, such as vancomycin and teicoplanin. However, in addition to inhibiting gram-positive bacteria, A40926 was very active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A40926 was rapidly bactericidal for N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates at concentrations equal to or slightly higher than the MIC. In mice, levels in serum were higher and more prolonged than those of an equivalent subcutaneous dose of teicoplanin. These properties suggest that A40926 may have potential in the therapy of gonorrhea.
The injection of diluted bee venom (DBV) into an acupoint has been used traditionally in eastern medicine to treat a variety of inflammatory chronic pain conditions. We have previously shown that DBV had a potent antinociceptive efficacy in several rodent pain models. However, the peripheral mechanisms underlying DBV-induced antinociception remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the role of peripheral epinephrine on the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect in the mouse formalin assay. Adrenalectomy significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effect of DBV during the late phase of the formalin test, while chemical sympathectomy had no effect. Intraperitoneal injection of epinephrine blocked this adrenalectomy-induced enhancement of the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect. Moreover, injection of a phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) inhibitor enhanced the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect. Administration of nonselective β-adrenergic antagonists also significantly potentiated this DBV-induced antinociception, in a manner similar to adrenalectomy. These results demonstrate that the antinociceptive effect of DBV treatment can be significantly enhanced by modulation of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine and this effect is mediated by peripheral β-adrenoceptors. Thus, DBV acupoint stimulation in combination with inhibition of peripheral β-adrenoceptors could be a potentially novel strategy for the management of inflammatory pain.
Cold allodynia is an important distinctive feature of neuropathic pain. The present study examined whether single or repetitive treatment of diluted bee venom (DBV) reduced cold allodynia in sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats and whether these effects were mediated by spinal adrenergic receptors. Single injection of DBV (0.25 or 2.5 mg/kg) was performed into Zusanli acupoint 2 weeks post CCI, and repetitive DBV (0.25 mg/kg) was injected for 2 weeks beginning on day 15 after CCI surgery. Single treatment of DBV at a low dose (0.25 mg/kg) did not produce any anticold allodynic effect, while a high dose of DBV (2.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced cold allodynia. Moreover, this effect of high-dose DBV was completely blocked by intrathecal pretreatment of idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), but not prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or propranolol (nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist). In addition, coadministration of low-dose DBV (0.25 mg/kg) and intrathecal clonidine (α2-adrenoceptor agonist) synergically reduced cold allodynia. On the other hand, repetitive treatments of low-dose DBV showing no motor deficit remarkably suppressed cold allodynia from 7 days after DBV treatment. This effect was also reversed by intrathecal idazoxan injection. These findings demonstrated that single or repetitive stimulation of DBV could alleviate CCI-induced cold allodynia via activation of spinal α2-adrenoceptor.
Methione tRNA synthetase (MetRS) is an essential enzyme involved in protein biosynthesis in all living organisms and is a potential antibacterial target. In the current study, the structure-based pharmacophore (SBP)-guided method has been suggested to generate a comprehensive pharmacophore of MetRS based on fourteen crystal structures of MetRS-inhibitor complexes. In this investigation, a hybrid protocol of a virtual screening method, comprised of pharmacophore model-based virtual screening (PBVS), rigid and flexible docking-based virtual screenings (DBVS), is used for retrieving new MetRS inhibitors from commercially available chemical databases. This hybrid virtual screening approach was then applied to screen the Specs (202,408 compounds) database, a structurally diverse chemical database. Fifteen hit compounds were selected from the final hits and shifted to experimental studies. These results may provide important information for further research of novel MetRS inhibitors as antibacterial agents.
pharmacophore; molecular docking; methionyl-tRNA synthetase; virtual screening
Breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown.
Associations of height, adiposity and body fat distribution with percentage dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 174 healthy women, 25 to 29 years old. Adiposity and body fat distribution were measured by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Associations were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided.
Height was significantly positively associated with %DBV but not ADBV; for each standard deviation (SD) increase in height, %DBV increased by 18.7% in adjusted models. In contrast, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution were significantly inversely associated with %DBV; a SD increase in body mass index (BMI), percentage fat mass, waist circumference and the android:gynoid fat mass ratio (A:G ratio) was each associated significantly with a 44.4 to 47.0% decrease in %DBV after adjustment for childhood BMI and other covariates. Although associations were weaker than for %DBV, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution also were significantly inversely associated with ADBV before adjustment for childhood BMI. After adjustment for childhood BMI, however, only the DXA measures of percentage fat mass and A:G ratio remained significant; a SD increase in each was associated with a 13.8 to 19.6% decrease in ADBV. In mutually adjusted analysis, the percentage fat mass and the A:G ratio remained significantly inversely associated with %DBV, but only the A:G ratio was significantly associated with ADBV; a SD increase in the A:G ratio was associated with an 18.5% decrease in ADBV.
Total adiposity and body fat distribution are independently inversely associated with %DBV, whereas in mutually adjusted analysis only body fat distribution (A:G ratio) remained significantly inversely associated with ADBV in young women. Research is needed to identify biological mechanisms underlying these associations.
There is accumulating evidence that the ability of actinomycetes to produce antibiotics and other bioactive secondary metabolites has been underestimated due to the presence of cryptic gene clusters. The activation of dormant genes is therefore one of the most important areas of experimental research for the discovery of drugs in these organisms. The recent observation that several actinomycetes possess two RNA polymerase β-chain genes (rpoB) has opened up the possibility, explored in this study, of developing a new strategy to activate dormant gene expression in bacteria. Two rpoB paralogs, rpoB(S) and rpoB(R), provide Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727 with two functionally distinct and developmentally regulated RNA polymerases. The product of rpoB(R), the expression of which increases after transition to stationary phase, is characterized by five amino acid substitutions located within or close to the so-called rifampin resistance clusters that play a key role in fundamental activities of RNA polymerase. Here, we report that rpoB(R) markedly activated antibiotic biosynthesis in the wild-type Streptomyces lividans strain 1326 and also in strain KO-421, a relaxed (rel) mutant unable to produce ppGpp. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the rpoB(R)-specific missense H426N mutation was essential for the activation of secondary metabolism. Our observations also indicated that mutant-type or duplicated, rpoB often exists in nature among rare actinomycetes and will thus provide a basis for further basic and applied research.
A40926 is a new glycopeptide antibiotic with unique activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and high and prolonged levels in mouse blood (B. P. Goldstein, E. Selva, L. Gastaldo, M. Berti, R. Pallanza, F. Ripamonti, P. Ferrari, M. Denaro, V. Arioli, and G. Cassani, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 31:1961-1966, 1987). We studied the pharmacokinetics of A40926 in rats after single intravenous and subcutaneous 10-mg/kg (body weight) doses. Concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by microbiological assay. After intravenous administration, high concentrations of A40926, ranging from 132 mg/liter at 3 min to 0.7 mg/liter at 96 h, were found in plasma. Concentrations declined with a three-exponential decay correlated with a prolonged, biphasic distribution and a slow elimination (terminal half-life, 61.22 h). After completion of the distribution, the compound was widely distributed to the extravascular space. The rate-limiting step in the elimination of A40926 from the body appears to be the slow return from the deep compartment into the central one. A40926 was rapidly absorbed from the injection site after subcutaneous administration, and its availability was close to 90%. The percentage of the dose excreted in urine in 120 h was 35.9%.
Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide antibiotics. Microbisporicin is a potent lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Microbispora corallina and contains unique chlorinated tryptophan and dihydroxyproline residues. The biosynthetic gene cluster for microbisporicin encodes several putative regulatory proteins, including, uniquely, an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factor, σMibX, a likely cognate anti-σ factor, MibW, and a potential helix-turn-helix DNA binding protein, MibR. Here we examine the roles of these proteins in regulating microbisporicin biosynthesis. S1 nuclease protection assays were used to determine transcriptional start sites in the microbisporicin gene cluster and confirmed the presence of the likely ECF sigma factor −10 and −35 sequences in five out of six promoters. In contrast, the promoter of mibA, encoding the microbisporicin prepropeptide, has a typical Streptomyces vegetative sigma factor consensus sequence. The ECF sigma factor σMibX was shown to interact with the putative anti-sigma factor MibW in Escherichia coli using bacterial two-hybrid analysis. σMibX autoregulates its own expression but does not directly regulate expression of mibA. On the basis of quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) data, we propose a model for the biosynthesis of microbisporicin in which MibR functions as an essential master regulator and the ECF sigma factor/anti-sigma factor pair, σMibX/MibW, induces feed-forward biosynthesis of microbisporicin and producer immunity.
Three streptomycin (SM) production genes from Streptomyces griseus clustered around aphD, the major resistance gene, have been sequenced: strB, coding for an aminocyclitol amidinotransferase, ORF5 (strR), a putative regulatory gene, and ORF1 (strD), possibly coding for a hexose nucleotidylating enzyme. Three promoters and at least five, partially overlapping, transcripts have been identified by S1 mapping and Northern blot experiments. aphD, the resistance gene, is transcribed from two promoters. One of them, located inside the strR gene, seems to be constitutive and the other is switched on later in the growth phase. The late transcripts cover the resistance gene (aphD) and a regulatory gene (strR) which controls the expression of strB.
Performance of antimicrobial susceptibility tests with new agents requires careful consideration of the properties of the antimicrobial to ensure that the tests are standardized, reproducible, and reflect the true potency of the drug. Dalbavancin is a new glycopeptide with potent activity against gram-positive bacterial species. The investigations described here demonstrated that methodologic modifications of procedures are necessary to ensure consistent test results, both for quality control and for routine testing of clinical isolates. Dimethyl sulfoxide is the preferred primary solvent. The addition of 0.002% polysorbate-80 (a surfactant) to dalbavancin-containing wells in the reference broth microdilution assay resulted in consistent and reproducible MIC results for three quality control strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, and Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619. The same degree of consistency was observed among clinical isolates of gram-positive bacterial species tested in several clinical laboratories. These results indicate that the addition of 0.002% (final concentration) of the surfactant in broth microdilution tests produces optimal dalbavancin MICs required for accurate and reproducible clinical laboratory tests, without untoward influences of substrate binding or media constituents.
C-1027, produced by Streptomyces globisporus C-1027, is one of the most potent antitumoral agents. The biosynthetic gene cluster of C-1027, previously cloned and sequenced, contains at least three putative regulatory genes, i.e. sgcR1, sgcR2 and sgcR3. The predicted gene products of these genes share sequence similarities to StrR, regulators of AraC/XylS family and TylR. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of sgcR3 in C-1027 biosynthesis.
Overexpression of sgcR3 in S. globisporus C-1027 resulted in a 30–40% increase in C-1027 production. Consistent with this, disruption of sgcR3 abolished C-1027 production. Complementation of the sgcR3-disrupted strain R3KO with intact sgcR3 gene could restore C-1027 production. The results from real time RT-PCR analysis in R3KO mutant and wild type strain indicated that not only transcripts of biosynthetic structural genes such as sgcA1 and sgcC4, but also putative regulatory genes, sgcR1 and sgcR2, were significantly decreased in R3KO mutant. The cross-complementation studies showed that sgcR1R2 could functionally complement sgcR3 disruption in trans. Purified N-terminal His10-tagged SgcR3 showed specific DNA-binding activity to the promoter region of sgcR1R2.
The role of SgcR3 has been proved to be a positive regulator of C-1027 biosynthesis in S. globisporus C-1027. SgcR3 occupies a higher level than SgcR1 and SgcR2 in the regulatory hierarchy that controls C-1027 production and activates the transcription of sgcR1 and sgcR2 by binding directly to the promoter region of sgcR1R2.
An str gene cluster containing at least four genes (strR, strA, strB, and strC) involved in streptomycin biosynthesis or streptomycin resistance or both was self-cloned in Streptomyces griseus by using plasmid pOA154. The strA gene was verified to encode streptomycin 6-phosphotransferase, a streptomycin resistance factor in S. griseus, by examining the gene product expressed in Escherichia coli. The other three genes were determined by complementation tests with streptomycin-nonproducing mutants whose biochemical lesions were clearly identified. strR complemented streptomycin-sensitive mutant SM196 which exhibited impaired activity of both streptomycin 6-phosphotransferase and amidinotransferase (one of the streptomycin biosynthetic enzymes) due to a regulatory mutation; strB complemented strain SD141, which was specifically deficient in amidinotransferase; and strC complemented strain SD245, which was deficient in linkage between streptidine 6-phosphate and dihydrostreptose. By deletion analysis of plasmids with appropriate restriction endonucleases, the order of the four genes was determined to be strR-strA-strB-strC. Transformation of S. griseus with plasmids carrying both strR and strB genes enhanced amidinotransferase activity in the transformed cells. Based on the gene dosage effect and the biological characteristics of the mutants complemented by strR and strB, it was concluded that strB encodes amidinotransferase and strR encodes a positive effector required for the full expression of strA and strB genes. Furthermore, it was found that amplification of a specific 0.7-kilobase region of the cloned DNA on a plasmid inhibited streptomycin biosynthesis of the transformants. This DNA region might contain a regulatory apparatus that participates in the control of streptomycin biosynthesis.
Measurement of brain tissue oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in both baseline and functionally activated states can provide important information on brain functioning in health and disease. The recently proposed quantitative BOLD (qBOLD) technique is MRI-based and provides a regional in vivo OEF measurement (He and Yablonskiy, MRM 2007, 57:115–126). It is based on a previously developed analytical BOLD model and incorporates prior knowledge about the brain tissue composition including the contributions from grey matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, interstitial fluid and intravascular blood. The qBOLD model also allows for the separation of contributions to the BOLD signal from OEF and the deoxyhemoglobin containing blood volume (DBV). The objective of this study is to validate OEF measurements provided by the qBOLD approach. To this end we use a rat model and compare qBOLD OEF measurements against direct measurements of the blood oxygenation level obtained from venous blood drawn directly from the superior sagittal sinus. The cerebral venous oxygenation level of the rat was manipulated by utilizing different anestheisa methods. The study demonstrates a very good agreement between qBOLD approach and direct measurements.
OEF; BOLD; qBOLD; brain metabolism; brain hemodynamics; fMRI
This study reports a CMOS-MEMS condenser microphone implemented using the standard thin film stacking of 0.35 μm UMC CMOS 3.3/5.0 V logic process, and followed by post-CMOS micromachining steps without introducing any special materials. The corrugated diaphragm for the microphone is designed and implemented using the metal layer to reduce the influence of thin film residual stresses. Moreover, a silicon substrate is employed to increase the stiffness of the back-plate. Measurements show the sensitivity of microphone is −42 ± 3 dBV/Pa at 1 kHz (the reference sound-level is 94 dB) under 6 V pumping voltage, the frequency response is 100 Hz–10 kHz, and the S/N ratio >55 dB. It also has low power consumption of less than 200 μA, and low distortion of less than 1% (referred to 100 dB).
CMOS-MEMS; condenser microphone; corrugated; sensitivity; diaphragm
Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) on intact skin with an epicutaneous delivery system has already been used in preclinical and clinical studies. In epicutaneous vaccination and immunotherapy, the stripping of skin before application of the allergen is suggested to facilitate the passage of allergen through immune cells.
The aim of this study was to compare the immunological response induced by EPIT performed on intact and stripped skin in a mouse model of peanut allergy.
After oral sensitization with peanut and cholera toxin, BALB/c mice were epicutaneously treated using an epicutaneous delivery system (Viaskin® (DBV Technologies, Paris) applied either on intact skin or on stripped skin. Following EPIT, mice received an exclusive oral peanut regimen, aimed at triggering esophageal and jejunal lesions. We assessed eosinophil infiltration by histology, mRNA expression in the esophagus, antibody levels and peripheral T-cell response.
EPIT on intact skin significantly reduced Th2 immunological response (IgE response and splenocyte secretion of Th2 cytokines) as well as esophageal eosinophilia (2.7 ± 0.9, compared to Sham 19.9 ± 1.5, p < 0.01), mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines in tissue and intestinal villus sub-atrophia (2.9 ± 0.2 vs Sham, 2.1 ± 0.2, p < 0.05). By contrast, EPIT on stripped skin reinforced Th2 systemic immunological response as well as eosinophil infiltration (26.8 ± 15.1), mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines and duodenal villus/crypt-ratio (2.4 ± 0.3).
Epicutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy needs the integrity of superficial layers of the stratum corneum to warranty safety of treatment and to induce a tolerogenic profile of the immune response.
Food allergy; Immunotherapy; Epicutaneous; Peanut
MDL 63,246 is a semisynthetic derivative of the naturally occurring glycopeptide antibiotic MDL 62,476 (A40926). It was more active in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci than MDL 62,476, teicoplanin, and vancomycin and was more active than mideplanin (MDL 62,873) against some isolates. MDL 63,246 had excellent activity against streptococci and teicoplanin-susceptible enterococci, and it also had in vitro activity against some VanA enterococcal isolates. It was more active than teicoplanin and vancomycin against acute staphylococcal, streptococcal, and enterococcal septicemia in immunocompetent and neutropenic mice. It was highly efficacious in reducing the bacterial load in the hearts of rats in staphylococcal endocarditis experiments and the bacterial load of Staphylococcus epidermis in a high infection model in neutropenic mice. The excellent in vivo activity of MDL 63,246 appears to correlate both with its in vitro antibacterial activity and with its long half-life in rodents.
Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic control devices, gene circuits and networks that can reprogram mammalian cells in a trigger-inducible manner. Prokaryotic helix-turn-helix motifs have become the standard resource to design synthetic mammalian transcription factors that tune chimeric promoters in a small molecule-responsive manner. We have identified a family of Actinomycetes transcriptional repressor proteins showing a tandem TetR-family signature and have used a synthetic biology-inspired approach to reveal the potential control dynamics of these bi-partite regulators. Daisy-chain assembly of well-characterized prokaryotic repressor proteins such as TetR, ScbR, TtgR or VanR and fusion to either the Herpes simplex transactivation domain VP16 or the Krueppel-associated box domain (KRAB) of the human kox-1 gene resulted in synthetic bi- and even tri-partite mammalian transcription factors that could reversibly program their individual chimeric or hybrid promoters for trigger-adjustable transgene expression using tetracycline (TET), γ-butyrolactones, phloretin and vanillic acid. Detailed characterization of the bi-partite ScbR-TetR-VP16 (ST-TA) transcription factor revealed independent control of TET- and γ-butyrolactone-responsive promoters at high and double-pole double-throw (DPDT) relay switch qualities at low intracellular concentrations. Similar to electromagnetically operated mechanical DPDT relay switches that control two electric circuits by a fully isolated low-power signal, TET programs ST-TA to progressively switch from TetR-specific promoter-driven expression of transgene one to ScbR-specific promoter-driven transcription of transgene two while ST-TA flips back to exclusive transgene 1 expression in the absence of the trigger antibiotic. We suggest that natural repressors and activators with tandem TetR-family signatures may also provide independent as well as DPDT-mediated control of two sets of transgenes in bacteria, and that their synthetic transcription-factor analogs may enable the design of compact therapeutic gene circuits for gene and cell-based therapies.
The ytrABCDEF operon of Bacillus subtilis was deduced to encode a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system. YtrB and YtrE could be the ABC subunits, and YtrC and YtrD are highly hydrophobic and could form a channel through the cell membrane, while YtrF could be a periplasmic lipoprotein for substrate binding. Expression of the operon was examined in cells grown in a minimal medium. The results indicate that the expression was induced only early in the stationary phase. The six ytr genes form a single operon, transcribed from a putative ςA-dependent promoter present upstream of ytrA. YtrA, which possesses a helix-turn-helix motif of the GntR family, acts probably as a repressor and regulates its own transcription. Inactivation of the operon led to a decrease in maximum cell yield and less-efficient sporulation, suggesting its involvement in the growth in stationary phase and sporulation. It is known that B. subtilis produces acetoin as an external carbon storage compound and then reuses it later during stationary phase and sporulation. When either the entire ytr operon or its last gene, ytrF, was inactivated, the production of acetoin was not affected, but the reuse of acetoin became less efficient. We suggest that the Ytr transport system plays a role in acetoin utilization during stationary phase and sporulation.
The structure of the winged helix–turn–helix DNA-binding domain of AhrC has been determined at 1.0 Å resolution. The largely hydrophobic β-wing shows high B factors and may mediate the dimer interface in operator complexes.
In Bacillus subtilis the concentration of l-arginine is controlled by the transcriptional regulator AhrC, which interacts with 18 bp DNA operator sites called ARG boxes in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons. AhrC is a 100 kDa homohexamer, with each subunit having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core, mediating intersubunit interactions and binding of the co-repressor l-arginine, whilst the N-terminal domains contain a winged helix–turn–helix DNA-binding motif and are arranged around the periphery. The N-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized and it has been shown that the fragment still binds DNA operators as a recombinant monomer. The DNA-binding domain has also been crystallized and the crystal structure refined to 1.0 Å resolution is presented.
AhrC; DNA-binding domain; arginine repressor/activator protein
By using transposon insertional mutagenesis and deletion analyses, a recombinant clone containing the region upstream of the acoABCD operon of Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be required for acetoin-inducible expression of the operon in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the region was determined, and it displayed an open reading frame of 2,763 bp that is transcribed divergently to the acoABCD operon. This gene, designated acoK, is capable of encoding a protein with an overall 58.4% amino acid identity with MalT, the transcriptional activator of the E. coli maltose regulon. A conserved sequence for nucleotide binding at the N-terminal region, as well as a helix-turn-helix motif belonging to the LuxR family of transcriptional regulators at the C terminus, was also identified. Primer extension analysis identified two transcription initiation sites, S1 and S2, located 319 and 267 bp, respectively, upstream of the putative start codon of acoK. Several copies of NtrC recognition sequence [CAC-(N11 to N18)-GTG] were found in the promoter regions of both the acoK gene and the acoABCD operon. Acetoin-dependent expression of the acoABCD operon could be restored in the E. coli acoK mutants by supplying a plasmid carrying an intact acoK, suggesting a transactivating function of the gene product. The AcoK protein overproduced in E. coli was approximately 100 kDa, which is in good agreement with the molecular mass deduced from the nucleotide sequence. A specific DNA binding property and an ATPase activity of the purified AcoK were also demonstrated.
The multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA flavoprotein functions as both a membrane-associated proline catabolic enzyme and transcriptional repressor of the proline utilization genes putA and putP. To better understand the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by PutA, we have mapped the put regulatory region, determined a crystal structure of the PutA ribbon-helix-helix domain (PutA52) complexed with DNA and examined the thermodynamics of DNA binding to PutA52. Five operator sites, each containing the sequence motif 5′-GTTGCA-3′, were identified using gel-shift analysis. Three of the sites are shown to be critical for repression of putA, whereas the two other sites are important for repression of putP. The 2.25 Å resolution crystal structure of PutA52 bound to one of the operators (operator 2, 21-bp) shows that the protein contacts a 9-bp fragment, corresponding to the GTTGCA consensus motif plus three flanking base pairs. Since the operator sequences differ in flanking bases, the structure implies that PutA may have different affinities for the five operators. This hypothesis was explored using isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of PutA52 to operator 2 is exothermic with an enthalpy of −1.8 kcal/mol and a dissociation constant of 210 nM. Substitution of the flanking bases of operator 4 into operator 2 results in an unfavorable enthalpy of 0.2 kcal/mol and 15-fold lower affinity, which shows that base pairs outside of the consensus motif impact binding. The structural and thermodynamic data suggest that hydrogen bonds between Lys9 and bases adjacent to the GTTGCA motif contribute to transcriptional regulation by fine-tuning the affinity of PutA for put control operators.
proline utilization A; X-ray crystallography; isothermal titration calorimetry; ribbon-helix-helix; proline catabolism
The fredericamycin (FDM) A biosynthetic gene cluster, cloned previously from Streptomyces griseus ATCC 49344, contains three putative regulatory genes, fdmR, fdmR1, and fdmR2. Their deduced gene products show high similarity to members of the Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family (FdmR1) or to MarR-like regulators (FdmR and FdmR2). Here we provide experimental data supporting FdmR1 as a SARP-type activator. Inactivation of fdmR1 abolished FDM biosynthesis, and FDM production could be restored to the fdmR1::aac(3)IV mutant by expressing fdmR1 in trans. Reverse transcription-PCR transcriptional analyses revealed that up to 26 of the 28 genes within the fdm gene cluster, with the exception of fdmR and fdmT2, were under the positive control of FdmR1, directly or indirectly. Overexpression of fdmR1 in S. griseus improved the FDM titer 5.6-fold (to about 1.36 g/liter) relative to that of wild-type S. griseus. Cloning of the complete fdm cluster into an integrative plasmid and subsequent expression in heterologous hosts revealed that considerable amounts of FDMs could be produced in Streptomyces albus but not in Streptomyces lividans. However, the S. lividans host could be engineered to produce FDMs via constitutive expression of fdmR1; FDM production in S. lividans could be enhanced further by overexpressing fdmC, encoding a putative ketoreductase, concomitantly with fdmR1. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the viability of engineering FDM biosynthesis and improving FDM titers in both the native producer S. griseus and heterologous hosts, such as S. albus and S. lividans. The approach taken capitalizes on FdmR1, a key activator of the FDM biosynthetic machinery.
EmbR, a putative transcriptional regulator from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is homologous to the OmpR class of transcriptional regulators that possess winged helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs. In contrast to other OmpR-like response regulators that are usually phosphorylated and controlled by histidine kinases, EmbR was recently shown to be phosphorylated by the cognate mycobacterial serine/threonine kinase PknH. Despite the in vitro evidence of phosphorylation and interaction between the kinase and regulator, the physiological function of the PknH-EmbR pair is still unknown. We identify the embCAB operon encoding arabinosyltransferases in M. tuberculosis as the cellular target of EmbR. Phosphorylation of EmbR enhances its DNA binding activity towards promoter regions of embCAB genes. In vivo studies involving expression of PknH in Mycobacterium smegmatis established its positive regulatory effect on transcription of the embCAB operon via phosphorylation of EmbR. Interestingly, increased transcription of embC, catalyzing arabinosylation of lipomannan (LM) to lipoarabinomannan (LAM), results in a high LAM/LM ratio, which in turn is a crucial factor in mycobacterial virulence. The PknH-mediated increase in the transcription of embAB genes significantly alters resistance to ethambutol, a frontline antituberculosis drug known to target embAB genes. These findings and in vivo upregulation of PknH inside the host macrophages suggest a functionally relevant signaling mechanism involving the PknH-EmbR-embCAB system.